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Many flexographic inks are of this type. The size reduces the porosity of the sheet surface. The desired effect is to %lter &t the ink pigments while allowing the oil vehicle to migrate into the body of the paper. Conversely. or to reduce its refining and so achieve easier THE INCLINED SIZE PRESS drainage on the wire and better hydrostability in the sheet. he function of surface sizing is quite different from that of internal sizing.5-2 g/m2 starch per side is recommended. T Why surface size? Physical properties: The applied starch penetrates into the sheet and increases inter-fibre bonding. so preventing "feathering". Water repellancy is undesirable for writing papers or commercial rulings where migration of the water into the sheet is the main method of ink drying. A maximum of 1. Whereas the latter provides water repellancy. too much surface size results in excessive ink holdout and slow ink drying which causes "setoff' and smudging. resulting in "set-off' and smearing. Oil resistance: Surface sizing increases the contact angle against oil. Peter de Clerck looks at some of the fundamentals of surface sizing and the ways that careful application can improve paper qualities. The oil resistance properties are important for gloss ink printing. improves the smoothness and surface strength. The inLtd in Singapore creased strength may allow the mill to use a cheaper furnish. This gives a high "ink demand" and a flat. may occur if the migration is too slow. Slow ink drying. Erasability: This requires surface resistance to abrasion and ink penetration with the ability to retain both a good surface and sizing after erasure. and cements down any protruding fibres. Fibre picking on the after-dryers is reduced. Rubber giving fewer cockles and less curl. Another effect is the improvement of surface strength or scuff resistance. providing a relatively continuous. If too little surface size is used the paper absorbs too much ink during printing. Stiffness is improved and air permeability reduced. as for example in glassine papers. Pre-coating: Surface sizing may be applied to give the controlled surface characteristics required for a . Writing qualities: The surfacefilm "filters out" the pigments in ordinary writing inks. well-bonded body stock. resulting in increased burst an2 tensile Peter de Clerck (above) is Technical Serstrengths together with a very large vice Manager with Avebe (Far East) Pte improvement in fold strength. surface sizing is used primarily to keep colloidal solutions such as writing inks from penetrating the paper surface. leaving the colloidal pigment particles on the sized surface. Most of these inks contain a water-miscible non-volatile surfactant to promote ink penetration. This reduces "fluffing" on the printing press. A low-viscous starch solution may also be applied to I) saturate the paper and give lower opacity. unattractive print. non-porous film impervious to oil penetration. Good internal and surface sizing are both needed to provide good erasability. Hence good internal sizing is no guaranteeof good writing qualities. a particular problem with offset litho printing. Surface sizing is also necessary for paper to be used with oil-vehicle printing inks. The ideal condition is a strong. Surface sizing improves erasability by reducing ink penetration and increasing abrasion resistance by promoting inter-fibre bonding. as modernrapiddrying inks dry either through penetration of the vehicle into the paper or by solvent evaporation.Surface sizing bbasics Surface sizes help provide a range of characteristics to the paper sheet. The surface properties are also important for printing. as the surface absorbency must be carefully regulated.

Since binder migration is reduced to a controlled level. The more permeable the sheet. It load on the after dryers and results in gives a more direct sheet run than the a loss of production. Starch selection Sheet factors The factors affecting pick-up are the moisture content. higher coating solids contents are then possible. smoothness. which is an exmended. it eliminates to give the desired pick-up. internal sizing causes problem for small diameter size press a rapid drop in starch pick-up at the rolls turning at high is not possible to alter only one factor and not affect the others. the problem of dirt and other material increased concentration increases the falling from the lead roll into the size viscosity. permeability and compressability of the sheet. This is especially useful where the very demanding blade coater is used. so a low viscosity starch is recomcellulose surface. is often valuable to add a small amount of rosin to such furnishes to eliminate or greatly reduce variations in size press pick-up. A free-beaten stock results in the greatest pick-up. By changing the starch it is possible to attain the same viscosity at the desired temperature but at a different concentration. Since wastepaper is curred with insufficient penetration an extremely variable commodity. The roughness of the surface also has a profound effect on the rate of On wetting of the paper and on the depth of penetration. but a minimum pick-up is A recent innovation is the use of a quickly reached and maintained as gate-roll or fountain coater to meter the level of internal sizing is increased the size solutions onto the size press (see graph). but this is invariably a sign of problems further up the paper machine that result in a poor moisture profile.high viscosity oxidised starch Permeability/compressability: An elastic. Overdrying is very expensive in energy as the extra heat has to be forced into the sheet through a dry The properties of the finished paper product must be considered when selecting starch for the size press. However. However. Many mills do run size presses with sheet moistures down to 2%. such a narrow band of viscosities is used that the relationship of viscosity to degree of modification may be considered linear for a given temperature and . so a lower viscosity press and reduces the tendency for product may be necessary. Entering moisture content: Maximum pick-up occurs at about 10% sheet moisture. At very low moisture contents the surface energy of cellulose is reduced and the paper is difficult to wet. Linerboard requires a high ringcrush value and hence good stiffness. This will invariably alter the surface tension of the solution and hence its ability to wet and penetrate the sheet. the greater will be the starch penetration and hence the pick-up. Hence a relatively high viscous starch is applied to Absorption (%) ensure only limited penetration. Rosin kgn Moisture of sheet entering size press The main requirement of envelope paper is good dry strength. Particular care is required when neutral sizing is employed as the development of the size is slower on machine. temperature and concentration of a solution are all interdependent. The pick-up of starch solution (wet-pickup)at the size press may then be the same. improve the equality of pond depth on Internal sizing is particularly imthe inclined size press and to improve portant for producers of waste-based pond stabililty.medium viscosity oxidised starch poorly-sized: >25 . For example. but the dry pick-up will be different due to the different solution concentrations. For printing paper good surface strength and general strength are required. Size presses horizontal size press and is easier to usually run at 5-8% sheet moisture. feed.subsequent operation.For size press application. it of the starch solutions so applied. It is usually inadvisable to run the Size press design ingoing sheet at the moisture level Size press design has passed corresponding to maximum size through various stages. Initially. rolls. This was becoming a paper. A medium viscous starch ensures greater starch penetration while main5 10 15 1 2 3 taining surface strength. This eliminates the size pond This shows the rapid decrease in and allows very accurate size applicapick-up achieved on adding the first 1 tion. Wetting and penetration are increased by using low solution viscosities. For Cobb60 values before the size press we generally recommend as follows: well-sized: c25 . tremely good insulator. as does a low size solution viscosity. but maintains most of the with the size solution being adjusted benefits. Smoothness: The smoothness of the sheet affects the pick-up at the size press by trapping and immobilising a layer of size solution on the paper surface. For a given starch solution the viscosity may be reduced by lowering the concentration or raising the temperature. Today the inpick-up because this increases the clined size press is most common. Since wrinkling to occur at the turning roll. size press. a compromise is resize press rolls has been increased to quired. porous sheet may act like a sponge in the size press nip. while the boundary layer is increased with high solution viscosities. Sometimes pigments are added to the surface size to give a pre-coat or a lightly pigmented surface. Solution factors The viscosity.low viscosity oxidised starch medium-sized: 25 . lower-viscosity products have lower More recently the diameter of the binding power. Often the pre-dryer temperatureprofile must be adjusted for these grades. Formation is also important as any surface application emphasises rather than conceals any unevenness or other problem. internal sizing. The smoother the paper surface the thinner this boundary layer. problems have ockglton of rosin. Maximum starch v ariations in wet pick-up and rosin absor penetration is required for reinforcement of inter-fibre bonding. This is best achieved by maintaining the starch on the surface of the sheet. The more uniform surface absorption of surface sized papers helps to reduce print mottling due to uneven binder migration in all types of coated paper.

At high speeds the pressure generated may be reduced. This effect is known as hydrodynamic metering. plication and metering a size Viscosity Speed term term term pick-up Increased nip loading should solution takes place in only CP mlmin glm2 gm2 gm2 g/m2 theoretically reduce pick-up a fraction of a second. Absorption then commences. Hence the wet "jumping" of the size pond. ness will affect the position of film There are many factors influencThe amount absorbed depends on the splitting on the emerging paper web. reground as necessary. 14 210 17. permeability and bulk of the paper and its compressibility are factors governing the amount of liquid absorbed. Iodine staining of hydrodynamics of the size 76 -190 17.7 pressed from the paper in portant in the 33 21 0 17. the solution visfixed by equipment factors or operaeven tension on the sheet leaving the cosity. UK. diameters do not "close" the nip so many factors.4mid-nip. probably by a process of filamentation and cavitation. confirmed that at high nip viscosity the greater is the pressure generated in the loadings greater penetration size pond by the rotating of the starch occurs even though the overall pick-up is rolls. weight. giving a greater wet pick-up. Another area of concern is the rope-feed system. Pond depth a higher solution viscosity results in a where the absorbency factor is not may only be attended by altering the thicker film being metered through physically limited by low sheet end dams and is limited by the size the nip.5 3. depending on which effect is dominant. the paper type.5 0. Mechanism of size pick-up: On effect on size press wet pick-up for a Roll sugaces should be smooth entering the size pond there is a slight given set of sheet characteristics and and in good condition. The increased viscosity may produce runnability problems so again a lower-viscous starch may be needed. taking in liquid like a moist sponge. For the mill.5 0. The machine speed at which sidered in the initial installation of the ses mainly because their larger this minimum occurs depends on size press. press will result in uneven pick-up. As machine speed is increased from a very low level.2 2 .6 21. a occur. porosity and tional necessity. increasing the local pressure and so forcing more through the nip.9 Solution viscosity is imas more starch solution is ex18 183 17. as is the size solution viscosity. Increased speed "pumps" more starch solutioninto the nip of the size press. Pick-up increases with pond lower viscosity solution gives a In conclusion depth and the effect is more noticehigher wet pick-up. because press nip. This is usually preceded by nip loading during normal operation. pressure build-up and hence a more governs the contact time and hence At low speed. but also to avoid the problems of size making up on the ropes. At a certain point the hydrodynamic approaches the press nip the hydrodynamicpressure increases and some liquid is forced into the pores of the paper. the wet pick-up decreases with the absorption time. UMIST. At higher speeds It should be noted that in all cases able on slower machines.0 26. Obviously the porosity. where absorption is stable size pond. ing the performance of the size press.5 2.O 21. - . Roll smoothwetted. This is somewhat metering effect becomes the enough to eject the entire contents of academic as it is not usual to vary the dominant factor and then pick-up inthe nip.0 9. creases with speed. The greater the Source: Howarth & Hoyland. Failure to ensure sufficient feed sorption and is a function of surface pipes across the width of the size and properties of a properly selected smoothness and dryness of the sheet. The sheet is compressed and air is forced from the sheet.5 0. Larger Roll hardness and diameter are not pick-up curve passes through a minirolls are used on high speed size presreadily changed and should be conmum. Nip loadings vary from 5-22 kglcm in the horizontal size press to as a rougher surface traps more solu4.5 paper cross sections have press nip. As the web leaves the size press rolls the liquid film carried through the nip between the roll and the paper surface splits. A lower-viscous starch may be required to achieve the penetration necessary to impart the desired properties to the sheet. Hence speed increases may result in more or less pick-up. including the starch Pond depth is important as it rapidly. This must be properly designed not only to ensure easy feeding of the size press.13 kglcm in the vertical size press. the sheet substance has no press configuration and roll diameter.9 21.concentration. The wetting gest benefits may be obtained by tion of the starch into the paper. the time available for absorption to the main method of wet pick-up. as unmachine speed). as the web p . Three points are significant when considering a change of concentration to increase pick-up: Increased concentration will increase the solution viscosity and alter the level of penetration.3 3. A lower-viscous starch will have lower binding power. tion. resulting in a more gradual viscosity and type of paper. especially in a passing through the size STARCH PICK-UP: PILOT PLANT TRIAL RESULTS vertical size press. the bigsize press will rekult in uneven migradegree of internal sizing. time of the paper surface acts to paying attention to the characteristics Starch feed is extremely impordecrease the time available for abof the ingoing web and to the quality tant. Exactly where the split occurs depends Equipment factors on the relative surface roughness of both the paper and the size press rolls. Speed: Speed directly affects the time available for absorption in the nip and also affects the behaviour of the size press. -HydroTotal with too little crown the sheet The whole process of apSheet Absorption dynamic wet will be "baggy" in the centre. being delay before the sheet surface is a given size press operating regime. The surface roughness is also The rolls must be accurately important in determining the crowned for the operating thickness of the starch film pressure used. size press solution. Within the size pond. On exiting the nip the sheet will expand. time available (ie pond depth and a significant number of which are Sheet tension is important.