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Precision Machine Design

Important Sources of Measurement Error
BJ Furman

Cosine Error

measurement error that results when there is
an angular misalignment between the desired
line of measurement and the actual line of

Ex: Diameter measurement using calipers



D*-D = D*(1-cosθ)


If this is not possible. vol. 3. of physics. for Instrumental Information. 2 . cont. “The Abbe Principle Revisited: An Updated Interpretation. pp.Abbe Error ‹ Ernst Abbe. Abbe Error. Bryan. J. 1. Eng. of Jena. ‹ “The displacement measuring system should be in line with the functional point whose displacement is to be measured. 1878 Zeiss Works left to Abbe in 1888 ‹ “If errors in parallax are to be avoided. Abbe. or angular motion data must be used to calculate the consequences of the offset. 1989. Univ. in the late 1800’s ™ ™ ™ Prof. 1870 Director of Observatories. 1890.” J. Prec. 129-132. vol. no.” E. X. the measuring system must be placed coaxially with the axis along which the displacement is to be measured on the workpiece.. founder of the Carl Zeiss Foundation (Stiftung). either the slideways that transfer the displacement must be free of angular motion.

Example .Caliper ‹ Line of measurement? ‹ Measurement axis? ‹ Offset? Example – Caliper. ‹ What can go wrong? 3 . cont.

cn/micrometer-2/13203-2.Abbe ‹ In ™ other words. or compensate for it. ‹ Be aware of Abbe error. ‹ Abbe offset and the consequential error resulting are pervasive in all kinds of instruments and equipment.Micrometer ‹ Line of measurement? ‹ Measurement axis? ‹ Offset? Source: http://www.insize. You will get a linear error caused by the combination of an underlying angular error and a dimensional offset between the object being measured and the measuring device. micrometer Example . ‹ Ex: Caliper vs. attempt to minimize it. visited 05SEP05 4 . cont.jpg.