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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA

AFS,BORJHAR

BIOLOGY
INVESTIGATORY
PROJECT
TOPIC: EYE DISORDERS IN
CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS.

Submitted by:
Shubham Sunar
Class: XII-B
Roll no. : 33

BON
AFID
E

This is to certify that Shubham Sunar, a student of


class XII (B) has successfully completed the research
on the project titled Eye Disorders in Children and
Adolescents under the guidance of Mrs. Sarjubala
Devi(Subject Teacher) during the year 2016-17 in
partial fulfillment of Biology practical examination
conducted by AISSCE.

Signature
of External
Examiner

Mrs.
Sarjubala
Devi
(Biology
Teacher)

Mr. Dhirendar
Kumar Jha
(Principal)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the accomplishment of this project successfully,
many people have best owned upon me their blessings
and the heart pledged support.

I would like to thank my Biology teacher Mrs.


Sarjubala Devi, whose valuable guidance has been the
ones that helped me patch this project and make it full
proof success his suggestions and his instructions has
served as the major contributor towards the completion
of the project.
Then I would like to thank my parents who have helped
me with their valuable suggestions and guidance has
been helpful in various phases of the completion of the
project. Last but not the least I would like to thank my
classmates who have helped me a lot.

INDEX
Sl.No

Table of Content

Page no.

1)

Abstract

2)

Introduction

3)

Methodology

4)

Data Collection

5)

Data analysis

6)

Treatment

7)

Conclusion

8)

Bibliography

ABSTRACT
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the
surrounding environment by processing information
that is contained in visible light. the resulting perception
is also known as eyesight, sight, or vision.

eyes are the organs of vision. they detect light and


convert it into electro-chemical impulses in neurons.
eyes can be prone to many diseases and disorders.
this project is focused on eye disorders: how it is
caused, why it is caused, how to prevent/treat it are
inscribed here.
in addition, a survey was taken among 50 students, each
having an eye disorder. the data and other features are
attached to the report as well.

INTRODUCTION
EYE

The human eye is a spheroid structure that rests in


a bony cavity (socket, or orbit) on the frontal
surface of the skull.
The thick wall of the eyeball contains three
covering layers: the sclera, the choroid, and the
retina.
The sclera is the outermost layer of eye tissue; part
of it is visible as the "white" of the eye. In the
center of the visible sclera and projecting slightly,
in the manner of a crystal raised above the surface

of a watch, is the cornea, a transparent membrane


that acts as the window of the eye.
A delicate membrane, the conjunctiva, covers the
visible portion of the sclera.
Underneath the sclera is the second layer of tissue,
the choroid, composed of a dense pigment and
blood vessels that nourish the tissues.
Near the center of the visible portion of the eye, the
choroid layer forms the ciliary body, which
contains the muscles used to change the shape of
the lens (that is, to focus).
The ciliary body in turn merges with the iris, a
diaphragm that regulates the size of the pupil.
The iris is the area of the eye where the
pigmentation of the choroid layer, usually brown or
blue, is visible because it is not covered by the
sclera.
The pupil is the round opening in the center of the
iris; it is dilated and contracted by muscular action
of the iris, thus regulating the amount of light that
enters the eye.
Behind the iris is the lens, a transparent, elastic, but
solid ellipsoid body that focuses the light on the
retina, the third and innermost layer of tissue.

The retina is a network of nerve cells, notably the


rods and cones, and nerve fibers that fan out over
the choroid from the optic nerve as it enters the rear
of the eyeball from the brain. Unlike the two outer
layers of the eye, the retina does not extend to the
front of the eyeball.
Between the cornea and iris and between the iris
and lens are small spaces filled with aqueous
humor, a thin, watery fluid.
The large spheroid space in back of the lens (the
center of the eyeball) is filled with vitreous humor,
a jellylike substance.

SOME COMMON EYE


DISORDERS
Myopia (Nearsightedness)
Nearsighted individuals
typically
have
problems
seeing well at a distance and
are forced to wear glasses or
contact
lenses.
The
nearsighted eye is usually
longer than a normal eye, and
its cornea may also be
steeper. Therefore, when light
passes through the cornea and
lens, it is focused in front of
the retina. This will make
distant images appear blurred.

Hypermetropia (Farsightedness)
Farsighted
individuals
typically develop problems
reading
up
close.
The
farsighted eye is usually
slightly shorter than a normal
eye and may have a flatter
cornea. Thus, the light of
distant objects focuses behind
the retina unless the natural
lens can compensate fully.
Near objects require even
greater focusing power to be
seen clearly and therefore, blur
more easily.

Conjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis is a condition in
which the tissue that lines the
eyelids and covers the cornea
becomes
inflamed.
It
is
sometimes called "pink eye" or
"red eye." It can cause redness,
itching,
burning,
tearing,
discharge, or a feeling of
something
in
the
eye.
Conjunctivitis occurs in people
of all ages and can be caused by
infection, exposure to chemicals and irritants, or allergies.

Amblyopia
Amblyopia is the medical term used
when the vision of one eye is reduced
because it fails to work properly with
the brain. The eye itself looks normal,
but for various reasons the brain
favors the other eye. This condition is
also sometimes called lazy eye.
Amblyopia can occur when one eye is
more nearsighted, more farsighted, or
has more astigmatism

Asthenopia
Asthenopia or eye strain
manifests itself through
nonspecific symptoms such as
fatigue, pain in or around the
eyes, blurred vision, headache
and occasional double vision.
Symptoms often occur after
reading, computer work, or
other close activities that
involve tedious visual tasks.

Photokeratitis
Photokeretitis or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition
caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the
ultraviolet (UV) rays from either natural (e.g. intense sunlight at
high altitudes) or artificial sources. Photokeratitis is akin to a
sunburn of the cornea and conjunctiva, and is not usually
noticed until several hours after exposure. Symptoms include
increased tears and a feeling of pain, likened to having sand in
the eyes.

Methodology
The survey was taken on Dec, 2015 at Borjhar,
Guwahati particularly at KV AFS Borjhar
Total students were 50 each having an eye disorder. The
age range is 6 to 18.
Questions that were asked:
1)Name and age of the person
2)Information on their eye disorder
3)Age when the disorder was diagnosed
No specific tool was used. A friend to assist proved to
be helpful.

DATA COLLECTION
Data is in the order of increasing age.
SL.
No.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Name

Binter

Priyam Sen

Taba Ompu

Rindo pertin

Pradipta k. Mazumdar

Kushboo Basar

Millo tomo

Jarmin Sangha

P. Hanna

Abhishek Mog

Khuru c. Tok

Minam

Bakin Naso

Ampi Nabam

Rajni Thakur

Toyang

Kipa

Rohan Deb

Michi Sophia

Sange

Preti Tagru

Allapan

Joel S. Wancsu

Jiencha

Mitu

Hage Tunya

Eye disorder

Amblyopia
Amblyopia
Amblyopia
Hypermetropia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
conjunctivitis
Myopia
Myopia
Hypermetropia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Amblyopia
Myopia
Asthenopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Hypermetropia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia

Age when eye Gender


disorder was (male M
detected
Female
F)
<06
F
<06
F
<06
F
05
M
06
F
07
F
08
M
08
F
08
M
09
F
09
F
10
M
10
M
10
F
10
M
10
F
11
F
11
F
11
F
11
M
11
F
11
F
11
F
11
M
12
M
12
F
12
F
12
F

29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.

Kajum

Gimar

Rimpi

Atul Kumar

Kampoan Tangjang

Hage Minia

R. S. Akhil

Rigbi

Jumngam

Kampu

Yaya

Meyo

Jessica Rijiju

Riya Choudhury

Sikha Sadani

Chaitanya v.

Rhonya

Tage Welly

Dimini

Saksham

Puja Solanki

Raghubir Singh

Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Hypermetropia
Myopia
Myopia
Hypermetropia
Myopia
Photo keratitis
Myopia
Photo keratitis
Myopia
Myopia
Amblyopia
Myopia
Asthenopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia
Myopia

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
15
15
15
16

F
F
F
M
F
F
M
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
M
F
M
F
M

DATA ANALYSIS
Pie Chart:
Eye Disorder %
Amblyopia

Asthenopia

Conjunctivitis

Hypermetropia

Myopia

Photo keratitis

4%

10%
4%
2%
10%

70%

The pie chart shows relative percentage of people having


certain disorders.
Myopia stands as the most common refractive disorder in
children and teens with a big 70%.
7 out of 10 people having a disorder are diagnosed with
Myopia
1 out of 10 people have Hypermetropia.
1 out of 10 people have Amblyopia
1 out of 25 people have Asthenopia.
1 out of 25 people have the problem of eye pain.

Column Chart:
Age vs. Frequency
12

11

10
8

Frequency

6
4

5
4
3

3
2

2
0

>6

1
8

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

Age

The Chart is used here to compare the age (when eye disorder
was detected) to number of people.
It highlights that children below or at the age of twelve
are more prone to acquire an eye disorder.
35 persons are diagnosed with a disorder at/below the
age of 12 and 15 above the age of 12
The average age is 11.

TREATMENT
Myopia:
If a person is nearsighted, the first number ("sphere") on the r
or contact lens prescription will be preceded by a minus sign
(). The higher the number, the more nearsighted one is.
Nearsightedness can be corrected with glasses, contact
lenses or refractive surgery.
Refractive surgery can reduce or even eliminate the need
for glasses or contacts. The most common procedures are
performed with an excimer laser.
1. In PRK the laser removes a layer of corneal tissue,
which flattens the cornea and allows light rays to
focus more accurately on the retina.
2. In LASIK the most common refractive procedure
a thin flap is created on the surface of the cornea,
a laser removes some corneal tissue, and then the
flap is returned to its original position.

Hyperopia:

If a glasses or contact lens prescription begins with plus


numbers, like +2.50, then the person is farsighted.
Farsightedness can be corrected with glasses or
contact lenses to change the way light rays bend
into the eyes.
Refractive surgery, such as LASIK or CK, is
another option for correcting hyperopia. Surgery
may reduce or eliminate your need to wear glasses
or contact lenses.

Amblyopia:
The most common treatment for amblyopia is to force
the brain to start using the "bad" eye. This is done by
putting a patch over the "good" eye. It can take weeks or
months for an eye patch to improve vision.
In cases of mild amblyopia, the doctor might recommend
using an eye drop called atropine in the "good" eye
instead of a patch. Atropine dilates the pupil and blurs
the vision in the "good eye, forcing the "bad" eye to do
most of the work.
Most children with amblyopia will also need glasses to
help focus.
Amblyopia becomes much more difficult to treat after about
7-9 years of age

Asthenopia:

Preventative measures, such as taking breaks from


activities that cause eye strain are suggested.
The most effective way to ease the pain or discomfort
that the affliction causes is to remove all light sources
from a room, and allow the eyes to relax in darkness.
Cool compresses also help to some degree, though care
should be taken to not use anything cool enough (such as
ice) to damage the eyes themselves.

Photokeretitis:
Photokeratitis can be prevented by using sunglasses or
eye protection that transmits 510% of visible light and
absorbs almost all UV rays.
Conjunctivitis
1. Bacterial Conjunctivitis
Antibiotic eyedrop
2. Viral Conjunctivitis
There is no treatment for most cases of viral
conjunctivitis. Instead, the virus needs time to run its
course up to two or three weeks.
3. Allergic Conjunctivitis
different types of eyedrops for different allergies

CONCLUSION:
7 out of 10 people were diagnosed with myopia according to
the survey taken. Although Myopia is not a very harmful
disorder for the eye and can be treated easily but the numbers
are alerting and we should take preventive measures to avoid
it.
A complete eye checkup once every one to three years is very
beneficial. Many sight-threatening diseases, if detected early,
can be cured or treated to prevent, or slow, the progression of
any vision loss.
Eating green veggies, carrots, fish, etc. are essential for our
eyes for functioning well.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

www.google.co.in

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/