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A: I


N: I

do not (don’t) work.
does not (doesn’t)
You/we/they do not (don’t) work.
Q: Do


you/we/they work?

1-to talk about general
truth and permanent
The Earth rotates round its axis.
It rains a lot in autumn.
I speak English and French.

2-to talk about repeated,
customary actions:
He gets up at 8 o’clock every
They never listen to their

always, every
ar never,
usually, twice
a week/day…,
all the time

3-to talk about a planned
future action (a timetable
or schedule )
The train
leaves at 3 tomorrow.


to be (am/is/are) + verb +
A: I-ing
am (I’m)
N: I

is (he’s)
are (we’re)
am not (I’m not)

is not (isn’t)
You/we/they/ are not (aren’t)
Q: Am



1-to talk about actions that
are happening now, at the
moment of speaking:
Look! The boys are playing
football. Hurry up! The train is

2- to talk about actions that
are happening around now,
but not exactly at the
moment of speaking:
We are studying very hard
these days. We have to prepare
for our exams.
3-to speak about what you
have already arranged to
-What are
you doing on Saturday?
am meeting my friend at the
is arriving at 8 pm.

at the
at present;
Look!, Listen!
these days,
this morning,





Regular verbs + ed : worked, played,
Irregular verbs – II column: went, ate
A: I
N: I

worked /went.
worked/went .
did not (didn’t)
did not (didn’t)
did not (didn’t)

Q: Did I
Did he/she/it
Did you/we/they


1-to talk about actions
performed in the past (with
finished time expressions):
I met my friend yesterday.
Did you go to the seaside last
2-to talk about a
succession of past actions
He opened the door,
switched on the light and fed
his cat.
3- to talk about an action
taking place in the middle
of another action:
He fell asleep while the
teacher was explaining new
grammar rules.

in 1970,
the other day,
week/ Sunday





working.background information in a story: The sun was shining and the birds were singing… at 6 o’clock be(was/were) + verb + -ing A: I He/she/it You/we/they was was were working. You/we/they were not (weren’t) working. working.action interrupted by another shorter action in the past: I was working on computer when the telephone rang. while FUTURE SIMPLE FORMS USE TIME PHRASES 3 . 4. N: I was not (wasn’t) working. 3. from 3 to 6 On Monday. He/she/it was not (wasn’t) working. when Mum came. Q: Was Was Were working? I he/she/it you/we/they working? working? 1-to talk about a temporary action taking place at a given moment in the past: What were you doing at 6 o’clock yesterday? 2-two or more actions happening at the same time in the past: She was cooking dinner and her kids were watching TV.

.to express intention at the moment of decision: Do you like these shoes? .. 3.. I'll buy them. will not (won’t) work. Mary will get a present next month. I expect.A: I/we He/she/it You/they shall*/ will will will work.. we’ll go to the country. tomorrow. some day...Yes. Perhaps she'll be late. in two days/five minutes/a month etc. soon. 2-to predict the future (with probably... perhaps) I think it will rain tomorrow.. 4-in the 1 st type of conditional sentences If the weather is fine. the day after tomorrow. work. in the near future. I/we he/she/it you/they work? work? work? *NOTE!!! Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I…?/shall we…? In spoken English we normally use I’ll and we’ll. (I) think. I wonder. 1-to talk about future actions: I’ll call you tomorrow.. I'm sure.. FUTURE CONTINUOUS FORMS USE TIME PHRASES 4 .. I don't think the exam will be very difficult. He/she/it You/they Q: Shall/will Will Will will not (won’t) work. N: I/we work shall not (shan’t) * will not (won’t) work. don't think. work.. next week/month/ year etc. one of these days.

at 5 o’clock tomorrow. He/she/it will not (won’t) working. This time on Sunday I'll be bathing in the sea. Q: Shall/will Will Will be be 1. this time on Sunday. You/they will not (won’t) working. he will be waiting for you. when I come I/we be working? he/she/it be working? you/they be working? *NOTE!!! Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I…?/shall we…? In spoken English we normally use I’ll and we’ll. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE FORMS USE TIME PHRASES 5 .A: I/we He/she/it You/they N: I/we working. will be working. shall*/will be working. The action will start before that moment but it will not have finished at that moment: I will be playing tennis at 10am tomorrow. When you talk about an action at a particular moment in the future. will be working. shall not (shan’t) *be will not (won’t) be working.

no sooner… than… 6 . this year (when the time periods are not finished at the time of speaking): Have you called you mother today? already. today this week. 2-with the conjunctions(hardly/scarcely/ nearly/barely + when…) I had hardly done it when they came.he had already disappeared. till now. recently. No sooner had they arrived than it started to rain. A: I/you/we/they had He/she/it had worked/gone. never.(Past Simple – succession of actions) By the time the police arrived . I can’t open the door. Q: Had Had I/you/we/they he/she/it worked/gone? worked/gone? USE 1-denotes an action completed before a certain moment in the past. it is not used to denote a succession of actions (Past Simple): She had already finished her work when he came. He/she it had not (hadn’t) worked/gone. with for and since. this week. not yet. 2-questions in the Present Perfect never start with when: When did you see this film? 3-with this morning/evening. I posted it.regular verbs +ed : worked. up to now . N: I/we/you/they have not (haven’t) worked/gone. Q: Have worked/gone? Has worked/gone? I/we/you/they he/she/it It is always connected with the present and the only thing which matters here is the result: the time when the action took place is of no importance: I have lost my keys. just. this year PAST PERFECT SIMPLE FORMS had +participle II .regular verbs +ed worked. today. N: I/we/you/we/they had not (hadn’t) worked/gone. ever. lately. But: When I wrote the letter.have/has +participle II . (with the same adverbs as Present Perfect but in the past context). asked -irregular verbs-III column: gone. of late. TIME PHRASES when I entered. 1-to talk about a completed action connected with the present: I have seen this film and I can discuss it with you now. worked/gone. by 5 o’clock yesterday. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked/gone. so far. asked A: I/we/you/they have He/she/it has worked/gone. with This is the first time … this morning/ evening. worked/gone.

Q: Shall/will I/we worked/gone? Will he/she/it worked/gone? Will you/they worked/gone? TIME PHRASES have *NOTE!!! Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I…?/shall we…? In spoken English we normally use I’ll and we’ll. N: I/we shall not (shan’t) * have worked/gone. You/they will have worked/gone.FUTURE PERFECT FORMS USE 1-denotes an action completed before a definite moment in the future: She will have finished this work by 2 o’clock tomorrow. The film will have already started by the time we come . by 2 o’clock tomorrow. will not (won’t) He/she/it will not (won’t) You/they will not (won’t) worked/gone. when you come back have have have FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS FORMS USE TIME PHRASES 7 . He/she/it will have worked/gone.Hurry up! shall/will + have +participle II A: I/we shall*/will have worked/gone. by this time tomorrow.

Q: Shall/will working? Will working? Will working? I/we have been he/she/it have been you/they have been *NOTE!!! Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I…?/shall we…? In spoken English we normally use I’ll and we’ll.1-denotes an action which will begin before a definite moment in the future. You/they will not (won’t) have been working. UNIT 1 PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS FORMS *NOTE!!! Shall is used mostly in the questions shall I…?/shall we…? In spoken English we normally use I’ll and we’ll. In the fall I will have been studying here for 2 years. shall/will + have + been+ verb + -ing A: I/we working. USE TIME PHRASES 8 . He will have been travelling for 24 hours. He/she/it working. You/they working. will continue up to the moment and will be going on at that moment: You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally arrives. will not (won’t) for He/she/it will not (won’t) have been working. shall/will * have been will have been will have been N: I/we shall not (shan’t)* have been working. He will be tired when he arrives.

NOTE!!! We don’t use Present Perfect Cont. know . have and other non-progressive verbs: PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS FORMS had + been + verb + -ing A: I /we/you/they He/she/it N: I/we/you/they working. He/she/it has not (hasn’t) been working. know . for. It’s been raining all day. He/she/it has been working. but which had been in progress not long before: The baby’s face was red and wet. -I’ve been painting the walls. Q: Have working? Has working? I/we/you/they been he/she/it been 1-to say how long things have been continuing up to now: I’ve been learning English for six years. He had been crying. N: I/we/you/they have not (haven’t) been working. He/she/it working. TIME PHRASES since. had been working. had not (hadn’t) been had not (hadn’t) been I/we/you/they been working? he/she/it been working? How long have you had your car? (Present Perfect) USE 1-denotes an action which began before a definite moment in the past. How long…? 2-to say how we have been filling our time (up to now) -Your hands are dirty. since.have/has + been + verb + -ing A: I we/you/they have been working. with be. have and other nonprogressive verbs: How long have you had NOTE!!! We don’t use Present Perfect Cont. Q: Had Had had been working. with be. 2-denotes an action which was no longer going on at a definite moment in the past. for 9 . continued up to that moment and was still going on at the moment: We could not go out because it had been raining for two hours.

-ful often means ‘full of + th. politics. words ending -ible add the prefix in-. Here are common examples: double the consonant. leave out the final’s’ before ‘al’. change ‘y’ to ‘i’ before ‘al’. admit alter inform decide describe multiply Note that adjustments that are necessary to the spelling in each case: Admission Information Description Alteration Decision multiplication -er /-or (person who does the action of the verb) sail work paint run teach law Nouns from verbs and adjectives -ment is another suffix that is used to make nouns from verbs and occasionally from adjectives: enjoy replace appoint arrange merry -ance and -ence are suffixes that are used to make nouns from adjectives and sometimes from verbs: absent silent independent important admit appear exist More restrictive noun suffixes (nouns from nouns) -ship (abstract nouns denoting different kinds of relationships) Relationshi friendship partnership membership -hood (abstract nouns denoting different kinds of 'families') childhood motherhood neighbourhood priesthood ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES -ous: danger. -able (and -ible) has the meaning ‘can be done’.  create/creative. create Note: Sometimes there is a spelling change.  sun/sunny. fame -al: music.  industry/industrial  fame/famous -able This suffix (also -ible in some words . dirt -ive: attract. possible probable responsible complex hilarious scarce Nouns from verbs -tion. sun. It is used to make nouns from adjectives.  fog/foggy  economics/economical leave out the final ‘e’.NOUN SUFFIXES Nouns from adjectives -ness is one of a number of noun suffixes. economics.  politics/political.e meaning of the adjective: Care helpful pain thought -less means ‘without’ + the meaning of the adjective: Care pain use thought job home 10 . Enjoy confort knowledge suit wash drink Words ending -able quite often express the opposite meaning by adding the prefix un-. Quite often. or. fog. industry -y: cloud. less frequently -sion (both pronounced with a 'sh' sound on the initial letter) are noun suffixes that are used to make nouns from verbs.: happy sad weak good ready tidy forgetful -ity is another noun suffix that is formed from adjectives.

Form Type if clause 1st (condition possible to fulfill)Simple Present infinitive) 2nd (condition improbable to fulfill) Past simple 3rd (condition impossible to fulfil) Past Perfect participle * main clause will-future (or Modal + would + infinitive * would + have + past Examples: 1st : If you buy the cake. he would like it 3rd: If the museum had opened the exhibition. I would drive you to the airport if I were there by six. we would have visited it today. Conditional Sentences Type I (likely) 11 . may or must are sometimes possible. So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences.-ate means full or showing a particular quality: Consider affection for UNIT 2 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES There are three types of the if-clauses. If I study. / I will pass the exam if I study. 2nd: If Sam read the book. If I were there by six o’clock. I would drive you to the airport. The sentence containing “if” can be the first or the second. I will bring the sandwiches. * We can substitute would for could or might (should. too). I will pass the exam. Depending on the context other tenses different to the ones mentioned above can be used.

Condition refers to: IF Clause Simple Present future action action going on now If the book is interesting. … If he gets what he wants. … Present Progressive finished action improbable action present facts Present Perfect should + Infinitive Simple Present Main Clause If he is snoring. Future I …I will congratulate her. Future I …we will visit him. … Condition al I …I would travel around the world. Imperative …visit him. … Condition al II …he would not have failed it. Modal Auxiliary …we can congratulate her. … Future I …I will buy it. Modal Auxiliary …you can buy it. … Condition al II …I would have said hello. … If she should win this race. past Past Perfect If he had learned for the test. … Condition al I …I would not be here now. Conditional Sentences Type III (impossible) Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause present Past Perfect If I had known it. Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely) Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money. Imperative …wake him up. Simple Present …he is very nice. … If he has moved into his new flat. Modal Auxiliary …we can visit him. Modal Auxiliary …you can wake him up. 12 . consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him. Imperative …buy it. Imperative …congratulate her. Future I …I will wake him up.

they are more formal than the usual constructions. Expressing impatience. annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action. Regret with the past perfect.. Complaints with would + verb. (usual condition clause) Were she here. the condition clause formed with the auxiliary had can be inverted: If he had listened the message.) Use: To express a regret. he would have arrived on time. everything would be easier. (usual condition clause) Had he listened the message. In the first conditional.. inversion is possible in the case where the verb is were: If she were here. (should form of the condition clause) Should you feel hungry.INVERSION IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES Inversion in conditions is possible.(inverted form) In the second conditional. Wish. If only I knew how to use a computer. Use: To express a wish in the present or in the future. Example: I wish I were a millionaire! 2. (inverted form) WISH There are three distinct types of I wish / if only sentences: 1. If you should feel hungry. (inverted form) In the third conditional. The simple past here is an unreal past. 3. inversion can be applied using should: If you feel hungry. What we change are the conjunctions. I wish I had woken up early. The action is past. as long as by the time 13 . everything would be easier. you can eat what you want. When you use the verb to be the form is “were”. (I didn't wake up early and I missed my bus. TIME CLAUSES Time clauses referring to the future are formed like the first conditional (present simple in the subordinate clause and future simple in the main clause). in this case.. I wish you wouldn't arrive so late all the time (I'm annoyed because you always come late and I want you to arrive on time) Use: To complain about a behavior that you disapprove. wanting change for the present or future with the simple past.

The project was finished on time by the students THE VERB: FROM ACTIVE TO PASSIVE SIMPLE TENSES Present Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect ACTIVE PASSIVE Bill buys the dinner. CONTINUOUS TENSES Present ACTIVE PASSIVE Bill is buying the dinner. PASSIVE The box can be opened by the boy. The box could be opened by the boy. How to transform a sentence into the passive? Active form: subject + verb + object + complements Passive form: subject + passive verb + complements + by + agent How to turn a verb into the passive? Active: the verb is written in the right verbal tense Passive:‘to be’ (verbal tense of the active verb + past participle. The dimmer is bought by Bill. we will order the UNIT 3 THE PASSIVE Passive voice is used when the important information is on the action and not on the person who does it. The dinner has been being bought by Bill. The dinner will be being bought by Bill. Bill had bought the dinner. The box might be opened by the 14 . Future Bill will be buying the dinner. Bill will buy the dinner. The dinner was being bought by Bill. Example: The students finished the project on time. The boy could open the box. By the time she arrives. Past Perfect Bill had been buying the dinner. The dinner had been bought by Bill. The dimmer is being bought by Bill. Bill has bought the dinner. Present Perfect Bill has been buying the dinner. MODAL Can Could ACTIVE The boy can open the box. Bill bought the dinner. The dinner was bought by Bill The dinner will be bought by Bill.the (that) moment as soon as when until before Examples: I will phone you when I arrive food. The dinner has been bought by Bill. Might The boy might open the box. The dinner had been being bought by Bill. Past Bill was buying the dinner.

May Have to The boy may open the box. The house has been broken into by a burglar. The boy ought to have opened the box. The box has to be opened by the boy. Martin looked after the children yesterday. The boy could have opened the box. The box may have been opened by the boy. Ought to The boy ought to open the box. each of them can be the subject of the passive voice. the direct one (a message). The box might have been opened by the boy. The box ought to have been opened by the boy. Should The boy should open the box. so if we want to do a passive construction. The box must be opened by the boy. The box should be opened by the boy. The box ought to be opened by the boy. PASSIVE WITH TWO OBJECTS If there are two objects (direct and indirect) in the active sentence. The box should have been opened by the boy. VERBS WITH PREPOSION IN PASSIVE When a verb is followed by a preposition in the active. The boy may have opened the box. The boy should have opened the box. The boy must have opened the box. the preposition is put right behind the verb in the passive. A burglar has brought into the house. The box may be opened by the boy. The boy might have opened the box. Passive using direct object as subject: A message was sent to Paula by Michael. The box could have been opened by the boy. Must The boy must open the box. the personal object is Michael sent a message to Paula preceded by ‘to’ Passive using indirect object as subject: Paula was sent a message by Michael. The children were looked after yesterday by Martin. The box must have been opened by the boy. The boy has to open the box. MODAL PERFECT Can Could Might May Must Should Ought to boy. NOTE: when the indirect object (Paula) follows Michael sent Paula a message yesterday. (The indirect object is preceded by ‘to’) IMPERSONAL PASSIVE Intransitive verbs (verbs without an object) cannot usually form a passive sentence as there is no object to be the subject. An indirect object is usually a person and the direct object a thing. we need 15 . The box can have been opened by the boy. ACTIVE PASSIVE The boy can have opened the box.

Mary is said to be in Rome. The teacher considered Peter the smartest. Prohibition 5. Ability 3. Lack of necessity 6. Obligation 4. Advice 7. probability  16 . It + to be + past participle of the intransitive verb + by + agent + that + subordinate clause. It is used when one thing or person CAUSES another thing or person to do something. It is said that Mary was in Rome. 2. etc) STRUCTURE: There are two structures to make this kind of passive: 1.  They have a great variety of communicative functions such as: 1. SUBJECT + CAUSATIVE VERB + OBJECT + ACTION VERB + “by” + AGENT (only when we know by whom) I had/got my hair cut by the hairdresser. Possibility 8. Subject of the subordinate clause + to be + past participle of the intransitive verb + to + infinitive clause+ by + the teacher SOME INTRANSITIVE VERBS SAY BELIEVE THINK CONSIDER EXPECT KNOW HOPE LET’S SEE SOME EXAMPLES: Active: 1. I had/ got the car fixed UNIT 4 MODAL VERBS What are modal verbs?  Modals are special verbs which behave irregularly in English. 2. 2. Permission 2. THE CAUSATIVE (have / get something done) It is a common structure in English which is linked to the passive voice because the main information offered is not the person who carries out the action. German. 3.They say that Mary was in Rome. They knew that the picture had been stolen. Peter was considered to be the most intelligent by the teacher.  They are used to indicate modality and give additional information about the function of the main verb that always follows it. Passive: 1. This kind of sentence doesn’t exist in other languages ( impersonal structure. It was considered by the teacher that Peter was the smartest.

need to  A list of modals  Modal Verb  Meaning  Expressing  Example  must  internal oligation  100 % internal obligation  I must stop when the traffic lights turn red.   must not   to be very probable  logical conclusion (deduction)  not to be allowed to  prohibition . Remember: Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without "to  Exceptions: ought to.  He must be very tired after such enormous work  You must not smoke in the hospital. have to.

probable it is possible. There are plenty in the fridge.. probability   weak possibility. Excuse me. I have a terrible headache.  can     could       may    might  have to need to don’t have to need not     shoul d/oug ht to had bette to be allowed to it is possible to be allowed to it is possible. Do I have to say more?  necessary  necessity   not necessary  lack of necessity/absen ce of obligation  I need not buy any tomatoes. probability       I can swim Can I use your phone please? Smoking can cause cancer ! When I was younger I could stay up all night and not get tired. to suggest an action or to show that it is necessary to be very probable to suggest an action or       50 % obligation  I should / ought to see a doctor. Advice      to be able to to be allowed to it is possible to be able to  logical conclusion (deduction)      You should / ought to revise your lessons He should / ought to be very tired after such enormous work  advice  You 'd better revise your lessons . could I just say something? It could rain tomorrow! May I use your phone please? It may rain tomorrow! I might come and visit you in America next year. probable    ability permission possibility       ability in the past  more polite permission  possibility  permission possibility. if I can save enough money.  used to say or ask what is the correct or best thing to do.

 6. I didn't see Paul at work.  4. could have done = we had the ability to do something in the past but did not do it. The weather was warm and sunny. They would have emailed you but the Internet was down yesterday. I gave her your address. I needn't have taken an umbrella. may / might / could have done = it is possible that something happened in the past but we aren't sure. You should have told him the truth. You could have told us about the new project! She could have called me when she arrived but she forgot.  7. needn't have done = it wasn't necessary to do something but we did it. You needn't have gone to the supermarket. She must have caught a cold.  show that it is necessary r   MODAL PERFECT  All modal perfect auxiliary verbs refer to the past. He may/might/could have been ill. I would have bought that DVD but I didn't have enough money. would have done = we wanted to do something but we didn't do it in the end.  5. (b) we expected something to happen but it didn't.                              FORM: MODAL+ HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE . Laura hasn't arrived yet. can't have done = we are almost sure something did not happen in the past She can't have forgotten to send you an invitation. should have / ought to have done = (a) it was the right thing to do but we didn't do it. I've already done the shopping. must have done = we are almost sure something happened in the past Jane wasn't feeling well yesterday.  1. They were very tired. She may/might/could have missed the bus. Bill didn't answer the phone when I called him. They can't have gone to bed late.  2. He must have fallen asleep. They ought to have received the cheque by now.

Perfect or Future.  CAN / MAY / MUST  COULD / MIGHT / HAD TO there is no change of  “ I can swim.                   UNIT 5  CHANGE OF THE VERB TENSES  Direct Speech  Reported Speech  SIMPLE PRESENT  SIMPLE PAST  “ I like oranges.  "I can explain  He says quoting the  “ I have been writing. reported.”  He said it might rain.  CONDITIONAL – SHOULD /  REPORTED  FUTURE – SHALL / WILL WOULD STATEMENTS  “ We will be late. He said she had worked hard.  Direct Speech  Reported Speech CONTINUOUS without He he saidcan he had been joking.” explain the fact. in which we  PRESENT PERFECT  PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS talk about the idea that CONTINUOUS /PAST was expressed  He said he had been writing.  “ I must go.”  She saidtense she could in the swim.  PRESENT CONTINUOUS  PAST CONTINUOUS  “She is eating a cake. exact words  “ I was joking.” the fact. when the reporting verb is in the Simple Past or Past Perfect a number of changes typically occur. somebody's words.”  He said she can haduse gone London thetoREPORTED  SPEECH.  If the CONTINUOUS reporting verb is  CONDITIONAL the Simple  FUTURE CONTINUOUS  He said he in would be using the Present.”  He said she was eating a cake.”  She said she had to go.  CHANGE OF TIME EXPRESSION Direct  Reported Speech Speech Today  That day/the same day Yesterday  The day before/the previous day The day  Two days before before yesterday Tomorrow  The following day/the next day/the day after Ago  Before Now  Then/at that time Last  The previous week / The week/year week/year before … Next  The following week/month week/mon th…     However.  REPORTED  PRESENT PERFECT/SIMPLE SPEECH PAST  PAST PERFECT  When we want to quote  “She has worked hard.”  .”  He said he would be late.  He said (that) he liked oranges.  . we  “She went to London. Present  “ I will be using the car. words  “ It may rain.” car.” that were used.

did). The introductory verbs are asked. The auxiliary verb to do is not used (do. she asked. IF or WHETHER is placed after the introductory verb. He enquired where the station was. ask… The introductory verb must be followed by the person addressed and the infinitive. command. order. “ Did you buy this book?”     Reported Speech He asked if anyone was there.does.      Direct Speech   Reported Speech . The question mark is eliminated ( ? ).   REPORTED COMMANDS AND REQUESTS  The introductory verb expresses command or request: tell. The auxiliary verb to do is not used. wondered. She asked whether she could help me. The interrogative form changes to the affirmative. She enquired if I had bought that book. he asked. “ Can I help you?”.     Direct Speech “ Is anyone her?”. If there is no question word. He asked why his mother was driving so fast. enquired and wanted to know…         Direct Speech “ Where does he live?” “ Where is the station?” “ Why is my mother driving so fast?”     Reported Speech She wanted to know where he lived.                            REPORTED QUESTIONS  CHANGE OF  PRONOUNS / DETERMINERS  Dir  Rep ect orte Sp d eec Spee h ch I/  He / You She We  They My  His / / Her / you Our r Our  Their Thi  That s/ / The Thos se e The same changes of reported statements.

His mother asked him to close the door. “ Close the door. declare. answer. By combining sentences with a relative clause. She told him not to eat that chocolate. inform.  “ Be quiet!”. apologize. your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words. recommend. explain. You could say:  A girl is talking to Tom. remind. he ordered. recommend      UNIT 6 RELATIVE CLAUSES We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he knows her. “ Get your coat.   SUGGESTIONS     We can use the following reporting verbs: suggest.           The teacher told the students to be quiet. his mother said. mention. advise or invite.   How to Form Relative Clauses  Imagine. “ Don’t eat that chocolate”.  Questions: enquire.  Orders: demand. she said. invite. Tom. want to know. The structures used are: A clause formed by that + subject + verb in the base form: “Let’s watch the new film” Mathew suggested Mathew suggested that we watch the new film. please!” “ Don’t do it!”. claim. state. depending on the speaker’s intentions. reply. A gerund with no specified subject:  “Buy the food in the new shop around the corner” Molly recommended  Molly recommended buying the food in the new shop around the corner. Do you know the girl? . shout. offer.”. insist. announce. boast. wonder.  Request: beg. He ordered Tom to get his coat. His mother ordered him not to do it. a girl is talking to Tom. the teacher told the students. request. complain.    REPORTING VERBS  Statements: admit. order. suggest. ask  Suggestions: admire. warn.

Start with the most important thing – you want to know who the girl is.  th at  subject or object pronoun for people.  wh ich  subject or object pronoun for animals and things  Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?  wh ich  referring to a whole sentence  He couldn’t read which surprised me.  Do you know the girl …  As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about. for people   Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? animals the in . in the second part replace it with the relative pronoun (for people.  wh os e  possession things and  Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?  wh om  object pronoun for people. Use „the girl“ only in the first part of the sentence. So the final sentence is:  Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?    RELATIVE PRONOUNS rel ati ve pr on ou n  use  example  wh o  subject or object pronoun for people  I told you about the woman who lives next door. especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who)  I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference. That sounds rather complicated. you need to put in the additional information – the girl is talking to Tom. doesn't it? It would be easier with a relative clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. use the relative pronoun „who“). animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible)  I don’t like table that stands the kitchen.

distinguish them as follows:  If the relative pronoun is followed by a verb. → This is the shop where I bought my bike. which are then called Contact Clauses.  The apple (which) George lay on the table    RELATIVE ADVERBS  A relative adverb can be used instead of a relative pronoun plus preposition. Object pronouns can be dropped in defining relative clauses. Subject and object pronouns cannot be distinguished by their forms. however. that are used for subject and object pronouns. You can.   rela tive adv erb  mea ning  use  example  whe n  in/o n whic h  refers to a time expression  the day when we met him  wher e  in/at whic h  refers to a place  the place where we met him  why  for whic h  refers to a reason  the reason why we met him  . the relative pronoun is an object pronoun.  This is the shop in which I bought my bike. who.  The apple which is lying on the table   If the relative pronoun is followed by a noun or pronoun. Subject pronouns must always be used. This often makes the sentence easier to understand. which. the relative pronoun is a subject pronoun.

that as subject pronoun can be replaced with a – ing form. Object pronouns in defining relative clauses can be dropped. is very nice.  Defining relative clauses are also used in definitions. Non-defining relative clauses are put in commas. Defining relative clauses are not put in commas.   Non-Defining Relative Clauses  Non-defining relative clauses give additional information on something.  Object pronouns in non-defining relative clauses must be used.  the roof?   Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof? – Do you see the cat lying on Formal / Informal Relative Clauses .  Do you know Sarah. How to Shorten Relative Clauses?  Relative clauses with who. Defining Relative Clauses  Defining relative clauses give detailed information defining a general term or expression.  I told you about the woman who lives next door. who won the first price in the competition?  In non-defining relative clauses.  Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?  The relative clause is necessary to identify the girl. who/which may not be replaced with that.   Jim. but do not define it. This makes the sentence shorter and easier to understand. which.  The boy (who/whom) we met yesterday is very nice. – I told you about the woman living next door.   A seaman is someone who works on a ship. who/whom we met yesterday. other way it is not possible to know which girl we are referring to.

→ This is the house (which) I lived in. we can still use which if the antecedent is refers to a thing. we can use whom instead of who.  We use neither…nor in order to associate two elements and show that both of them are excluded or impossible. This use is very formal. → The student (who) I talked to was very mature. but if it refers to a person.    BOTH…AND / EITHER…OR / NEITHER …NOR We use both…and in order to express to possibilities.  I am neither prepared nor willing.  Either I get a rise or I resign.  The student to whom I talked was very mature. so the preposition usually comes at the end of the sentence and the pronoun can be omitted.  This is the house in which I lived.    .  Both your mother and I agree on this matter. When the relative pronoun is accompanied by a preposition.  We use either… or to talk about two alternatives when no other alternative is possible.