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Geany 0.

11
Enrico Trger
Nick Treleaven
Frank Lanitz

Geany 0.11
by Enrico Trger
by Nick Treleaven
by Frank Lanitz
Copyright 2005-2007
This document is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version. A copy of this license can be found in the file COPYING included with the source code of this
program and see Appendix D.

Table of Contents
1. Introduction............................................................................................................................................1
1.1. About Geany ...............................................................................................................................1
1.2. About this document ...................................................................................................................1
1.3. Where to get it.............................................................................................................................1
1.4. License ........................................................................................................................................1
2. Installation..............................................................................................................................................3
2.1. Requirements ..............................................................................................................................3
2.2. Source compilation .....................................................................................................................3
2.3. Binary packages ..........................................................................................................................3
2.3.1. Fedora .............................................................................................................................4
2.3.2. Debian.............................................................................................................................4
2.3.3. SuSE ...............................................................................................................................4
2.3.4. Gentoo ............................................................................................................................4
3. Usage .......................................................................................................................................................5
3.1. Getting started .............................................................................................................................5
3.2. Command line options ................................................................................................................5
3.3. General ........................................................................................................................................6
3.3.1. Startup.............................................................................................................................7
3.3.2. Opening files from the command-line in a running instance .........................................7
3.3.3. Virtual terminal emulator widget (VTE) ........................................................................7
3.3.4. Defining own widget styles using .gtkrc-2.0 ..................................................................8
3.4. Character sets and Unicode Byte-Order-Mark (BOM) ...............................................................9
3.4.1. Using character sets........................................................................................................9
3.4.2. Special encoding "None"..............................................................................................10
3.4.3. Unicode Byte-Order-Mark (BOM)...............................................................................10
3.5. Editing .......................................................................................................................................10
3.5.1. Drag and drop of text....................................................................................................11
3.5.2. Auto indentation ...........................................................................................................11
3.5.3. Construct completion....................................................................................................11
3.5.4. Bookmarks....................................................................................................................12
3.5.5. Send text through definable commands........................................................................12
3.5.6. Context actions .............................................................................................................12
3.6. Search, replace and go to ..........................................................................................................13
3.6.1. Find...............................................................................................................................13
3.6.2. Find usage.....................................................................................................................14
3.6.3. Find in files ...................................................................................................................15
3.6.4. Replace .........................................................................................................................16
3.6.5. Go to tag definition.......................................................................................................17
3.6.6. Go to tag declaration ....................................................................................................17
3.6.7. Go to line ......................................................................................................................17
3.6.8. Regular expressions......................................................................................................17
3.7. Tags ...........................................................................................................................................18
3.7.1. Workspace tags .............................................................................................................19
3.7.2. Global tags....................................................................................................................19
3.8. Preferences ................................................................................................................................21

iii

3.9. Project Management .................................................................................................................30


3.9.1. New Project ..................................................................................................................31
3.9.2. Project Properties..........................................................................................................31
3.9.3. Close Project.................................................................................................................31
3.9.4. Open Project .................................................................................................................31
3.10. Build system............................................................................................................................31
3.10.1. Compile ......................................................................................................................32
3.10.2. Build ...........................................................................................................................32
3.10.3. Make all ......................................................................................................................32
3.10.4. Make custom target ....................................................................................................33
3.10.5. Make object ................................................................................................................33
3.10.6. Execute .......................................................................................................................33
3.10.7. Stopping running processes........................................................................................33
3.10.8. Set Includes and Arguments .......................................................................................34
3.10.9. Indicators ....................................................................................................................34
3.10.10. File type configuration settings ................................................................................34
3.11. Printing support.......................................................................................................................34
3.12. Keybindings ............................................................................................................................35
4. Configuration files................................................................................................................................39
4.1. Filetype definition files..............................................................................................................39
4.1.1. Format...........................................................................................................................39
4.1.2. Special file filetypes.common.......................................................................................42
4.2. Filetype extensions....................................................................................................................45
4.3. Templates ..................................................................................................................................46
4.3.1. Template metadata........................................................................................................46
4.3.2. Filetype templates.........................................................................................................46
4.3.3. Customizing templates .................................................................................................47
A. Contributing to this document...........................................................................................................49
B. Scintilla keyboard commands ............................................................................................................50
B.1. Keyboard commands ................................................................................................................50
C. Compile time options ..........................................................................................................................52
D. GNU General Public License .............................................................................................................54
D.1. Preamble...................................................................................................................................54
D.2. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION 55
D.2.1. Section 0 ......................................................................................................................55
D.2.2. Section 1 ......................................................................................................................55
D.2.3. Section 2 ......................................................................................................................55
D.2.4. Section 3 ......................................................................................................................56
D.2.5. Section 4 ......................................................................................................................57
D.2.6. Section 5 ......................................................................................................................57
D.2.7. Section 6 ......................................................................................................................57
D.2.8. Section 7 ......................................................................................................................57
D.2.9. Section 8 ......................................................................................................................58
D.2.10. Section 9 ....................................................................................................................58
D.2.11. Section 10 ..................................................................................................................59
D.2.12. Section 11 NO WARRANTY....................................................................................59

iv

D.2.13. Section 12 ..................................................................................................................59


D.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs................................................................59
E. License for Scintilla and SciTE..........................................................................................................62

List of Tables
3-1. Command line Options.........................................................................................................................5
3-2. Regular expressions............................................................................................................................18
3-3. Keybindings action table ....................................................................................................................35
4-1. General settings ..................................................................................................................................40
4-2. Build settings......................................................................................................................................42
4-3. General settings ..................................................................................................................................43
4-4. Template wildcards.............................................................................................................................47
B-1. Scintilla keyboard commands............................................................................................................50
C-1. Compile time options.........................................................................................................................52

vi

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. About Geany
Geany is a small and lightweight Integrated Development Environment. It was developed to provide a
small and fast IDE, which has only a few dependencies from other packages. Another goal was to be as
independent as possible from a special Desktop Environment like KDE or GNOME, so Geany only
requires the GTK2 toolkit and therefore you only need the GTK2 runtime libraries installed to run it.
The basic features of Geany are:

Syntax highlighting

Code completion

Auto completion of often-used constructs like "if", "for" and "while"

Auto completion of XML and HTML tags

Call tips

Many supported filetypes including C, Java, PHP, HTML, Python, Perl, Pascal, and others

Tag/Symbol lists

1.2. About this document


This documentation is available in various formats like HTML, text and PDF. The latest version is
always available at http://geany.uvena.de.

1.3. Where to get it


You can obtain Geany from http://geany.uvena.de or perhaps from your distributor.

1.4. License
Geany is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free
Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. A copy of this
license can be found in the file COPYING included with the source code of this program or see
Appendix D.

Chapter 1. Introduction
The included Scintilla library (found in the subdirectory scintilla/) has its own license, which can be
found in the appendix (see Appendix E).

Chapter 2. Installation
2.1. Requirements
For compiling Geany yourself, you will need the GTK (>= 2.6.0) libraries and header files. You will also
need the Pango, Glib and ATK libraries and header files. All these files are available at
http://www.gtk.org.
Furthermore you need, of course, a C compiler and the Make tool; a C++ compiler is also required for
the included Scintilla library. The GNU versions of these tools are recommended.

2.2. Source compilation


Compiling Geany is quite easy. The following should do it:
% ./configure
% make
% make install

The configure script supports several common options, for a detailed list, type
% ./configure --help

There also some compile time options which can be found in src/geany.h. Please see Appendix C for
more information.
In the case that your system lacks dynamic linking loader support, you probably want to pass the option
--disable-vte to the configure script. This prevents compiling Geany with dynamic linking loader support
to automatically load libvte.so.4 if available.
Geany has been successfully compiled and tested under Debian 3.1 Sarge, Debian 4.0 Etch, Fedora Core
3/4/5, LinuxFromScratch and FreeBSD 6.0. It also compiles under Microsoft Windows.
If there are any errors during compilation, check your build environment and try to find the error,
otherwise contact the author at <enrico.troeger@uvena.de>.

Chapter 2. Installation

2.3. Binary packages


2.3.1. Fedora
You can use the Fedora Core 4 repository from http://naturidentisch.de/packages/fc4/.
You can also use the Fedora Core 5 repository from http://naturidentisch.de/packages/fc5/.

2.3.2. Debian
Geany is available through the official Debian archives.
apt-get install geany

2.3.3. SuSE
Packages for SuSE are not yet available.

2.3.4. Gentoo
An ebuild for Gentoo can be found on http://bugs.gentoo.de
(https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=114815).

Chapter 3. Usage
3.1. Getting started
You can start Geany in the following ways:

From the Desktop Environment menu


Choose in your application menu of your used Desktop Environment: DevelopmentGeany.

From the command line


To start Geany from a command line, type the following and press Return:
% geany

3.2. Command line options


Table 3-1. Command line Options
Short option

Long option

Function

--column

Set initial column number for the


first opened file.

-c dir_name

--config=directory_name

Use an alternate configuration


directory. Default configuration
directory is ~/.geany/ and there
resides geany.conf and other
configuration files.

-d

--debug

Run Geany in debug mode, which


means being verbose and printing
lots of information.

-i

--new-instance

Do not open files in a running


instance, force opening a new
instance. Only available if Geany
was compiled with support for
Sockets.

Chapter 3. Usage
Short option

Long option

Function

-l

--line

Set initial line number for the first


opened file.

-m

--no-msgwin

Do not show the message window.


Use this option if you do not need
compiler messages or VTE
support.

-n

--no-ctags

Do not load auto completion and


call tip data. Use this option if you
do not want to use them.

-s

--no-session

Dont load the previous sessions


files.

-t

--no-terminal

Do not load terminal support. Use


this option if you do not want to
load the virtual terminal emulator
widget at startup. If you do not
have libvte.so.4 installed, then
terminal-support is automatically
disabled. Only available if Geany
was compiled with support for
VTE.

--vte-lib

Specify explicitly the path


including filename or only the
filename to the VTE library, e.g.
/usr/lib/libvte.so or
libvte.so. This option is only
needed when the autodetection
does not work. Only available if
Geany was compiled with support
for VTE.

-v

--version

Show version information and


exit.

-?

--help

Show help information and exit.

[files ...]

Open all given files at startup. This


option causes Geany to ignore
loading stored files from the last
session (if enabled).

Geany supports all generic GTK options, a list is available on the help screen.

Chapter 3. Usage

3.3. General
3.3.1. Startup
At startup, Geany loads all files from the last time Geany was launched. You can disable this feature in
the preferences dialog(see Figure 3-4). If you specify some files on the command line, only these files
will be opened, but you can find the files from the last session in the file menu under the "Recent files"
item. By default this contains the last 10 recently opened files. You can change the amount of recently
opened files in the preferences dialog.
You can start several instances of Geany, but only the first will load files from the last session. To run a
second instance of Geany, do not specify any filenames on the command-line, or disable opening files in
a running instance using the appropriate command line option.

3.3.2. Opening files from the command-line in a running


instance
Geany detects an already running instance of itself and opens files from the command-line in the already
running instance. So, Geany can be used to view and edit files by opening them from other programs
such as a file manager. If you do not like this for some reason, you can disable using the first instance by
using the appropriate command line option - see Section 3.2.

3.3.3. Virtual terminal emulator widget (VTE)


If you have installed libvte.so in your system, it is loaded automatically by Geany, and you will have
a terminal widget in the notebook at the bottom.
If Geany cannot find libvte.so at startup, the terminal widget will not be loaded. So there is no need to
install the package containing this file in order to run Geany. Additionally, you can disable the use of the
terminal widget by command line option, for more information see Section 3.2.
You can use this terminal (from now on called VTE) nearly as an usual terminal program like xterm.
There is basic clipboard support. You can paste the contents of the clipboard by pressing the right mouse
button to open the popup menu and choosing Paste. To copy text from the VTE, just select the desired
text and then press the right mouse button and choose Copy from the popup menu. On systems running
the X Window System you can paste the last selected text by pressing the middle mouse button in the
VTE (on 2-button mice, the middle button can often be simulated by pressing both mouse buttons
together).

Chapter 3. Usage
In the preferences dialog you can specify a shell which should be started in the VTE. To make the
specified shell a login shell just use the appropriate command line options for the shell. These options
should be found in the manual page of the shell. For zsh and bash you can use the argument --login.
Note: Geany tries to load libvte.so. If this fails, it tries to load libvte.so.4. If this fails too, you
should check whether you installed libvte correctly. Again, Geany also runs without this library.
It could be, that the library is called something else than libvte.so.4 (e.g. on FreeBSD 6.0 it is
called libvte.so.8). So please set a link to the correct file (as root).
# ln -s /usr/lib/libvte.so.X /usr/lib/libvte.so.4

Obviously, you have to adjust the paths and set X to the number of your libvte.so.

3.3.4. Defining own widget styles using .gtkrc-2.0


You can define your widget style for many of Geanys GUI parts. To do this, just edit your .gtkrc-2.0
(usually found in your home directory on UNIX-like systems and in the etc subdirectory of your Geany
installation on Windows).
To get a defined style get noticed by Geany you must it assign to one of Geanys widgets. To do so, use
the following line:
widget "Geany*" style "geany_style"
This would assign your already defined style "geany_style" to all Geany widgets. You can also assign
styles only to specific widgets. At the moment you can use the following widgets:
1. GeanyMainWindow
2. GeanyEditMenu
3. GeanyToolbarMenu
4. GeanyDialog
5. GeanyDialogPrefs
6. GeanyDialogProject
7. GeanyDialogSearch

Example of a simple .gtkrc-2.0:


style "geanyStyle"
{
font_name="Sans 12"

Chapter 3. Usage
}
widget "GeanyMainWindow" style "geanyStyle"
style "geanyStyle"
{
font_name="Sans 10"
}
widget "GeanyPrefsDialog" style "geanyStyle"

3.4. Character sets and Unicode Byte-Order-Mark (BOM)


3.4.1. Using character sets
Geany provides support for detecting and converting character sets. So you can open and save files in
different character sets and even can convert a file from a character set to another one. To do this, Geany
uses the character conversion capabilities of the GLib.
Only text files are supported, i.e. opening files which contain NUL-bytes may fail. Geany will try to open
the file anyway but it is likely that the file will be truncated because it can only opened up to the first
occurrence of the first NUL-byte. All characters after this position are lost and are not written when you
save the file.
Geany tries to detect the encoding of a file while opening it. It might be that the encoding of a file cannot
be detected correctly so you have to set manually the encoding of the file in order to display it correctly.
You can this in the file open dialog by selecting an encoding in the drop down box or by reloading the
file with the file menu item "Reload as". The auto detection works well for most encodings but there are
also some encodings known where auto detection has its problems. Auto detecting the encoding of a file
is not easy and sometimes an encoding might be detected not correctly.
There are different ways to use different encodings in Geany:
1. Using the file open dialog
This opens the file with the encoding specified in the encoding drop down box. If the encoding is set
to "Detect from file" auto detection will be used. If the encoding is set to "Without encoding (None)"
the file will be opened without any character conversion and Geany will not try to auto detect the
encoding(see below for more information).
2. Using the "Reload as" menu item

Chapter 3. Usage
This item reloads the current file with the specified encoding. It can help if you opened a file and
found out that a wrong encoding was used.
3. Using the "Set encoding" menu item
In contrary to the above two options, this will not change or reload the current file unless you save it.
It is useful when you want to change the encoding of the file.

3.4.2. Special encoding "None"


There is a special encoding "None" which is actually no real encoding. It is useful when you know that
Geany cannot auto detect the encoding of a file and it is not displayed correctly. Especially when the file
contains NUL-bytes this can be useful to skip auto detection and open the file properly at least until the
occurrence of the first NUL-byte. Using this encoding opens the file as it is without any character
conversion.

3.4.3. Unicode Byte-Order-Mark (BOM)


Furthermore, Geany detects an Unicode Byte Order Mark (see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_Order_Mark (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_Order_Mark) for
details). Of course, this feature is only available if the opened file is in an unicode encoding. The Byte
Order Mark helps to detect the encoding of a file, e.g. whether it is UTF-16LE or UTF-16BE and so on.
On Unix-like systems using a Byte Order Mark could cause some problems, e.g. the gcc stops with stray
errors, PHP does not parse a script containing a BOM and script files starting with a she-bang maybe
cannot be started. In the status bar you can easily see whether the file starts with a BOM or not. If you
want to set a BOM for a file or if you want to remove it from a file, just use the document menu and
toggle the checkbox.
Note: If you are unsure what a BOM is or if you do not understand where to use it, then it is not
important for you and you can safely ignore it.

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Chapter 3. Usage

3.5. Editing
3.5.1. Drag and drop of text
If you drag selected text in the editor widget of Geany the text is moved to the position where the mouse
pointer is when releasing the mouse button. Holding Control when releasing the mouse button will copy
the text instead. This behaviour was changed in Geany 0.11 - before the selected text was copied to the
new position.

3.5.2. Auto indentation


Geany knows three types of auto indentation: None, Basic and Advanced.

Auto indentation types


None
Disables auto indentation completely.
Basic
Adds the same amount of whitespace on a new line as on the last line.
Advanced
Does the same as Basic but also indents curly brackets and adds a tabulator character (or spaces) on
a new line after an opening { brace.

3.5.3. Construct completion


Built-in construct completion is available for C-like languages. By default the Tab key is used straight
after typing the construct keyword.
Example: for<TAB>
typed into a C file expands to:

for (i = 0; i < ; i++)


{
}

11

Chapter 3. Usage

3.5.4. Bookmarks
Geany provides a handy bookmarking feature that lets you mark one or more lines in a document, and
return the cursor to them using a key combination.
To place a mark on a line, either left-mouse-click in the left margin of the editor window, or else use
Ctrl-m. Either way, this will produce a small green plus symbol in the margin. You can have as many
marks in a document as you like. Click again (or use Ctrl-m again) to remove the bookmark. To remove
all the marks in a given document, use "Remove Markers" in the Document menu.
To navigate down your document, jumping from one mark to the next, use Ctrl-. (control period). To go
in the opposite direction on the page, use Ctrl-, (control comma). Using the bookmarking feature
together with the commands to switch from one editor tab to another (Ctrl-PgUp/PgDn and Ctrl-Tab)
provides a particularly fast way to navigate around multiple files.

3.5.5. Send text through definable commands


You can define several custom commands in Geany and send the current selection to one of these
commands. The output of the command will be used to replace the current selection. So, it is possible to
use text formatting tools with Geany in a general way. The selected text will be sent to the standard input
of the executed command, so the command should be able to read from it and it should print all results to
its standard output which will be read by Geany. To help finding errors in executing the command, the
output of the programs standard error will be printed on Geanys standard output.
To add a custom command, just go to the Set Custom Commands dialog in the Format sub menu of the
Edit and Popup menu. Then click on Add to get a new text entry and type the command. You can also
specify some command line options. To delete a command, just clear the text entry and press Ok. It will
be deleted automatically.

3.5.6. Context actions


You can execute a specified command on the current word near the cursor position or an available
selection and this word is passed as an argument to this command. It can be used for example to open
some API documentation in a browser window or open any other external program. To do this, there is
an menu entry in the popup menu of the editor widget and also a keyboard shortcut(see Section 3.12).
The command can be specified in the preferences dialog and additionally for each filetype (see
"context_action_cmd" in Section 4.1.1). At executing, the filetype specific command is used if available
otherwise the command specified in the preferences dialog is executed.

12

Chapter 3. Usage
The passed word can be referred with the wildcard "%s" everywhere in the command, before executing it
will be replaced by the current word. For example, the command to open the PHP API documentation
would be:
firefox "http://www.php.net/%s"
when executing the command, the %s is substituted by the word near the cursor position or by the
current selection. If the cursor is at the word "echo", a browser window will open(assumed your browser
is called firefox) and it will open the address: http://www.php.net/echo.

3.6. Search, replace and go to


This section describes search-related commands from the Search menu and the editor windows popup
menu:

Find

Find usage *

Find in files

Replace

Go to tag definition *

Go to tag declaration *

Go to line

* These items are available from the editor windows popup menu, or by using a keyboard shortcut (see
Section 3.12).

3.6.1. Find
The Find dialog is used for finding text in one or more open documents.

13

Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-1. Find dialog

3.6.1.1. Matching options


The syntax for the Use regular expressions option is shown in Table 3-2.
The Use escape sequences option will transform any escaped characters into their UTF-8 equivalent. For
example, \t will be transformed into a tab character. Other recognised symbols are: \\, \n, \r, \uXXXX
(Unicode chararacters).

3.6.1.2. Find all


To find all matches, click on the Find All expander. This will reveal several options:

In Document

In Session

Mark

Find All In Document will show a list of matching lines in the current document in the Messages tab of
the Message Window. Find All In Session does the same for all open documents.
Mark will set markers for all matching lines in the current document, if the Markers margin is visible. If
not, the background colour of matching lines will be highlighted. Markers and highlighting can be
removed by selecting the Remove Markers command from the Document menu.

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Chapter 3. Usage

3.6.2. Find usage


Find usage searches all open files. It is similar to the Find All In Session Find dialog command.
If there is a selection, then it is used as the search text; otherwise the current word is used. The current
word is either taken from the word nearest the edit cursor, or the word underneath the popup menu click
position when the popup menu is used. The search results are shown in the Messages tab of the Message
Window.

3.6.3. Find in files


Find in files is a more powerful version of Find usage that searches all files in a certain directory using
the Grep tool. The Grep tool must be correctly set in Preferences to the path of the systems Grep utility.
GNU Grep is recommended.

Figure 3-2. Find in files dialog

The Extra options field is used to pass any additional arguments to the grep tool.

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Chapter 3. Usage

3.6.3.1. Filtering out version control files


When using the Recurse in subfolders option with a directory thats under version control, you can set
the Extra options field to use greps --exclude flag to filter out filenames.
SVN Example: --exclude=*.svn-base
Note: The GNU Grep project added support for excluding directories, using the --exclude-dir flag.
At the time of writing (April 2007) this is unreleased outside of version control. Check your Grep
manual to see if your version supports it.
Example: --exclude-dir=.* --exclude-dir=CVS

3.6.4. Replace
The Replace dialog is used for replacing text in one or more open documents.

Figure 3-3. Replace dialog

The Replace dialog has the same options for matching text as the Find dialog. See Section 3.6.1.1.

16

Chapter 3. Usage
The Use regular expressions option applies both to the search string and to the replacement text; for the
latter back references can be used - see the entry for \n in Table 3-2.

3.6.4.1. Replace all


To replace several matches, click on the Replace All expander. This will reveal several options:

In Document

In Session

In Selection

Replace All In Document will replace all matching text in the current document. Replace All In Session
does the same for all open documents. Replace All In Selection will replace all matching text in the
current selection of the current document.

3.6.5. Go to tag definition


If the current word is the name of a tag definition (like a function body) and the file containing the tag
definition is open, this command will switch to that file and go to the corresponding line number. The
current word is either taken from the word nearest the edit cursor, or the word underneath the popup
menu click position when the popup menu is used.

3.6.6. Go to tag declaration


Like Go to tag definition, but for a forward declaration such as a function prototype or extern
declaration instead of a function body.

3.6.7. Go to line
Go to a particular line number in the current file.

3.6.8. Regular expressions


You can use regular expressions in the Find and Replace dialogs by selecting the Use regular expressions
check box. The syntax is POSIX-like, as described below in Table 3-2.
Note: Searching backwards with regular expressions is not supported.

17

Chapter 3. Usage

Table 3-2. Regular expressions


In a regular expression, the following characters are interpreted:
.

Matches any character.

This marks the start of a region for tagging a match.

This marks the end of a tagged region.

\n

Where n is 1 through 9 refers to the first through


ninth tagged region when replacing. For example, if
the search string was Fred([1-9])XXX and the
replace string was Sam\1YYY, when applied to
Fred2XXX this would generate Sam2YYY.

\<

This matches the start of a word.

\>

This matches the end of a word.

\x

This allows you to use a character x that would


otherwise have a special meaning. For example, \[
would be interpreted as [ and not as the start of a
character set. Use \\ for a literal backslash.

[...]

This indicates a set of characters, for example, [abc]


means any of the characters a, b or c. You can also
use ranges, for example [a-z] for any lower case
character.

[^...]

The complement of the characters in the set. For


example, [^A-Za-z] means any character except an
alphabetic character.

This matches the start of a line (unless used inside a


set, see above).

This matches the end of a line.

This matches 0 or more times. For example, Sa*m


matches Sm, Sam, Saam, Saaam and so on.

This matches 1 or more times. For example, Sa+m


matches Sam, Saam, Saaam and so on.

Partial POSIX compatibility: Note that the POSIX ? regular expression character for optional
matching is not supported by the Find and Replace dialogs.

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Chapter 3. Usage

3.7. Tags
3.7.1. Workspace tags
Tags for each document are parsed whenever a file is loaded or saved. These are shown in the Symbol list
in the Sidebar. These tags are also used for autocompletion and calltips in other documents open in the
current session.
The Go to Tag commands can be used with all workspace tags. See Section 3.6.5.

3.7.2. Global tags


Global tags are used to provide autocompletion and calltips without having to open the corresponding
source files. This is intended for library APIs, as the tags file only has to be updated when you upgrade
the library.
You can load a custom global tags file in two ways:

Using the Load Tags command in the File menu.

By creating a directory ~/.geany/tags, and moving or symlinking the tags files there before starting
Geany.

You can either download these files or generate your own. They have the format:

libraryname.lang_ext.tags

lang_ext is one of the extensions set for the filetype associated with the tags. See Section 4.2 for more
information.

3.7.2.1. Default global tags files


For some languages, a list of global tags is loaded when the corresponding filetype is first used.
Currently these are for:

C - GTK+ and GLib

Pascal

PHP

HTML - &symbol; completion, e.g. for ampersand, copyright, etc.

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Chapter 3. Usage

LaTeX

3.7.2.2. Generating a global tags file

Filetypes support: Currently this is not yet supported for Pascal, PHP and LaTeX filetypes.

You can generate your own global tags files by parsing a list of source files. The command is:
geany -g <Tag File> <File list>

Tag File should be in the format described earlier - see Section 3.7.2.

File list is a list of filenames, each with a full path (unless you are generating C/C++ tags and have set
the CFLAGS environment variable appropriately).

Example for the wxD library for the D programming language:


geany -g wxd.d.tags /home/username/wxd/wx/*.d

3.7.2.2.1. Generating C/C++ tag files


For C/C++ tag files, gcc and grep are required, so that header files can be preprocessed to include any
other headers they depend upon.
For C/C++ files, the environment variable CFLAGS should be set with appropriate -I/path include
paths. The following example works with the bash shell, generating tags for the GnomeUI library:
CFLAGS=pkg-config --cflags libgnomeui-2.0 geany -g gnomeui.c.tags
/usr/include/libgnomeui-2.0/gnome.h

You can adapt this command to use CFLAGS and header files appropriate for whichever libraries you
want.

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Chapter 3. Usage
Replacing the default C/C++ tags file: Geany currently uses a default global tags file global.tags
for C and C++, commonly installed in /usr/share/geany. This file can be replaced with one
containing tags parsed from a different set of header files. When Geany is next started, your custom
tags file will be loaded instead of the default global.tags. You should keep a copy of the generated
tags file because it will get overwritten when upgrading Geany.
This is a temporary solution - in later versions this will be unnecessary.

3.8. Preferences
You may adjust Geanys settings using the Edit --> Preferences dialog. Any changes you make there can
be applied by hitting either the Apply or the Ok button. These settings will persist between Geany
sessions. Note that most settings here have descriptive popup bubble help -- just hover the mouse over
the item in question to get help on it.
You may also adjust some View settings (under the View menu) that persist between Geany sessions.
The settings under the Document menu, however, are only for the current document and revert to
defaults when restarting Geany.
Note, in the paragraphs that follow, the text describing a dialog tab (if present) comes after the screenshot
of that tab.

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Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-4. General tab in preferences dialog

The "Context Activation" setting needs to be documented.

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Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-5. Interface tab in preferences dialog

The open files list and the editor tabs are two different ways to switch between documents using the
mouse. When you hit the key combination to move between tabs, the order is determined by the tab
order, not alphabetical as shown in the open files list (regardless whether or not editor tabs are visible).

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Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-6. Toolbar tab in preferences dialog

24

Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-7. Files tab in preferences dialog

25

Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-8. Editor tab in preferences dialog

Line wrapping refers to the display of the text in the editor. Currently, there is no setting to have Geany
automatically insert newlines into your document while you type.

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Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-9. Tools tab in preferences dialog

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Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-10. Template tab in preferences dialog

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Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-11. Keybinding tab in preferences dialog

There are some handy commands in here that are not, by default, bound to a key combination, and may
in fact not even be available as a menu item (for example, the very handy "Hide and show all additional
widgets").

Note: For more information see Section 3.12.

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Chapter 3. Usage
Figure 3-12. VTE tab in preferences dialog

3.9. Project Management


Project Management is optional in Geany. Currently it can be used for:

Running Make from the projects base directory.

Setting a custom Run command specific to the project.

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Chapter 3. Usage
As long as a project is open, the Make and Run commands will use the projects settings, instead of the
defaults. These will be used whichever document is currently displayed.
The current projects settings are saved when it is closed, or when Geany is shutdown. When restarting
Geany, the previously opened project file that was in use at the end of the last session will be reopened.

3.9.1. New Project


To create a new project, fill in the Name field. By default this will setup a new project file
~/projects/name.geany. Usually its best to store all your project files in the same directory (they
are independent of any source directory trees).
The Base path text field is setup to use ~/projects/name. This can safely be set to any existing path it will not touch the file structure contained in it.

3.9.2. Project Properties


You can set an optional description for the project, but it is not used elsewhere by Geany.
The Base path field is used as the directory to run the Make command in.
The Run command overrides the default run command. You can set this to the executable or main script
file for the project, and append any command-line arguments.

3.9.3. Close Project


Project file settings are saved when the project is closed.

3.9.4. Open Project


The Open command displays a standard file chooser, starting in ~/projects.

3.10. Build system


Geany has an integrated build system. Firstly this means that the current source file will be saved before
it is processed. This is for convenience so that you dont need to keep saving small changes to the current

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Chapter 3. Usage
file before building.
Secondly the output for Compile, Build and Make actions will be captured in the Compiler notebook tab
of the messages window (assuming you have it visible). If there are any warnings or errors with line
numbers shown in the Compiler output tab, you can double click on them and Geany will switch to the
relevant source file (if it is open) and mark the line number so the problem can be corrected. Geany will
also set indicators for warnings or errors with line numbers.
Depending on the current files filetype, the Build menu will contain the following items:

Compile

Build

Make all

Make custom target

Make object

Execute

Set Includes and Arguments

3.10.1. Compile
The Compile command has different uses for different kinds of files.
For compilable languages such as C and C++, the Compile command is setup to compile the current
source file into a binary object file.
Java source files will be compiled to class file bytecode. Interpreted languages such as Perl, Python,
Ruby will compile to bytecode if the language supports it, or will run a syntax check, or failing that will
run the file in its language interpreter.

3.10.2. Build
For compilable languages such as C and C++, the Build command will link the current source files
equivalent object file into an executable. If the object file does not exist, the source will be compiled and
linked in one step, producing just the executable binary.
Interpreted languages do not use the Build command.

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Chapter 3. Usage

3.10.3. Make all


This effectively runs "make all" in the same directory as the current file.
Note: For each of the Make commands, The Make tool path must be correctly set in the Tools tab of
the Preferences dialog.

3.10.4. Make custom target


This is similar to running Make all but you will be prompted for the make target name to be passed to
the Make tool. For example, typing clean in the dialog prompt will run "make clean".

3.10.5. Make object


Make object will run "make current_file.o" in the same directory as the current file, using its prefix for
current_file. It is useful for compiling just the current file without building the whole project.

3.10.6. Execute
Execute will run the corresponding executable file, shell script or interpreted script in a terminal window.
Note that the Terminal tool path must be correctly set in the Tools tab of the Preferences dialog - you can
use any terminal program that runs a Bourne compatible shell and accept the "-e" command line
argument to start a command.
After your program or script has finished executing, you will be prompted to press the return key. This
allows you to review any text output from the program before the terminal window is closed.

3.10.7. Stopping running processes


When there is a running program, the Run button in the toolbar becomes a stop button and you can stop
the current action. This works by sending a signal to the process (and its child process(es)) to stop the
process. The used signal is SIGQUIT.
Depending on the process you started it might occur that the process cannot be stopped. This can happen
when the process creates more than one child process. Therefore stopping any make actions is not
possible because make creates child processes and these child processes creates again child process.

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Chapter 3. Usage
There might be some other programs which cannot be stopped correctly. Xterm is known to work
properly. If you are using "Terminal" (the terminal program of Xfce), you should add the command line
option "--disable-server" otherwise the started process cannot be stopped. Just add this option in the
preferences dialog on the Tools tab in the terminal field.

3.10.8. Set Includes and Arguments


By default the Compile and Build commands invoke the compiler and linker with only the basic
arguments needed by all programs. Using Set Includes and Arguments you can add any include paths
and compile flags for the compiler, any library names and paths for the linker, and any arguments you
want to use when running Execute.
Note: If you are using the Build command to compile and link in one step, you will need to set both
the compiler arguments and the linker arguments in the linker command setting.

These settings are not saved when Geany is shut down. See below for how to set permanent arguments.
If you need complex settings for your build system, or several different settings, then writing a Makefile
and using the Make commands is recommended.

3.10.9. Indicators
Indicators are red squiggly underlines which are used to highlight errors which occured while compiling
the current file. So you can easily see where your code failed to compile. To remove the indicators, just
click on "Remove all indicators" in the document file menu.
If you do not like this feature, you can disable it in the preferences dialog.

3.10.10. File type configuration settings


You can set the commands to run for compiling, building or executing by opening the relevant
filetypes.* configuration file, and checking the [build_settings] section. See Section 4.1 for more
information.

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Chapter 3. Usage

3.11. Printing support


Geany has basic printing support. This means you can print a file by passing the filename of the current
file to a command which actually prints the file. However, the printed document contains no syntax
highlighting. You can adjust the command to which the filename is passed in the preferences dialog. The
default command is:
% lpr %f

%f will be substituted by the filename of the current file. Geany will not show errors from the command
itself, so you should make sure that it works before(e.g. by trying to execute it from the command line).
A nicer example, which I prefer is:
% a2ps -1 --medium=A4 -o - %f | xfprint4

But this depends on a2ps and xfprint4. As a replacement for xfprint4, gtklp or similar programs can be
used.
Note: The printing support of Geany will be improved in the future. With GTK 2.10, better printing
(including syntax highlighting) will be possible.

3.12. Keybindings
Geany supports the default keyboard shortcuts for the Scintilla editing widget. For a list of these
commands, see Appendix B. The Scintilla keyboard shortcuts will be overridden by any custom
keybindings with the same keyboard shortcut.
For all actions listed below you can define your own keybindings. Open the Preferences dialog, select the
desired action and click on change. In the opening dialog you can press any key combination you want
and it will be saved when you press OK. You can define only one key combination for one action.
Some of the default key combinations cannot be changed, e.g. menu_new or menu_open. These are set
by GTK and should be kept, but you can still add other key combinations for these actions. For example
to execute menu_open by default Ctrl-O is set, but you can also define Alt-O, so that the file open dialog
is shown by pressing either Ctrl-O or Alt-O.
The following table lists all customizable keyboard shortcuts.

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Chapter 3. Usage
Table 3-3. Keybindings action table
Action

Description

Menu items
New

Creates a new file.

Open

Opens a file.

Save

Saves the current file.

Save As

Saves the current file under a new name.

Save all

Saves all open files.

Close all

Closes all open files.

Close

Closes the current file.

Reload file

Reloads the current file. All unsaved changes will be


lost.

Print

Prints the current file.

Undo

Undoes the last action.

Redo

Redoes the last action.

Select all

Makes a selection of all text in the current


document.

Insert date

Inserts a customisable date.

Preferences

Opens preferences dialog.

Find Next

Finds next result.

Find Previous

Finds previous result.

Replace

Opens the Replace dialog.

Find in files

Opens the Find in files dialog.

Next message

Jumps to the line with the next message from the


last call to Find usage.

Go to line

Opens the Go to line dialog.

Show Colour Chooser

Opens the Colour Chooser dialog.

Fullscreen

Switches to fullscreen mode.

Toggle Messages Window

Toggles the message window (status and compiler


messages) on and off.

Toggle Sidebar

Shows or hides the sidebar.

Toggle all additional widgets

Hide and show all additional widgets like the


notebook tabs, the toolbar, the messages window
and the statusbar.

Zoom In

Zooms in the text

Zoom Out

Zooms out the text

Replace tabs by space

Replaces all tabs with the right amount of spaces.

Fold all

Folds all contractible code blocks.

Unfold all

Unfolds all contracted code blocks.

Build options

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Chapter 3. Usage
Action

Description

Compile

Compiles the current file.

Build

Builds (compiles if necessary and links) the current


file.

Make all

Builds the current file with the Make tool.

Make custom target

Builds the current file with the Make tool and a


given target.

Make object

Compiles the current file with the Make tool.

Next error

Jumps to the line with the next error from the last
build process.

Run

Executes the current file in a terminal emulation.

Run (alternative command)

Executes the current file in a terminal emulation.

Build options

Opens the build options dialog.

Miscellaneous
Reload symbol list

Reloads the tag/symbol list.

Switch to Editor

Switches to editor widget.

Switch to Scribble

Switches to scribble widget.

Switch to VTE

Switches to VTE widget.

Switch to Search Bar

Switches to the search bar in the toolbar (if visible).

Switch to left document

Switches to the previous open document.

Switch to right document

Switches to the next open document.

Switch to last used document

Switches to the previously selected open document.

Editing operations
Convert selection to lower case

Converts the current selection to lower case.

Convert selection to upper case

Converts the current selection to upper case.

Duplicate line or selection

Duplicates the current line or selection.

Comment line

Comments current line or selection.

Uncomment line

Uncomments current line or selection.

Toggle line commentation

Comments a line if it is not commented or removes


a comment if the line is commented.

Increase indent

Indents the current line or selection by one tabulator.

Decrease indent

Removes one tabulator from the indentation of the


current line or selection.

Goto matching brace

If the cursor is ahead or behind a brace, then it is


moved to the brace which belongs to the current
one. If this keyboard shortcut is pressed again, the
cursor is moved back to the first brace.

Toggle marker

Set a marker on the current line, or clear the marker


if there already is one.

Goto next marker

Goto the next marker in the current document.

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Chapter 3. Usage
Action

Description

Goto previous marker

Goto the previous marker in the current document.

Complete word

Shows auto completion list.

Show calltip

Shows call tips for the current function or method.

Show macro list

Shows a list of available macros and variables in the


workspace.

Complete construct

If you type a construct like if or for and press this


key, it will be completed with a matching template.

Suppress construct completion

If you type a construct like if or for and press this


key, it will not be completed, and a space or tab will
be inserted, depending on what the construct
completion keybinding is set to. For example, if you
have set the construct completion keybinding to
space, then setting this to Shift+space will
prevent construct completion and insert a space.

Select current word

Selects the current word under the cursor.

Insert alternative whitespace

Inserts a tabulator character when spaces should be


used for indentation and inserts space characters of
the amount of a tabulator width when tabulators
should be used for indentation.

Find Usage

Finds all occurrences of the current word (near the


keyboard cursor) or selection and displays them in
the messages window.

Go to tag definition

Jump to the definition of the current word (near the


keyboard cursor). If the definition cannot be found
(e.g. the relevant file is not open) Geany will beep
and do nothing. See Section 3.6.5.

Go to tag declaration

Jump to the declaration of the current word (near the


keyboard cursor). If the declaration cannot be found
(e.g. the relevant file is not open) Geany will beep
and do nothing. See Section 3.6.5.

Context Action

Executes a command and passes the current word


(near the cursor postion) or selection as an
argument. See Section 3.5.6.

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Chapter 4. Configuration files


4.1. Filetype definition files
All colour definitions and other filetype specific settings are stored in the filetype definition files. Those
settings are colours for syntax highlighting, general settings like comment characters or word delimiter
characters as well as compiler and linker settings.
The system-wide configuration files can be found in $prefix/share/geany and are called
filetypes.$ext, where $prefix is the path where Geany is installed (commonly /usr/local) and
$ext is the name of the filetype. For every filetype there is a corresponding definition file. There is one
exception: filetypes.common - this file is for general settings, which are not specific to a certain
filetype. It is not recommended to edit the system-wide files, because they will be overridden when
Geany is updated.
To change the settings, copy a file from $prefix/share/geany to the subdirectory filedefs in your
configuration directory (usually ~/.geany/).
For example:
% cp /usr/local/share/geany/filetypes.c /home/username/.geany/filedefs/

Then you can edit the file and the changes are also available after an update of Geany because they reside
in your configuration directory. Alternatively, you can create a file
~/.geany/filedefs/filetypes.X and add only these settings you want to change. All missing
settings will be read from the corresponding global definition file in $prefix/share/geany.

4.1.1. Format
4.1.1.1. [styling] Section
In this section the colours for syntax highlighting are defined. The format is always:
key=forground_colour;background_colour;bold;italic

Colours have to be specified as RGB hex values prefixed by 0x. For example red is 0xff0000, blue is
0x0000ff. The values are case-insensitive, but it is a good idea to use small letters. Bold and italic are
flags and should only be "true" or "false". If their value is something other than "true" or "false", "false"
is assumed.

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Chapter 4. Configuration files

4.1.1.2. [keywords] Section


This section contains keys for different keyword lists specific to the filetype. Some filetypes do not
support keywords, so adding a new key will not work. You can only add or remove keywords to/from an
existing list.
Important: The keywords list must be in one line without line ending characters.

4.1.1.3. [settings] Section

Table 4-1. General settings


Key

Description

Example

wordchars

These characters define word


boundaries when making
selections and searching using
word matching options.

(look at system filetypes.* files)

comment_open

A character or string which is used comment_open=/*


to comment code. If you want to
use multiline comments, also set
comment_close, otherwise leave it
empty.

comment_close

If multiline comments are used,


this is the character or string to
close the comment.

comment_close=*/

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Chapter 4. Configuration files


Key

Description

Example

comment_use_indent

Set this to false if a comment


comment_use_indent=true
character or string should start at
column 0 of a line. If set to true it
uses any indentation of the line.
Example 4-1. Comment
indentation
comment_use_indent=true would
generate this if a line is
commented (e.g. with Ctrl-D)
#command_example();

comment_use_indent=false
would generate this if a line is
commented (e.g. with Ctrl-D)
# command_example();

Note: This setting only


works for single line
comments (like //, # or ;).

context_action_cmd

A command which can be


context_action_cmd=devhelp -s
executed on a certain word or the "%s"
current selection. Example usage:
Open the API documentation for
the current function call at the
cursor position. The command
can be set for every filetype or if
not set, a global command will be
used. The command itself can be
specified without the full path,
then it is searched in $PATH. But
for security reasons, it is
recommended to specify the full
path to the command. The
wildcard %s will be replaced by
the current word at the cursor
position or by the current
selection.
Hint: for PHP files the following
could be quite useful:
context_action_cmd=firefox
"http://www.php.net/%s"

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Chapter 4. Configuration files

4.1.1.4. [build_settings] Section

Table 4-2. Build settings


Key

Description

Example

compiler

This item specifies the command compiler=gcc -Wall -c "%f"


to compile source code files. But
it is also possible to use it with
interpreted languages like Perl or
Python. With these filetypes you
can use this option as a kind of
syntax parser, which sends output
to the compiler message window.
You should quote the filename to
also support filenames with
spaces. The following wildcards
for filenames are available:
%f - complete filename
without path
%e - filename without path
and without extension

linker

This item specifies the command linker=gcc -Wall "%f"


to link the file. If the file is not
already compiled, it will be
compiled while linking. The -o
option is automatically added by
Geany. This item works well with
GNU gcc, but may be problematic
with other compilers (esp. with the
linker).

run_cmd

Use this item to execute your file. run_cmd="./%e"


It has to have been built already.
Use the %e wildcard to have only
the name of the executable (i.e.
without extension) or use the %f
wildcard if you need the complete
filename, e.g. for shell scripts.

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Chapter 4. Configuration files

4.1.2. Special file filetypes.common


There is a special filetype definition file called filetypes.common. This file defines some general
non-filetype-specific settings.

Table 4-3. General settings


Key

Description

default

This is the default style. It is used default=0x000000;0xffffff;false;false


for styling files without a filetype
set.

selection

The style for colouring selected selection=0xc0c0c0;0x00007F;true;true


text. The format is: Foreground
colour
Background colour

Example

Use foreground colour

Use background colour


The colours are only set if the 3rd
or 4th argument is true. When the
colours are not overridden, the
default is a dark grey background
with syntax highlighted
foreground text.

brace_good

The style for brace highlighting brace_good=0xff0000;0xFFFFFF;true;false


when a matching brace was found.

brace_bad

The style for brace highlighting


when no matching brace was
found.

brace_bad=0x0000ff;0xFFFFFF;true;false

caret

The style for colouring the


caret(the blinking cursor). Only
the first argument is interpreted.

caret=0x000000;0x0;false;false

caret_width

The width for the caret(the


caret=1;0;false;false
blinking cursor). Only the first
argument is interpreted. The width
is specified in pixels with a
maximum of three pixel. Use the
width 0 to make the caret invisible.

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Chapter 4. Configuration files


Key

Description

Example

current_line

The style for colouring the


current_line=0x0;0xe5e5e5;true;false
background of the current line.
Only the second and third
arguments are interpreted. The
second argument is the
background colour. Use the third
argument to enable or disable
background highlighting for the
current line (has to be true/false).

indent_guide

The style for colouring the


indent_guide=0xc0c0c0;0xffffff;false;false
indentation guides. Only the first
and second arguments are
interpreted.

white_space

The style for colouring the white white_space=0xc0c0c0;0xffffff;true;true


space if it is shown. The first both
arguments define the foreground
and background colours, the third
argument sets whether to use the
defined foreground colour or to
use the colour defined by each
filetype for the white space. The
fourth argument defines whether to
use the background colour.

folding_style

The style of folding icons. Only


first and second arguments are
used. Valid values for the first
argument are: 1 - for boxes
2 - for circles

folding_style=1;1;false;false

Valid values for the second


argument are:
1 - for straight lines

2 - for curved lines

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Chapter 4. Configuration files


Key

Description

Example

folding_horiz_line

Draw a thin horizontal line at the folding_horiz_line=0;0;false;false


line where text is folded. Only
first argument is used. Valid
values for the first argument are:
0 - disable, do not draw a line
1 - draw the line above
folded text
2 - draw the line below
folded text

invert_all

Whether to invert all defined


invert_all=0;0;false;false
colours. This is useful if you like a
dark background colour(e.g.
black) and do not want to change
every single line. Please note, at
time of writing this was only tested
with the C syntax highlighting.
Only first argument is interpreted.
Set it to 1 to invert all colours.

4.2. Filetype extensions


You can override the default extensions that Geany uses for each filetype using the
filetype_extensions.conf file.
To override the system-wide configuration file, copy it from $prefix/share/geany to your
configuration directory, usually ~/.geany/. $prefix is the path where Geany is installed (commonly
/usr/local).
For example:
% cp /usr/local/share/geany/filetype_extensions.conf /home/username/.geany/

Then edit it and remove all the lines for filetype extensions that you do not want to override. The
remaining lines can be edited after the = sign, using a semi-colon separated list of patterns which should
be matched for that filetype.

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Chapter 4. Configuration files


For example, to set the filetype extensions for Make, the
/home/username/.geany/filetype_extensions.conf file should look like:
[Extensions]
Make=Makefile*;*.mk;Buildfile;

4.3. Templates
Geany supports the following templates:

ChangeLog entry

File header

Function description

Short GPL notice

Short BSD notice

Filetype template

To use these templates, just open the Edit menu or open the popup menu by right-clicking in the editor
widget, and choose "Insert Comments" and insert templates as you want.
Some templates (like File header or ChangeLog entry) will always be inserted at the top of the file.
To insert a function description, the cursor must be inside of the function, so that the function name can
be determined automatically. The description will be positioned correctly one line above the function,
just check it out. If the cursor is not inside of a function or the function name cannot be determined, you
cannot insert a function description.

4.3.1. Template metadata


Metadata can be used with all templates, but by default user set metadata is only used for the ChangeLog
and File header templates.
In the configuration dialog you can find a tab "Templates" (see Figure 3-10). You can define the default
values which will be inserted in the templates. You should restart Geany after making changes, because
they are only read at startup.

46

Chapter 4. Configuration files

4.3.2. Filetype templates


Filetype templates are templates used as the basis of a new file. To use them, choose the New (with
Template) menu item from the File menu.
By default, templates are created for some filetypes. Other filetype templates can be added by creating
the appropriate template file and restarting Geany. You can also edit the default filetype templates.
Filetype template files are read from the ~/.geany/templates directory, and are named filetype.
followed by the filetype name, e.g. filetype.python, filetype.sh. If you are unsure about the
filetype name extensions, they are the same as the filetype configuration file extensions, commonly
installed in /usr/share/geany, with the prefix filetypes..
The files contents are just the text to place in the document, except for the optional {fileheader}
template wildcard. This can be placed anywhere, but is usually on the first line of the file, followed by a
blank line.
There is also a template file template.none which is used when the New command is used without a
filetype. This is empty by default.

4.3.3. Customizing templates


Each template can be customized to your needs. The templates are stored in the
~/.geany/templates/ directory (see Section 3.2 for further information about the configuration
directory). Just open the desired template with an editor (ideally Geany ;-) ) and edit the template to your
needs. There are some wildcards which will be automatically replaced by Geany at startup.

4.3.3.1. Template wildcards


All wildcards must be enclosed by "{" and "}", e.g. {date}.

Table 4-4. Template wildcards


Wildcard

Description

Available in following
templates

developer

The name of the developer.

filetypes, file header, function


description, ChangeLog entry, bsd,
gpl

47

Chapter 4. Configuration files


Wildcard

Description

Available in following
templates

initial

The developers initials, e.g. "ET" filetypes, file header, function


for Enrico Trger or "JFD" for
description, ChangeLog entry, bsd,
John Foobar Doe.
gpl

mail

The email address of the


developer.

file header, function description,


ChangeLog entry, bsd, gpl

company

The company the developer is


working for.

filetypes, file header, function


description, ChangeLog entry, bsd,
gpl

year

The current year in the format:


YYYY

filetypes, file header, function


description, ChangeLog entry, bsd,
gpl

version

The initial version of a new file.

filetypes, file header, function


description, ChangeLog entry, bsd,
gpl

date

The current date in the format:


YYYY-MM-DD

filetypes, file header, function


description, ChangeLog entry, bsd,
gpl

untitled

The string "untitled" (this will be filetypes, file header, function


translated to your locale), used in description, ChangeLog entry, bsd,
filetype templates
gpl

geanyversion

The actual Geany version, e.g.


"Geany 0.11"

filetypes, file header, function


description, ChangeLog entry, bsd,
gpl

datetime

The current date and time in the


format: DD.MM.YYYY
HH:mm:ss ZZZZ

file header, function description

filename

The filename of the current file. file header


Only available for the file header
template.

gpl

This wildcard inserts a short GPL file header


notice.

bsd

This wildcard inserts a short BSD file header


licence notice.

functionname

The function name of the function function description


at the cursor position. This
wildcard will only be replaced in
the function description template.

fileheader

The file header template. This


filetypes
wildcard will only be replaced in
filetype templates.

If you need any other wildcards or a special date/time format, please email the author
<enrico.troeger@uvena.de>.

48

Appendix A. Contributing to this document


This document is written in Docbook XML. The source file for it is located in the subdirectory "doc" of
the source directory of Geany. If you intend on making changes, you should grab the source right from
SVN to make sure you have got the newest version. After editing that file, to build the docs and see how
your changes look, run "make doc" in the subdirectory "doc" of the source directory of Geany to build
HTML pages and a text file. Your updated HTML docs will end up in the ./html directory. To generate
a PDF file, use the command "make pdf" which should generate a file called geany-0.11.pdf.
After you are happy with your changes, create a patch:
% svn diff geany.docbook > whatever.patch

and then submit that file to the mailing list for review.
Note, you will need the docbook-xml and xmlto software packages installed to build the docs.

49

Appendix B. Scintilla keyboard commands


B.1. Keyboard commands
Keyboard commands for Scintilla mostly follow common Windows and GTK+ conventions. All move
keys (arrows, page up/down, home and end) allows to extend or reduce the stream selection when
holding the Shift key, and the rectangular selection when holding the Shift and Alt keys. Some keys may
not be available with some national keyboards or because they are taken by the system such as by a
window manager on GTK+. Keyboard equivalents of menu commands are listed in the menus. Some less
common commands with no menu equivalent are:

Table B-1. Scintilla keyboard commands


Action

Shortcut key

Magnify text size.

Ctrl+Keypad+

Reduce text size.

Ctrl+Keypad-

Restore text size to normal.

Ctrl+Keypad/

Indent block.

Tab

Dedent block.

Shift+Tab

Delete to start of word.

Ctrl+BackSpace

Delete to end of word.

Ctrl+Delete

Delete to start of line.

Ctrl+Shift+BackSpace

Delete to end of line.

Ctrl+Shift+Delete

Go to start of document.

Ctrl+Home

Extend selection to start of document.

Ctrl+Shift+Home

Go to start of display line.

Alt+Home

Extend selection to start of display line.

Alt+Shift+Home

Go to end of document.

Ctrl+End

Extend selection to end of document.

Ctrl+Shift+End

Go to end of display line.

Alt+End

Extend selection to end of display line.

Alt+Shift+End

Scroll up.

Ctrl+Up

Scroll down.

Ctrl+Down

Line cut.

Ctrl+L

Line copy.

Ctrl+Shift+T

Line delete.

Ctrl+Shift+L

Line transpose with previous.

Ctrl+T

Selection duplicate.

Ctrl+D

50

Appendix B. Scintilla keyboard commands


Action

Shortcut key

Previous paragraph. Shift extends selection.

Ctrl+[

Next paragraph. Shift extends selection.

Ctrl+]

Previous word. Shift extends selection.

Ctrl+Left

Next word. Shift extends selection.

Ctrl+Right

Previous word part. Shift extends selection

Ctrl+/

Next word part. Shift extends selection.

Ctrl+\

51

Appendix C. Compile time options


There are some options which can only be changed at compile time. To change these options, edit the file
src/geany.h. Look for a block of lines starting with #define GEANY_*. Any definitions which are
not listed here should not be changed.
Note: Most users should not need to change these options.

Table C-1. Compile time options


Option

Description

Default

GEANY_WORDCHARS

These characters define word


boundaries when making
selections and searching using
word matching options.

(look at sourcecode)

GEANY_MAX_AUTOCOMPLETE_WORDS
How many auto completion
30
suggestions should Geany provide.
GEANY_MAX_AUTOCOMPLETE_HEIGHT
How many suggestions should be 10
visible in the auto completion list.
GEANY_PROJECT_EXT

The default filename extension for geany


Geany project files. It is used when
creating new projects and as filter
mask for the project open dialog.

GEANY_STRING_UNTITLED A string used as the default name untitled


for new files. Be aware that the
string can be translated, so change
it only if you know what you are
doing.
GEANY_CHECK_FILE_DELAY Time in seconds between checking 30
a file for external changes.
GEANY_WINDOW_MINIMAL_WIDTH
The minimal width of the main
window.

620

GEANY_WINDOW_MINIMAL_HEIGHT
The minimal height of the main
window.

440

GEANY_WINDOW_DEFAULT_WIDTH
The default width of the main
window at the first start.

900

GEANY_WINDOW_DEFAULT_HEIGHT
The default height of the main
window at the first start.

600

Default values
GEANY_DEFAULT_TOOLS_MAKE
The make tool. This can also
include a path.

"make"

52

Appendix C. Compile time options


Option

Description

Default

GEANY_DEFAULT_TOOLS_TERMINAL
A terminal emulator. It has to
"xterm"
accept the command line option
"-e". This can also include a path.
GEANY_DEFAULT_TOOLS_BROWSER
A web browser. This can also
include a path.

"mozilla"

GEANY_DEFAULT_TOOLS_PRINTCMD
A printing tool. It should be able "lpr"
to accept and process plain text
files. This can also include a path.
GEANY_DEFAULT_TOOLS_GREP
A grep tool. It should be
"grep"
compatible with GNU grep. This
can also include a path.
GEANY_DEFAULT_MRU_LENGHTH
The length of the "Recent files"
list.

"10"

GEANY_DEFAULT_FONT_SYMBOL_LIST
The font used in sidebar to show
symbols and open files.

"Sans 9"

GEANY_DEFAULT_FONT_MSG_WINDOW
The font used in the messages
window.

"Sans 9"

GEANY_DEFAULT_FONT_EDITOR
The font used in the editor
window.

"Monospace 10"

Windows specific
GEANY_USE_WIN32_DIALOG Set this to 1 if you want to use the 0
default Windows file open dialog
instead GTKs file open dialog.
The default Windows file open
dialog is missing some nice
features like choosing a filetype or
an encoding. Do not touch this
setting when building on a
non-Win32 system.

53

Appendix D. GNU General Public License


D.1. Preamble
The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By
contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change
free software - to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies to
most of the Free Software Foundations software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public
License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are
designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this
service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the
software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask
you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute
copies of the software, or if you modify it.
For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the
recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source
code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
We protect your rights with two steps:
1. copyright the software, and
2. offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the
software.

Also, for each authors protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that there
is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want
its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced by others
will not reflect on the original authors reputations.
Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger that
redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program
proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for everyones free
use or not licensed at all.

54

Appendix D. GNU General Public License


The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

D.2. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING,


DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
D.2.1. Section 0
This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright
holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program",
below, refers to any such program or work, and a work based on the Program means either the
Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a
portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter,
translation is included without limitation in the term modification .) Each licensee is addressed as
you.
Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are
outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is
covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made
by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

D.2.2. Section 1
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Programs source code as you receive it, in any
medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to
the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along
with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer
warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

D.2.3. Section 2
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on
the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above,
provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
1. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and
the date of any change.

55

Appendix D. GNU General Public License


2. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is
derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.
3. If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when
started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or
else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these
conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License.
Exception:: If the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement,
your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not
derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as
separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on
the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for
other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by
you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works
based on the Program.
In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a
work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other
work under the scope of this License.

D.2.4. Section 3
You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2 in object code or
executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the
following:
1. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
interchange; or,
2. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge
no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable
copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above
on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

56

Appendix D. GNU General Public License


3. Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source
code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the
program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)

The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an
executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the
executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is
normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and
so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies
the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place,
then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the
source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

D.2.5. Section 4
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this
License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or
rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain
in full compliance.

D.2.6. Section 5
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants
you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited
by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any
work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and
conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.

D.2.7. Section 6
Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically
receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these
terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients exercise of the
rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.

57

Appendix D. GNU General Public License

D.2.8. Section 7
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not
limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of
this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License
and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For
example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who
receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this
License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the
balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.
It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or
to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the
free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have
made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on
consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to
distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this
License.

D.2.9. Section 8
If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by
copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add
an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted
only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if
written in the body of this License.

D.2.10. Section 9
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License
from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
detail to address new problems or concerns.
Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this
License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the

58

Appendix D. GNU General Public License


Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published
by the Free Software Foundation.

D.2.11. Section 10
If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions
are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this.
Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free
software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

D.2.12. Section 11 NO WARRANTY


BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR
THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK
AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

D.2.13. Section 12
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL
ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR
DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR
LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO
OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS
BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

59

Appendix D. GNU General Public License

D.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs


If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best
way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source
file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
"copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the programs name and a brief idea of what it does.> Copyright (C) <year> <name of
author>
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not,
write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY
NO WARRANTY; for details type show w. This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type show c for details.
The hypothetical commands show w and show c should show the appropriate parts of the General
Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than show w and
show c; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a
"copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program Gnomovision (which makes
passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.

60

Appendix D. GNU General Public License


<signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989 Ty Coon, President of Vice
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. If
your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General Public License
instead of this License.

61

Appendix E. License for Scintilla and SciTE


Copyright 1998-2003 by Neil Hodgson <neilh@scintilla.org>
All Rights Reserved
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and
without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both
that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation.
NEIL HODGSON DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE,
INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO
EVENT SHALL NEIL HODGSON BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS
OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

62