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DC Circuits

Electrical circuits

o Active elements: Generate electric energy (voltage & current sources)

o Passive elements: Absorb or store energy (capacitors/inductors)

Resistors: Dissipate energy

Ideal voltage source: Supplies power at a constant voltage

Ideal current source: Supplies power at a constant current independent of voltage

Independent sources: Deliver voltage & current at their rated values

Dependent sources: Deliver voltage & current at levels determined by voltages or currents

in circuit

DC Voltage

Voltage is measured in volts

Voltage = potential difference

Seat of electromotive force (emf): Any device that provides electric energy

Resistivity

Property of circuit or circuit element to oppose current flow

Short circuit: Zero resistance

Open circuit: Infinite resistance

Resistivity: Material property that resistance is dependent on

R=

ρl

A

o

o

o

o

**Large surface area: Less resistance
**

Small surface area: More resistance

Resistance increases with length

Dependent on temperature:

Conductors: Resistivity increases w/ temperature

Semiconductors: Resistivity decreases w/ temperature

ρ= ρo ( 1+α ( T −T o ) )

R=R o ( 1+ α ( T −T o ) )

**Resistors in Series and Parallel
**

Series: Share same current

Req =R 1+ R 2+ …+ Rn

Parallel: Share same voltage drop

Req =

R1 R2

R 1+ R 2

**Power in a Resistive Element
**

Energy: Capacity to do work

Power: Time rate of energy performing work

Work: Result of power acting over a period of time

o Work performed over this time is integral of power

DC Circuits

o Voltage and current do not change w/ time, except under transient conditions

o Written w/ uppercase V and I

C is the opposite of R DC Circuit Analysis . C= ϵA d Total energy (in J) stored in capacitor energy= q c ( t )=C v c ( t ) (varying v ( t )) C V 2 VQ Q2 = = 2 2 2C Steady-state DC circuits: o Ideal capacitors have infinite resistance => Act as open circuits Inductors Inductor: Coil of wire o Current flows in coil when connected across a voltage source L= o NΦ [H ] I Total energy (in J) stored in inductor energy= LI 2 2 Steady-state DC circuits: o Ideal inductors have zero resistance => Act as short circuits Capacitors and Inductors in Series and Parallel Series capacitors: C eq= 1 1 1 1 + + …+ C 1 C2 Cn Parallel capacitors: Series inductance: Parallel inductance: C eq=C 1+C 2+ …+Cn Leq =L1+ L 2+ …+ L n Leq = 1 1 1 1 + + …+ L1 L 2 Ln ***NOTE: L is same as R. Joule’s Law: Power dissipated across two terminals 2 P=VI = V =I 2 R R Capacitors Capacitor: Device that stores electric charge o Greater capacitance = greater stored charge Q=CV ( constant V ) Capacitance of two parallel plates of equal area A separated by distance d.

also known as IR drop.Ohm’s Law Voltage drop. across circuit w/ resistance R: V =IR Implicitly assumes a linear circuit (linear elements and linear sources) o Linear element: Passive element whose performance can be represented by linear voltage-current relationship Kirchoff’s Law Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL): As much current flows out of a node as flows into it ∑ I ¿=∑ Iout Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL): The algebraic sum of voltage drops around any closed path within a circuit is equal to the sum of the voltage rises ∑ V rises =∑ V drops Rules for Simple Resistive Circuits Same current through all elements Equivalent resistance is sum of individual resistances Equivalent applied voltage is the sum of all voltage sources The sum of the voltage drops across all components is equal to the equivalent applied voltage (KVL) V eq =I Req Voltage across a resistor: (VOLTAGE DIVIDER) R1 ( Req ) Veq V R 1= .

Voltage (IR) drops are always positive) 4) Solve the n-1 equations for the unknown currents Node-Voltage Method Good for finding voltage potentials at various nodes in a circuit Steps: 1) Convert all current sources to voltage sources 2) Choose one node as the voltage reference node (Usually circuit ground) 3) Identify the unknown voltage potentials at all other nodes referred to the reference node 4) Write KCL for all unknown nodes 5) Write all currents in terms of voltage drops 6) Write all voltage drops in terms of the node voltages Source Equivalents Thevenin’s Theorem: A linear. and 3 for the other voltage and current sources 5) Sum the voltages or currents (be careful to use the same direction conventions) Loop-Current (Mesh Current) Method Good for determining unknown currents in circuits w/ several loops and energy sources Requires writing n-1 simultaneous equations for an n loop system Steps: 1) Select n-1 loops (n=total loops) 2) Assume current directions for the chosen loops (directions are arbitrary) 3) Write KVL for each of the n-1 chosen loops (A voltage source is positive when the assumed current direction is from the negative to the positive battery terminal. & short all other voltage sources and open all other current sources 2) Make circuit reductions to simplify the circuit as seen by the component of interest 3) Find the voltage or current at the component of interest 4) Repeat steps 1. two-terminal network w/ dependent and independent source can by represented by a Thevenin equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source in series w/ a resistor . 2. The current through a resistor is a total circuit current ties the total circuit resistance divided by the resistor’s resistance (CURRENT DIVIDER) I ( Req R1 ) I1 = Superposition Theorem States that the response of a linear circuit element fed by two or more independent sources is equal to the response to each source taken individually with all other sources set to zero (voltage sources shorted and current sources opened) Superposition Method Analyzed the response of a component to each of the energy sources in a linear circuit separately and then sums the results Good for finding unknown currents and unknown voltages Steps: 1) Choose one of the voltage or current sources.

two-terminal network w/ dependent or independent sources can be represented by an equivalent circuit consisting of a single current source and resistor in parallel V oc is measured with the terminals open V oc =V A −V B Req = Req = V oc I sc Conversion from Thevenin to Norton RN =RTh V Th=I N R N Maximum Power Transfer IN= V Th RTh .V oc is measured w/ current terminals A and B shorted together V oc =V A −V B V oc I sc Notron’s Theorem: A linear.

Occurs when the load resistance equals the Norton or Thevenin equivalent resistance of the source RC and RL Transients When a charged capacitor is connected across a resistor. the voltage across the capacitor will gradually decrease and approach zero as energy is dissipated in the resistor (same for inducteor) o Gradual decreases are known as transient behavior o Transient behavior: Observed when a voltage or a current source is connected to a circuit w/ capacitors or inductors .

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