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Muḥ ḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī

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Muḥ ḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Kḥwārizmī

A stamp issued September 6, 1983 in tḥeSoviet Union,
commemorating al-Kḥwārizmī's (approximate) 1200tḥ birtḥday.





Medieval era (Islamic Golden Age)

Notable ideas

Treatises on algebra and Indian numerals


Abu Kamil[4]

Abū ʿAbdallāh Muhḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī[note 1][pronunciation?] (Persian: ‫مد بب ن‬
‫م د‬
‫ع دب ب د‬
‫ح م‬
‫دلالله م‬
‫س ى‬

‫سولارببز ب‬
a Persian[1][5] mathematician, astronomer and geographer during the Abbasid Empire, a scholar in
the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
In the twelfth century, Latin translations of his work on the Indian numerals introduced
the decimal positional number system to theWestern world.[3] His Compendious Book on

Few details of al-Khwārizmī's life are known with certainty.3 Astronomy o 2. In Renaissance Europe. Rashed[11] suggests: .[6] He revised Ptolemy's Geography and wrote on astronomy and astrology. then in Greater Khorasan.7 Other works  3 See also  4 Notes  5 References  6 Further reading o 6. he was considered the original inventor of algebra.4 Trigonometry o 2. the Latin form of his name.2 Arithmetic o 2. "Algebra" is derived from al-jabr. and his birthplace is given as Chorasmia[9] by Ibn al-Nadim. although it is now known that his work is based on older Indian or Greek sources. one of the two operations he used to solve quadratic equations. However. Al-Tabari gave his name as Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwārizmī al-Majousi al-Katarbali ( ‫محمد ب ن‬ ‫ي‬‎ ‫ي لالقطريبـل ي‬‎ ‫ي لالمجسوسـ ي‬‎ ‫)مسوس ى لالخسولارزم ي‬.1 General references Life He was born in a Persian[1][5] family.Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linearand quadratic equations in Arabic.5 Geography o 2.[10] a viticulture district near Baghdad.[7] His name is also the origin of (Spanish) guarismo[8] and of (Portuguese) algarismo. both meaning digit. which occupied the eastern part of the Greater Iran.1 Algebra o 2. His name may indicate that he came from Khwarezm (Khiva). Some words reflect the importance of al-Khwarizmi's contributions to mathematics. The epithet al-Qutrubbulli could indicate he might instead have come from Qutrubbul (Qatrabbul). now Xorazm Province in Uzbekistan.6 Jewish calendar o 2. Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi. Contents [hide]  1 Life  2 Contributions o 2.

and Africa. This would not be worth mentioning if a series of errors concerning the personality of al-Khwārizmī. G. occasionally even the origins of his knowledge. Al-Khwārizmī. his works spread to Europe through Latin translations. After the Islamic conquest of Persia. but the pious preface to al-Khwārizmī's Algebra shows that he was an orthodox Muslim. was principally responsible for spreading the Indian system of numerationthroughout the Middle East and Europe. where he studied the sciences and mathematics. and perhaps he in his youth. "al-Majūsī. He introduced Arabic numerals into the Latin West. He assisted a project to determine the circumference of the Earth and in making a world map for al-Ma'mun. Some of his work was based on Persian and Babylonian astronomy. geography. in the 12th century. Dunlop suggests that it may have been possible that MuhṬammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī was in fact the same person as MuhṬammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir. and cartography established the basis for innovation in algebra andtrigonometry. D. M. the caliph. so al-TṬabarī's epithet could mean no more than that his forebears. Asia. Recently. His systematic approach to solving linear and quadratic equations led to algebra. On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written about 825. had been Zoroastrians. [15] . He also wrote on mechanical devices like the astrolabe and sundial. Toomer .. Toomer writes: Another epithet given to him by al-TṬabarī. a word derived from the title of his 830 book on the subject. Al-Khwārizmī systematized and corrected Ptolemy's data for Africa and the Middle East.There is no need to be an expert on the period or a philologist to see that al-Tabari's second citation should read "Muhammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizmī and al-Majūsi al-Qutrubbulli. it had a profound impact on the advance of mathematics in Europe. He worked in Baghdad as a scholar at the House of Wisdom established by Caliph al-Maʾmūn." and that there are two people (al-Khwārizmī and al-Majūsi al-Qutrubbulli) between whom the letter wa [Arabic '‫ 'و‬for the article 'and'] has been omitted in an early copy. It was translated into Latin as Algoritmi de numero Indorum. as did Al-Khwārizmī. had not been made. led to the term "algorithm". Another major book was Kitab surat al-ard ("The Image of the Earth". translated as Geography)." would seem to indicate that he was an adherent of the old Zoroastrian religion. presenting the coordinates of places based on those in the Geography of Ptolemy but with improved values for the Mediterranean Sea. Baghdad became the centre of scientific studies and trade. Regarding al-Khwārizmī's religion. Al-Khwārizmī accomplished most of his work in the period between 813 and 833. which included the translation of Greek and Sanskrit scientific manuscripts. overseeing 70 geographers. and many merchants and scientists from as far as Chinaand India traveled to this city.[13][year missing] Contributions A page from al-Khwārizmī's Algebra Al-Khwārizmī's contributions to mathematics.[12] Ibn al-Nadīm's Kitāb al-Fihrist includes a short biography on al-Khwārizmī. This would still have been possible at that time for a man of Iranian origin.. and Greek mathematics. Indian numbers. together with a list of the books he wrote. the eldest of the three Banū Mūsā.[14] When. rendered as (Latin)Algoritmi. based on a place-value decimal system developed from Indian sources. J. "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing" (al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa'l-muqabala ‫ي حساب لالجبر‬‎‫لالكتاب لالمختصر ف‬ ‫)ولالمقابلة‬. astronomy. with naive confidence constructed an entire fantasy on the error which cannot be denied the merit of amusing the reader.

'The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing') is a mathematical book written approximately 830 CE. The book was translated in Latin as Liber algebrae et almucabala by Robert of Chester (Segovia. subtracting a number from both sides of the equation) described in this book.[19] Al-Khwārizmī's method of solving linear and quadratic equations worked by first reducing the equation to one of six standard forms (where b and c are positive integers)  squares equal roots (ax2 = bx)  squares equal number (ax2 = c)  roots equal number (bx = c) . [16] The term algebra is derived from the name of one of the basic operations with equations (al-jabr. [18] and discussed the fundamental methods of "reduction" and "balancing". 1145) hence "algebra".[17] It provided an exhaustive account of solving polynomial equations up to the second degree. or.Algebra Main article: The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing Further information: Latin translations of the 12th century and Islamic science Left: The original Arabic print manuscript of the Book of Algebra by Al-Khwarizmi. the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation. A Latin translation is kept in Cambridge. A unique Arabic copy is kept at Oxford and was translated in 1831 by F. and also by Gerard of Cremona. surveying and legal inheritance. referring to the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation. that is. Right: A page from The Algebra of Al-Khwarizmi by Fredrick Rosen. The book was written with the encouragement of the Caliph al-Ma'mun as a popular work on calculation and is replete with examples and applications to a wide range of problems in trade. Al-Kitāb al-mukhtas ṣar fī h ṣisāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala (Arabic: ‫ي حساب لالجبر‬‎‫لالكتاب لالمختصر ف‬ ‫ولالمقابلة‬. meaning completion. Rosen. in English.

Subtract this from the moiety of the roots. (from an 1831 translation) If some one say: "You divide ten into two parts: multiply the one by itself. Multiply this by itself. the moiety is fifty and a half. geometrical magnitudes. Sind ibn ʿAlī. most of this notation had not yet been invented. including |Abū HṬanīfa al-Dīnawarī. for one problem he writes. namely the beginnings of algebra. F.." Computation: You say. Abū MuhṬammad al-ʿAdlī. and Šarafaddīn al-TṬūsī. The above discussion uses modern mathematical notation for the types of problems which the book discusses. Robertson wrote in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive: Perhaps one of the most significant advances made by Arabic mathematics began at this time with the work of al-Khwarizmi. Al-jabr is the process of removing negative units. [16] In modern notation this process. it will be equal to the other taken eighty-one times. which is equal to a hundred and one roots. J. It gave mathematics a whole new . and add them to eighty-one. It was a revolutionary move away from the Greek concept of mathematics which was essentially geometry. It is important to understand just how significant this new idea was. ten less thing. Then . O'Conner and E. Let the roots of the equation be 'p' and 'q'. the remainder is two thousand four hundred and fifty and a quarter. Subtract from this one hundred. and this is equal to eighty-one things. to all be treated as "algebraic objects".'Abd al-Hamīd ibn Turk. with 'x' the "thing" (shay') or "root". etc. Al-muqābala is the process of bringing quantities of the same type to the same side of the equation. It will then be a hundred plus a square. it is forty-nine and a half. There remains one. which is fifty and a half. For example. Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam. Sahl ibn Bišr. it is two thousand five hundred and fifty and a quarter. irrational numbers. and So a root is given by Several authors have also published texts under the name of Kitāb al-jabr wa-l-muqābala. squares and roots equal number (ax2 + bx = c)  squares and number equal roots (ax2 + c = bx)  roots and number equal squares (bx + c = ax2) by dividing out the coefficient of the square and using the two operations al-jabr (Arabic: ‫لالجبر‬ "restoring" or "completion") and al-muqābala ("balancing"). is a hundred plus a square less twenty things. Extract the root from this. J. in al-Khwārizmī's day. is given by the steps. x2 + 14 = x + 5 is reduced to x2 + 9 = x. Algebra was a unifying theory which allowed rational numbers. Abū Yūsuf al-Mis sṬ ṬīsṬī. For example. and this is one of the two parts. multiplied by itself. Separate the twenty things from a hundred and a square. For example. so he had to use ordinary text to present problems and their solutions. Halve the roots. roots and squares from the equation by adding the same quantity to each side. x2 = 40x − 4x2 is reduced to 5x2 = 40x. However.

The term "algorithm" is derived from the algorism. the technique of performing arithmetic with Hindu-Arabic . but an exposition which starts with primitive terms in which the combinations must give all possible prototypes for equations. but are commonly referred to by the first two words with which they start: Dixit algorizmi ("So said al-Khwārizmī"). beginning with "Dixit algorizmi" Arithmetic Al-Khwārizmī's second major work was on the subject of arithmetic. which survived in a Latin translation but was lost in the original Arabic. which henceforward explicitly constitute the true object of study.[20] R. a name given to the work by Baldassarre Boncompagni in 1857. The original Arabic title was possibly Kitāb al-Jamʿ wa-l-tafrīq bi-h ṣisāb al-Hind[22] ("The Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation"). but also from Diophantus' Arithmetica. insofar as it does not simply emerge in the course of solving a problem. and provided a vehicle for future development of the subject.development path so much broader in concept to that which had existed before. Rashed and Angela Armstrong write: Al-Khwarizmi's text can be seen to be distinct not only from the Babylonian tablets. On the other hand. the idea of an equation for its own sake appears from the beginning and.[21] Page from a Latin translation. Another important aspect of the introduction of algebraic ideas was that it allowed mathematics to be applied to itself in a way which had not happened before. or Algoritmi de numero Indorum ("al-Khwārizmī on the Hindu Art of Reckoning"). The translation was most likely done in the twelfth century by Adelard of Bath. based on the Hindu-Arabic numeral systemdeveloped in Indian mathematics. one could say.[23] Al-Khwarizmi's work on arithmetic was responsible for introducing the Arabic numerals. in a generic manner. who had also translated the astronomical tables in 1126. It no longer concerns a series of problems to be resolved. but is specifically called on to define an infinite class of problems. to the Western world. The Latin manuscripts are untitled.

Both "algorithm" and "algorism" are derived from the Latinized forms of al-Khwarizmi's name. Algoritmi and Algorismi. . respectively.numerals developed by al-Khwarizmi.