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operation 2

Unit

**Example 1. Air at 60 C dry bulb temperature and 27.5 C wet bulb temperature, and a
**

humidity ratio of 0.01 kg water/kg dry air is mixed with water adiabatically and is cooled

and humidified to a humidity ratio of 0.02 kg water/kg dry air. What is the final

temperature of the conditioned air?

Given

Inlet: dry bulb temperature = 60C

wet bulb temperature = 27.5 C

Initial humidity ratio W 1 = 0.01 kg water/kg dry air

Final humidity ratio W 2 =0.02 kg water/kg dry air

Solution

From Table A.4.2, latent heat of vaporization at 27.5 C = 2436.37 kJ/kg

**Example 2. Calculate the rate of thermal energy required to heat 10 m 3 /s of outside air
**

at 30 C dry bulb temperature and 80% relative humidity to a dry bulb temperature of 80

C.

Solution

1. Using the psychrometric chart, we find at 30 C dry bulb temperature and 80% relative

humidity, the enthalpy H1 = 85.2 kJ/kg dry air, humidity ratio W 1 = 0.0215 kg water/kg

dry air, and specific volume V1= 0.89 m3 /kg dry air. At the end of the heating process,

the dry bulb temperature is 80 C with a humidity ratio of 0.0215 kg water/kg dry air. The

remaining values are read from the chart as follows: enthalpy H 2 =140 kJ/kg dry air;

relative humidity φ2 =7%.

2.

**3. The rate of heat required to accomplish the given process is 615.7 kW
**

4. In these calculations, it is assumed that during the heating process there is no gain of

moisture. This will not be true if a directly fired gas or oil combustion system is used,

since in such processes small amounts of water are produced as part of the combustion

reaction.

Example 3. In efforts to conserve energy, a food dryer is being modified to reuse part of

the exhaust air along with ambient air. The exhaust air flow of 10 m 3/s at 70 C and 30%

relative humidity is mixed with 20 m3/s of ambient air at 30 C and 60% relative humidity.

Using the psychrometric chart, determine

the dry bulb temperature and humidity ratio of the mixed air.

Solution

1. From the given data, locate the state points A and B, identifying the exit and ambient

air as shown on the skeleton chart ( Fig. E9.3 ).

Follow the constant enthalpy line to the saturation curve. as shown in Figure. will have a dry bulb temperature of 44 C and a humidity ratio of 0. The mixed air. 3. Read humidity ratio 0.0078 = 0.032 kg water/kg dry air. Heated air at 50 C and 10% relative humidity is used to dry rice in a bin dryer. point B. Determine the amount of water removed per kg of dry air. read the humidity ratio 0. Join points A and B with a straight line. Example 4.0112 kg water/kg dry air. represented by point C. Locate point A on the psychrometric chart. . The amount of moisture removed from rice 0.2. 2. line AB is divided in 1:2 proportion to locate point C.019 kg water/kg dry air.019 – 0. 3. The division of line AB is done according to the relative influence of the particular air mass. Solution 1. 4. The air exits the bin under saturated conditions.0078 kg water/kg dry air. Since the mixed air contains 2 parts ambient air and 1 part exhaust air. At point B. the shorter length of line AC corresponds to larger air mass. Thus. 4.

EXAMPLE 5. So rate of heating required = 1104 x 16 kJ h -1 = (1104 x 16)/3600 kJ s -1 = 5 kW . On the humidity chart follow down the wet-bulb line for a temperature of 20°C until it meets the dry-bulb temperature line for 25°C. at constant absolute humidity as no water vapour is added or subtracted. specific volume is 0. Examining the location of this point of intersection with reference to the lines of constant relative humidity. Relative humidity. At this condition. Once the properties of the air have been determined other calculations can easily be made. On heating. and the relative humidity of the heated air.862 m3 kg-1. Similar examination of the enthalpy lines gives an estimated enthalpy of 57 kJ kg-1. the enthalpy and the specific volume of the air in the room. to the condition at the higher (dry bulb) temperature of 40°C. Therefore the RH is estimated to be 64%. and from the volume lines a specific volume of 0. Mass of 1000 m3 is 1000/0. Relative humidity of heated air If the air in Example 5 is then to be heated to a dry-bulb temperature of 40°C. the air condition moves.906 m3 kg-1 and RH 27%.0125 kg kg-1. the enthalpy is 73 kJ kg-1.57) = 16 kJ kg-1. it lies between 60% and 70% RH and about 4/10 of the way between them but nearer to the 60% line. DH = (73 . reading from the chart at 40°C and humidity 0. calculate the rate of heat supply needed for a flow of 1000 m3 h-1 of this hot air for a dryer.906 = 1104kg. enthalpy and specific volume of air If the wet-bulb temperature in a particular room is measured and found to be 20°C in air whose dry-bulb temperature is 25°C (that is the wet-bulb depression is 5°C) estimate the relative humidity. EXAMPLE 6 .

010) = 0. It is found that the first traces of moisture appear on this surface when it is at 40°C. On the psychrometric chart.01 kg kg-1 and its specific volume to be 0. the condition of the air follows a constant wet-bulb line of about 27°C . It is heated to 140°C and passed over a set of trays in a shelf dryer. so at 35°C its condition is a humidity of 0. horizontally on a psychrometric chart. Estimate the quantity of water removed per kg of air passing.0107) x 0. with the heat for evaporation being supplied by the hot air passing over a wet solid surface. the 45°C line is intersected at a point indicating: relative humidity = 76% EXAMPLE 9. the inlet air condition shows the humidity of the drying air to be 0.e. of air passing will remove 0. Looked at from the viewpoint of the solid.96 m3 kg-1. i. EXAMPLE 8. Water removed in air drying Air at 60°C and 8% RH is blown through a continuous dryer from which it emerges at a temperature of 35°C. Through the dryer. Water removed = (0. Further cooling then proceeds down the saturation line to the final temperature. So each kg. this is a drying process.96 = 1794 m3 h-1 If air is cooled. Using the psychrometric chart.0107kg water. and the latent heat of evaporation must be obtained by cooling the hot air. with an exit temperature of 45°C.If the air is used for drying. and the volume of drying air required to remove 20 kg water per hour. the system behaves like the adiabatic saturation system. from the viewpoint of the air it is humidification. Estimate the relative humidity of the air leaving the dryer. then initially its condition moves along a line of constant humidity. Volume of air to remove 20 kg h-1 = (20/0. EXAMPLE 7 .96 m3.0207 .0. with water condensing to adjust the humidity as the saturation humidity cannot be exceeded. which it leaves at 60 % RH. 0. Relative humidity of air leaving a dryer The air emerging from a dryer. It is then reheated to 140°C and passed over another set of trays .0207kg kg-1. It is adiabatic because no heat is obtained from any source external to the air and the wet solid.0107 kg kg-1 of air. passes over a surface which is gradually cooled. the saturation temperature is 40°C and proceeding at constant humidity from this. until it reaches the saturation curve at its dew point. Reheating of air in a dryer A flow of 1800 m3 h-1 of air initially at a temperature of 18°C and 50% RH is to be used in an air dryer.

045 kg kg-1 )and enthalpy goes to 268 kJ kg-1. specific volume is 0.0758 = 0. it is sometimes useful to reheat the air so as to reduce its relative humidity and thus to give it an additional capacity to evaporate more water from the material being dried. Using the psychrometric chart : Initial humidity is 0.6 kJ s-1 = 140 kW Water removed in dryer = 0. and enthalpy 35 kJ kg-1. The processing room has a volume of 1650 m3 and it is estimated to require six air changes per hour. and what has been said about them. determine the temperature to which the air should be cooled. From the psychrometric chart the humidity of the initial air is 0. for the purposes of air conditioning as well as for drying. Estimate the energy necessary to heat the air and the quantity of water removed per hour.834 = 2158 kg h-1 = 0. Proceeding at constant humidity to a temperature of 140°C. Total energy supplied = DH in heating and reheating = 268 .5°C and 90% RH. then to reheat if necessary.082 . In dryers. Final humidity is 0.0758 kg kg-1 1800 m3 of air per hour = 1800/0.35 = 233 kJ kg-1 Total water removed = DY = 0. EXAMPLE 10. the enthalpy is found to be 160 kJ kg-1.0062 = 0. will show that they can be used for calculations focused on the air. it is desired to provide processing air conditions of 15°C and 80% RH.6 kg s-1 Energy taken in by air = 233 x 0. Saturation temperature for this humidity is 13°C.0. the quantity of water removed and the amount of reheating necessary.082 kg kg-1. Air conditioning In a tropical country.0062 kg kg-1. . Reheating to 140°C keeps humidity constant (0. If the chosen method is to cool the air to condense out enough water to reduce the water content of the air sufficiently. Consideration of psychrometric charts.045 kg kg-1. Thence along a wet-bulb line to 60 % RH gives humidity of 0.045 kg s-1 = 163kgh -1 Exit temperature of air (from chart) = 60°C.6 x 0. The ambient air is at 31.834 m3 kg-1.which it leaves at 60 % RH again. Proceeding along a wetbulb line to an RH of 60% gives the corresponding temperature as 48°C and humidity as 0.0266 kg kg-1.0085 kg kg-1. This process can easily be followed on a psychrometric chart.

Dew-point temperature. Volume of moist air/kg dry air. Using a psychrometric chart.6 kW. and then passing through a water spray washer with recirculated water until relative humidity rises to 95% and then again heating sensibly to the final required state. From the psychrometric chart.0. Mass of air to be conditioned = (1650 x 6)/0. Atmospheric air at 760 mm Hg is at 22 C dry bulb temperature and 20 C wet bulb temperature.970 x 3. the enthalpy is 37 kJ kg-1 and the specific volume of air is 0. The moist air enters at 25C and wet bulb temperature of 20 C. and the humidifying efficiency of the recirculated spray water. (b) enthalpy. The exit air leaves at 30 C and relative humidity of 80%.827 m3 kg-1. the makeup water required in water-spray air washer. in kg/s. that can be . determine the (a) humidity ratio. (b) by preheating sensibly. Humidity ratio. Using the psychrometric chart. Determine for (a) and (b) the total heating required. Enthalpy of air per kg dry air. d.0085 = 0. the enthalpy is 33. Problem 2.5 = 41. b. Problem 3. and (c) dry bulb temperature of the two streams mixed together.5 kJ kg-1 Total reheat power required = 11. Problem 5. 4 Moist air at 35 C and 55% relative humidity is heated using a common furnace to 70C.970 kg h-1 Water removed per kg of dry air DY = 0.5)= 3.970 x 0. Problem. Air at a dry bulb temperature of 20C and relative humidity of 80% is to be heated and humidified to 40C and 40% relative humidity.Therefore the air should be cooled to 13°C At the saturation temperature of 13°C. determine: a. c.895 kJ h-1 = 11. determine how much heat is added per m3 initial moist air and what the final dew-point temperature is.018 kg kg-1 Mass of water removed per hour = 11. Relative humidity. 15°C and 80 % RH.018 = 215 kg h-1 Reheat required DH = (37 . Determine the flow rate of water.6 kJ s-1 Problem 1.0266 . e. The following options are available for this objective: (a) by passing air through a heated water-spray air washer.827 = 11. A water-cooling tower is to be designed with a blower capacity of 75 m 3/s. Moist air flowing at 2 kg/s and a dry bulb temperature of 46 C and wet bulb temperature of 20 C mixes with another stream of moist air fl owing at 3 kg/s at 25 C and relative humidity of 60%. Assuming that the air changes are calculated at the conditions in the working space.33.5 kJ kg-1 At the final conditions. = 11.

Clearly show the paths of air. The air exits the dryer at a dbt of 60 C. Moisture content b. a. Air is at a dry bulb temperature of 20C and a wet bulb temperature of 15C. Determine the following properties from a psychrometric chart. Problem 6.cooled if the cooled water is not recycled. The exit air from the second dryer leave at saturation. Then it is conveyed through a bed of granular pet food to dry it. The water enters the tower at 40C and leaves the tower at 25C. starting from the ambient air to the saturated air exiting the second dryer on a copy of a psychrometric chart. Dew point e. Relative humidity c. The exit air is again heated to 80 C and conveyed through another dryer containing another batch of pet food. . Enthalpy d. Determine the amount of water removed in the first and second dryer per kg of dry air. Specific volume Problem 7. Air at a dbt (dry bulb temprature) of 30 C and a relative humidity of 30% is conveyed through a heated dryer where it is heated to a dbt of 80 C.

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