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Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett

De<Stination Culture
Tourism,
Museums,

and
Heritage

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Content~

List of Illustrations 1
Acknowledgments 1
Introduction 1

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part 1 The Agency of Display

Objects of Ethnography 1
Exhibiting Jews 1

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part 2 A Second Life as Heritage

Destination Museum 1
Ellis Island 1

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Plimoth Plantation 1

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part 3 Undoing the Ethnographic

Confusing Pleasures 1
Secrets of Encounter 1
part 4 Circulating Value

Disputing Taste 1
Notes 1

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Index 1

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De6tination Mu6eum
When Gatwick Airport 's theme park opens in 1998, visitors for whom the
experience of actual travel is no longer enough will be taking "a tour
through baggage, security and emergency facilities, a mock control tower
where visitors can have a go at landing planes and a 'white knuckle ' ride
through a replica of a baggage handling system." 1 The very trials and
tribulations of travel are becoming attractions in their own right through
principles that have long connected tourism and museums. 2
Whole countries market themselves as "the world's largest open air
museum." Deep in this marketing ploy for Turkey is the unnerving insight that tourism may beat museums at their own game by enabling travelers to encounter "some of the most stunning, intact, works of art and
architecture anywhere. Such as St. Sophia, the Blue Mosque and the
sumptuous Topkapi Palace " and to experience them in situ, before they
have been dismantled and shipped off to a museum. 3 The Bikini Islands
is developing an atomic theme park in the areas devastated by nuclear
testing. The U.S. National Park Service characterizes the ships and bombs
at the bottom of a Bikini Island lagoon as an "unmodified museum of the
dawn of the era of the atomic bomb." 4 Such promotions promise an experience that is more real, more immediate, or more complete, whether
they deliver an actuality (Gatwick Airport) or a virtuality (Gatwick Airport theme park)-or both at the very same place.

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Immersion in a world other than one's own is a form of transport,
whether one travels twenty-six hours from Europe to New Zealand, strolls
from Samoa to Fiji within the virtual space of the Polynesian Cultural
Center in Hawaii, or crosses the road separating Chinatown from Little
Italy in Manhattan. VVhat is most ordinary in the context of the destination becomes a source of fascination for the visitor-cows being milked
on a farm, the subway in Mexico City during rush hour, outdoor barbers
in Nairobi, the etiquette of bathing in Japan. Once it is a sight to be seen,
the life world becomes a museum of itself.
Tourism needs destinations, and museums are premier attractions. Museums are not only destinations on an itinerary: they are also nodes in a
network of attractions that form the recreational geography of a region
and, increasingly, the globe. Museums, by whatever name, are also an integral part of natural, historical, and cultural sites. Such facilities orient
the visitor to Napier's art deco district, the Waitomo Caves, and the Waitakere rain forest, in New Zealand. Some businesses establish full-fledged
museums devoted to their own history (Atlanta's World of Coca-Cola) or
the history of their product (Toronto's Bata Shoe Museum). 5 Museums are
also events on a calendar. Blockbuster exhibitions are known in the trade
as event tourism.
Museums have long served as surrogates for travel, a particularly important role before the advent of mass tourism. They have from their inception preserved souvenirs of travel, as evidenced in their collections of
plants, animals, minerals, and examples of the arts and industries of the
world's cultures. VVhile the museum collection itself is an undrawn map
of all the places from which the materials have come, the floor plan,
which determines where people walk, also delineates conceptual paths
through what becomes a virtual space of travel.
Exhibiting artifacts from far and wide, museums have attempted from
an early date to reconstruct the places from which these things were
brought. The habitat group, period room, and re-created village bring a
site otherwise removed in space or time to the visitor. During the nineteenth century, exhibitions delivered to one's door a world already made
smaller by the railroad and steamship. Panoramas featured virtual grand
tours and simulated the sound and motion of trains and ships and the at-

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A Second Life as Heritage

A guide lectured and otherwise entertained these would-be travel ers. The affair is settled in a quarter of an hour.. we have them tangible by the eye-the fullest impression that could be purchased. now costs a shilling and a summary manner. If we have not the waters of the Lake of Geneva. by our being parched. plundered. 1994. panoramas were a painless form of travel: Panoramas are among the happiest contrivances for saving time and expense in this age of contrivances. tangible by our h ands. mospheric effects of storms at sea. As one commentator explained in Blackwood's Mag- azine (1824).200 Dest ination Museum . Photo by Barbara Kirshenb latt-Gimblett .Sign pointing to the Auckland Museum. and stenched. Such shows were celebrated in their own day as substitutes for travel that might be even better than actually going to the place depicted. . VVhat cost a couple of hundred pounds and half year a century ago. and the bricks and mortar of the little Greek town. for 133 1 . Ne w Zealand. starved. the classic vale of the ancient city. The mountain or the sea. passported.. is transported to us on the wings of the wind .

" Copyright Pictorial Publications. could not be fuller than the work of Messrs Parker's and Burford's brushes. in the words of Charles Dickens. not ever yone could travel. than is the reality with all its abominations of tyranny. and dirt. Ltd . vivid." Mr. licentiousness. Hastings. Booley 's travel account in Household Words (1850) turns out to be based on a panorama-" all m y modes of conveyance have been pictorial. miles east and by south. and true. New Zealand."8 The panorama's value. lay in its ability to convey 134 A Second Life as Heritage . The scene is absolutely alive. . " 7 Furthermore. and hear all but the dashing of the wave 6 Viewers might prefer the panorama of N aples to N aples itself because it is "even more pleasant to look upon in Leicester Square. in Booley's words."Greetings from Auckland . we feel all but the breeze. a "mode of conveyance. and for them panoramas and dioramas were. poverty.

" 9 In addition. and hi-tech panoramas at the Museum of Sydney. get their documents stamped as they complete each visit..11 during the last months of 1994. France. museums are going to the tourists. Museums continue to enact transformations in perception linked to the technologies and practices of travel. " 10 Displaced by cinema and amusement parks by th e end of the century. groups went to Bhutan . the panorama might convey "aspects of soil and climate . more than one person making a connecting flight in 1996 stepped off the motorized walkway to stroll through a display of kitchen equipment and tableware from the Ritz Collection at the California Academ y of Sciences or slowed down for an exhibition of vintage ukeleles from the collection of Akira Tseumara in an otherwise bleak corridor. the primary audience for this booklet: 135 Destination Museum . 12 The American Museum of Natural History in New York. The cost of the tour includes a donation to one of the sponsors-World Wide F und for Nature-and to the Powerhouse M useum. Travel With a Purpose tours. These tours are intended to be "informative expeditions into other cultures for those of us not interested in poolside tourism experiences". M useums are even reproducing the protocols of travel . many of them led by curators from the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney.. the special effects of rides like Back to the Future at Universal Studios."th e results of actual experience. welcomes the young visitor. and India. Australia. to celebrate its 125th anniversary in 1995. and save the passport as a souvenir. the futurism of IMAX projection. thematized visits to its galleries as an expedition compar able to those the museum once sponsored to collect the specimens on display. focus on ecotourism and the arts. Thanks to an exhibition program inaugurated in 1980 by the San F rancisco Airport Commission. Instead of waiting for the tourists to come to them. this exhibition tradition can be found today in the atavism of museum dioramas. Visitors can purchase a Museums Passport to more than 190 museums in Queensland. available at two Base Camps in the building. with a completeness and truthfulness not always to be gained from a visit to the scene itsel£. Expedition Passport. Museums now also serve as literal travel agents and organize exclusive tours to distant places. Nepal. to those who are unable to obtain such experiences for themselves.

and Visigoths-"Get ready for a vacation that's destined to go down in history." Museums need visitors and the tourism industry." and added tourists to a list that included Phoenicians. 1995. can deliver the hordes to museum doors. You can even shrink to the size of an ant. Such tropes form an archive of historical understandings that go uncontested. To begin. You can touch a meteorite as old as the solar system. but your journey will take place right in the footsteps of those scientists who have travelled the world and who have brought back many of the treasures you will see today. You can visit the woodlands. Romans. "With 100 tours to choose from. you can move back in time to the Age of Dinosaurs. By one estimate. Greeks. 13 At field stations in five galleries. You can see a young Chinese woman on the way to her wedding. On this expedition. Copyright 1995 American Museum of Natural History. booklet accompanying the exhibition Expedition : Treasures from 125 years of Discovery. savannahs. A 1987 Iberia Airlines promotion began.Most explorers travel to far-off places. Spain is once again open to inva- sion. tourism provides a safe haven for these ideas. more than any sector of the economy. and mountain regions of Africa. 7 billion tourists will be moving around the globe annually by the year Expedition Passport. Marketing a troubled history that glorifies colonial adventure and a repudiated anthropology of primitivism. visitors get their "passports" stamped. Ne w York. Their playfulness insulates them from the very critiques that destabilized celebrations of the Columbus Quincentenary and that have brought museums themselves to task for their historic role in grand projects of discovery and conquest. turn the page. 136 A Second Li fe os Heritage . A great adventure lies before you today.

tourists generate more revenue for museums than "a relatively small core of repeat visitors. cultural elevation. including museums. In this taxonomy of tourist amenities.zooo. not the number of visits. People who would not bother to visit the permanent collection would line u p to see paintings that h ad been moved into the gallery from across the road. Writing about twenty years ago. 16 Tourists make up two-thirds of the visitors to the Metropolitan Museum of Art at the present t imeY As the tourism industry moves from a product-driven approach to one that is market-led-and from creating an experience based on seeing to one based on doing. the art historian E. can place an isolated Greek vase under a spotlight in an empty room and force it upon our attention. 14 Museums hope to draw many of them into their galleries. This prerogative is a legacy of the bifurcation of entertainment and edification during the last half of the nineteenth century."20 H e bemoaned the price of accessibility. and local enthusiasms has insulated museums from the customer focus of the modern tourism industry. determines the total disposable incom e brought through a museum's doors. "Any w indow dresser. which he attributed to tourism and the pressure to increase attendan ce figures. 21 137 Destination Museum . reserving for t h emselves the prerogative (in the public interest) to determine what they want to say and show. and tourists look for " action" elsewhere.i t positions museums in the rearguard of the industry. Because the n umber of visitors. most of them tourists. as Tony Bennett has noted. social amelioration. Gombrich complained that museums had become exhibition centers."15 The newly refurbished Louvre attracted more than 6 million visitors in 1994. when the public museum and art gallery as we know them came into their own. cultural attractions. Lost was the "almost religious awe" w it h which visitors used to approach a museum and the possibility of "scanning and grouping " the collection on display according to one's perceptions and interests. They fly in comfort to endure the rigors of whitewater rafting and rappelling. compared with its arduousness in earlier periods. scientific research. Travel itself has become almost effortless. ar e passive (seeing). which the industry classifies as active (doing). education. H. Scenic tourism gives way to adventure tourism. if I may put it so bluntly. 19 Until recently. 18 Museums have long epitomized a product-driven ethos. a long history of public service.

Today. With long histories sedimented in the very buildings many have occupied since their inception. A focus on visitors is also why mounting exhibitions.Today some critics bemoan not just the spotlight. which serves organized school groups as well as adults embarked on a course of lifelong learning A laboratory for creating new knowledge A cultural center for the keeping and transmission of patrimony 138 A Second Life as Heritage . What is today's museum? A vault. This self-conscious shift in orientation away from the museum's artifacts and toward its visitors is signaled by the term "experience. and imagination. Museums were once defined by their relationship to objects: curators were "keepers" and their greatest asset was their collections. The complaints signal a crisis in museum identity. It emphasizes education and visitor services. emotions. they are defined more than ever by their relationship to visitors. at the expense of curatorial research based on museum collections. And they must do so in contexts very different from those in which many of them were first established. but also removes them from the gallery. which is how museums produce experience. but also the displacement of the Greek vase itself by the ideas it is made to illustrate. where citizens enact civic rituals at shrines to art and civilization A school dedicated to the creation of an informed citizenry. Such critics note a decline in the "museum product. as they see it. museums must negotiate the competing expectations of diverse constituencies. In its brochure." which has become ubiquitous in both tourism and museum marketing-the term indexes an engagement of the senses. does not just take objects out of the spotlight." as museums "move away from object-based museum services to the contextual approach advocated by the N ew Museology. the Schatzkammer A cathedral of culture. in the tradition of the royal treasure room." 22 This move. where service has become more important than product. has become their major activity. the Powerhouse Museum promises "good service" to what it now calls its "customers" and in this way is consistent with a shift within the tourism industry itself.

sovereignty. repatriation. dreams A p arty. films. in today's tourism economy? T h e presumption in some quarters is that visitors are no longer interested in the quiet contemplation of objects in a cathedral of culture. This is why Te Papa Tongarewa. Then it tells the visitor that " [w ]e are re-imagining the term 'Museum. shops. complete with cafes. as spaces of deathdead animals. dusty places. tolerance A place to mourn An artifact to be displayed in its own right. performances. where controversial topics can be subjected to informed discussion A tribunal on the bombing of Hiroshima. and exhibitions And. a space of transport. and unique . where great achievements and historical moments can be celebrated An advocat e for preservation." The destination is collective self-understanding.exactly what tourism markets. has made a preemptive strike. in its Wellington Visitors' Center. a memory palace. "somewhere you have to whisper like [in] a church" and are not allowed to touch old things in glass cases. They want to have an "exp erience. first anticipating the negative image of the museum as a solemn place." however it is defined."' as a place alive.A forum for public debate. fantasy. dead plants. operations." Museums worry that they will be bypassed as boring. The flyer announcing Te Papa defines the museum experience as " an amazing adventure-one in which all New Zealanders are travellers." for "[t]he Museum is going to take us on a journey. defunct things. what is t h e fate of the "museum product. 139 Destination Museum . along with its history. understandings. Museums engaged in the task of imagining the nation must define its location. or Holocaust denial A theater. and practices An attraction in a tourist economy. The M useum of New Zealand. a responsibility that has r epercussions beyond the journey w ithin its walls. F reud's theories. exciting. conservat ion. a stage for th e enactment of other times and places.

" M ost tourism in these relatively young states is based on nature and the rest on purpose-built tourist attractions.the promise of "experience" indexes the immediacy of travel. There is the problem of how to define the uniqueness of a destination the better to market it in a competitive industry. What makes this place different? Australia and New Zealand have tended to identify their uniqueness as tourist destinations with the indigenous and to identify culture with the places from which settlers came. Yet. their difference from other places is not natural but cultural. Putnam Photo. despite a high rate of endemism.-or I should more 140 A Second Life as Heritage . Even as museums model themselves on tourism. Antrim. For Anthony Trollope. Warren. There are several reasons for this emphasis. not found.Morse Museum. writing in 1873.the industry in parts of the world like New Zealand and Australia has been slow to develop "cultural tourism. "the great drawback to New Zealand. difference is produced. that is. New Hampshire. New Hampshire.

More than a century later. New Zealand tourism proj ects an imagined landscape that segments the history of the country into three hermetic compartments. sports. Norway's fiords. ~en you have arrived there you are.. The divided consciousness of settler societies.comes from the feeling that after crossing the world and journeying over so many miles. 25 The map of Australia found there features flora. art historian and founder of Australians Studying Abroad. and yet you have a two months barrier between yourself and your home. of local and national self-understanding. commented. the information pamphlet in a Dunedin motel room keeps alive the idea that "[p]acked into this small country is seemingly a piece of every part of the world. Judging from Trollope's observation. 141 Destination Museum . you have not at all succeeded in getting away from England.. making Australia into a bounded place with a vast typology of things to see. if you like. "[I]n trying to package itself to attract a burgeoning new class of curious and so phisticated travellers. and it operates as an instrument. Switzerland's alps.in other words. next door to your own house.properly say to travelling in New Zealand. as it were. and sports." according to Welcome to Australia. Australia is in a real sense having to invent itself. And the Europeans (and later immigrants) have until recently not been convinced that their story is very interesting." Tourism can be taken as a barometer. the guest information book at the Brisbane Hilton." 24 That process is museological. and Hawaiian beaches are but a few of the similarities one may find while travelling around this South Pacific gem. natural attractions." today they disembark in "the world's oldest land. The indigenous story stops with the coming of Europeans. Uluru (aboriginal name for Ayers Rock). with one foot here and the other there. it is not an obvious one. is creating a whole new cultural geography based on things other people want to learn about. ~at we're doing. The nature story stops with the coming of people. . As Christopher Wood. indigenous people. and a few buildings. ~ere tourists once traveled all the way from Europe only to arrive in "Europe. England's countryside. is registered in the very history of tourism." 23 Identifying New Zealand's specificity with unique aspects of its natural endowments is a cultural practice. . aborigines. fauna. Oregon's coast. Canada's lakes.

according to the industry. are they "experiential. Hastings." Copyright Pictorial Publications. and as far as the industry is concerned." at least not in the way 142 A Second Life as Heritage . magnificent seascapesall combine to make New Zealand a land of unparalleled beauty and a joy to tourists. inherent and natural resources" or "incidental resources from various industries." The back of this postcard reads: . they fall into the category of "free" resource. Wellington Region Tourism Strategy explains: "Tourist attractions within the industry are events and facilities oriented to experiential opportunities." including "free."New Zealand's Got It All. Nor. New Zealand. Ltd.. native forest. Because many museums in Australia and New Zealand still do not charge admission. snow-clad mountains.Tranquil lakes. culture is not. rolling pastures. The tourism industry is a business.. then. Most attractions are in themselves outside the scope of the industry. museums are not within the tourism industry." 26 Technically.

Auckland. Frank Duncan and Co. Wairakei.."Dragon's Mouth Geyser." New Zealand . Real Photo Post Card. . Ne w Zealand.

and formal performance. Ages s-go. between the exhibition of the world and the world as exhibition of itself. it can be experienced as 'lifestyle' in the regions. the Office of Arts and Cultural Development advocates cultural tourism to a tourism industry that needs to be persuaded of its profitability. including sightseeing. 28 For their part.the picture window. and shopping are " experiential. No heavy lifting or fitness required." 27 More sophisticated marketing speaks not of passive activities. 33 The industry prefers the world as a picture of itself. it is not enough. our Indigenous cultures and natural environment." 30 Or Destination New Zealand's proposition: "while our cultural heritage can b e presented as 'entertainment' in the hubs. ORCA." 32 That effect is one of tourism's most valuable assets. culture as heritage. create "an effect called the real world. Adventure tours are constantly being invented. features " Gentle Adventures-For family groups.that climbing Ayers Rock (Uluru is not for climbing)." 31 This formulation elides several notions of culture: culture as lived practice. cultural precinct. " The introduction to New Zealand's Tourist and Visitors ' Guide explains that " [t ]ourist activities can be divided into two categories. the nervous.29 Consider the Queensland Government Cultural Statement: "The Business of Culture" will promote "what makes Queensland culture distinctive-our social history and heritage. But. our quality products. the art world and museums-what Hans Magnus Enzensberger called the "consciousness industry" -must be profitable to survive and so are looking to cultural tourism for income. passive and adventure. regions and many diverse cultures. from the industry's perspective. to open the bus and release tourists into the lifespace of their destination-the " real world. but of soft adventure. based in Wairarapa. and free of charge. 144 A Second Life os Heritage . It also raises several questions. There are many activities for the older or less physically active tourist. How does a way of life become " heritage" ? How does heritage become an industry? And what happens to the life world in the process? There is a reciprocity." Active is identified with physical exertion. eating. Museums. and enjoying the Maori culture and heritage which is unique to the country. photographers. the less mobile. arts and crafts. through their exhibitions. and the culture industry. always open. jet boating. a recursiveness. In Queensland." available everywhere. scuba diving.

the dead space between attractions. A second problem is saturation : as they increase in number. Third. Ngauruhoe from the lounge . 35 Second."Mt. model villages and performing troupes are transportable. The appeal of the lifespace is its high resolution. tourists fill the space and displace what drew them to it in the 145 Destination Museum . its vividness and immediacy. model villages and cultural concerts are more manageable and less intrusive on the lifespace.34 Tourists to Bali today can see performances related to those created for international expositions in the course of th e last hundred years and specially during the thirties in Paris. Controlled access to an area makes it possible to charge a fee. Tongariro National Park . First. hence less destructive of it. One problem with the lifespace is its low density. North Island. New Zealand. Chateau Tonga riro. Maori cultural performances were exported to Australia and E ngland during the 186os and to the Festival of Empire Celebrations in England in 1911. " Po stea rd by Colour View. designated precincts are more profitable than the lifespace because they "add value" t o it.

Get off in Sunnyside. Guides to the site are Pacific people who have converted to Mormonism.first place. Theme parks achieve the highest density of all-the whole world 146 A Second Life as Heritage . are not only dense. made safe for display by that very fact. inherent and natural resources" or "incidental resources from various industries" within the scope of the tourism industry proper.. artworkers and the State's cultural h eritage. integrated with food. they also insulate from tourists the lifespace represented there. shopping. the industry develops linkages among sites in a region to form " heritage corridors" and itineraries t hat link sites in a region. Samoa.." 37 In this way the district brings "free. To address the density issue. rent a Thai video and strike up a conversation at an Irish pub. many of them students at Brigham Young University. get off in Woodside. get off in Jackson Heights. visit an Indian sari shop and dance at a Colombian night club. the industry markets exclusive sites to high-end tourists. Through their performance of a way of life they no longer live. but not the tourists." a convention and exhibition center and a casino: "It will be a model cultural tourism concept that will promote an integrated lifestyle and local cultural experience. while controlling its representation and bringing it firmly within the industry. . the industry designs cultural precincts like Brisbane's riverside district. and Fiji all in one spot. they also exhibit their conversion. 36 Or. Purpose-built tourist attractions like the Polynesian Cultural Center in Hawaii. the Marquesas. spend an evening at a Spanish theater and a night at a Romanian disco. The International Express: A Guide to Ethnic Communities along the 7 Train provides reasons to get off at every stop on the route: The #7 train passes above so many ethnic and immigrant communities on its seven-mile route through northwest Queens [New York City] that it has been dubbed The International Express. To address the saturation issue. and other exciting lifestyle experiences. which will provide "a showcase for the finest performers. where you can experience th e Cook Islands. th ereby gen erating more revenue from fewer visitors. This is the message of photographs that show the site. This is the promise of the empty beach. We invite you to experience it yourself.

and restaurants that serve the 34 million tourists who "visit Orlando each year to see t h e world. are spoiling the towns for each other and making them uninhabitable for residents. The Age reported in 1994 that "'Town Full' is a sign of the tim es. conceding that they cannot keep tourists away. a theme park of a theme park-all infrastructure. and erosion of the sites themselves." Is the theme park competition or fr ee advert ising for Key West itself? One pundit has proposed that Key West creat e an "Orlando World. are drafting "visitor management plans. spend an hour or so trying to find their cars. since fantasy has no fixed geographic location. T h e parks generally stand in an arbitr ary r elation to the sites where they are built. orange groves and swamps have been displaced by highways. get back on the trams. " 39 Three million guests visit 30 . soon. pollution. The only way to keep visitors away from sites that they are "loving to 147 Destination Museum . Key West World "will distill the essence of the tiny island into a land-locked five-acre theme village" at Sea World." Others. like Cambridge. dead space. The park is to offer ch arm without crime and " introduce guests to the island's 'fascinating inhabitants' as well as to its subtropical ecosystem. purchase t ickets and spend the remainder of the day standing in an enormous. 000 hosts at Windsor. In Central F lorida. th ey m ay well discover that the places they left have themselves become destinations. Nor do recreations.within a few acres." after which "th ey would buy ugly T-shirts. Tourists. where the ratio is one hun- dred to one and even higher in the peak season. motels.New York r esort in L as Vegas may wonder why they left home. Small towns in Britain have become so popular that they are turning visitors away. are refusing to promote themselves at all. a rival destination nearby. just seven hours away from Key West itself. Some towns . a representation of Key West. it is said. nonmoving line. often in places that have nothing else to draw tourists. ride trams to the main gate. low d ensity." 38 In a word." or rather the "world's showcases"-including. New Yorkers who visit the New York. who are fed up with congestion." in w hich visitors would "park in gigantic parking lots. th en spend the rest of the evening driving around trying to decide which one of 317 Sizzler restaurants to eat dinner in. So resentful are the locals in areas such as Bath that residents have been known to turn hoses on open-top buses. When these same tourists return home.

The Uluru National Park Cultural Center is to be jointly managed by the Mutitjulu Community and the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. for the income they generate.ooo tourists in 1995 . death" is to hide them. 42 Despite great sensitivity in the design of this site. capital of the Cook Islands. not only to shop for aboriginal art and souvenirs and see exhibits but also to meet aboriginal people. Others loot them. projects a doubling of the local tourism industry and a ratio of t en tourists for every local. Reprinted with permission from Creators Syndicate.ooo. which straddles the border of Utah and Col orado.ooo visitors a day are expected to visit the center during peak p eriods.40 Visitors to the Native American ruins at Hovenweep Nation al Monument. Density levels are specially high at Gettysburg. the centennial of the Battle of Gettysburg.ooo guests a day.41 The vast battlefield is the main attraction. a decline from the peak of more than 2 million visitors in 1963. Roratonga. one can only imagine what it will be like for the Mutitjulu community to welcome 2. 148 A Second Life as Heritage . "Tell the tourist where to go " has been heard in at least one part of Australia.ooo serviced an influx of 1. The town's economy depends on tourists. The locations of Native American ruins have been removed from maps so they cannot be found. most of them day trippers. have doubled in five years to 3o.Kudzu. About 2. a comic strip by Doug Marlette.74-S . day in and day out in peak periods. This Pennsylvania town of 8 . Some sleep in them.

44 Heritage is produced through a process that forecloses what is shown. . Such language suggests that h eritage is there prior to its identification. A h allmark of heritage is the problematic relationship of its obj ects to the instruments of their display. th e dead. Heritage produces the local for export. reclamation. and celebration: "Pieces of history are yours to find .In 1990 the local population of Cairns. Longtime residents mourn the loss of the "real Cairns. and the defunct. Exhibition endows heritage thus conceived with a second life. restoration. recovery. as museum display) . with tourists visiting at the rate of soo. revitalization. is the transvaluation of the obsolete. 43 Heritage is a "value-added " industry. The following argument proceeds from seven propositions: Heritage is a new mode of cultural production in the present that h as recourse to the past. [T ]he 149 Destination Museum . 46 A key to heritage productions is their virtuality.ooo. Despite a discourse of conservation. the outmoded. evaluation. conservation . preservation. Heritage is created through a process of exhibition (as knowledge. r e-creation. as performance. recuperation.ooo a year." which is the first step in converting a way of life into heritage. the mistaken. Heritage.45 Heritage tests the alienability of inalienable possessions. whether in the presence or the absence of actualities. Five years later it was 12o.ooo . the jewel in the crown of Australia's Gold Coast. was 7o. Heritage Is a New Mode of Cultural Production in the Present That Has Recourse to the Past Heritage is not lost and found . stolen and reclaimed. This process reveals the political economy of display in museums and in cultural tourism more generally. heritage produces something n ew in the present th at has r ecourse to the past. . and regeneration. in this context..

the evidence of past disasters) or that never were economically productive because an area is too hot. and. indigeneity. even though its discourse of reclamation and preservation makes such claims. The process of protection. a past of missionaries and forced acculturation. inherent and natural resources" or inalienable possessions. There is no turning back. difference. If a colonial past. precincts. 47 The notion of time travel is explicit in invitations to "[t]ake a trip through history" (Taranaki Heritage Trail) or "walk down memory lane" (Hawick 150 A Second Life as Heritage . Heritage organizations ensure that places and practices in danger of disappearing b ecause they are no longer occupied or functioning or valued will survive. too wet. exhibition. or too remote or that operate outside the realm of profit because they are "free. too cold. stolen and reclaimed. threatened to produce " de-culturation. it would not require protection." the heritage industry does not so much reverse that process. It does this by adding the value of pastness. of " adding value. It is a mode of cultural production in the present that has recourse to the past. It also produces something new. where possible. even if it does so in terms of the past. I do not mean that the result is not "authentic" or that it is wholly invented. Rather." speaks in and to the present. Heritage Is a "Value Added" Industry Heritage adds value to existing assets that have either ceased to be viable (subsistence lifestyles. Heritage not only gives buildings. the h eritage industry is a new mode of cultural production and it produces something new. and ways of life that are no longer viable for one reason or another a second life as exhibits of themselves. I wish to underscore that h eritage is not lost and found.past is waiting for you to explore in The Central West Coast" of the South Island of New Zealand. obsolete technologies. If heritage as we know it from the industry were sustainable. The Value of the Past "The past is a foreign country" thanks to the h eritage industry. the flyer beckons. abandoned mines. Rather. By production.

4 8 Dying economies stage their own rebirth as displays of what they once were." but its windows now display real estate listings for Harcourts. technologies. "Clerks and shopkeepers will be surly and unhelpful. buildings. is not on the Heritage Trail. The only products for sale will be those that were available in East Germany. to what has become industrial heritage. 50 The museum will present the political and social history of East Germany." The fall of communism and end of the cold war have created a large zone of ambivalence. Heritage projects in Pennsylvania address the massive deindustrialization of the state-by one estimate. The Value of Exhibition Heritage and tourism are collaborative industries. "65 percent of land zoned for industrial use lies abandoned"-by providing new uses for derelict buildings and jobs for unemployed industrial workers. heritage converting locations into destinations and tourism making them economically viable as exhibits of themselves. they "survive" -they are made economically viable-as representations of themselves. Harcourts. The very term "historic" can be taken as an indication of obsolescence: no calls can be placed from the "Historic Telephone Box" on the Heritage Trail in Palmerston North. if not repudiation. 49 Just north of Berlin. Thuringa is selling the good old days of Luther and Goethe by featuring its medieval castles. In the former East Germany. who serve as guides to their former lives as miners and steelworkers. sometimes before the body is cold. Renaissance town hall. "the bad old days" are the subject of a museum and theme park. tourism is stepping in where the heavy industry encouraged by the Communist regime is in decline. on a former army base. It is enshrined by the City Corporation with the words. Locations become museums of themselves within a tourism economy. objects. Once sites. or ways of life can no longer sustain themselves as they formerly did. which has been operating since 1888. "This is a protected building.Historical Village). both in New Zealand. which prompts uneasy nostalgia. the theme park will re-create Communist life there. 151 Destination Museum . a business older than the box. and churches.

vertical integration in the tourism system places much of the infrastructure in the hands of a few national and multinational corporations: the biggest earners are international airlines. dormitories and broadcast studios. once a nuclear shelter for British Government Ministers. The Queensland Government Cultural Statement recognizes this all too well when." 52 It is about " profiting from difference. followed by hotels. the very interchangeability of 152 A Second Life as Heritage . Not surprisingly. despite the dispersal of that product across many widely separated locations. " 51 Tourism thrives on such startling juxtapositions. and restaurants. or historical reassessment. the industry requires a reliable product that meets universal standards. in the planes.irony. tourists spend much of their time in the grips of the industry. under the h eading "The Business of Culture. Standardization is part and parcel of the economies of scale that high-volume tourism requires. Scotland has transformed "an underground bunker." as the report put it. all equipped with original artifacts." it states that " [t ]he Government will expect the subsidized arts sector to ensure the cost effective delivery of distinctive Queensland cultural products and services to the State's audiences. which is why the tourism industry requires the production of difference." into a "national museum to the Cold War. while thirty-three meters beneath them "[ v ]isitors can explore the nuclear command. hotels. on what might be called the tourist surreal-the foreignness of what is presented to its context of presentation. " 53 "Sameness" is a problem the industry faces. computer and communications rooms." Golfers putt on the lawn. destinations must be distinguishable. buses. Third. Second. It is not in the interest of remote destinations that one arrive in a place indistinguishable from the place one left or from any of a thousand other destinations competing for market share. a location must b ecome a destination. and benefiting from the "spillover effect" of " a positive Queensland image. First. To compete with each other. The Value of Difference To compete for tourists. Airlines often own interests in hotels. With the shift from making nuclear weapons to dismantling them-and the end of government contractsLos Alamos is turning to tourism to boost its declining economy.

For this and other reasons." 55 Heritage Produces the Local for Export Tourism is an export industry and one of the world's largest. "It took over 5000 years to build the perfect resort." But where? Only for those who choose to "[g]et lost at Capricorn" in Queensland. the discourse of tourism marketing is so consistent that only the insertion of place names tells you which getaway or which natural wonder you are being sold. Being generic (sand." 54 Once there. tourism does not export goods for consumption elsewhere. Wellington." Where? "Israel. these cities complain that they are only gateways. Rather. it is the largest industry in places like Utah." However many tourists arrive in Auckland. Tourists pass through them on their way to tourist regions on their outskirts. on a TWA Getaway vacation. paradise can be found as easily in the Bahamas as in Bali. Christchurch. N oting that the "undifferentiated beach market becomes more and more competitive. it imports visitors to consume goods and services locally. the actual destination is somewhat arbitrary. political unrest. Ben Wilson's dream of "the day when Auckland will have fishing guides 153 Destination Museum . for example Egypt. spend more and make return visits" -and "broaden [and increase] the tourism base. In the Virgin Islands. Heritage is a way of producing "hereness. rather than stay for several days. Heritage is one of the ways locations become a destination. No hassles. In many countries. "No crowds. tourism sustains 70 percent of the economy." Getting away is different from going somewhere. While it would be a boon to those promoting recreational fishing in Auckland reservoirs. tourism is one of the largest earners of foreign revenue. you send home a "generic postcard" or check off the boxes on a "lazy letter. sun. which can quickly shift destinations if one paradise or another is booked solid or hit by a typhoon. or Dunedin.generic products suits the industry. however. or currency fluctuations. Unlike other export industries." the Queensland Government Cultural Statement proposes a cultural tourism strategy that will "encourage visitors to stay longer. Because escapes are defined as departures rather than arrivals. sea. The very term "getaway" or "escape" suggests that the push away from home is stronger than the pull toward a particular place. sex).

0 I'm out of time. . 0 Having a terrible time . Madison.. Here it is! 0 Having a wonderful time. Virginia Beach. Inc.FfL'.. Virginia 23464. 0 I'm worn out. Wisconsin 53705 98853-D _. 0 Wish I were there.} M~-~~~ D post card ."Generic Post Card. " Published by Fagan Color Cards. 0 None of the above. 0 Wish you were here. 0 I'm lonesome for you. 0 I'll be home soon because: 0 I'm out of money. I rate the following things about this place on a scale of 1 to 10. GENERIC POSTCARD 0 When you don't know or care what to send! Dear __________________ 0 You asked for a card . 0 The picture I wanted to send is not on a card . People Entertainment Drink Restaurants Accent Traffic Night Life Hotels Colleges Sex Music Weather History Sight Seeing Signed ---------------------------Published by Fagan Publishing Company.

" 57 Similarly. based in the city to whisk international travelers straight from their plane or hotel by helicopter to the dams to chase rainbows " is the urban tourism industry's nightmare. more tourists will pass through the Ellis Island Immigration Museum. Kevin J." Two hundred million dollars are being infused into this small town of thirty eight thousand to capitalize on its six hundred buildings dating from the 16oos.."Australian Ballot Post Card . heritage becomes an instrument of urban redevelopment. chief of the National Maritime Initiative of the Park Service. proj ects that "Salem-which in the late 18th and early 1gth centuries was an important mercantile center-could become an even greater tourist attraction. Salem.."' Protected by legislation and supported through tourism. Foster." ca. to augment its declining industrial and regional retail economy with a more vibrant tourism industry. 56 A visitor information leaflet tries to entice the tourist to the desolate west coast of New Zealand's South Island: "Hokitika. has attempted "[f]or almost a decade . located on a small island 155 Destination Museum . 1900. Massachusetts. 'A Place to Stay for More than a Day.

cultural centers. and its vitality in the present. and market. as if the instruments for presenting them were invisible or inconsequential. each time for a different r eason. and used for different purposes. which were executed during the Great Depression as part of a government work scheme. Smithsonian Institution. and cultural conservation are instruments with a history. Visitors today choose at the entrance to follow the sign into the museum or the one to U. teach. indigenous m edia. an old Algonquin trade route. The Beaux-Arts architecture and its iconography. recordings. they are also instruments for adding value to the cultural forms they perform. circulate. Much is made of the traditions themselves. its continuity. exhibit. Bankruptcy Court occupying the same building. stand in an equivocal r elationship with the Reginald Marsh murals gracing the grand rotunda. heritage p erformers. Custom House in Lower Manhattan is a case in point. dating from the turn of the century. as the very name suggests.off the tip of Manhattan. They leave their own traces on the sites they mark as heritage. craft cooperatives. arts festivals. museums. This point is not missed by those who oppose the placing of Maori weaving on New Zealand's National Qualifications Framework on the grounds that this would "tamper with t h e traditional methods of transfer of knowledge. The Museum's R esource Center is located in the cashier's office. its signage still intact. A key to this process is its instruments. Dance teams. A Hallmark of Heritage Is the Problematic Relationship of Its Objects to the Instruments of Their Display The heritage industry produces something new. and cultural curricula are not only evidence of heritage." and therefore have negative effects on community cohesion.S. at the Alexander Hamilton U. VVhen one site is landmarked repeatedly. than did immigrants through Ellis Island.S. The George Gustav Heye Center of the National Museum of the American Indian. in its peak at the turn of the century." 59 A plaque mounted in 18go by the Holland Society 156 A Second Life as Heritage . archives. Commemorative langu age now identifies the site on which the museum stands with "the southern end of the Wiechquaekeck Trail. historic re-creation. even at one point in time. a processing center. 58 Landmarking. the result is a heritage palimpsest. exhibitions.

This estrangement produces an effect more Brechtian. more alienating. rather than on their own bodies. How is value added or lost when taonga. which occupied the site from 1626 to 1790. But. and the public trust represented by the museum itself. nor attempts to create a closer fit between the history of the heritage for which it is responsible and that rep resented by the building and the site. arc exhibited in an art gallery or museum of natural history or used on a marae. This in part explains why exhibitions at the National Museum of the American Indian take the form that they do. It is therefore important to examine not only what the instruments produce but also how. Maori meeting place? Or when Maori weaving is taught in school? When the Pintubi paint on canvas. concert parties. The Museum neither eradicates the layers of historicallandmarking. postcards-are cultural forms in their own right and powerful engines of meaning. than mimetic and makes the interface a critical site for the production of meanings other than the "heritage" message. A plaque mounted in 1991 honors Alexander Hamilton. of multiculturalism or biculturalism. for whom the custom house was originally named. The ironies play out willy-nilly. and circulate their work within an international art market? 60 When "traditional Irish dancers" are featured in a "Mediaeval Tour of Shannon Free Airport?" When farmers gather for a World Ploughing Championship in Dunedin? When sheep line up on a stage? When their shearers "demonstrate" their work? Heritage productions tend to conflate their effects with the instruments for producing them. the market past and present for Native American artifacts. or of development-messages other than heritage-are likely to be encoded in the interface. instruments such as landmarking connect heritage productions to the present even as they keep alive claims to the past. eluding any easy resolution between the mode of exchange symbolized by the custom house. the "inalienable possessions" on display. historical villages.and disappoint many visitors expecting to learn more than they do about the history of the objects 157 Destination Museum .folk festivals.memorializes Fort Amsterdam. a hallmark of heritage productions-perhaps their defining feature-is precisely the foreignness of the "tradition " to its context of presentation. Messages of reconciliation. museum exhibitions. Maori treasure. The interface . In these ways.

and in several cases there is more than one label for each object. seen here dan cing a reel. Many splendid objects from the prodigious Heye collection are indeed on display. But they are not all that is exhibited. Photographs are rarely if ever identified. who regale the guests with the tuneful melodies of Ireland . a comment in itself about their status in the exhibition-they are about. including what is now a largely Native American staff and their control over what is shown and how. Clare. on display and the way of life they represent. First. Dublin. those they represent."Traditional Irish Dancers . and tribe (in the case of Native Americans). but they are also entertained by these pretty Irish colleens. " "Vi sitors to Ireland who take part on the One Day Mediaeval Tour of Shannon Free Airport are not only treated to a Banquet in real Middle Ages style in fifteenth century Burnratty Castle. profession. but not by. Ennis . Labels are signed. Those who wrote the labels are identified by name. Co.. Ireland. 158 A Second Life as Heritage . Other entertainment in the restored and furnished fortress includes costumed singers and minstrels playing on t he harp." Photo by E. the museum's own infrastructure is visible.. Ludwig. Published by John Hinde Ltd. Co. John Hinde Studios. Cabinteely.

Paradoxically. however. Heritage Is Produced through a Process That Forecloses What Is Shown Exhibition is instrumental in the foreclosing of what is shown. w as not to understand Brazilian culture but to perform it. the obj ect. the Fren ch Revolution. and richly detailed. in a paradoxically self-consuming fashio n. T heir choices did not n ecessarily conform to their "identity." 62 He argues further that the interest in Brazilian culture displayed at R ouen served "ritual rather than 159 De stinat io n Museum . or that t he terms of the conflict are the same. the emergence of nation-states. and the reform of Judaism in th e nineteen th century. Steven Mullaney's analysis of this event fo cuses not so much on its r e-creation as on its erasure: "The ethnographic attention and knowledge displayed at Rouen was genuine." Rather. the vitality. to mention but a few cases. and the collecting of error an overture to its eradication. This is how this museum addresses the historic foreclosures of ethnographic exhibitions that the collection itself exemplifies. Which is not to say that all combat waged there is equally bloody. The destruction of cultural for ms under the pretext of preservation has precedents in the Protestant Reformation. What visitors discover in these galleries is what the obj ects on display mean to Native Americans today. the world imagined under the banner of heritage is a battlefield. During the royal entry of Henry II into Rouen in 1550 . remembering is a prelude to forgetting. The advertisement for the museum that declares "Meet the Real Native New Yorkers" exemplifies the statement by Jonathan Mane-Wheoki at th e 1995 M useums Australia conference in Brisbane t h at museums are about people not things. the survival of Native Americans t hemselves.Second. the exhibition All Roads A re Good presents t he selections of twenty -two Native Americans invited to explore the collection and choose objects for exhibition. amazingly thorough. 5 1 What is on display above all is the presence. the formation of colonial empires. the guest curators ranged freely across the collection and made connections that were at once intensely p ersonal and contemporary. Utopian longings notwithstanding. Brazilian villages stocked w ith natives for the occasion and supplemented with Frenchmen appropriately attired for battle were the scene of a mock siege and French triumph.

ethnological ends. He is offended by the public spectacle of outdoor processions accompanied by music." 64 During the early nineteenth century.the author first contrasts the simplicity and naturalness of life in the Bible with the bizarre ceremonialism introduced by th e rabbis. as 'refinement. The author questions the use of an incomprehensible language. where the outtakes of a cultural editing process are to b e found . Similarly. and are to be understood within a dramaturgy of power that first exhibits what it " consigns to oblivion. systematic programs of r eform. and processes of absorption leave behind what they have rejected. How much preferable are the refined practices of the Jews in Leipzig who hold their wedding ceremonies discretely in the nicest room in the city. In an account of wedding customs. and the rite involved is one ultimately organized around the elimination of its own pretext. "' 67 The ethnographic burlesque induces shame at thresh- 160 A Second Life as Heritage . Shocking Customs. form a geniza of sorts. Sulamit. which was to return as "folklore. and Absurd Ceremonies of the Jews. a popular little magazine in German for Jewish readers. because the bridal couple is put on public display in a filthy courtyard." Writing in what might be called the ethnographic burlesquewhat Mona Ozouf calls "shameful ethnology". are rehearsals." 63 Long processes of " cultural evolution. the author objects to matchmaking because it seems to ignore the desires of the young couple and focus on crass financial transactions. for example. he cont inues. ran a column entitled "Gallery of Obnoxious Abuses. Zones of repudiation. Catholic E urope became a source of fascination for Protestants eager to see what the R eformation had repudiated. " Such performances.' or as 'civilization." violent revolutions. in the legal sense of th e term.65 H e then urges readers to adopt the aesthetic and refined manner of cosmopolitan Jews. the attempt to reform Jewish life by repudiating customary practices created a large domain of cultural tr ash. 66 R eform is h ere promulgated not at gunpoint but through a process illuminated by Norbert Elias's notion of " [w ]hat m ay be described as an advance of the threshold of embarrassment and shame. In this way. for something as important as the marriage ceremony. Hebrew-Aramaic.

68 The tourist stands at the edge of an open grave. exhibition. still amusing the guests with their improvised discourses abounding in surprising twists of thought. What one was too ashamed to do. tells us that he could not help fancying that he sat at a table with hosts that had risen straight out of the grave of the preceding century. and it is only in a few localities that the old forms. which is a mode of cultural production. study. 69 How 161 Destination Museum . This art of rhetorically induced estrangement mobilizes the will of the reader to abandon established custom and internalize new forms of sensibility and conduct. and display. Fifty years later. of a Jewish marriage celebrated not long ago in Alsatia. we now too often see the stiff etiquette of the salon. the costumes. By narrowing the domain of what could be considered normative. not with spade in hand to bury old traditions but with a pen to record them. have held their ground against the general tendency to sublimate and refine away what antiquity handed down. so singular and of such venerable antiquity.olds of its own making. and even nostalgia and revival. collect. artless and happy as they were. The process of negating cultural practices reverses itself once it has succeeded in archaizing the "errors". Particularly interesting in this connection is the account from the pen of a French tourist. one could study. indeed." who have so long disappeared from our weddings. The very term "folklore" marks a transformation of errors into archaisms and their transvaluation once they are safe for collection. preservation. through a process of archaizing. critics of traditional ceremonies and customs simultaneously expanded the field of the nonnormative. Here we see the "Marshaliks. the repudiated is transvalued as heritage. and the man of the world from Paris who witnesses and reports the scene. defy the universal supremacy of French fashion. the vituperation we see in Su- lamit would give way to nostalgia and the very wedding customs that had been burlesqued would be offered as a critique of Jewish respectability: The marriages of Jews of quite recent times have only this one peculiarity that need engage attention. that instead of the old tone of natural and religious joy which sprang from the heart.

questions about the drug paraphernalia on view." including "members of the Padaung ethnic group whose women put metal rings around their necks giving them a 'long-necked' look. A Burmese opposition group protested the forced removal of "ethnic minority people from more than two hundred villages in Thandaung township in the hills of northern Karen state." Some of t hem "will be for ced to live in a model village. whether intended to induce disgust in those still internalizing the new norms." After answering a boy's .ooo residents of Qurna. it raises their interest. justify genocide." "the 10o. repressed. a mother murm ured her concern to m e: " If you tell them too much. or subjected to n ew and more rigorous methods of control. Its purpose is only to suggest the chemistry and equipment used at different stages in the production of amph etamines. currently living above and among ancient tombs." nor is it the first time that human exhibits have been featured in zoos. 70 Documentation and exhibition are implicated in the disappearance of what they show. These rehear sals of culture.safe is another m atter." or worse. where a t ext panel reads: " For legal and ethical reasons the layout of this [drug] laboratory is not detailed or complete. A recent effort of Burmese authorities to relocate "long-necked" minority women from their homes in eastern Burma to Rangoon to live in a model-village tourist attraction implicates exhibition in the disappearance of what it shows. 72 According to a plan for the "New Luxor. entail "the exhibition of what is to be effaced." This is not t he first time that "Padaung people have been promoted as tourist attractions. or demonstrate improvement. as the Nazis intended their planned exhibition of an extinct race to do . " To encourage 162 A Second Life os Heritage . "[F]olklore . In the words of John Comaroff. which is being built n ear Rangoon in time for next year's 'Visit Myanmar Year"' and is described by the dissidents as an "ethnic human zoo. in the case of a sanitized Maori model village. which Mullaney likens to the rehearsal of evidence and presentation of exhibits in a court of law.. is one of the most dangerous words in the English language" because it often obscures "a highly unreflective populism. w ill ultimately be relocated from this archeological zone to Al -Tare f. in the case of Splendid China theme park in F lorida. ." 71 This principle guides the exhibition on drugs at the Justice and Police M useum in Sydney." Show just enough to foreclose the subject.

the whole to be fenced in the Maori manner. also some very interesting thermal action and fresh water lagoons. many employers say.50 of the fee goes to the Bushmen). some of it in the Kalahari Gemsbok Park. a shed to be built near the schoolhouse. The total cost need not exceed £5oo. My proposals provide for the erection of a runanga (meeting house). two important objectlessons would be provided for the Maoris generally.00 ($1. because "management decided that tourists did not like seeing hungrylooking Bushmen. thereby earning sustenance.developers plan a golf course and "a model village that portrays aspects of Egyptian life-Pharaonic. were expelled from Kalahari Gemsbok Park in 1970. which they consider essential to their survival and way of life. Later on a model fighting pa could be added. The tribesmen's lack of materialism made them unreliable. There is ample land of a substantial nature available there. Selected native families to be given residence at this pa. I recommend that a model Maori pa [fort] or kainga should be established in the Whakarewarewa Reserve between the water supply setting basins. open-air museums. where tourists can view them for $7.these to be carved in the old Maori style-and several comfortable whares [houses]. Nubian and rural cultures. and sanitation be a salient feature of it. Likely inspired by these examples. pataka (food store-house). 74 Cultural precincts have a long history. Bushman activists hope to reclaim ancestral land. "routed almost out of existence" by early settlers and now few in number. and they were eating too many animals. and visitors would have an opportunity of seeing a replica of old Maori life. in which the young Native boys should be taught carving and the girls matmaking. a model Maori village was proposed by the Department of Tourism and Health Resorts in 1902 and conceived from the outset in museological terms: As an additional attraction to the Rotorua district." 73 Bushmen.tourists to stay longer-if not for a thousand and one nights." Twenty years later forty Bushmen have been brought from a shantytown to the Kagga Kamma Game Park north of Cape Town. and the Native school. The villagers could make carvings and mats for sale.l 5 163 Destination Museum . Model villages. and theme parks are the legacy of foreign villages at international expositions in the nineteenth century. Bedouin. Thus. then for "Six Egyptian Nights".

haka. carving."Guide Tina. Published by Tanner Bros. " cultural performances" developed for tourists have themselves coalesced into such notions as the "classic old style programme.7 6 Almost a century later and at considerably greater expense. while many other areas of Maori history and contemporary culture are not presented to tourists. And. the long history of Maori involvement in tourism became part of the site." Maoriland Photographic Series. though certain practices (carving and weaving) and performance forms (wero. Ltd. Ne w Zealand. The village materialized. Whakarewarewa. N. an " interactive Maori living village" is planned for Rotorua as part of "a $10 million redevelopment programme which will in- 164 A Second Life as Heri tage .. However. Rotorua. and weaving. poi) have become icons. but it was not inhabited. Some even credit tourism with stimulating the continued vitality and creative transformation of Maori performance. Wellington.Z. Celebrated guides and performers are immortalized in the form of carved figures at the tops of totara posts along a path to the thermal valley." They also serve new roles within Maori communities.

7 8 Heritage Tests the Alienability of Inalienable Possessions Native peoples are taking charge of the disposition. " [A J culture can never be reduced to its artifacts while it is being lived. Severed links. A new generation of museum professionals is proactively addressing the stewardship of cultural property." though this is what museums have tended to do. artifacts about which little is known are exhibited separately. museums produce the lifelike. and interpretation of their patrimony-whether artifacts or performances-the spaces in which they live. which is a point brought home by the permanent installation of taonga at the Manawatu Museum in Palmerston North.elude a modern gallery area for contemporary Maori artists [and] a geo thermal interpretation centre. their provenance unknown. ownership. the work of survival. 79 Promising to bring its dead specimens "to life" through the theater of installation. is coming into sharper focus and debate. and their ways of life. They were removed from circulation. 165 Destination Museum . There is concern that in committing much of daily life to displaying Maori culture to tourists. They were withheld. For taonga the issue is not a second life as an exhibit. both natural and cultural. Nearby. which is not to be confused with life force. What is at stake is the restoration of living links to taonga that never died. which often defines the uniqueness of its product in terms of indigeneity. in its planning and policy and as entrepreneurs. these isolated objects are a poignant reminder of the circumstances of their acquisition. Marae tourism. These changes have important implications for the tourism industry. the work of the undertaker. New Zealand. handling. actual marae life would confine itself to designated occasions. In the words of Raymond Williams. access. Some will forever remain orphans." 77 Efforts are now being made to mcrease Maori participation in the tourism industry. which has been operating on a small scale since the seventies. of their alienation. its presentation and interpretation in museums. The vibrant relationship of particular objects in the collection to actual people and communities is dramatically displayed in the opening gallery.

This is the source of its life. or on a miniature map of India. a N ative American from a Northern California tribe. You're missing the point. It must be performed to be transmitted. she explained. which accounts for the Stations of the Cross processions on Good Friday all over the world." 80 A Key to Heritage Productions Is Their Virtuality. The class met daily for several weeks during which she taught them songs and they kept asking when she would start to teach them to weave baskets.The life force of taonga depends not on techniques of animation but on the living transmission of cultural knowledge and values. she can walk a circuit within aregion. Whether in the Presence or the Absence of Actualities Claims to the contrary notwithstanding. even if it never materializes. "After all. or even. They sang songs when they gathered plants. more to the point." she responded. in her own mind. The most ambitious pilgrim can trace a circuit through the entire Indian subcontinent. The atavism of something genuine or real. finally. which lives in performance. the survival. Folklorist Barre Toelken remembers the consternation of students at the University of Oregon who signed up to learn how to make baskets from Mrs. This is the source of its vividness. One can trace Christ's last steps anywhere. you people are missing something here. or in a temple. because the words are "addressed to the materials themselves. or within a town." VVhen. And. "That's what we're doing. no one asks if the 166 A Second Life as Heritage . Consider pilgrimage itineraries. they "began" actually assembling a basket. by the end of the course. of those for whom these objects are taonga. contemplatively. What matters is not the vividness of a museum experience but the vitality. They hummed songs and were to think of the words as they softened the materials in their mouths. can be seen in cases where the question of authenticity is either irrelevant or fails to illuminate the matter at hand. That survival depends on intangible cultural property. heritage and tourism show what cannot be seen-except through them-which is what gives such urgency to the question of "actuality" and the role of "experience" as its test. Alternatively. A basket is a song made visible. Matt.

The AA Book of New Zealand Historic Places depends entirely on the power of information to create interest in places. Museums hope that re-creations of natur al habitats are not just clever simulations of something somewhere else. absent. inaccessible. working-or fighting-on a site hundreds of years ago w hen all t hat can be seen today is a grassed-over ditch and bank. will only come to life if visitors use their imaginations.locations of the stations are authentic.. Imagination is what animates sites: Many of the historic places . Guides routinely refer t o what cannot be seen. fragmentary. the guide insists. so that one is able to 'read' the human landscap e in a way that adds interest and enjoyment to journeys around New Zealand. It is not difficult to learn how to decipher its blurred and indistinct pages. But it is important to make an effort of imagination to see such sites as th ey were when p eopled by p ast generations. They must reveal something about the nature of what is shown that a visitor would not b e able to discover at the site itself. not just surrogates for travel to inaccessible places. 83 167 Destination Museum . This is especially true of the "prehistoric" sites from w hich we can learn much about Maori life in ew Zealand before the arrival of Europeans. It is not always easy to visualize people living. These are features of the life world itself.the people and events and places of years ago." 82 But. " The organizing m etaphor for the experience of these sites is discursive. information is not enough. 81 Both heritage and tourism deal in the intangible. specially those lacking noteworthy visual attributes: "Some buildings or sites included in this book may at first glance look uninteresting " or "may initially disappoint those who make an effort to visit them. the landscape is an open history book. . whether in museums or theme parks. a faint terrace or a heap of old sea-shells. and dislocated. which is one reason for the appeal and impossibility of the wholeness promised by the various worlds and lands of exhibitions. centered in language and t h e process of reading: "For the informed traveller. I prefer to think in terms of actualities and virtualities-to posit a collaborative hallucination in an equivocal relationship with actualities. They must show more than can otherwise be seen. They animate a phantom landscape on the back of th e one toward which atten t ion is directed.

As the AA Book of New Zealand Historic Places explains. a large vitrine with live rats is located next to the cash register. overgrown gold-mining township sites. and taste. built in 1788 by Governor Phillip.In this scheme. purpose-built tourist attractions can prepare visitors to use their imaginations when visiting actual sites: "No West Coast gold-mining town ever looked like Shantytown. for it was in their nests between the joists that much evidence survived. but much is to be learned by watching how they create their nests and tuck things away there. Australia's Museum of Sydney takes as its subject not only the site on which it is located but also the nature of itself as a museum. Rats are honored at this site as the minions of history. which is associated with it." 88 This is precisely why both museums 168 A Second Life os Heritage . Getting Started: How to Succeed in Heritage Tourism. fragm ents of evidence unearthed from the site. In some cases there is no mark at all. of course. sell the sizzle as well as the steak. the process of coming to terms with the place and its history. issued by the National Trust for Historic Preservation and underwritten by American Express."84 The reassurance of hypervisibility-close encounters with the actual or the virtual-is fragile." or "[a]s the salesmen say. heritage interpreters often locate truth in what cannot be seen. smell. people have left very different marks on the New Zealand landscape. stresses the importance of making "heritage resources emotionally accessible. some faint and some clear. The inability of sites to tell their own story authorizes the interpretation project itself. While t he marketing of heritage promises experience." 86 Rather than thematize what is not there and re-create Government House. 85 Nor is sensory involvement and intel lectual understanding enough. These two museums exploit the limitations of the actual sites to reveal what they are about. Not the nests of these very rats. At Hyde Park Barracks. but a visit there can help to fire the imaginations of those who later visit abandoned. and specifically to engage not only sight and sound but also touch. 87 The Museum of Sydney exhibits itself-its methods. but the place is still historic because we know some important event occurred there. Not everything that is to be known or understood is so directly available to the senses. Their expressed desire to make sites real and vivid indicates that sites cannot do this for themselves. in the invisible heart and soul of the site. "Throughout our history.

89 The museum is an integral part of the site. The museum does for the site what it cannot do for itself. three-dimensional computer recreation on videotape that shows views of the structure from all angles while a Gregorian chant fills the background. The computer model is still so fresh in my mind that an image of the enormous edifice seems to appear before me. It produces hallucinatory 169 Destination Museum . France. the Burgundian village in which it was found allowed the massive church to be dynamited and the stone sold. the ancient village of Cluny is still haunted by its phantom church. I'm not alone in this optical illusion: Everyone leaving the museum seems to do the same double take outside. for the interpretive interface shows what cannot otherwise be seen. It is not a substitute for the site but part of it. Back outside. Inside. . "Hereness. It offers virtualities in the absence of actualities." What do visitors find there? "Towers of the transept. recently reported that "Last year 7 oo. The production of hereness in the absence of actualities depends increasingly on virtualities.." As he explains. the great church's foundations exposed and left vacant. and bases of the interior pillar. Like an amputee who still feels sensations in his phantom limb. "[T]he only thing larger than the empty space where a church once stood is the legacy of its destruction . It's as if we're having a mass hallucination of a building that no longer exists. a travel writer.ooo tourists came to see Cluny and the church that isn't there. is not given but produced. N ot until protective legislation halted the process in the late nineteenth century did the village realize the value of what had been destroyed." They also find a virtual church: A museum dedicated to the church stands a few feet away from the excavation. real things. Consider the case of the Abbey Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul (1088. I look at an animated. I stare again at the void." as the AA Book of New Zealand Historic Places understands all too well. The church outlived its usefulness with the decline of the vast Benedictine monastic order for which it had been the center. and real experiences. Robb Walsh..and tourism are largely in the business of virtuality but claim to be in the business of actualities-of real places.1804) in Cluny. a church the size of two football fields. Shortly after the French Revolution.

The hotel's Egyptian theme is reflected in the decor of its 2. outside Paris.including scale 170 A Second Life as Heritage . Each cabin provides panoramic views through picture windows as well as the convenience and comforts of private showers. Go to Elancourt. a museum that finds the truth of the site as much in the poetics of the documents as in the "facts. Go to Stockholm. On the basis of excavation and historical reconstruction and in collaboration with visitors. 90 Is getting to and from the registration desk to the elevators by boat along the river Nile any stranger than squeezing the Temple of Dendur into the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York? Any stranger than traveling to Luxor.Luxor Las Vegas that is: Luxor Las Vegas.. and television. which climb the pyramid at a 39-degree angle. Go to Las Vegas. experience Egypt. Guests travel by boat along the River Nile from the registration desk to the elevators.. sites from one place to another. This is also the beauty of the Museum of Sydney. and experience the glories of France-Miniature. for that matter. Take Luxor. It is a yacht-like 44-passenger vessel carefully chosen for its luxuriously intimate appointments.526 rooms and 1oo. itself? Travel Plans International promises a cruise up "the legendary Nile in a craft that surpasses even Cleopatra's barge of burnished gold ." Like museums. and an entertainment complex offering high tech interactive "adventures" into the past. Other features include an obelisk that projects a laser light show in the pyramid's central atrium. is a 30-story pyramid encased in 11 acres of glass." 91 Islamic militants were planting bombs in Pharaonic monuments. individual climate control.. [1993 ]. experience all of Sweden.effects. Egypt. present. tourism is predicated on dislocation-on moving people and. the museum openly imagines the site into being-in the very spot where it should be still standing but is no more. are $59 to $gg. and future. 3900 Las Vegas Boulevard South. both to drive out tourists and to wipe out traces of idolatry.at the Skansen open-air museum. which opened on October 15 . " What Travel Plans International (1g88) does not tell you is that several years later "[t]ourism in Luxor has all but ended because of violence. seven themed restaurants.ooo square foot casino. Double rooms at the Luxor.

" 95 The campaign waged by Protect Historic America " argued that the 171 Destination Mu seum . Disney's America. we travel to actual destinations to experience virtual places. In New Zealand. museums h ave a responsibility to their "product" that distinguishes them from m arket-driven amusement. "The beauty of tourism is that the number of products that can be devised to interest the tourist is virtually unlimited. This is one of several principles that free tourism to invent an infinitude of n ew products. were bitterly disappointed by the announcement that Disney h ad abandoned the site. In Christchurch. this historic jail wears with pride and humor the irony of its second life as h eritage. and the Alps. Refashioned as a living accommodation." To t h e degree that they operate in the public interest and with public funds. as it advertises itself. the Cathedral of Notre Dame. As the recent textbook The Business of Tourism states." at Old Te Whaiti Jail. The International Antarctic Center invites you to "Experience Antarctica Right Here"-"It's better than being there.9 4 This difference is enough to stop even Disney in its tracks. Stay in the Acapulco Motel in Auckland or the Sahara Guesthouse and Motel in Dunedin or the fully generic Heritage Motor Inn. in Rotorua. They are responsible for giving form and space to concerns animating public life in the communities they serve. whose primary r esponsibility is profitability. " 93 The Elephant Hotel in Atlantic City is "the only elephant in the world you can go through and come out of alive.models of the Arc de Triomphe. but also by the objections of historians that "the project would desecrate nearby Civil War battle sites like Bull Run. rhino. and giraffes roam. Virginia. where African cheet ahs. Those most likely to benefit economically from the locating of the proposed new theme park. you can scale the wall of your hotel or "spend the night in jail for a farm stay with a difference. Disney's decision was prompted not only by the vehement protests of organizations and families in the region who were concerned about congestion and smog. The Cowshed Cafe markets itself as "New Zealand's only r estaurant in a once operating dairy shed (no shit)." just twenty-five minutes from the heart of the city. "The Serengeti Restaurant offers brilliant views over the African Plains. in faux Tudor. " Increasingly. at Orana Park." 92 The market is king. near Haymarket.

Rap Jumping. . . Art-Colortone" Post Card." Genuine Curteich-Chicago "C."Absolute Adrenalin Adventures.Z... . Atlantic City. . jump.T. New Jersey. Run. Ltd. Je rs ey Supply Company. what a rush .'s Newest Off the Wall Craze!" Text inside this brochure continues: "Imagine looking down a 155 ft vertical wall and jumping off face first!!! Woa. . now Adrenalin Ad vent ures. Ne w Zealand. crawl or be even more daring and aerial spin down the face of the Novotel Hotel. Rapping is even more unnatural than a bungy jump . 1994. Auckland. Margate City. " According to the back of the postcard .. N. circa 1946. "The only elephant in the world you can go through and come out alive. Elephant Hotel. "This famous building erected in 1885 was one of what was to be a menagerie of such hotels. Ye Haa!" Urban Ad venture Specialist Company. Atlantic City. The elephant contains ten rooms and while not used as a hoteL it is visited by thousands who inspect its interior.

98 The problem lies deeper than getting the facts right or making the site more exciting. Manassas National Battlefield. Ostensibly on surer ground." complained the head of the Haymarket Historical Commission and supporter of the Disney project. w ith its "somber hills and statues and authentic ston e houses" and its " brief movie and booklets about the Civil War and . She compared the pain of the slave auctions for blacks to that of the Holocaust for Jews and said that if museums were built to illustrate the horrors of one..." 99 The term "illustration " suggests that display techniques are neutral. who supervised the department responsible for the reenacted slavery auction. a respected historic site tested the threshold of virtuality. a walking tour. which they are not. Its aim was not to cash in on the glamour of battle or the excitement of rafting. "There's not much exciting there for a child. As critics hastened to point out." 96 Disney history-Distory or Mickey Mouse History. controversy raged over the reenactment of a slave auction. That the M u seum of Tolerance in Los Angeles re-creates a gas chamber. which was to include virtual reality battles and a Lewis-andCl ark white water r aft ride. at Colonial Williamsburg." Christy S.C. Coleman. But there was fear that "education could be trivialized into entertainment" or that "th e re-creation might be inaccurate or sensationalized for entertainment. would not only destroy important Civil War sites but would also trivialize and sanitize American h istory. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington.. Nearby. " contended that only by open display and discussion could people understand th e degradation and humiliation that blacks felt as chattel. It is inconceivable that the U. why should not efforts b e made to illustrate t h e other. as some call it-has a poor track recordY Not even the willingness of some of America's most distinguish ed historians to help th e company get the story right could inspire sufficient confidence to allow Disney to work the magic of virtuality so close to the actual sites. largely because fewer foreign visitors are going to them. but to mobilize moral outrage and stimulate critical reflection on a shameful aspect of national history." has been attracting as many visitors in a year (about one hundred and thirty thousand) as Disney h ad hoped to reach in four days. D. which func - 173 Destination Museum . would reenact mass murder.S. attendance is down at Disney's theme parks.project.

ed.Berlin Cafe Street Scene. Some play important roles in the Nazi regime." From Simon Wiesenthal Center. 28. Photo copyright Jim Mendenhall/ Simon Wiesenthal Center. humiliated and terrified-particularly in relation to those today who recognize their own relatives in these images. Eavesdrop on conversations at this elegant cafe. tions as a gallery for videos. then flash forward as the narrator reveals the characters' futures. Religious Jews question the ethics of showing photographs of naked victims. "Thi s street scene brings you to 1932 Berlin. Anne DuBois (Los Angeles: Albion Publishing Group for Simon _ Wiesenthal Center. on the eve of Hitler's rise to po wer. while others fall victim to Nazi persecution. even when the ob- 174 A Second Ufe as Heritage . 1992. this question is part of a larger problem of displaying human remains. Such disputes suggest the limits of what can be shown. 1993). Beit Hashoah Museum of Tolerance. reflects its more theatrical (rather than evidentiary) approach to display. Controversies have erupted over the propriety of exhibiting hair shaved from the heads of those who perished at the hands of the Nazis.

at least to date. as does the Nazi theme park at Wolf's Lair. To the degree that the tourism product is "the concrete expression" of the "most attractive images possible. perpetrators. is about history as it should have happenedt he best. nothing but the b est. you listen to the first-person testi mony of victims. This hall "attempts to give visitors a sense of both the despair and hope that the Jews and other victims experi enced during the Holocaust. 100 Distory." it too is in the Distory business. Beit Hashoah Museum of Tolerance. 40. and witnesses. ed. only the best. jectives are worthy.101 But the perfect world projected through the virtualities of tourism may well be at odds with the 175 Des tina tion Mu s eum . 1993). As you stand beneath steel girders in a dark.Hall of Testimony. in Poland. Anne Du Bois ( Los Angeles: Albion Pub lishing Group for Simon Wiesenthal Center." From Simon Wiesenthal Center. Photo copyright Jim Mendenha ll/ Simon Wiesenthal Center. They also point to culturally specific sensitivitiesand insensitivities-to exhibition. A series of video-photo mon tages accompanies the stories. concrete hall.

discoveries. devotes a page to "History at a Glance." It starts with 16o6 and Australia's first written record. kept by the Dutch ship Duyfken. Where do old ideas go to die? Tourism. and proceeds through a series of fleets. the Brisbane Hilton's guest information book. If the market has no conscience. a museum of the consciousnessI industry. what then is the role . We have here an exhibition of understandings sloughed off by the consciousness industry. which mandated a process of r econciliation. 102 The dependence of tourism on unlimited entitlement in a hedonocracy of dreams come true is fundamentally at odds with what counts as "action " in the cultural sector.actuality of corporate policies and the infrastructure of the site. There is no indication in this chronology of aboriginal presence before the Mabo Decision ("Mabo v. foundings." 1992). The Walt Disney World Hotel was recently taken to task for wh at employees characterize as its "English only" policy. The State of Queensland [No. 176 A Second Life as Heritage . though this sector is by no means immune to Distory.and fate-of the consciousness industry? Welcome to Australia. z]. and wars.