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MODULE

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Practical skills in chemistry

1.1 Practical skills assessed in a written examination


1.1.1 Experimental design (page 11)
1

An outline or question that can be investigated using primary or secondary research.

Similarities: they both have aims; data is manipulated to draw conclusions. Differences: a meta study involves
secondary research; experiments are primary research.

The density of pure water is 1gcm3; therefore, measure exactly 1cm3 of water using a 1 cm3 bulb pipette, or a
10cm3 measuring cylinder.

1.1.2 Types of variable (page 13)


1

Control variables must be kept constant between experimental runs to ensure that the results can be compared.
Extraneous variables are factors that are not controlled or measured in an experiment but may introduce error
into the results.

This is the variable that you choose to change to see the relationship it has with another variable.

Kelvin ([K] = [C] + 273). Fahrenheit ([F] = [C]

9
5

+ 32). Celsius.

1.1.3 Writing a plan (page 15)


1

A method is a step-by-step detailed explanation of how to complete an experiment. An outline plan is the broad
details of the general experiment.

Heat a mixture of ethanol and water in a round-bottomed flask connected to a condenser. The condenser should
be mounted with a slight upward gradient. Collect the first distillate. When the temperature jumps higher, change
the collection vessel and collect the second distillate.

A:
B:
C:
D:
E:
F:

Transfer a mixture of ethanol and water into a round-bottomed flask with a few anti-bumping granules.
Place the round-bottomed flask in a heating mantle and attach Quickfit distillation equipment (as per the
diagram shown in Figure 3 on page 211).
Gently heat the mixture using a clean, dry conical flask to collect the distillate.
When the temperature is maintained at 78C, collect the distillate in a second clean, dry conical flask.
This is the ethanol fraction.
When the temperature begins to rise again, change the collecting flask back to the first conical flask.
When the temperature is at a constant 100C, change the collecting flask for a third clean, dry conical
flask and collect the pure water.

Once an aim has been generated, a researcher may look at papers, articles and other published materials to find
out information to help them address their aim. Any gaps in the primary research could be highlighted and a
method generated to gain additional data to help answer the aim.

1.1.4 Planning an investigation (page 17)


1

A:
B:
C:
D:
E:
F:
G:
H:
I:

Using a 50cm3 measuring cylinder, transfer 50cm3 of deionised water into a copper calorimeter.
Clamp the calorimeter about 5cm above the top of the wick.
Fill a spirit burner with methanol. Ensure that only 5mm of the wick is visible out of the spirit burner.
Using a top pan balance, measure and record the mass of the spirit burner.
Put a thermometer into the water and record the starting temperature.
Light the spirit burner and allow the alcohol to combust until the water temperature has risen by
approximately 20C. Measure the maximum temperature and extinguish the flame.
Use the top pan balance to measure the mass of the spirit burner at the end of the experiment.
Determine the mass of methanol used and the maximum temperature rise.
Repeat steps A to H for ethanol and propanol.

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MODULE

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Practical skills in chemistry

2
Alcohol

Temperature/C

Mass/g
Starting

End

Used

Starting

End

Change

methanol
ethanol
propanol
3

You could look at a trusted source like the RSC data book and find the enthalpy change of combustion for the
three alcohols.

1.1.5 Recording data (page 19)


1
Time/minutes

Temperature/C

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2

Any suitable answer, e.g. atomic number.

Bar chart or line graph. This is because the independent variable (x-axis) could be element (categoric) or atomic
number (discrete) and the dependent variable (y-axis) is melting point (continuous). A table could be used but it
is harder to see any patterns in data.

1.1.6 Manipulating data (page 21)


3.0 106
5.4 106

(a)
(b)

1 s.f. 0.003; 2 s.f. 0.0035; 3 s.f. 0.00346; 4 s.f. 0.003457; 5 s.f. 0.0034567; 6 s.f. 0.00345670

The concordant results are 0.23 and 0.24; the mean is 0.235

1.1.7 Evaluating results and drawing conclusions (page 23)


1

During titrations the volume of solution used can be measured by the correct use and reading of a burette. This
will produce concordant results that are reliable and reproducible. If the titre is close to the true or reported
value, the results are also accurate.

Carbon dioxide from the air can dissolve in the solution, forming carbonate ions. These ions react with the
reagent and form a white precipitate even if no halide ions are present (a false positive). By adding dilute acid
before the reagent, all dissolved carbonate ions can be removed and therefore the potential for a false positive is
avoided.

The range of results should demonstrate the true pattern in the data to be seen, rather than showing only a
snapshot, which could lead to an incorrect conclusion.

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MODULE

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Practical skills in chemistry

1.1.8 Precision and accuracy (page 25)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

25 0.1cm3 = 0.4%
A 10cm3 measuring cylinder would need to be used three times to measure 25cm3 (lower measurements
of 10ml, and one measure of 5ml), therefore, percentage error = 0.1/10 + 0.1/10 + 0.1/5 = 4%
25 0.1cm3 = 0.4%

The percentage error is less and therefore the measured amount is closer to the accurate true value.

Chapter 1.1 Practice questions


1

C [1]

B [1]

C [1]

B [1]

(a)
(b)
(c)

copper [1], as it is a good conductor of heat [1].


mass difference = 0.44g; temperature difference = 18C [1]
(i)
heat energy transferred to water = mct
= 100g 4.2Jg1C1 18C
= 7560J [1]
(ii)
7560J released when 0.44g of methanol is burned [1].
cH =

7560 J
0.44 g

= 17182Jg1 [1]
formula of methanol is CH3OH; formula mass of methanol is 12 + 16 + 4 = 32 [1]
cH = 17182Jg1 32gmol1
= 549818Jmol1
= 550kJmol1 [1]

(d)

(i)

100
75.8
= 726kJmol1

data book value = 550

OR
100
75.8
= 22.7kJg1 [1]
Heat is lost when the flame heats the surrounding air not the water in the calorimeter [1]; heat is
lost from the water in the calorimeter (temperature rise recorded on thermometer is too low) [1];
incomplete combustion of methanol (burns to produce carbon monoxide and soot, and does not
release full amount of energy) [1].

data book value = 17.2

(ii)

(a)

Calculated Mr of sulfamic acid = 97.1gmol1 [1].


Volumetric flask has a volume of 0.25dm3; so to make 0.1moldm3 solution requires 0.25 0.1mol.
Need to weigh out precisely 97.1 0.025 = 2.43g [1].
Record the actual measured mass (2.43g) and then dissolve fully in 100150cm3 of distilled water (in a
beaker) [1].
Transfer solution to volumetric flask. Rinse out beaker three times with distilled water and add the
washings to the volumetric flask. Make the volume up to exactly 250cm3 (meniscus sits on calibrated
line) [1].

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OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Practical skills in chemistry


1moldm3 KOH is too concentrated for direct titrimetric analysis, so an accurate 1 in 10 dilution must be
made, e.g. 25cm3 of KOH made up to 250cm3 of solution [1].
KOH solution placed into a burette and 25cm3 of standardised sulfamic acid solution added into a conical
flask by pipette. Suitable indicator added to conical flask, e.g. phenolphthalein [1].
Pipette and burette should be rinsed with appropriate solution prior to use to prevent unintended
dilution [1].
Titrate to the end point, firstly with a rough value, then with at least two concordant values [1].
HCl is a gas, which is more difficult to quantify when making a solution. This is compared to solid
sulfamic acid, which is easy to weigh to 2 d.p. [1]. In addition, sulfamic acid has a higher relative
molecular mass so the percentage error is smaller for a standard with higher RMM [1].
0.01
100 = 0.01% error for sulfamic acid
97.1
0.01
100 = 0.03% error for HCl
36.5

(a)

BaCl2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2HCl(aq)


correct formulae and correctly balanced [1]
correct state symbols [1]

(b)

2.57g of barium sulfate =

(c)

2.57
= 0.01101 moles [1]
233.4
balanced equations show that there must be an equal number of moles of H2SO4 in 100cm3 of acid [1]

(d)
(e)

1000
= 0.110moldm3 [1]
100
phenolphthalein (colourless to pink) or methyl orange (red to yellow) or any other suitable indicator [1]
H2SO4(aq) + 2NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)
correct formulae and correctly balanced [1]
correct state symbols [1]

(f)

number of moles of NaOH at end point =

so concentration of acid = 0.011

26.05
0.195
1000
= 5.08 103moles

this neutralised

5.08 103
= 2.54 103moles of H2SO4 in a volume of 25cm3
2

1000
25
3
= 0.102moldm to 3.d.p. [1]
Any six of the following points:
Method 1:
experiment done only once [1]
volumes measured with less accurate glassware [1]
precipitate could be lost during filtration [1]
Method 2:
glassware more precise [1]
mean titre based on concordant results, ensuring reliability [1]
and precision [1]
no loss of products during analysis [1]

concentration = 2.54 103

(g)

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MODULE

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry

2.1 Atoms and reactions


2.1.1 The changing atom (page 33)
1

Atoms are tiny, indivisible particles that make up elements.


All atoms of a given element are the same, but atoms of one element are different from those of every other
element.

Between 1897 and 1906, J.J.Thomson carried out experiments with cathode ray tubes that led to the discovery of
a new particle. It had very little mass, was negatively charged and could be deflected by electric and magnetic
fields. He called it an electron. He proposed the plum-pudding model, which considers atoms to be made up of
electrons moving around in a sea of positive charge. Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden carried out experiments
where they fired alpha particles at a sheet of very thin gold foil. If the plum-pudding model was correct, most of
these particles would pass through the foil. However, some particles were deflected through large angles and
some were completely deflected back to the source. This led the researchers to propose that:

an atom is nuclear

the positive charge of an atom and most of its mass are concentrated in a nucleus at the centre (this was
what caused the deflection of the alpha particles)

negative electrons orbit the nucleus, just as planets orbit the Sun

most of the volume of an atom is in the space between the tiny nucleus and the orbiting electrons (this is
why most alpha particles could pass through the foil)

the overall positive and negative charges must balance.

2.1.2 Atomic structure (page 35)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)

3p, 4n, 3e
11p, 13n, 11e
9p, 10n, 9e
26p, 30n, 26e
19p, 20n, 18e
9p, 10n, 10e
20p, 19n, 18e
8p, 9n, 10e

(a)

27
13

Al

(b)

34
16

S2

The two isotopes of carbon have different numbers of neutrons, but the same number of electrons. Only electrons
are involved in reactions, so both isotopes will behave in the same way.

2.1.3 Atomic masses (page 37)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

10.80
28.11
52.06

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

36.5
44.0
34.1
17.0
98.1

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(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry
159.6
62.0
331.2
132.1
310.3

2.1.4 Determining masses using mass spectrometry (page 39)


1

(a)
(b)

Li-6, Li-7
6.93

2.1.5 Ions and the periodic table (page 41)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

K+
I
Ca2+

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

CaI2
Li3N
Al2S3
Mg3P2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

NiCl2
Cu2O
FeCl3
Cr2O3
MnO3
TiCl4

(a)
(b)
(c)

Ca(OH)2
Fe2(SO4)3
(NH4)2SO4

2.1.6 Amount of substance and the mole (page 43)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

180.3g
79.8g
26.5g

(a)
(b)
(c)

0.170mol
0.150mol
0.030mol

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MODULE

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry

(a)
(b)

40gmol1
65gmol1

(a)
(b)

Ca or Ar
Zn

2.1.7 Types of formulae (page 45)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

ZnO
Al2O3
Ag2SO4

(a)
(b)
(c)

N 2O 4
C4H8O2
C6H12O6

C8H16

2.1.8 Moles and gas volumes (page 47)


1

(a)

(b)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

1.5mol
45mol
0.167mol
144dm3
6dm3
10.8dm3

(a)
(b)
(c)

0.7g
3.52g
0.154g

(a)
(b)
(c)

0.48dm3
1.32dm3
0.72dm3

375K, 102C

2.1.9 Moles and solutions (page 49)


1

(a)
(b)

8mol
3.75 103mol

(a)
(b)

3moldm3
0.175moldm3

(a)
(b)

10.584gdm3
13.969gdm3

3.99g CuSO4

2.1.10 Chemical equations (page 51)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

4Li(s) + O2(g) 2Li2O(s)


2Al(s) + 3Cl2(g) Al2Cl6(s)
2Al(s) + 3H2SO4(aq) Al2(SO4)3(aq) + 3H2(g)
C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(l)
Zn(s) + 4HNO3(aq) Zn(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l) + 2NO2(g)
3Cu(s) + 8HNO3(aq) 3Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 4H2O(l) + 2NO(g)

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(b)
(c)
(d)

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry
2Ca(s) + O2(g) 2CaO(s)
Mg(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)
2Pb(NO3)2(s) 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
Cu(s) + 2H2SO4(l) 2H2O(l) + CuSO4(aq) + SO2(g)

2.1.11 Moles and reactions (page 53)


1

(a)
(b)

2NaHCO3(s) Na2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


0.72dm3

(a)
(b)

2Pb(NO3)2(s) 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + 2O2(g)


0.461dm3

(a)
(b)

MgCO3(s) + 2HNO3 (aq) Mg(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)


(i)
0.72dm3
(ii)
0.600moldm3

2.1.12 Percentage yields (page 55)


1

98.5%

83.3%

2.1.13 Atom economy (page 57)


1

C3H7I + NaOH C3H7OH + NaI


Atom economy = 28.6%

76.3%

2.1.14 Acids and bases (page 59)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

H2SO4
HNO3
CH3COOH
KOH
Ca(OH)2
NH3

(a)
(b)
(c)

proton donor
proton acceptor
a soluble base, releasing OH(aq) ions.

Ammonia is able to react with acids because when dissolved in water, ammonia forms a weak alkaline solution.
The equation for this is as follows:
NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH4+(aq) + OH(aq)

2.1.15 Salts (page 61)


1

(a)

HCl + KOH KCl + H2O

(b)

2HNO3 + Ca(OH)2 Ca(NO3)2 + 2H2O

(c)

H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O

(d)

2HNO3 + MgCO3 Mg(NO3)2 + CO2 + H2O

(e)

2H3PO4 + 3Na2CO3 2Na3PO4 + 3CO2 + 3H2O

(f)

H2SO4 + CuO CuSO4 + H2O

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OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry

(a)

NH3 + HCl NH4Cl

(b)

2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4)2SO4

(c)

3NH3 + H3PO4 (NH4)3PO4

2.1.16 Formulae for crystals and salts (page 63)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

BaCl22H2O
ZnSO47H2O
Fe(NO3)36H2O

CaCl26H2O

2.1.17 Titrations (page 65)


1

0.137moldm3
This was calculated as follows:

Calculate number of moles of NaOH that reacted.


V
25.0
3
n=c
= 0.125
= 3.125 10
1000
1000

Calculate number of moles of HCl that must have been used.


HCl and NaOH react in a 1:1 ratio. Therefore, 3.125 103 moles of HCl must have been used.

Calculate concentration of HCl.


c=

n
3.125 10 3
=
= 0.137moldm3
V
22.75 cm 3

1000 1000

118gmol1
This was calculated as follows:

Calculate amount of moles of NaOH that reacted.


21.30
3
n = cV = 0.125
= 2.66 10 moles of NaOH
1000

Calculate number of moles of H2X that reacted.


NaOH and H2X react in a 2:1 ratio, therefore 2.66 103moles NaOH must have reacted with
1.33 103moles H2X.

Calculate the number of moles in the solution of H2X.


25cm3 contained 1.33 103moles H2X; therefore 250cm3 contained 0.0133moles

Calculate molar mass of H2X.


Mr =

mass
1.571
=
= 118gmol1
number of moles 0.0133

2.1.18 Oxidation numbers (page 67)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)

K: 0
Br2: 0
N: 3, H: +1
Ca: +2, F: 1
Al: +3, O: 2
N: +5, O: 2
P: +5, O: 2

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MODULE

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

+1
+5
2
+5
+3

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

Cl: +5
S: +4
Mn: +7
Mn: +6
Cr: +6

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

ClO2
ClO4
PO33
CrO42

2.1.19 Redox reactions (page 69)


1

(a)

(i)

Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2

(b)

(ii)
(i)
(ii)

2Al + 3H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2


Fe has been oxidised from 0 to +2; H has been reduced from +1 to 0.
Al has been oxidised from 0 to +3; H has been reduced from +1 to 0.

(a)
(b)
(c)

Br has been oxidised from 1 to 0; Cl has been reduced from 0 to 1.


S has been oxidised from +4 to +6; O has been reduced from 0 to 2.
Br has been oxidised from 1 to 0; S has been reduced from +6 to +4.

Chapter 2.1 Practice questions


1

B [1]

C [1]

B [1]

D [1]

(a)

Relative molecular mass SiO2 = 28.1 + 16 + 16 = 60.1


50 106
= 8.32 105 moles [1]
60.1
From the equation, need 8.32 105 2 moles of C = 1.66 106 moles
minimum mass needed 1.66 106 12 = 2.00 107g = 20 tonnes of C [1]

50 tonnes SiO2 =

(b)
(c)

28.1
100 = 33% [1]
84.1
number of moles of CO = number of moles of C = 1.66 106moles [1]
volume 1.66 106 24 = 3.99 107dm3 [1]

atom economy =

5
= 0.208(3) moles [1]
24
relative molecular mass NaCl = 58.5; relative molecular mass H2SO4 = 98.1 [1]
NaCl: need 0.2083 58.5 = 12.19g [1]
conc. H2SO4: need 0.2083 98.1 = 20.4g [1]

5dm3 of HCl =

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(a)

(b)
(c)

(a)
(b)

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry

0.54
4.8
= 0.02moles; 4.8g of Br =
= 0.06moles [1]
27
79.9
empirical formula = AlBr3 [1]
2Al + 3Br2 2AlBr3
correct formulae [1]; correctly balanced [1]
empirical molecular formula = 27 + (3 79.9) = 266.7
molecular formula = 2 empirical formula (rounded to nearest gmol1)
molecular formula is Al2Br6 [1]

0.54g of Al =

Ca(s) + 2H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) [accept (s) for ppt formed] + H2(g)


all formulae for reactants and products correct [1]; correctly balanced [1]; state symbols correct [1]
1.95
= 0.08125mol [1]
24
reaction ratio from equation is 1:1 so 0.08125 40.1 = 3.258g of Ca [1]

1.95dm3 of H2 =

3.258
100 = 93% pure [1]
3.50
impurity might be calcium carbonate, CaCO3 [1]; due to Ca reacting with oxygen and CO2 in air [1]

thus 3.258 of Ca in 3.50g of impure sample is


(c)
9

(a)
(b)

151 47.77 153 52.23

[1]
100
100

(d)

= 152.04 [1]
151
(i)
Eu has two fewer neutrons (88 for 151Eu, 90 for 153Eu) [1]
(ii)
both have 63 protons in nucleus and 63 electrons [1]
Xe has a larger atomic radius so the outer shell electrons are further away from the nucleus [1]
there is also an extra full shell of electrons that shields the outer shell electrons from the nucleus [1]
and this more than outweighs the increased nuclear charge for Xe and thus the first ionisation energy for
Xe is less than that for Ne [1]

(a)

(i)

(c)

10

the mass of a specified isotope of a given element [1]; measured on a scale in which
one-twelfth of 12C = 1 atomic mass unit [1]

(ii)

(iii)
(b)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(c)

(i)
(ii)

Calcium nitrate is produced by a neutralisation reaction (between an acid and a base), which makes
it a salt [1].
Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HNO3(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) + 2H2O(l)
all formulae for reactants and products [1]
correctly balanced and state symbols correct [1]
OH can accept an H+ ion from HNO3 [1]
25.00
0.088 = 2.20 103mol (of NaOH) [1]
1000
equation shows 1:2 ratio, so 1.10 103 moles H2SO4 used [1]
1000
= 0.0625moldm3 [1]
17.60
water of crystallisation [1]
molar mass Na2SO4 = (2 23.0) + 32.1 + (16.0 4)
= 142.1gmol1
molar mass Na2SO4xH2O = 322.1gmol1
xH2O = 322.1 142.1 = 180.0 [1]
molar mass H2O = 18.0, so x = 10 [1]
1.10 103

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2
(a)

(b)

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry

(i)

MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)


reactants and products correct, balanced and state symbols [1]
(ii)
MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)
reactants and products correct, balanced and state symbols [1]
Divide sample into approximately four equal samples (about 5g each) to allow for repetition of
experiments [1].
Weigh first sample accurately to nearest 0.01g [1].
React sample with excess HCl and collect volume of gas given off in gas syringe: [1]

(Flask could be divided so that reaction can be started by inverting with bung on.)
Collect volume of gas at RTP. Convert volume of gas to moles, from which number of moles and
therefore mass of MgCO3 in mixture can be calculated [1].
By subtraction from original mass, the mass of MgO can be calculated [1].

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OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry

2.2 Electrons, bonding and structure


2.2.1 Shells and orbitals (page 77)
1

n = 1: 2 electrons
n = 2: 8 electrons
n = 3: 18 electrons
n = 4: 32 electrons

(a)
(b)
(c)

Electrons possess a property called spin. Electrons can pair up in an orbital only when they have opposite spin.

A region in space that can hold up to two electrons.


2
s: 1; p: 3; d: 5

2.2.2 Sub-shells and energy levels (page 79)


1

H: 1s1
He: 1s2
Li: 1s22s1
Be: 1s22s2
B: 1s22s22p1
C: 1s22s22p2
N: 1s22s22p3
O: 1s22s22p4
F: 1s22s22p5
Ne: 1s22s22p6

Fe2+ would have the following electronic configuration:


1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d4

2.2.3 An introduction to chemical bonding (page 81)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

ionic
ionic
covalent
ionic
covalent
covalent

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(a) and (d) do not obey the Octet rule.


H2 does not follow the Octet rule. Each hydrogen atom only has two electrons around it, not the eight described
in the Octet rule. Each hydrogen has achieved the noble gas configuration of helium, however, so has still
obtained stability.
BF3 does not follow the Octet rule. Each fluorine atom has obtained eight electrons around it after bonding.
Boron, however, only has its own three electrons and three shared with fluorine, so giving six electrons in total
in its outer shell. It has obtained as many extra electrons as possible.

2.2.4 Ionic bonding (page 83)


1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

K: 1s22s22p63s23p64s1

K+: 1s22s22p63s23p6

(b)

Ca: 1s22s22p63s23p64s2

Ca2+: 1s22s22p63s23p6

(c)

S: 1s22s22p63s23p4

S2: 1s22s22p63s23p6

(d)

Al: 1s22s22p63s23p1

Al3+: 1s22s22p6

(e)

N: 1s22s22p3

N3: 1s22s22p6

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Foundations in chemistry

2.2.5 Structures of ionic compounds (page 85)


1

NaCl is an ionic substance, as it involves a metal bonded to a non-metal. CCl4 involves two non-metals and is a
covalent substance. Ionic substances exist as giant ionic lattices. Because the ions all surround themselves with
oppositely charged ions, there is a huge amount of electrostatic force to overcome in order to melt or boil the
substance. This means giant ionic substances have high melting and boiling points.

When solid, the ions have fixed positions in a giant ionic lattice. As the ions are unable to move, the solid cannot
conduct electricity. When molten or aqueous, the ions have broken free from the lattice and are able to move and
therefore conduct electricity.

Water has polar molecules which attract the charged ions in an ionic lattice. This attraction weakens the ionic
bonds and the ions are pulled free from the lattice. Eventually, the ions become surrounded by water molecules.

2.2.6 Covalent bonding (page 87)


1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

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Foundations in chemistry

(c)

(d)

The N=O bond is stronger as it has a higher bond enthalpy value.

2.2.7 Dative covalent bonding (page 89)


1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

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Foundations in chemistry

(c)

(d)

2.2.8 Structures of covalent compounds (page 91)


1

(a)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

NaCl: giant ionic lattice


SiO2: giant covalent lattice
Br2: simple molecule
C2H5OH: simple molecule

(b)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

NaCl: high
SiO2: high
Br2: low
C2H5OH: low, but higher than hydrocarbons of similar molecular mass
NaCl: poor as solid conducts when molten or in solution
SiO2: poor
Br2: poor
C2H5OH: poor
NaCl: good in polar solvents
SiO2: insoluble in polar and non-polar solvents
Br2: good in non-polar solvents
C2H5OH: good in polar and non-polar solvents

(c)

(d)

Substance A: giant covalent lattice


Substance B: simple molecule
Substance C: giant ionic lattice

2.2.9 Shapes of molecules and ions (page 93)


1

(a)

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(b)

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

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(c)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

2.2.10 Electronegativity and bond polarity (page 95)


1

(a)

(b)

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Foundations in chemistry

(c)

(d)
(e)

(f)

(a)
(b)

BF3: trigonal planar (three bonded pairs);


PF3: pyramidal (three bonded pairs and one lone pair).
In BF3, there are polar bonds but the molecule has a symmetrical trigonal planar shape. Over the whole
molecule, the dipoles cancel out. Overall, the molecule is non-polar.
In PF3, there are polar bonds but the molecule has an unsymmetrical pyramidal shape. Over the whole
molecule, there is an overall dipole, so the molecule is polar.

H2O: non-linear (two bonded pairs and two lone pairs);


CO2: linear (two double bonds).
In CO2, there are polar bonds but the molecule has a symmetrical linear shape. Over the whole molecule, the
dipoles cancel out and the molecule is non-polar. In H2O, there are polar bonds but the molecule has an
unsymmetrical non-linear shape. Over the whole molecule, there is an overall dipole, so the molecule is polar.

(a)
(b)

SF6 would have an octahedral shape (six bonded pairs).


The molecule will be non-polar. Each SF bond is polar, as F is more electronegative than S. However,
the molecule is symmetrical and so the dipoles present in each SF bond cancel out, meaning there is no
overall dipole.

2.2.11 Intermolecular forces (page 97)


1

Permanent dipoledipole forces arise when a molecule with a permanent dipole is attracted to another molecule
with a permanent dipole. The opposite ends of the dipoles are attracted to each other, just like bar magnets.
Induced dipoleinduced dipole interactions occur in a molecule when the electron cloud naturally oscillates,
creating instantaneous dipoles. These induce dipoles in neighbouring molecules. The molecules with induced
dipoles attract one another.

Moving from F2 to I2, the number of electrons increases.


With more electrons, any instantaneous and induced dipoles are greater, increasing the strength of the London
(dispersion) forces between the molecules. The more energy that is required to break the London forces, the
higher the boiling point. As the strength of the London forces increases in the order F2<Cl2<Br2<I2, the boiling
points also increase.

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Foundations in chemistry

2.2.12 Hydrogen bonding (page 99)


1

HF, CH3OH and CH3NH2.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Chapter 2.2 Practice questions


1

C [1]

D [1]

C [1]

B [1]

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2
(a)

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Foundations in chemistry

Electronegativity measures the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons [1] in a covalent
bond [1].

(b)

(c)

(i)
(ii)

[1]
octahedral [1]

[1]

(iii)
6

[1]
BF3 has three pairs of electrons around the central B atom. Using electron pair repulsion theory,
these pairs move as far apart as possible, giving a planar structure with bond angles of 120 [1].
NH3 has four pairs of electrons around the central N atom, including a lone pair. Using electron
pair repulsion theory, these pairs move as far apart as possible, giving a tetrahedral structure with
bond angles of 107.5 [1].
The bond angles are compressed from 107.5 (the normal tetrahedral angle) because the lone pair
repels slightly more than the bonding pairs [1].
Each bond is polar, with the B being + and each F being [1].
The overall structure is symmetrical so the three bond dipoles cancel out [1].

The group 17 halides are simple molecular compounds [1].


Boiling occurs when the intermolecular bonds are broken and the molecules become separate gaseous
molecules [1].
They have strong intramolecular covalent bonds but weak intermolecular van der Waals forces [1].
As the group is descended the halide atom gains electrons and the van der Waals forces increase, so the boiling
point increases from HCl to HBr to HI [1].
HF also has intermolecular hydrogen bonds arising from the polar nature of the HF bonds.
These
hydrogen bonds are much stronger and so require more energy to break, hence the considerably higher than
expected boiling point [1].

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

N (1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1) [1]


Co2+ or Ni3+ (both 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3d5 4s2) [1]
Cl [1]
Ca2+ [1]
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 [1]

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Foundations in chemistry

(a)

[1] covalent [1]


(b)

[1] ionic [1]


(c)

[1] ionic [1]


(d)

[1] covalent [1]


9

(a)

(b)

Carbon dioxide forms simple molecules [1]. Bonding within a carbon dioxide molecule is strong covalent
bonding. Bonding between carbon dioxide molecules is weak van der Waals forces. Only small amounts
of energy are needed to break the van der Waals forces, so carbon dioxide is a gas at room temperature
[1].
Silicon dioxide, SiO2, forms a giant covalent lattice [1]. The giant covalent lattice is held together by a
regular three-dimensional structure formed by covalent bonds. All these bonds would need to be broken
for silicon dioxide to melt; as a result, the melting point is very high [1].
It is the intramolecular forces that need to be broken when a substance boils. The intramolecular forces in
bromine are weak van der Waals forces [1]. The relatively large Br2 molecules will have quite extensive
van der Waals forces and so bromine is a liquid at room temperature [1]. Water is a smaller molecule.
However, the difference in electronegativity between the oxygen atoms and the hydrogen atoms leads to
intramolecular hydrogen bonds between water molecules [1]. The hydrogen bonds require more energy to
break and so the boiling point of water is higher than expected based only on its molecular mass [1].

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The periodic table and energy

3.1 The periodic table


3.1.1 The development of the periodic table (page 107)
1

(a)

(b)
(c)

Zn(25) and Y(24); Ce/La(33) and Zr(32)


U(40) and Sn(39); Te(43) and I(42)
Tl(53), Pb(54), Th(56), Hg(52), Bi(55) and Os(51)
Relative atomic mass (Newlands referred to this as atomic weight)
Rows: groups; columns: periods.

Gallium, scandium and germanium.

(a)

(b)

Ar (39.9) before K (39.1)


Co (58.9) before Ni (58.7)
Te (127.6) before I (126.9)
The number of protons in the nucleus the atomic number.

3.1.2 The modern periodic table (page 109)


1

The table demonstrates variations in properties that occur within each period hence the name periodic table.

(a)

(b)

Across each period (and for the entire periodic table), for each successive element, there is one more
electron in the outer shell.
Each element in a group has the same outer shell configuration, but with each successive element in a
group an extra shell is used, i.e. the energy level the outer electrons are found at increases by one each
time.

(a)
(b)

Each group 2 element has two electrons in its outer shell: ns2, and forms a 2+ ion.
Each group 17 element has seven electrons in its outer shell: ns2np5, and forms a 1 ion.

3.1.3 Electrons and the periodic table (page 111)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

s-block
p-block
d-block
f-block

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)

1s22s22p63s23p1
1s22s22p63s23p2
1s22s22p63s23p4
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d1
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d7
1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10

(a)
(b)
(c)

[Ne]3s2
[Xe]6s2
[Ne]3s23p5

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The periodic table and energy

3.1.4 Evidence for electron shells (page 113)


1

Cl(g) Cl+(g) + e

Cl3+(g) Cl4+(g) + e

Jumps will occur when electrons begin to be removed from a different shell, e.g. when the outer shell has been
emptied and the electrons are then taken from the next shell. In the case of aluminium, a jump will occur
between the third and fourth successive ionisation energies, when the three outer electrons have been removed
and the fourth electron is removed from the next shell. A large jump would then be seen between the eleventh
and twelfth successive ionisation energies, as this represents the next shell being emptied and an electron being
removed from the n=1 shell.
3

The graph of the values should be similar to this:

There is a large increase between the fourth and fifth ionisation energies, showing that the fifth electron is
removed from a different shell closer to the nucleus, i.e. four electrons are found in the first shell. The element is
in group 4 and must be Si.

3.1.5 Periodicity: ionisation energies and atomic radii (page 115)


1

Ionisation energy shows a general increase across each period.


Across each period, the number of protons increases, so there is more nuclear attraction acting on the electrons.
Electrons are added to the same shell, so the nuclear attraction draws the outer shell inwards slightly.
There is the same number of inner shells and so electron shielding will hardly change.
The increased nuclear charge is the most significant factor.
There are small decreases in first ionisation energy seen between groups 2 and 3 and again between groups 5 and
6. Between groups 2 and 3 this is due to the outermost electron being in a p-orbital, which is at a slightly higher
energy level than the s-orbital used by group 2 outer electrons, and so slightly easier to remove. Between groups
5 and 6, this is due to the outermost electron being spin-paired and experiencing some repulsion, which makes it
slightly easier to remove.

Ionisation energy shows a general decrease down each group.


The number of shells increases. The distance of the outer electrons from the nucleus increases, increasing the
atomic radius. There is a weaker force of attraction on the outer electrons.
There are more inner shells, so the electrons are more effectively shielded from the nuclear charge. Again, there
is less attraction. The number of protons in the nucleus also increases, but the resulting increased attraction is far
outweighed by the increase in distance between the nucleus and the outer electrons (i.e. the resulting atomic
radius) and shielding.

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The periodic table and energy

3.1.6 Metallic bonding and structure (page 117)


1

Metallic bonding is the attraction between positive ions (cations) and negatively charged delocalised electrons.
The positive ions attract all the electrons as a whole.

The delocalised electrons can move freely within the metallic lattice, allowing the metal to conduct electricity.

All positive ions present in the lattice attract all the electrons present. This is a huge attractive force and hence a
large amount of energy is needed to overcome this when melting or boiling the substance.

In metallic bonding, the electrons are delocalised. It is impossible to see which electrons belong to which
positive ions. They are able to move freely within the lattice.
In a covalent bond, the electrons are paired and shared between two atoms. The bonded pair of electrons is
localised they cannot move freely.
Both giant covalent and giant metallic lattices exhibit high melting and boiling points, but only metals (i.e. with
metallic bonding) can conduct electricity.

3.1.7 Periodicity: melting points (page 119)


1

Carbon has a giant covalent structure with strong covalent bonds between the atoms in this structure. So, a large
amount of energy is required to break these strong forces, resulting in a high melting point. Nitrogen has a
simple molecular structure with weak van der Waals forces between the N2 molecules in this structure. So, a
small amount of energy is required to break these weak forces, resulting in a low melting point.

The metallic structure of aluminium is made from Al3+ ions and delocalised electrons. The metallic structure of
magnesium is made from Mg2+ ions and delocalised electrons. Al3+ ions are smaller than Mg2+ ions. In
aluminium, the attraction between the smaller, more positively charged ions and the greater number of
delocalised electrons means that a larger amount of energy is required to break these strong metallic bonds than
those in magnesium, resulting in a higher melting point.

From group 1 to group 14, atoms of each element are held together in giant structures by strong bonds, either
metallic or covalent. From group 15, molecules no longer exist in giant structures and so are simple molecular
structures. Individual molecules are held together by weak intermolecular forces, which are so weak that at an
average room temperature they will be overcome completely to allow the elements to become gaseous.

Element X = carbon. This is the element in period 2 that would have the highest melting point, as it is the
element with the highest number of electrons in its outer shell that still exists as a giant structure.
Element Y = neon. This is the element in period 2 with the lowest melting point. The next element shows an
increase in melting point, showing the general increase typical of groups 14.
Element Z = silicon. This is the element in period 3 that would have the highest melting point, as it is the
element with the highest number of electrons in its outer shell that still exists as a giant structure.

3.1.8 Group 2 elements: redox reactions (page 121)


1

(a)
(b)

Mg has changed from 0 to +2; H has changed from +1 to 0.


Mg has been oxidised; H has been reduced.

(a)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(i)
(ii)

(b)
3

Ba + 2H2O Ba(OH)2 + H2
2Sr + O2 2SrO
Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)
Ba has been oxidised from 0 to +2; H has been reduced from +1 to 0.
Sr has been oxidised from 0 to +2; O has been reduced from 0 to 2.

Magnesium is less reactive than calcium because its electrons are in a shell that is closer to the nucleus, and thus
experience less shielding and more positive pull. It has an ionisation energy value (first and second) which is
greater than that of calcium. This means it is easier for calcium to lose its outer electrons, so it is more reactive.

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The periodic table and energy

3.1.9 Group 2 compounds: reactions (page 123)


1

(a)

(b)
2

(a)
(b)
(c)

The metal oxide reacts with water to form a metal hydroxide:


MO(s) + H2O(l) M(OH)2(aq)
This metal hydroxide is soluble in water. When it dissolves it releases OH ions into the water, giving an
alkaline solution with a pH of between 10 and 12.
As you move down the group, the hydroxides become more soluble; this results in more OH ions being
present and a higher, more alkaline, pH.
BaO + 2HCl BaCl2 + H2O
CaO + 2HNO3 Ca(NO3)2 + H2O
CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2

3.1.10 Group 17: The halogens (page 125)


1

The state changes from gas, to liquid, to solid down the group. This is because the amount of electrons increases
with each successive group member causing greater London intermolecular forces. This increases the boiling
point of each element.
The reactivity decreases down the group. This is because the atomic radius increases, the electron shielding
increases and the ability to gain an electron into the p sub-shell and form 1 ions decreases. These factors result
in each successive group member being less able to oxidise other elements.

The potassium bromide is a source of Br ions. The potassium can be excluded from the ionic equation. This
gives an equation of:
Cl2(aq) + 2Br(aq) 2Cl(aq) + Br2(aq)
The bromine molecules that become displaced would be observed as pale orange in water and deeper orange in
cyclohexane.

6NaOH(aq) + 3Cl2(aq) 5NaCl + NaClO3 + 3H2O


0
1
+5
Chlorine has been reduced from 0 to 1 in the NaCl
Chlorine has been oxidised from 0 to +5 in the NaClO3
As chlorine has been both oxidised and reduced, this is a disproportionation reaction.

3.1.11 Testing for ions (page 127)


1

Substance A = potassium bromide. The substance produced a cream precipitate with silver nitrate that was
soluble in concentrated NH3(aq), which is a characteristic of Br ions.
Substance B = calcium carbonate. The substance produced a gas when reacted with acid; this gas turned
limewater cloudy, showing it is CO2.
Substance C = ammonium sulfate. The substance produced a gas that turned red litmus paper blue when tested
with cold NaOH(aq), which is a characteristic of ammonia gas produced from ammonium ions. The substance
also produced a white precipitate of BaSO4, when tested with barium chloride, showing it contained sulfate ions.
Substance D = ammonium chloride. The substance produced a gas that turned red litmus paper blue when tested
with cold NaOH(aq), which is a characteristic of ammonia gas produced from ammonium ions. The substance
also produced a white precipitate, when tested with silver nitrate, soluble in dilute NH3(aq), which shows it
contained chloride ions.

Ag+(aq) + Cl(aq) AgCl(s)


Substance D has been identified as ammonium chloride, NH4Cl. The NH4+ ions from this substance and the NO3
ions from the silver nitrate do not need to be included in the ionic equation.

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The periodic table and energy

Chapter 3.1 Practice questions


1

A [1]

D [1]

D [1]

B [1]

(a)

(i)

from the equation, need 2 7.50 103mol HCl = 0.015mol [1]


number of moles
0.015 mol

= 0.075dm3 = 75cm3 [1]


concentration
0.200 mol dm 3
7.50 103mol CaCO3 produces 7.50 103mol CO2(g)
so 7.50 103 24dm3 = 0.18dm3 = 180cm3 [1]

volume =
(ii)

(b)
(c)
6

(a)

(b)

(a)

CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)


correct formulae [1] correct state symbols [1]
(i)
Ca(OH)2 [1]
(ii)
Ca(NO3)2 [1]
The reactivity of the group 2 elements with chlorine increases as you go down the group [1].
The reaction between a group 2 element and chlorine can be given in a general reaction:
M + Cl2 MCl2 [1]
This is a redox reaction, in which M forms the M2+ ion [1].
The first and second ionisation energies decrease down the group [1].
This is because the outer electrons that are lost to form M2+ are further from the nucleus and are shielded
by an increasing number of inner electron shells [1].
(i)
nitric acid, followed by silver nitrate [1]
(ii)
a yellow precipitate (of silver iodide) would show that an iodide is present [1]
(iii) Ag+(aq) + I(aq) AgI(s) [1]
(iv) conc. NH3 [1] (A mixture of CaBr2 and CaI2 will give a mixture of AgBr(s) and AgI(s). Adding
conc. NH3 would dissolve the cream AgBr(s) formed, leaving the yellow AgI as the only
precipitate.)
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

(b)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g)


correct formulae [1] correct state symbols [1]
Cl2(aq) + 2KI(aq) 2KCl(aq) + I2(s)
correct formulae and correctly balanced [1] correct state symbols [1] (iodine will precipitate out)
Cl2(g) + H2O(l) HCl(aq) + HOCl(aq)
correct formulae [1] correct state symbols [1]
AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)
correct formulae [1] correct state symbols [1]
reaction (ii) and reaction (iv) [1] (as iodine is precipitated out of reaction (ii)).
reaction (iii) [1]
reaction (ii) or reaction (iii) [1]

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8

3
(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

The periodic table and energy

For a substance to boil, the intermolecular bonds must be broken. An increase in the boiling point is an
indication of increased strength of the intermolecular bonds [1].
The intermolecular bonds in the diatomic halogens are van der Waals forces [1].
These increase with an increase in the size of the molecules, as larger molecules have larger numbers of
electrons [1].
As you go down group 2 the number of positive charges in the nucleus increases, the atomic radius
increases and the number of electron shells increases. The increase in the nuclear charge would tend to
increase the first ionisation energy, but the other two factors both act to decrease the first ionisation
energy [1].
Considering Mg and Ca: Mg has two electron shells and so the electron that is lost is held tightly by the
nucleus. The electron to be lost from Ca is in the third electron shell and so is shielded by two inner
electron shells, meaning that the ionisation energy is reduced [1].
Also, the electron to be lost is further from the nucleus as you move down the group as the atomic radius
increases down the group [1].
Ba(s) + 2H2O(l) Ba(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)
correct formulae and correctly balanced [1]
correct state symbols [1]
Ar Ba = 137.3gmol1
2.53g of Ba =

2.53 g
= 0.0184mol [1]
137.3 g mol1

350cm3 of gas at STP =


percentage purity

0.350
= 0.0156mol [1]
22.4

actual yield
100
theoretical yield

0.0156

100
0.0184

[1]

= 84.8% [1]
10

Reaction is MgCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) [1]


React MgCO3 (a solid) with HCl (dilute acid) in a beaker until no more gas is produced and some MgCO3
remains unreacted/undissolved (it is insoluble in water) [1].
Filter the solution, discard the solid residue and collect the filtrate (MgCl2) [1].
Use a filter funnel, filter paper and beaker [1].
Gently heat the filtrate until crystals start to form when you put a cold glass rod into the solution [1].
Use a beaker, Bunsen burner, tripod and gauze [1].
Remove the solution from heat, pour it onto a crystallising dish and cover lightly (to protect from dust) [1].
Allow the rest of the water to evaporate [1].

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The periodic table and energy

3.2 Physical chemistry


3.2.1 Enthalpy and reactions (page 135)
1

Enthalpy, H, is the thermal energy that is stored in a chemical system. Chemists usually monitor energy changes
in reactions by monitoring heat energy, known as enthalpy. This form of energy can be monitored by measuring
temperature changes. Other energy changes may be observed during reactions but are usually harder to measure.
Energy can relate to many different aspects of a situation, such as heat or light, or potential energy. Enthalpy
specifically describes the heat content of reactions. Reactions can be monitored and classified according to the
heat changes that occur, i.e. the enthalpy changes.

A reaction is exothermic if the total enthalpy of the products is less than the total enthalpy of the reactants.
A reaction is endothermic if the total enthalpy of the products is greater than the total enthalpy of the reactants.

Photosynthesis is an endothermic process, meaning it requires an input of energy. The energy for the process
comes predominantly from sunlight, which is only available in daytime hours.

3.2.2 Enthalpy profile diagrams (page 137)


1

This is an exothermic reaction because the products are at a lower energy than the reactants. The extra energy is
lost to the surroundings. This is shown by the negative enthalpy value.
2

This is an endothermic reaction because the products are at a higher energy than the reactants. The extra energy
is taken from the surroundings. This is shown by the positive enthalpy value.

3.2.3 Enthalpy terms (page 139)


1

(a)
(b)

C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)


C3H6(g) + 4O2(g) 3CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)

(a)
(b)

C(s) + 2H2(g) CH4(g)


C(s) + 2H2(g) + O2(g) CH3OH(l)

H2SO4(aq) + NaOH(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + H2O(l)

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The periodic table and energy

3.2.4 Calorimetry (page 141)


1

436.81kJmol1

2581.1kJmol1

3.2.5 Bond enthalpies (page 143)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

241.5kJmol1
21kJmol1
1517kJmol1
46.5kJmol1

3.2.6 Hess law and enthalpy cycles (page 145)


1

(a)
(b)

129kJmol1
279kJmol1

(a)
(b)

114kJmol1
1172kJmol1

3.2.7 Collision theory and rates of reaction (page 147)


1

(a)
(b)

When the concentration of a reactant is increased, there are more molecules in the same volume. More
collisions can take place in a certain length of time and the rate of reaction increases.
When the pressure of a gas is increased, the same number of molecules occupies a smaller volume. There
will be more frequent collisions and the rate of reaction will increase.

(a)

The gradient at 2 minutes =

(b)

6.0 cm
= 0.05cm3s1
120 seconds

The gradient at 8 minutes = 0cm3s1


The rate at t = 2 is 5 105moldm3s1
The rate at t = 8 is 0.0moldm3s1

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The periodic table and energy

3.2.8 Catalysts (page 149)


1

A catalyst lowers the activation energy by providing an alternative route for the reaction to follow.

The chlorine radicals would be classed as a homogeneous catalyst because the chlorine radicals and the ozone
molecules are both gaseous.

3.2.9 The Boltzmann distribution (page 151)


1

The activation energy is the energy required to start a reaction by breaking bonds. Only the molecules with
energy greater than the activation energy, Ea, are able to react.

An increase in temperature increases the reaction rate. The molecules move faster with more kinetic energy,
resulting in more collisions in a certain length of time. As the molecules have more energy, more of the
collisions exceed the activation energy and lead to a chemical reaction.

(a)

(b)

The Boltzmann distribution curve would not change because the energies of the molecules would remain
the same. The activation energy would be lowered by the catalyst, meaning that more particles would
automatically be at an energy level above the activation energy. So, the number of particles colliding at or
above the activation energy would increase and the rate of reaction would increase.

(c)

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The periodic table and energy

3.2.10 Chemical equilibrium (page 153)


1

Increasing the concentration of chloride ions causes the position of equilibrium to move in the direction that
opposes this increased concentration change. The system opposes the change by decreasing the concentration of
chloride ions. The position of equilibrium moves to the right-hand side, forming more products. You would
observe the pale blue colour of [Cu(H2O)6]2+ fading and being replaced by the yellow colour of [CuCl4]2. In
practice, the equilibrium colour will be green (blue and yellow), and the colour will turn from blue/green to
green/yellow.

(a)

(b)

Increasing the total pressure shifts the position of equilibrium to the side with fewer gas molecules, as this
will decrease the pressure. In this equilibrium, there are nine moles of gas on the left-hand side and ten
moles of gas on the right-hand side. The equilibrium position will move towards the reactants on the
left-hand side, NH3(g) and O2(g).
Removing NO(g) reduces its concentration and causes the position of equilibrium to move in the direction
that replaces the NO(g) concentration. The position of equilibrium moves to the right-hand side forming
more products, NO(g) and H2O(g).

3.2.11 Equilibrium and industry (page 155)


1

Increasing the temperature of the system causes the position of equilibrium to shift to oppose the change. It will
therefore move in the direction that decreases the temperature, the endothermic direction. In this reaction, the
equilibrium moves to the right (H = +132kJmol1). The equilibrium mixture will contain more CO(g) and
H2(g) and less C(s) and H2O(g).

(a)

(b)
(c)

The equilibrium will oppose the change by increasing the pressure. This will be achieved by moving the
equilibrium position to the side with a greater number of moles. As there are three moles on the left-hand
side for every two moles on the right-hand side, the equilibrium moves to the left, towards SO2(g) and
O2(g).
High pressure and low temperature.
A catalyst does not affect the equilibrium position. A catalyst speeds up both the forward and reverse
reactions, so equilibrium is achieved more quickly.

3.2.12 The equilibrium constant, Kc (page 157)


1

(a)

Kc =

[NO 2 (g )]2
[NO(g )]2 [O 2 (g)]

(b)

Kc =

[HBr(g )]2
[H 2 (g )] [Br2 (g)]

(c)

Kc =

[NH 3 (g)]2
[N 2 (g )] [H 2 (g)]3

(a)

Kc =

[NH 3 (g)]2
= 7.99 102dm6mol2
[N 2 (g )] [H 2 (g)]3

(b)

The Kc value is greater than 1. This means the equilibrium favours the products. NH3 will predominate in
the equilibrium.

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The periodic table and energy

Chapter 3.2 Practice questions


1

D [1]

A [1]

B [1]

D [1]

(a)

(i)
(ii)

A reaction in which energy enters the system (from the surroundings) [1].
+33kJmol1 [1]

(b)

(i)
(ii)

(c)
(d)

2NO(g) added as product, line is above starting materials [1]


graph line to a peak and falls back to product, with arrow from level of starting materials to peak
on graph marked as Ea [1]
(iii) arrow to products from level of starting materials, marked as H [1]
Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for the reactants to react [1].
(i)
Rate of forward reaction slows down and rate of backward reaction speeds up [1]; until rate of
forward reaction is the same as the rate of the backward reaction [1].
(ii)
Reaction is faster [1]; because increasing the pressure means more particles per unit volume (more
crowded/concentrated) [1]; so there are more collisions per second (higher collision
frequency/collisions more often) [1].
Changes of pressure do not change the (position of) equilibrium [1]; as both sides of equation have
same number of moles of gas [1].
(iii) A car engine is not a closed system [1].

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The periodic table and energy

[1]
At a particular temperature, molecules have a range of energies. Only those with an energy above the activation
energy (Ea) will react [1].

[1]
At a higher temperature, where T2 is 10C greater than T1, the energy profile changes slightly [1].
The peak moves a little to the right but is at a lower height, and a much greater proportion (perhaps double) have
an energy that exceeds Ea. As a result, a 10C increase in temperature can result in the rate of reaction doubling
[1].
7

(a)

The standard enthalpy of combustion is the energy change that takes place when one mole of a substance
[1] is completely combusted [1] in oxygen under standard conditions and with everything in its standard
state [1].

(b)

(c)

(d)

correct formulae [1]; correctly balanced [1]


cH (CH3OH) = fH (CH3OH) + fH (CO2) + fH (2H2O) [1]
= (239) + (394) + 2 + (286) [1]
= 727kJmol1 [1]
Standard bond enthalpies are an average and are not specific to these specific molecules [1].

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(a)

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The periodic table and energy

A catalyst provides an alternative route for the reaction to follow that has a lower activation energy
meaning more particles have sufficient energy to react and so the rate of reaction is increased [1].
A catalyst speeds up the achievement of equilibrium but does not alter the position of equilibrium. In an
industrial process this means that more product can be made in a particular time [1].
A catalyst also reduces the energy demand of an industrial process, which reduces process costs and
reduces the environmental impact [1].

(b)

(c)

Therefore, it is likely that all industrial processes would use a catalyst [1].
The reaction is endothermic (H is positive) so a high temperature favours the forward reaction
(le Chateliers principle) [1].
There is a balance to be struck between the increase in the rate caused by a high temperature and the cost
of running an industrial process at a high temperature. A different process could use a lower temperature
[1].
A high pressure favours the backward reaction as the right-hand side has more molecules compared with
the left-hand side [1].
However, a high pressure also speeds up the achievement of equilibrium as it makes the system more
concentrated [1].
A different industrial process may work at a lower pressure, which would lead to more product, but at a
slower rate [1].
However, the cost of the reaction vessels would be much reduced if a lower pressure was used [1].

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Core organic chemistry

4.1 Basic concepts and hydrocarbons


4.1.1 Naming organic chemicals (page 167)
1

Similarities: both are hydrocarbons, both aliphatic, both contain sigma bonds, both have the same number of
carbon atoms. Differences: ethene has a -bond, ethene has two less hydrogen atoms.

(a)

trichloromethane; CHCl3

(b)

butanal; C4H8O

(c)

pentan-3-ol; C5H12O

(d)

2-bromo-1-chlorobutane; C4H10ClBr

(a)
(b)

2-chloropropan-1-ol
2-bromo-1-chloro-2-methyl-3-iodobutane

4.1.2 Organic compounds and their formulae (page 169)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

CH3
C2H6

(d)

Alkane, CnH2n+2

(a)
(b)
(c)

CH2Br
C2H4Br2

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Core organic chemistry

4.1.3 Skeletal formulae (page 171)


1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

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4.1.4 Isomerism (page 173)


1

hexane

2,2-dimethylbutane

2-methylpentane

3-methlypentane

2,3-dimethylbutane

No, the substituents on each side of the double bond are not the same.

4.1.5 Reaction mechanisms (page 175)


1

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4.1.6 Properties of alkanes (page 177)


1

Butane has the highest boiling point because it has the highest surface area interactions between adjacent
molecules and therefore greater induced dipoledipole forces (London forces).

Pentane has a larger molecular mass and a greater chain length than ethane. This means that it has more surface
interactions between adjacent molecules.

Order of boiling points, highest first: hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane,


2,2-dimethylbutane

4.1.7 Reactions of alkanes (page 179)


1

C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O (complete combustion)


C3H8 + 3O2 2CO + C + 4H2O (incomplete combustion)

If oxygen is insufficient then incomplete combustion would occur. Therefore carbon monoxide would be
produced and this is toxic.

Initiation: Br2 2Br


Propagation: CH4 + Br CH3 + HBr
Propagation: CH3 + Br2 CH3Br + Br
Termination: Br + CH3 CH3Br

Initiation: Cl2 2Cl


Propagation: C2H6 + Cl CH5 + HCl
Propagation: C2H5 + Cl2 C2H5Cl + Cl
Termination: Cl + C2H5 C2H5Cl

It is a random process and a variety of products are produced by the highly reactive radical colliding with many
species.

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Core organic chemistry

4.1.8 Properties of alkenes (page 181)


1

-bonds have an overlap between nuclei and allow rotation; -bonds have electron density above and below the
plane of the atoms and do not allow rotation.

Each carbon atom on the double bond does not have two different groups attached to it.

(a)

(b)

4.1.9 Addition reactions of alkenes (page 185)


1

Alkene molecules have at least one double bond. This is a region of high electron density and very reactive.
Alkane molecules do not have this reactive section.

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2-chlorobutane

4.1.10 Addition polymerisation (page 187)


1

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4.1.11 Polymers dealing with polymer waste (page 191)


1

Waste plastic contains a lot of the calorific value of oil. This can be used to generate electricity rather than oil,
which is a useful chemical feedstock. Also, waste plastic must be disposed of as it is non-biodegradable and if
put in landfill it will not break down and may be hazardous to wildlife.

Bioplastics will fully biodegrade. Polyethene/cornstarch mix will truncate into smaller lengths of polyethene but
it will not biodegrade.

Chapter 4.1 Practice questions


1

C [1]

D [1]

C [1]

B [1]

(a)

(b)

(c)

The hydrocarbons within oil have different boiling points [1]. As the temperature rises, those
hydrocarbons with weaker intermolecular forces become gases first, with the others remaining liquid. The
gaseous hydrocarbons are then condensed into the separate fractions [1].
(i)
CnH2n [1]
(ii)
C6H14 C6H12 + H2 [1]
(iii) Cyclohexane is starting material for the synthesis of many useful cyclic organic chemicals [1].
(i)
Unsaturated, as it has the general formula CnH2n [1].
Hydrocarbon, as it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms [1].
(ii)
Radical substitution is difficult to control and further substitutions can occur leading to a mixture
of products being formed [1].
(iii) The lone pair and negative charge mean that the hydroxide ion is an electron-pair donor [1].
(iv) A is:

[1]
B is:

[1]
(v)

correct dipole on Br2/correct partial charges on Br2 [1]


correct curly arrow from double bond to attack bromine atom and correct curly arrow to show
heterolytic fission of BrBr [1]
correct carbocation drawn with the full positive charge shown: C+ [1]
correct curly arrow from lone pair of Br to carbocation [1]

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6

4
(a)
(b)
(c)

(a)

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Core organic chemistry

(i)

[1]

(ii)
[1]
butane: relative molecular mass = 58.0gmol1
propan-1-ol: relative molecular mass = 60.0gmol1 [1]
(i)
butane: b.pt. = 1C
propan-1-ol: b.pt. = 97C [1]
(ii)
The relative molecular mass values are very similar, so the extent of the van der Waals forces will
be similar [1].
Butane only has van der Waals forces and so has a low boiling point [1].
Propan-1-ol contains electronegative oxygen atoms and electropositive hydrogen atoms. These
form relatively strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds [1].
This is the reason for the relatively high boiling point of propan-1-ol [1].
(i)

C:

24.7
2.06
12

H:

2.1
2.1
1

73.2
2.06 [1]
35.5
empirical formula is CHCl [1]
empirical molecular mass = 12 + 1 + 35.5 = 47.5
the molecular mass is twice this, so the molecular formula is C2H2Cl2 [1]
D decolourises bromine in the dark, so contains a C=C double bond (unsaturated) [1]
D does not have stereoisomers, so the two Cl atoms must be on the same carbon atom [1]

Cl:

(ii)
(b)

(i)

D is

(ii)
(iii)

[1]

[2]
It will not break down in the environment/non-biodegradable [1]; burning will release toxic
gases/HCl [1].

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Core organic chemistry

(a)

(b)

mark for each named structure [5]


Homolytic fission leads to radicals. Pairs of radicals can then join to make these molecules [1]. Methane
and bromine in UV light will produce methyl and bromine radicals [1]. However, products from these
reactions can then form radicals themselves in the UV light and continue to react to form a mixture of
products [1].
CH4 + (UV) CH3 + H
Br2 + (UV) Br + Br
CH3 + Br CH3Br (bromomethane)
CH3Br + (UV) CH2Br + H
CH2Br + Br CH2Br2 (dibromomethane)
H + Br HBr (hydrogen bromide)
CH3 + CH3 CH3CH3 (ethane)
CH3CH3 + (UV) CH3CH2 + H
CH3CH2 + Br CH3CH2Br (bromoethane)
3 marks for explanation and 2 marks for identifying reactions for products [5]

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Core organic chemistry

4.2 Alcohols, haloalkanes and analysis


4.2.1 Properties of alcohols (page 199)
1

(a)
(b)
(c)

methanol: primary
propan-2-ol: secondary
2-methypropan-2-ol: tertiary

As chain length increases, the boiling point increases as there are increased surface interactions and therefore
greater intermolecular forces.

Methanol makes hydrogen bonds with the water and the hydrophobic aliphatic chain is only one carbon long and
has negligible effect. Hexan-1-ol also makes hydrogen bonds, but the aliphatic carbon chain does not form
hydrogen bonds with water. The hydrocarbon chain is too long for the hydrogen bond between the OH group
and water to overcome this.

4.2.2 Oxidation of alcohols (page 201)


1

(a)
(b)

(a)

CH3CH2CH2OH + 4O2 3CO2 + 4H2O


CH3CH(OH)CH2CH2CH2CH3 + 9O2 6CO2 + 7H2O

(b)

(c)
3

No reaction

Reflux is the constant boiling and condensing of a reaction mixture. It is used in organic synthesis to make sure
that the reaction happens as fully as possible without losing the reactants or products as vapour to the air.

4.2.3 Other reactions of alcohols (page 204)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

ethyl propanoate
propyl methanoate
propyl propanoate

The alkenes formed are but-1-ene, Z-but-2-ene and E-but-2-ene.


3

HBr + CH3CH2OH CH3CH2Br + H2O

1-bromopropane

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4.2.4 Haloalkanes (page 207)


1

Cl has a higher electronegativity than Br. So, the charge distribution in CCl is more uneven, with electrons
spending more time near the Cl atom than the equivalent CBr bond.

The CX bond is polar. The carbon atom has a slight positive charge and this makes it susceptible to
nucleophilic attack.

The main factor is the bond enthalpy, as CI has the lowest bond enthalpy and therefore the fastest rate of
reaction. Even though the CCl bond is most polar it has the slowest rate of reaction, and CI with the least polar
bond has the highest rate of reaction.

4.2.5 Haloalkanes and the environment (page 209)


1

Increase in amount of UV rays getting to the Earths surface, which in turn increases the number of cases of skin
cancer, cataracts and premature ageing.

Initiation step: C2F2Cl2 C2F2Cl+Cl


First propagation step: Cl + O3 ClO + O2
Second propagation step: ClO + O3 Cl + 2O2
The overall reaction can be summarised as: 2O3 3O2
Ozone is decomposed to diatomic oxygen.

The Montreal Protocol tightly controls the manufacture, use and disposal of CFCs. Ozone concentration can be
monitored by collecting data from satellites, ground stations and atmospheric sampling, and these data can be
used to measure the success of the protocol.

4.2.6 Practical skills for organic synthesis (213)


1

One method to separate immiscible liquids is to use a separating funnel.

Mount an iron ring on a clamp stand and place the separating funnel into it.

Remove the stopper and make sure that the tap at the bottom is closed.

Carefully pour the mixture into the funnel so that the funnel is no more than half full. Wash out the
reaction vessel with water and add to the funnel; there should still be some room in the funnel. Put the
stopper back.

Take the funnel out of the ring and invert it. Open the tap to equalise the pressure. Turn the tap back to
closed. Gently shake the mixture in the funnel and equalise the pressure. Repeat until you no longer hear
a whistle.

Replace the funnel in the iron ring and leave the mixture to separate into layers. Remove the stopper,
place a beaker under the spout and open the tap. Collect the first water layer in a beaker. Turn the tap off.
As the organic product is in the second layer, this aqueous layer can be discarded.

Using a clean, dry beaker, open the tap and collect the desired organic product.

The chemical will absorb water from the air and no longer be anhydrous and usable as a drying agent.

Ethanol and water are miscible and will not produce two separate phases.

4.2.7 Synthetic routes in organic synthesis (page 215)


1

This is an electrophilic addition reaction: C2H4 + HCl C2H5Cl

Test for saturation using bromine water. Chloroethane will not decolourise, bromoethene will decolourise.

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4.2.8 Infrared spectroscopy (page 217)


1

Absorption of infrared radiation causes covalent bonds to vibrate. These vibrations can either be manifested as
stretching or bending motions.

The OH bond within the alcohol would cause a characteristic absorption peak to appear on the infrared
spectrum. If no alcohol was present, this peak would not appear.

4.2.9 Infrared spectroscopy: functional groups (page 219)


1

carbonyl, C=O.

(a)
(b)
(c)

pentan-2-ol: strong broad OH absorption at 32003500 cm1, indicating an alcohol functional group.
2-hydroxypentanal: strong sharp C=O absorption at 16401750 cm1, indicating a carbonyl group and a
strong broad absorption at 32003550 cm1, indicating an alcohol functional group.
butanoic acid: strong sharp C=O absorption at 16401750 cm1, indicating a carbonyl group and a strong
broad OH absorption at 25003300 cm1, indicating an OH group in a carboxylic acid.

4.2.10 Mass spectrometry in organic chemistry (page 221)


1

(a)
(b)
(c)

A:
B:

CH3CH2CH2OH + e CH3CH2CH2OH+ + 2e
molecular ion peak: m/z = 60
CH3CH2CH2CH3 + e CH3CH2CH2CH3+ + 2e
molecular ion peak: m/z = 58
CH3CH2CH2 CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 + e CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3+ + 2e
molecular ion peak: m/z = 114
molecular ion peak, m/z = 70
molecular ion peak, m/z = 100

4.2.11 Mass spectrometry: fragmentation patterns (page 223)


1

A:
B:
C:

m/z = 70, H2C=CHCH2CH2CH3+


m/z = 55, H2C=CHCH2CH2+
m/z = 27, H2C=CH+

(a)

molecular ion peak is the furthest to the right at m/z = 86


molecular mass = 86
molecular formula = C6H14

(b)

(c)

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4.2.12 Combined techniques (page 225)


1

Both will have a peak at 46 due to the molecular ion. They will also both have peaks at 15 due to a methyl
fragment. Each will have a different pattern of fragments. Ethanol will have a peak at 29 due to an ethyl
fragment and dimethylether will have a peak at 31 due to a CH3O fragment.

The more data that is available, the surer you can be about the structure of the compound and which isomer is
present.

Chapter 4.2 Practice questions


1

C [1]

D [1]

A [1]

A [1]

(a)

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(b)

(i)

acid [1]
C5H12O C5H10 + H2O [1]
Structural isomers have the same molecular formula [1], but have different structural formulae [1].
Stereoisomers have the same structural formula [1], but have a different arrangement of atoms in
space [1].

[1]
(ii)

[1]
Note that A and B are interchangeable.
(iii)

(c)

[1]
Carboncarbon double bond [1] and each carbon atom in the double bond is attached to two different
groups/atoms [1].

(d)

Correct skeletal structure of product [1]; balanced equation [1].

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13

MODULE

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Core organic chemistry

(e)

apparatus: fractional distillation apparatus


reagents: cyclohexanol, phosphoric acid (H3PO4), high boiling point solvent
conditions: reflux, distil off the product as it is formed as it has a lower boiling point than the starting material
[2]
purification: (i) product will contain water so shake with saturated sodium chloride solution in a separating flask
which will remove most of the water, (ii) add anhydrous calcium chloride to remove the remaining water then
(iii) fractionally distil to produce pure cyclohexene, collecting the fraction at the boiling point of cyclohexene [2]
check purity: use gas chromatography [1], which should have only one peak [1]
7

(a)

[2]
(b)

(c)
(d)
(e)

curly arrow from OH to C in 2-chlorobutane [1]


curly arrow ending on Cl [1]
the nucleophile is OH [1]
the product is butan-2-ol [1]
Butan-2-ol is a secondary alcohol as it contains an OH group [1] attached to a carbon atom that is also
attached to two other carbon atoms [1].
Add dilute silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution [1] and follow the reaction by observing the appearance of
precipitate of insoluble AgCl [1].
C4H10O(l) + 6O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 5H2O(l)
correct formulae [1]; correctly balanced [1]

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14

MODULE
8

4
(a)

(b)

(c)

OCR AS/A level Chemistry A Answers to Student Book 1 questions

Core organic chemistry

Infrared spectroscopy can show that the starting material is absent [1]. Cyclohexanol would contain
an OH group [1] which absorbs at 32003500cm1 [1].
(The data sheet does not provide data on IR for C=C bonds, so showing that C=C is present cannot be
done with the information provided. Otherwise IR would be a good technique to use, with C=C
absorption at around 1650cm1 [1].)
Cyclohexene contains weak van der Waals forces [1] and so has a relatively low boiling point [1].
Cyclohexanol also contains intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the O atom of one molecule and
the + H atom of the OH group in another molecule. These are relatively strong bonds [1] and so the
boiling point is higher [1].
Formula of cyclohexene is C6H10, relative molecular mass of cyclohexene is 82 [1].
Peak at m/z = 83 is from a molecule of cyclohexene with one 13C atom [1].
As 13C atom has a natural abundance of 1.1% of all carbon atoms [1], the relative height of this peak
could be used to calculate the number of carbon atoms in the molecule [1].

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15