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Lecture 4

Man and His Fellowmen: Human Intersubjectivity
Introduction:
- Human Intersubjectivity means that man is a being with, for others
- my being as a human person is constituted by my being with, for others
- I could not exist as an I, as a human person, as a subjectivity without existing/being with, for others.
- My being, the I, my personhood, my subjectivity is essentially:
- An openness
- A participation
to the presence of
- A creative belonging
Other Persons (Human Persons or Absolute Thou)
- Directed toward
- This human intersubjectivity could be denied affirmed or denied through my freedom
- As an embodied subject, I deny or affirm my intersubjectivity in and through my body.
- How is the human intersubjectivity/co-existence affirmed or denied in and through my body? Through:
- DIALOGUE/ENCOUNTER
- LOVE
- JUSTICE
1. Human Dialogue/Encounter
The Elements of Interhuman by Martin Buber
Outline:
1. Distinction between Social Sphere (I-It Relation) and Interhuman Sphere (I-Thou Relation)
2. Conditions and Obstacles for Interhuman Relation
a. Being and Seeming
b. Personal Making Present and Speechfying
c. Unfolding and Imposition
3. Marks of Genuine Dialogue
a. Fulfilled in its being
b. Between partners who have turned toward another in truth
c. Who express themselves without reserve and are free of desire for resemblance
d. Fruitful
1. Distinction between Social Sphere (I-It Relation) and Interhuman Sphere (I-Thou Relation)

a.

SOCIAL SPHERE
I-It Relation: I relate with /treat the other
person as an It.
1. I relate with the other as part
i. a part of the group/whole
- as nothing more than a part/a
member of the group/mass to
which he belongs
- one of us
- one of them
- collectivism
ii. a part of himself/herself
- I relate only with a part/an
aspect of himself, not in his
totality
one his/her roles or
functions in society
one of his attributes,
qualities, characteristics,
traits
- individualism
iii. this level of the person (his/her
parts) could be labeled, be
conceptualized clearly and
precisely.
- A non-mystery

2.

a.

I relate with the other as an object
- I encounter the other as an object:
- Could be observed,
categorized, judged (object of
knowledge)

INTERHUMAN SPHERE
I-Thou Relation: I relate with/treat the other
as a Thou
1. I relate with the other in his/her totality,
uniqueness, unity, depth
i. in his/her Totality/Unity
- I relate in the totality/wholeness
of his/her being, with all the
aspects, dimensions, and
elements
- I relate as someone greater than
his being one of us or one of
them
ii. in his/her Uniqueness
- relate with what stands beyond
the totality of his qualities and
roles, beyond the identity and
dignity he derives from the
group he belongs
- relate with the other in his/her
depth, in/her subjectivity
original source of
hi/her actions, attitudes,
qualities, possibilities
which stamps all these
with recognizable sign of
uniqueness and integrity
iii. Could not be labeled or understood
by any concept
could never be exhausted by
any concept, fully grasped by
reason.
The Other as a Mystery
2.

1

I relate with the other as a subject
- the other is treated as a subject:
- as the source of his own value,
action, creativity, possibility.
- As someone which should and

it remains sunk in the memory . b.there is no doubt that this could be attained .I could enter into this kind of relation (IThou) with someone even outside of the group and society I belong. is different or even absent if someone is outside of the group. common judgment and common action.Not interested to let others share his very being. function to the interest/agenda: . those who do not belong to the same society. ordinary c.Even with someone who is an enemy of my society.Thus. let us say Peter and Paul whose life and relation is dominated by seeming .In the experience.Peter as he actually appears to Paul . with an enemy . uninterested what he really is .Not a spontaneous relation. . in his/her own sake. it is created by being in the group.we must be aware of the conditions which make this possible and also of the obstacles that prevent this to occur. being the object of interest/concern because of his contribution. agenda functional relation . Conditions and Obstacles to Interhuman Existence and Relation . affects one’s relation with others . opposite or different from the impressions he wants/wishes to create.the other is valued.He might lie .Though momentary. . 1. common understanding.One is opened to the Thou that may experience again the I-Thou encounter.of the individual/myself (individualism) - could never be manipulated or determined by me The other is valued in his/her own right.The bond differs.of the group (collectivism) .Peter as he appears to himself .My life is dominated. to appear before others . . etc.Kind of existence which proceeds from and is dominated by what I wish to seem. Being vs. This kind of relation/encounter is most casual. always guarded lest he will create/make the wrong impressions. in his/her own uniqueness regardless of whether he/she has value or function to the group or me. one goes back to the I-It relation but no longer seen in itself but in relation with the IThou experience/encounter . Seeming i.Seeming Relation . etc. is at work. . . b. .Seeming Existence . c. instrument of my activities. Seeming .six ghosts are created .Paul as he actually appear to Peter .- as means. superficial. to what he really is. The kind of relation/the bond in this kind of relation is created by common experiences. with a complete stranger .e. seductive.Paul as he wishes to appear to Peter . magical . he tries to create a look which he wishes to appear on the other.two men.When it passes. This Relation/Bond could arise outside/apart from those I have common experiences.He ignores. dramatic. 2.He communicates with the other what he wants to appear and not what he is . i. my group.Too concerned with appearance. .In short.Seeming existence leads to.Peter as he wishes to appear to Paul . on the impression I want to make on others . understanding.Since he is concerned with the impressions/appearances he creates/makes on the other. unaware. not necessarily created by common experiences.Paul as he appears to himself 2 . This consideration becomes irrelevant or at least secondary. he does not ask anymore or it does not matter anymore to him if the appearance corresponds to his being. Illustration: . by being part of the same society.This kind of existence and relation becomes obstacles to interhuman relation (I-Thou) as it creates too many ghosts which obscure and obstruct the I-Thou. . This kind of relation/encounter is: privileged. common understanding. with. determined by the impressions I make on others. one loses sense of time and space .Experienced in a spur of a moment yet not in the context of space and time.

in men’s dependence upon one another. he grants a share in his being. initiative.He does not really direct what he saying to the other as a person . 1. iii. the original source of the stillest enthusiasm. from one’s very being.he is only concerned with himself.whole/unity: .to drive out the ghosts. The one who is speaking is so enclosed. he does not really speak to the other but he is merely speaking to himself.Independent. . This is not natural to man and it originates on the other side of the interhuman life itself.Mystery which could not be understood by any concept 3 . is leveled down. with his own interest.This way at looking at and speaking to the other is helpful in some other areas of human life and even indispensable .ii. .Why? Widespread tendency to live from the recurrent impression one makes instead of from one’s being. ii. surveyable and recurrent structures. . .The whole person could be taken into different parts through which it could be completely intelligible. He has an inadequacy.Others make of him .Reductive: . 2.No person is entirely independent of seeming . etc.Challenge: .Contract the complex and manifold person who is nourished by the microcosmic richness of the possible to some schematizing.Why? There is a way of speaking which creates an impassable wall between persons.Which stamps all these recognizable uniqueness. the depth of personal life . some who stands more than the group or whole he/she belongs.one must struggle. mystery. behavior . .Grasp what a man has become and even his becoming in genetic formulae . possibilites.but someone who stands beyond any sum total of all his qualities.he does not care.How do I speak to Other in this manner? 1. as mystery. . to smokescreen his self-giving. in his/her subjectivity because the analytical. .He communicates to the other what he is. he relates spontaneously.One actually makes on the others .Which proceeds from what one really is. . he/she is the original source/a dynamic center of all his actions.Indeterminable: rich in possibilities could not be exhausted. unique/different.Making Present vs. without reserve .Generally.In speaking.Whole person simply as a put together of the different parts: characteristics. Speechfying i.Deriving: . an appearance. bother even to know the other’s concern.At the deepest aspect of himself/herself. not dominated by the impressions: . a semblance . the other as different from me . . from the depth of his personal life.Think that the central principle of the person can be represented by a concept.not just a part of any whole or just a part of himself . self-presence. . utterances.Depth.though one is speaking. I am really aware of the Other as a Thou (as whole/unity. activities. he does not consciously and deliberately create a “look”.I am not just speaking just to myself. so shut up in himself . mystery . utterances. thoughts. actions.No person completely proceeds from his being .He does not let any false semblance/look/appearance to creep in. etc. . .and one should be careful not to stretch this boundary to become a horizon. reductive and deriving look predominates. aspects. attitude. attitudes.But one should be aware of the boundary in which this could no longer be useful but destructive .He does not treat and perceive the other as unity. unique. labels. Speechfying . 2. needs. must pay the price to do this but never in vain.Kind of existence . affairs etc. to vanish the semblances . which could not be realized except by itself and from within. these two kinds of existence and relation are found mixed in every person . attributes. unique. roles/functions. Personal.I regard him as the very person that he is . .The mystery of the person is radically destroyed . agenda.Person.One wishes to make on the others . The Challenge to let Being predominate Seeming .Rather. I really speak to the other as the person he is . . inability to treat and perceive the other as a person. Personal-Making Present . Being . as a thou .Kind of Relation . in his/her depth) .Since he is not concerned with the impressions/semblances he makes or can awaken on the others or the impression others make of him.to live and be strengthen by one’s being.Analytical: .

each of the persons is a bearer of a special task of existence.Specific Characteristics .To realize his own unique self-project. an obstacle. we prepare tomorrow’s clear sight.If we want to look into the specific characteristics of this ways of influencing.Imagine not all possible actions of the person that confront me . my viewpoint. agenda. Primary Concern: Individual Person . attitudes or aspects of the other which he could exploit to win the other to his cause.Because he does not trust it to attain its effect of its own power without his special methods. It enters into different relations with force: it supplements or replaces it. a distraction to the cause. I accept the Other as a person. . uniqueness. 2.Two basic ways in which he treats the other particularly in his speech: Personal-Making Present and Speechfying.But imagine the real person who confronts me. by him/her alone . his opinion. project.Helps/disposes the other: .General Description . which has only been freed by the influence. cause or agenda . in the process of his/her own being . of unique self-project which can be fulfilled only through him and by him alone. . a Thou . unity.In the third condition and obstacle. .He is committed to the person as person to the extent he is committed to this unique/special task. 1. . we could say that the way of imposition is the way of propaganda. .2. agenda. 3.Thus. agenda. whose symbols are the loudspeaker and the television advertisement. project but the individual persons entrusted to his care . as mystery.By IMAGINING THE REAL .a educator’s primary commitment and concern is not his own cause. for it is considered as a burden. depth. what he/she should do or not do. attitude on the other in such a way that the latter feels the psychical result of his action to be his insight. I accept the other in his utter otherness. ii. . in his wholeness.Man tries to impose himself. . 3. through himself/herself. 4. In the exploitation of the various qualities/aspects of the person for his own cause or project. Not in the least concerned with the Other as a person .Education is essentially a way of unfolding. etc. we will look at the two basic ways of affecting men in their views and their attitude to life: unfolding and imposition i. according to the needs of the prospects. I find repugnant some of his qualities and attribute and him/her totally different . - I direct what I say to Other as a Thou (as whole/unity. task identified with a party or group.indifferent to anything personal.To unfold by himself/herself.Two basic ways in which he presents himself in his relation with the Other: Being and Seeming.The act of violence.Kantian Categorical Imperative: man should be not be treated solely as a means 4 .is not interested in the deepest aspect of the person. to this unique self-project and its realization. Unfolding .a propagandist is only interested in the various qualities. At its height. some kind of intuition. in his/her depth) . i.General Description: . my concern. and the way of propaganda is the way of imposition. of forcing. mystery .I speak to the other in view of his wholeness/integrity.I do not simply speak with myself in view: my interest.Propaganda as Imposition . Unfolding and Imposition . . manipulating the other could be used. . . we will describe what happens in the realm of education.The important thing is to get the other to his side. if we want to look at the specific characteristics and concrete dynamic of unfolding. project.e. and uniqueness and with his dynamic center which realizes all these things ever anew. 1. purpose.When we do this today. etc. The propagandist does not believe in his/her own cause .Not just looking at the other . .I still accept the bearer of these different convictions. to use his qualities/attributes to further the cause. Imposition . 2. whether one gets this with the other’s consent or by forcing him/her. unique/different. . . 3.In our discussion above of the two conditions and obstacles for interhuman relation. these repugnant qualities.Though I might disagree with he/she is saying. we consider: . it leads to depersonalization: violence on the person. The Primary Concern: particular cause.But a bold swinging into the life of the other which demands the most intensive stirring from within .To recognize in himself/herself what is right or wrong. The Individual Person and his unique self-project could never be treated merely as a means or dispensable to some other projects. etc. let us examine how this work in propaganda whether this is powerfully developed.Thus. agenda. How can be aware or at least treat the other as a Thou? . with the other as a person.This way of affecting is powerfully developed and realized in education. which could be fulfilled though him/her alone. the question whether the person consents or not is not important. as a Thou.

the dialogue is ruined.Genuine Dialogue: a dialogue fulfilled in its being between two partners who have turned toward another in truth and who express themselves without reserved and are free of any form semblance a. an intersubjectivity. . he should not destroy this self-project of the other by subordinating this or making this as dispensable to some other projects or goals. gives others a share of what he really is.: he who is ruled by the thought of his own effect as the speaker of what he has to speak.If just one of the participants proceeds and relates on the level of seeming. 4. .And I must not keep it in myself for it bears . the good.he cannot wish to impose himself for he knows this would do violence to the person. Genuine Dialogue is Fruitful . .those involved will be seized in their depths and opened out by the dynamic of an elemental togetherness 5 .Each must be determined not withdraw when the course of the conversation makes it proper to him to say what he has to say. Marks of Genuine Dialogue . such a confirmation does not mean approval. etc.to realize his/her unique.this means that dialogue happens when each participant proceeds from the level of their being and relates to the other on the level of being . c. it is discovered only when one catches the call of the spirit. This does not mean that man should be seen in isolation for man is essentially a relation. Between partners who express themselves without reserved and are free of any form of semblance .One does not need special method and techniques to force this self-realization .E.- 3. . drive to realize/attain its uniqueself-project. .Each tries to present to the others who he really is.in me the character of something that wishes to be uttered . Fulfilled in its being . I make the other present or treat/consider the other as a whole.dialogue is fulfilled on the ontological sphere (in the sphere of being) .There is basic openness of what one is from each participant.to become his/her or unique person . .but he should assist it in its self-unfolding.But there is inner force (entelechy) in the seed which directs the form “tree” to fully determine the seed. . .Work: something that is made d.each one proceeds from the what he really is and not from what he wants to appear. by accepting him as a partner in a genuine dialogue I have affirmed him as a person.He helps/assists the other to become himself by himself. 3.Semblance as a destructive power to dialogue b. A Mango tree .The concrete manifestation of my proceeding and relating on the level of being and of my turning toward the others in truth is my willingness to say/speak what is really in his mid about the subject of conversation. true turning to the other includes this confirmation.Nature: something that grows . each should be unreserved .When this happens/at this time.Genuine dialogue (a dialogue fulfilled in its being.But in his relation with others. irrepeatable self-project . .he knows that there are counterforces: forces acting against the self-actualizing force/dynamism of the person .Any invasion of seeming endangers and ruins the dialogue .By “imagining the real”. Between partners who have turned toward another in truth. this acceptance. the right.E.Image: Entelechy of Aristotle . to become fully what he is meant to be.g. .One could not pre-arrange what he has to say. as inner force which directs the self-actualization of a thing.Whatever external means used is meant just to assist this innate force.Entelechy. . He believes/trusts that each person has innate dynamism. An educator sees himself/herself as somekind of a handmaid. . he receives him as his partner.A seed is potential tree.for me the unmistakable sign which indicates that it belongs to the common life of the word. as a unique being. who express themselves without reserve and are free of any form of semblance) is fruitful .In short. as an inner force .he is there as a helper of the self-actualizing force within the person as the person realizes his self-project and struggles against the counterforces . .Speech is both nature and work . between partners who have turned to one another in truth. . a servant to the self-actualization of the other’s unique self-project. to the actualizing force working within the person.Energia.to see in himself and by himself the truth. . power. .g.Of course. but no matter what I am against of the other. has a destructive power. and as the person that he is .But the speaker does not only perceive the one who is present to him in this way. . . . what I have to say already has in me the character of something that wishes to be uttered .in the sense: . the beautiful. and that means that he confirms this other being. seem. through himself: . force.

gesture. Creation of World into a WE-WORLD Introduction .preoccupied with my concerns. How? .coming to specific agreement or contracts.There are several specific ways of realizing the I-Thou relation. not an appeal of his/her facticity ii.No matter in what form the appeal of the Other embodies itself. an invitation. Distinction between knowing and loving b. objectives.Then let us try to go back to what is originally given in any experience of love and reduce from the different experiences what is essential to those love-experience. Among these possibilities. a look. . 2. Unfolding .Love as equated with/identified with sex .permeated with self-importance or pride .What makes me hear/notice the appeal? a. the participants are disposed for the interhuman relation which takes place. what makes those experience an experiences of love distinct from other experiences.By phenomenological method.Imposition vs. A yes that demands to be ratified by the other 3.I-IT: Social Relation . An invitation/appeal to me to step out of myself .The other is appealing. for what? . Personal Making Present .- . . . and levels of relating with our fellow men/women. smell but from the Other as other.Love as mere feeling . of treating. Creation of the WE ii. love is the most common and the deepest.In our previous discussion. to share in his subjectivity c. as making to be a.First. it is not an appeal from mere words.: .Who is this other who appeals to me? .in any loving encounter. . encountering. a calling forth that is addressed/directed to me. . prejudices. A yes that bring self-fulfillment e. a gesture. we will try to understand the nature and characteristics of authentic love.I-THOU: Interhuman relation . happens as a gift. invitation. Being . Human Love A Phenomenology of Love by Manny Dy. an appeal not identified with the explicit request iii.e. An appeal that brings new dimension to existence 2. . a smell. Love as An Appeal (Invitation) of the Other a.e. calling forth goes out/come from the Other and is embodied in a word.Speechfying vs. 1. projects 6 . Embodied Yes to the Other c. love is the most often misunderstood concept.This appeal. . let us be aware and set aside or bracket our preconceptions. needs . . it is the most commonly misunderstood .Seeming vs. projects . any experience of love. A Phenomenology of Love by William Luijpen Outline: Introduction 1. I am: . appeal of his subjectivity. enclosed in my shell or nest . stereotyping of love.Now let us more specifically clarify what the appeal contains: . Love as a Yes to the Appeal a.achieving particular goals. An invitation/appeal to me to step out of myself b.the interhuman sphere (I-Thou) opens out what otherwise remained unopened not in the sense: . Martin Buber describes the 2 fundamental ways. inviting.And Martin Buber clarifies the conditions and obstacles for this kind of relation: .In this section. one experiences an appeal. for the other i. interests.Yet.The latter relation is the relation that is authentically human and humanizing. i. Yes to the Other for the sake of the other d. An invitation/appeal to be with. . Yes of my subjectivity b.Genuine Dialogue takes place when these conditions are realized. i.in my daily life or at the first stages of my our development. Distinction between creativity of love and creativity of artistic work c. look.Though it is most universal experience (a universal human phenomenon). Love as Creativity.Some misconceptions of what love is: . What is created in love: i. as a grace-event. Love as An Appeal . etc.Love as falling in love: you could not do anything but be seduced or overwhelmed by some power beyond your control.Love as act of possessing or being possessed .centered on myself. . and when there is genuine dialogue. calling me to what. relating with the other as a Thou.

to be with. . determination.What invites me to step out of myself is not these qualities and attributes even how attractive.we have mentioned at the beginning of our discussion that for me to perceive the appeal of the other. a calling forth from the other mediated through signs. 3. looks to go beyond.From my roles. An appeal that brings new dimension of my existence . determined. iii.What appeals. the role that he/she has.yet on the other hand. I can myself to this appeal when I am too compulsive and too absorbed with myself and my roles. .The request that he/she makes . .the original source of all these qualities.Physical traits .The request. calls. I only see or face others simply as delinquent. When loving encounter takes place. i. . Love would not be made impossible when these qualities fade away or are lost.Why? 1. support.They point to something deeper. Even if I respond to and satisfy the request. expression of the factual situation for which provisions have to be made. thou. pleasing and beautiful they are. In each encounter with the other. Maybe I just do it out of pity or just to get rid of him.Refers to one’s givenness. the Other as other appeals to me to step out of myself for what? . 2. that I really step out of myself. When this invitation is seen. by revealing to me. what is already there. The invitation of the other to step out of myself remains even these qualities cease to attract. deaf to this invitation. The other does not only make an appeal but he “is” an appeal. appeal. unsuspected dimension of my existence. noticed. what he explicitly asks is not what appeals to me but HE who makes the explicit request. participate in.The very depth which is . An appeal not identified with the explicit request . 2. But I could be blind. c. help in his/her self-realization. it is precisely the appeal of the other to me that liberates me from my self preoccupation. as a person. ii.Facticity: . the source . 3. let us clarify what is in the other that invites me to step out of myself i.This means to accept/consent. for the Other . invitation.e. structured . goes forth. an appeal. something that stands beyond from which the appeal comes from. I need a special attitude. particular traits and characteristics such that I see and relate in relation to these roles. As long as the other’s qualities in themselves speak to me. psychological traits .How does the other open me to this new. to step out.Seeing myself as a judge. too absorbed.What invites me to step out is not the explicit request of the other. to break away . Not an appeal of his/her facticity . my own nest . stamping them with uniqueness. . it does not mean that there is love. the other goes away very much dissatisfied as if I have not satisfied/responded to his actual request. heard. self-actualization. identified with my social roles. transcend myself for the Other.Why? 1. . from the roles I see in other. subjectivity. invites me to step out of myself is HIS/HER SUBJECTIVITY: .The attributes/qualities embody the subjectivity but could not be identified with it. An appeal of his subjectivity. there is an invitation. Even if I respond to that request and satisfy to that request.Moral qualities . gestures. I must already in some extent overcome my over too fascination with myself . For these may call me to be near him (infatuation) but they are incapable of inviting me to step out of myself. etc.Aptitude .From my shell. to be for/with HIS/HER SUBJECTIVITY .the original source of initiative.To share. attributes of the person. unsuspected dimension? What is this new.. feelings. . When this happens. invite me. lawyers. .What he/she explicitly asks from me because of the situation in which he/she is in. traits I have: . .Temperament.What stands over and above the qualities. a special disposition in order to perceive the appeal and this attitude itself implies that I have already been freed from my absorption and compulsion.Refers to the already determined physical and spiritual qualities/attributes of the Other .The subjectivity.absorbed in my thoughts. opening me up to a new. to share in his subjectivity .the original source of possibilities .Inclinations .The very depth of the person which could not be reduced to one of these qualities and aspect nor the sum total of them . The appeal of the Other is more than his explicit request.now. perceived. there is this invitation/appeal/call. unsuspected dimension? 7 . the invitation does not come from the other as the other. etc. Appeal of the Other. egoistic existence. then there is a loving encounter or more properly the loving encounter has begun. - - - b.

. an appropriate response.Self-realization of his unique self-project and possibilities . I have freedom: .The appeal of the other as other makes me see. nor attain the quality/attributes that could help him . then this yes is known as LOVE. in the world (I am my body-I have my body.To annihilate.What he is meant to be. as we go deeper. from my subjectivity: . give my subjectivity in freedom for the other. a filled-out file card. i. it is an act of the WILL.To extend myself toward a not yet finished.I who is a facticity am my different qualities.I am my facticity .love is not a yes to be with. share.a subjectivity identified in some extent with his/her body 8 .The appropriate response is the response/yes of my subjectivity since the other appeals from his/subjectivity and appeals to my subjectivity . my self-project for the good of the other.it is not a matter of supporting. my yes/response is not a response to his faciticity: i.a subjectivity immersed in the body. . . sharing the different qualities.this appeal which brings me to an awareness of the deepest aspect of my existence demands a response.I am more than my facticity because I am their bearer. granting of what other explicitly requests . that others may become what they are meant to be. from what I have but from my subjectivity. romanticism . deeper than my feeling. Embodied Yes to other's Subjectivity i. . .Since the appeal of the other comes from his subjectivity and the appeal is to be with.Could never be forced by anyone on me.This appeal of the other brings a radical conversion/change to my self-realization of my unique self-project . a coin.e.I am here to realize myself in the world that others may live.I only become truly myself by realizing myself in the world for the other . to say yes to his subjectivity. my existence is an existence for.since the other's appeal is not an appeal of his facticity. 2.The appearance of the other. player of role.But I respond from what I am.To respond to the appeal of the other as other is to affirm.I give the potentialities. reveals to me that my existence is an existence for. 2. Second level: Freedom/Subjectivity . . characteristics or determinable attributes/roles . FREEDOM. Third Level: Subjectivity for the Other (Intersubjectivity) . the Yes/Response to the appeal of the other is not simply the material granting of that explicit request. activity which stamps all my activities. we go deeper. to transcend every form of facticity .to say yes to the appeal of the other as other does not necessarily mean that I give in to his/her explicit request.e.This response from my subjectivity: . even by the other's appeal. for his subjectivity. attributes and roles of the other . for the other's facticity . to his qualities. unity. the yes of love is the yes to his subjectivity .. Yes to other as Embodied Subject is not sentimentality. and as subject. . First level: Facticity . to be realize unique self-project by being in the world . roles and other determinations which I inherited from my past.I don’t simply give a piece of bread. Yes of my subjectivity . I have to say no to his/her explicit request in order for me to say yes to his appeal as a person.His freedom . affirming.- - We grow in our awareness of the different dimensions of our existence? As we grow. I overcome my facticity through selfrealization in the world for the sake of the other. Love as a Yes to the Appeal of the Other a. with the other . uniqueness of my life .I transcend my facticity for the sake of the other. with the other . that others may live. we grow. the perception of the other's appeal makes me realize that the deepest aspect of myself is not only my subjectivity but my subjectivity for the other: my deepest self is self for the other. it is not determined by feeling or by external circumstances. roles and attributes with uniqueness .Yet I always find myself again as the bearer of objective qualities. from what I am. attitudes.In some cases.I respond with the totality.Is not a question of feeling for my subjectivity is something beyond. Yes to other's subjectivity . I do not only give what I have but what I am . support his subjectivity .the subjectivity of the other to which I say my yes is an EMBODIED SUBJECT .the appeal of the other which proceeds from his subjectivity (not from his facticity nor be identified with his/her explicit request) calls/invites me to step out of myself and to share in his subjectivity . nor simply play the role that he needs at the moment.since the other's appeal is not identified with his/her explicit request. a part of my time.I should not respond simply from my facticity.If I say yes to the appeal. ii. being in the world) .I respond from the deepest aspect of myself: original source of my creativity.

I am not just satisfied that the other goes a particular way through the world. benefits or rewards for oneself from one's loving of the other .chooses that good way or avoid the bad way .to what he/she thinks as: .- - .This presupposes that: .For the sake of his/her subjectivity itself . political. self-project according to his/her own rhythm. from the world. even death 9 . possessions. shelter. . will lead him/her to authentic happiness. ii. to accomplish something in the world. .I even sometimes need to say vehemently and strongly no to his/her request which clearly will destroy/ruin his/her subjectivity . I will.Taming the river. to say to the appeal of the other as other does not necessarily mean that I say yes to any explicit request that he makes .The other does things according to what I want.Why? because what he/she chooses as his Self-Project. sex among others as his self-project.Concretely this means: .: if a nurse who tenderly and attentively takes care of her patient because she wants to become quickly as possible head nurse or to gain eternal reward for herself.to seek promotion .to fulfill to certain desire. means: . iii. discomfort. NOT IN HAVING . becomes itself in and through the body. The motive to say yes to the Other as other is not seek to one's own fulfillment. . .To love is to say yes to the other as other for his/her the sake and not mine (even at my expense) . money. if he/she chooses to make himself.one who does so cannot keep his/her love pure. . that the other himself/herself determines his own action and being.Ultimate Reality/Value toward which he/she directs his/her life: . it engages one to do something concrete in the world.For the interest.one who loves cannot possibly intend and try to gain something out of the love: .g. what is the ultimate reality. I like even if he does not choose or want it.To make him/her go this way/destiny whether he/she wants it or not because that is really the best/authentic way/destiny . The motive of love is not to dominate. I do not intend that: .I have true conviction about what true happiness is. . supporting his body.realizes his/her destiny.If I love the Other.I affirm. I need to go beyond what he/she requests. To say yes to his/her subjectivity involves.a subjectivity that could not be separated from his body. I support the other’s freedom. advancement. to make it more human. affirming. I intent.a subjectivity that realizes.Saying to other's subjectivity does not mean saying yes . denial of love . advantages.to say no to his/her explicit request does not necessarily mean saying no to the Other . Ultimate Happiness.the motive/purpose of one’s loving-response is not to draw/get some advancement.Opening schools . . dream .I support this end even at my expense: Pain. not even if that way is good. ultimate happiness. then I am obliged to oppose him. .For example.to satisfy some needs . a self.to realize one's unique self-project . Thus. social structure All these one does in order that it may be possible for the other to be a subjectivity. to force or to possess the other.Concretely this means: . clothing .Ultimate Happiness . his world. 3. develop medicine . what is an authentic self-project: BEING FOR OTHERS. for his/her own sake and not mine.Humanizing the economic. his material life .to fulfill some ambitions . dynamism. not the Ultimate Reality/Value. interest or advancement.Rather.e.I cannot be indifferent nor content with what other thinks as his/her happiness. other necessary infrastructure for humanization . force or possess the other. . doing something. Yes to the Other is not permissiveness .I should desire/seek that he/she himself/herself . the world. I do not intend to dominate.Unique self-project: .to gain some advantages . road.Building hospitals. The Motive of love is YOU . Ultimate Reality/Value. Yes to the Other for the sake of the Other (Disinterestedness of Love) i. ultimate reality/value. taking care. self-realization. the patient does not feel that he is really loved. .Being conscious. realization unique self .This is the end in itself which could not be used simply/solely as means to some others. there is a betrayal of love. Ultimate Happiness is not always.To love the other is to love him/her because of him/her.to say yes to his/her subjectivity. support the Other’s subjectivity for his/her own sake .Giving him/her food. to close this road for if necessary by force.Since the appeal of the other as other/subjectivity could not be identified with his/her explicit request. to the other who is an embodied subject is not a pure sentimentality. . iii. is not necessarily his authentic self-project.

like stone (which is without freedom. respecting.It also includes making the others be: .In Loving. or a wood be a wood . authentic love does not aim. Yet that potentiality could not have been realized without him.I do not do anything with reality as it unfolds. . his response be accepted by the Other . affirming the other as he/she unfolds.It involves letting be: perceiving. unveils. 5.His/her freedom as freedom from. In this sense.Unlike a stone which I could completely determine without destroying it. with the other . he should make other make an absolutely free acceptance and ratification of his/offer for love to be authentic.But love creates the subjectivity of the other not by unilateral. understood. love becomes fruitful in the sense that love: .I just let reality be as it unfolds. 2.Unique self-project and unique possibilities could not be realized without the love of another . accepted.Subjectivity .) but a person/subjectivity which has freedom. intend. . knowing is not a creative activity . . He realizes what is potentially in the wood. Distinction between the Creativity of Love and Creativity of Artistic Work .Assisting the Other’s . Love as Creativity. . .the person could never be fully in touch with his subjectivity and would never proceed from his subjectivity unless he/she is loved by another. etc. in the stone. unveils. unconceals before me .E. influences. seek. there is the risk of rejection. I also make the others’s other be. he makes it into a beautiful sculpture. and it will take time for the lover to recover himself from his experience. influence could only bear fruit.Knowing the other person is a necessary condition in loving the other but the two are different/distinct .In other words.creates the other . causalistic or deterministic manner as sculptor creates a statue out of a stone or wood.In knowing. . it is still an enriching experience 3. .This willing.I let reality be by perceiving. the artist does not just let the stone be a stone. . unconceals before me . ratifies my affection. respecting.g.The other is absolutely free to respond to say yes or no.Supporting . .Love wills. the subjectivitity could never be determined by the other without destroying it or corrupting it. . freely consents the loving-response. subjectivity.Thus. supporting. how is love creative a.Creating . wish one’s self-fulfillment and self-realization. affirming of the Other’s subjectivity becomes only fruitful when the other accepts/ratifies. in education: 10 .Though there are some influences of the other on one’s subjectivity. one becomes entirely defenseless.Difference between Creativity of Love and Creativity of Artistic Work . loving itself is the very fulfillment of my deepest being. and fruitful. .Nevertheless. supports. Distinction between Knowing and Loving .I come to realize myself in my deepest dimension. destroying them in their subjectivity. I do not just let the other be.Yet. . .The same thing in love. unconceals before me .let us clarify how does love creates the other.In letting reality be and in respecting and accepting reality. as making to be . choosing .As we have discussed above. could only be creative.4. the experience can provide him with an opportunity to examine himself and the emptying of oneself brought about by rejection would allow room for development. love brings authentic self-fulfillment. It is a yes that demands to be received/ratified by the Other .makes the other be . . he cannot force his Yes.Willing.Etc. could make the other be if he/she accepts.Love creates the other in the sense that it makes the other be not as facticity but as subjectivity: .In this sense. . action. . self-project. unveils before except to respect and accept it.Similarity between Creativity of Love and Creativity of Artistic Work . provided this fulfillment is not the motive of his love.He makes it be.when love is received and reciprocated. being/subjectivity for.Self-Project . unveils. . affirms the Other’s subjectivity as a response to Other’s appeal .My affection.No doubt the experience of rejection is painful. his offer.Though the lover cannot will that his love be not known.The other that I make to be in love is not an object. to and for/with could never be realized with the love of another. and accepting it as it unfolds. . self-realization . I am completely passive . a human person goes forward to love the other and then he finds the fulfillment of his personhood.Thus.Freedom .In making an art work (just like sculpture). betrayal and consequently. I could never completely determine the other persons without destroying them as person. unique self-project and possibilities.I come to realize without at least directly intending it my unique self-project .Self-hood .Fostering . It is a yes that brings self-fulfillment .

Urgency and Importance of Waking Up from Spiritual Stupor c. Truth refers to something on the plane of the sacred 1. Justice “In Search of Truth and Justice” by Gabriel Marcel Outline 1. let us have a very brief phenomenological descripti0on of the experience of being loved .Has a kind face . I am not alone. Introduction a. . supported by the other. then person becomes more fully what is meant to be. Purpose of the Article . .Consequently.No longer arouse us from apathy to perform deed of profound consequences.Danger/Consequence: . Respect of the Person’s Inviolability 4. simply because truth and justice of a sudden become suffused with irresistible appeal .Many remain deaf to the irresistible appeal of truth and justice .I now become aware of my subjectivity as being loved. Approach 2. Urgency and Importance of Waking Up from Spiritual Stupor .If one is unloved. If the person does study because he opts/chooses to study as he himself sees or at least trusts that there is some value in it. Partial Truth and Indolence in the Quest for the Truth b.to clarify the relationship between truth and justice in order . etc. hated by me. they evoke nothing more than a faint and muted echo .In short.is cursed.Image: like inscription carved into the facade of a public building. .to wake ourselves from spiritual sleep concerning truth and justice .To answer this.: For children growing up unloved and maltreated. What is created in love? . . . Authentic Justice in Relation to Truth: Justice Living in Truth a. the world . I am no longer alone in my subjectivity . But I acquire the feeling of security. the world . Truth cannot be equated with the order imposed from without b.Those big words no longer make much sense in our day and age . ii. I am with the other and I am doing it with the other. Independence from Subjective Inclination/Affective Attraction b.we are fated to perish in technocratic delirium c. the teacher feels that he does not the other becomes a subjectivity. .Becomes accessible to my self-realization . Partial Truth leads to Apparent Justice 3.Incapable of experiencing “violent” emotion assumed in the face of truth and justice .is resistant. support.Right now. and I am not doing it alone. my selfrealization of my unique self-project).I realize my unique self-project and possibilities and go forward to my destiny in the presence of someone who accepts. Creation of the I into a WE . affirms and makes possible this self-realization.If one is love. of acceptance.lonely . Approach .Is a homeland 3.Such by words (truth and justice) no longer mean anything to us . he realizes himself on a level he would never have reached if he had been left alone.We come to describe this experience by answering this question: WHAT DOES THE OTHER MAKE OF ME WHEN HE LOVES ME? i. .- If the person studies what his teachers says he should study because his teacher says so and not because he wants or chooses to study.is hell. the world is cruel.As things now stand. Insidious Devaluation of the Important Concepts of Truth and Justice a. my subjectiivity.g. I no longer feel the fear of being myself and the anxiety in trying to someone else.In his/her love (his breaking out of himself/herself to affirm. . Purpose of the Article b. opposes my self-realization . Creation of the World into a WE WORLD . Authentic Justice as the Beginning and Sign of Love a.E.Not discursive thinking 11 . no more moved at the sight of them than we are by anything else degenerated into commonplace . 3. a person. accepted.to arouse in us the unique passion for justice and peace b.Shared world. we simply pass them by. Introduction a. Truth cannot be equated with my moods c. affirmed.

.Boring.French Communistic university professor was accused of conniving with the Algerian freedom fighter.Etc.He would cite and clarify the experiences from which he has come to the questions of justice and truth: .Justice for some is reduced.Partisan interest: .they seem like discreet facts and explanations. Thomism. .They leave to philosophers the difficult task . Responses/Consequences: . justice is equated with . demands of a particular group that are more or less acute.: granting of the labor group’s just demand for higher wages (not a question of minimum wage) would eventually damage the general economy of the country and inflict injury on the general citizenry. very important. organized groups and by the whole nation in our time leads us to assume that the manifest quest for justice is not in fact a search for authentic justice but partial/apparent justice .The questioin of truth and justice as existing within the existential relation. Justice is said to be obtained when the just demands and needs are obtained.Partisan interests .Justice is not obtained simply because the needs/interests of a particular group is granted and simply because it is demanded by the group .For Marcel.“Price Lists” . .In some instances. .Needs.General Indolence pervades our quest for truth .Equity . Justice equated with partisan interest .. .They little interest in this perilous task .E.Point of Marcel: Authentic/Integral Justice is not just a matter of granting of an explicit demand of a particular group . Indolent in the Quest for Truth and Satisfied with Partial Truths .Sense of responsibility is replaced by fundamental mistrust b. the just demand of a particular group might be injurious to the common welfare. the welfare of society. atomistic. we have reduced without being aware of it and its danger: . . E. pluralism of facts.just as the increasing discoveries of scientific truths leads us to realize that they are simply partial truths.there is generally the ability to search and the willingness to recognize/accept these truths discovered by science . Partial Truths leads to Apparent Justice . .Instead of searching for the truth. among others .A scepticism that is even incapable of proceeding skeptically .we do not see any connection between them. it finds solace/comfort in any of the philosophical systems that have been effected and take this system as THE TRUTH.Withdraws into a fog that stifles courageous initiative .Infra-Scepticism .- - Discursive thinking on justice means: .in the same way the increasing demand for justice by different unions.His fellow student getting into trouble by sending pacifist pamphlet to the front .Scientists find extreme difficulty to establish any kind of unity of these scientific knowledge. urgent and even justified. that which just/fair to all.in our time.Based on his own personal experience and on something abstracted from experience . . Insidious Devaluation of the Important Concepts of Truth and Justice .General Indolence leads to FANATICISM/DOGMATISM AND SCEPTICISM .e.to gather from the works of philosophers (past and present). .g.Dreyfuss Affair .Truth to partial truth .Why? .Justice to apparent justice a. we have an apparent justice but not an authentic justice i.In this quest for justice. within a drama that arouses a unique passion 2. their considerations about justice or truth.When this happens. incapable of waking us up from spiritual stupor But existential .Something more than just granting the demands and needs of particular group is needed in the consideration of authentic justice 12 . equated.Why does he not adopt this approach? .but truths of science are partial truths: . and then in a work similar to their manipulate my findings so as to present some sort of resounding consensus. .the different disciplines particularly the empirical sciences lead us to the discovery of a lot of things about man and the world .g. associated with the just demands and needs of a particular group.stratified thinking (of layers and boxes) . the common good). isolated demands are not necessarily prompted by love or concern for and do not lead necessarily to genuine justice (i. outside of which there is no truth.: Marxism. .

Respect for the Inviolability of the Person . his/her freedom.Tariff of Legal system .As applied to countries with his percent of illiteracy and to countries which are highly cultured. Here I choose to become a wolf to the other.As a consequence.The minimum of my yes to the other is not to destroy him/her 13 .The mother’s action could only be justified on practical ground: . to will. to foster. behavior. situation.That those responsible for his disappearance and death should be punished and the punishment should be known to the public .Justice is basically erecting a barrier.Equity . . justice itself is bound to vanish.There is in us an irresistible temptation to destroy a particular person (like to kill him/her.Love is the yes to the appeal of the other to accept. have to be distinguished. even those who even found it repugnant. justice is obtained.There are no further reasonable grounds for her precaution except to avoid quarrels among her children . . . to extract admission from him by force. we experience ourselves both as wolf and shepherd to the other . Justice equated with “price list” of one’s abilities/accomplishment and failure . a stranger and much more because he is an enemy. to create his/her subjectivity. Bottomline: question of justice is not just a question of partisan interest ii.Yet there is the opposite of love: Hatred .Even with strong subjective inclination and affection to destroy .We could come only to authentic understanding of justice in the context of love not in context of: . cited by Marcel . public official on the other.Even with the demand of the law.Assess your liability and merit based on the data provided and the standing price list . . an obstacle between this temptation and the execution of this temptation.And it is not certain that there is reason to treat those in the table alike.Therefore. Affective Attraction .g.Thus.Justice is authentic justice when it is the beginning. circumstance .Partisan interests . .This needs to be emphasized: THE RESPECT FOR THE INVIOLABILITY OF THE PERSON . we don’t only experience the appeal of love. his/her selfhood. the minimum of love . we also experience the appeal of hate.But the charts hardly correspond to anything resembling a genuine feeling of guilt . Here I choose to become a shepherd to the other . on the one hand. .This means that I will not do anything that would destroy the person in whatever way even with the irresistible temptation: . . .Even with the claim that this is a necessity of war. And when respect is destroyed. his/her freedom. Justice equated with equity .Justice requires/demands us to do things even for which . True/Authentic Justice as the Beginning of Love . different.As human persons. it is better to play safe. justice and equity have to be kept separate. for Marcel. b.we have no affective attraction.Courts of Justice as no more than and even worse than revenue offices .Analogy: Mother dividing a cake equally to her children . support.we have a negative affective and subjective disposition to the other. .Communist university professor was accused of conniving with the Algerian Freedom Front.He was arrested.as applied to the Illiterate/Insane. . .- Sometimes. and doctor. of the other consists in not permitting the wolf in me to destroy/devour the other . iii.Other examples cited by Marcel to prove this point: Universal Suffrage .There was a public demand: . unique self-project. . there will be no end of quarreling . a particular group might even give up their rights/demands/needs so that authentic justice might be achieved.When there is equal or equitable distribution of goods and resources (just distribution).If she does not bother about equal distribution. . disappeared under suspicious circumstances.Thus.Justice and Equity are equated: . his/her selfhood. his/her unique self-project and possibilities. but also from those who were against them. no subjective inclination to the other . the judge is no longer recognized as a man of justice.Justice is the minimum demand of love . 3. minimum of love a. to destroy him/her in whatever way) simply because he/she is unarmed.That those who pronounced the sentence on the professor should give a full explanation .There are two essential elements of justice as the beginning.This concession (to divide equally so as to avoid quarrel) has no ethical grounds .It is the yes to the appeal to destroy the other’s subjectivity. support etc. and actions of the professor.E.The minimum demand for the acceptance. Independence from Subjective Inclination.The protest and accusation should come not only from those who approve of the ideology.

for me to be authentically human is to do justice.Could not be confused with humanity as a totality (positivistic tendencies).Living on the plane of the Sacred. a member of the French Council of State who was in direct contact with Marshall Petain during the War felt personally obliged to speak in the marshal’s behalf whatever it might cost him personally and even though it was a lost cause .one’s moods and interests refer to: . appeals to us o bear witness to no matter who we are .What is the truth to which we have to conform our lives. . Absolutely Stable and Consistent .- - The fundamental human rights contain the minimum requirements/ the gauge/limit below which I will already destroy the Other Denial of the fundamental human rights is equivalent to the destruction of the person himself/herself .To live in truth. system or “Isms” .that we could not deny it though we could stifle it .To live in the truth.is to conform our lives to the truth .After the war. sometimes one needs to defy any order imposed from without. institutions .as Creative Testimony . the idea of “humanity” presupposes divine understanding and within this or in the framework of divine understanding.Most probably this transcendent.Council: . unstable in itself unlike our interest. with any order. it has to express itself in us and cannot be stifled.Besides.Justice: . ideology. moods. human institutions or the legal system . with the societal order. If I dehumanize other people. b.Something which defies and resists any objectification or identification with mundane realities. one’s life. Truth cannot be identified with one’s moods and interests . If I humanize other people. ii.Demands a response that is unconditional even at the expense of one’s self . stable and consistent manifests in us in a form of unconditional demand. on the plane of the Sacred .Demands from us. A member of French Council of State testifying in behalf of an alleged prominent German collaborator.one’s personal moods and interests .Nevertheless. those who collaborated with the Germans were tried for war crimes and treason and Marshall Petain was the principal accused in the case . Illustrations/Examples of Justice as Testimony to the Truth on the Plane of the Sacred i.Truth which is transcendent. Transcendent/Spiritual/ . I become less human.Yes for the other is yes to the essence or deepest dimension of my existence. . Marshall Petain .moods and interests of one’s group to live in the truth is not simply an agreement with oneself c. stable and consistent demand will only take shape when a particular situation demands it or when an action is required.Not changing. to be just.To live in the truth is not simply conforming our lives with the order particularly with the legal orders of a given society. The Truth cannot be equated. d.The demand is so strong. Holy . That which we could not be indifferent . order. significance and meaning. identified with the order imposed by Totalitarian State.Living in the truth. And the minimum requirement for me to live in the deepest dimension of my existence. with any reality that we could definitely perceive and conceive. Truth refers to something on the plane of the Sacred: i. according to the truth .Marshal Petain: head of the French government “created” by the Germans who had occupied France in World War II .that is stronger than any appeal that we could identify within the world . actions into agreement with the truth . blocks of wood or ideas and eventually come to “humanity”. 4. the highest council that advised the government on legal matters 14 . “man” . to which we have to bring our lives and action into agreement? a. it has an appointed place. persistent .Could not be identified with any group interest. I become more human.Something that is totally beyond yourself .Made up of 400 trained lawyers. iii. . Why? .This does not necessarily mean that the demand presses forward into our consciousness in entire universal character . regardless of the personal risk involved.One could not add men and women like stones.During the trial. Authentic Justice in Relation to Truth: Justice as Living in Truth .is to bring oneself.

Marcel realized the just cause that this freedom fighters had died for and where did this just cause come from. .500 French resistance fighters were executed. if this were the case.Rejection .Valerian . this was much too little to lead die to martyrdom . .500 French resistance fighters in World War II who were executed in Mt .The idea that humanity had to be restored to its dignity . 4.Far from unanimous in their religious convictions .Not from religious convictions (i. Why did he do it? . after the trial he was suspended for two (2) years and consequently he and his large family were forced to live under most difficult material conditions. ii. .Consequently. others in the name of error. . the just cause they were fighting for was more than rejection .If he had refrained from testifying out of fear and prudence.e. .They have different religious convictions .- Government’s main goal was to prosecute and punish the collaborators and traitor His testimony would not make any difference in the acquittal of Marshal Petain It would even mean great personal cost on him. this points to the intimate relation between genuine truth and authentic justice: . some of the resistance fighters would have fought in the name of truth.In fact. 15 .What was this light? .Nevertheless.But.Not from any “isms” or specific doctrines: . he would have acted contrary to the spiritual character of the truth and at the same time he would have committed an injustice.Though all these people differ so much from one another. .Though all commonly were for rejection. . Valerian where 4. yet there was a group illumined by the same light and united by a common brotherly bond. it makes seeing possible: . the man lived according to the truth on the plan of the holy.They held different and even contradicting views.In December morning.The truth that die for.But the light in this case is invisible because it is source of light. . otherwise he could not have been impelled to act as he did.During this celebration.It was because of this that they fully and completely stood behind rejection . there was an act of reparation by a group of Germans at the Mt. convictions arising from their particular religion) .We might say that he was following his conscience and this would seem superficial to us.Seeing in the sense of proper evaluation of the concrete options available to us and irresistible.