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call 800-976-9819 or visit www. H E A T I N G A N D P I P E J O I N I N G S Y S T E M S .us input #2 at www. • Engineered system solutions increases the overall energy efficiency of a project • Viega offers personalized design services and on-site field support • Complete range of products. services and training to support the commercial market For more information.viega. Eliminate the guesswork with Viega. With design assistance and on-site support for every project type. Viega has everything you need to complete your next radiant heating or cooling project on schedule and on T H E G L O B A L L E A D E R I N P L U M B I N G .csemag.I N N O VAT E C L I M A T E M A T DESIGN D E S I G N S E R V I C E S BUILD S T A I N L E S S S T E E L M A N I F O L D Viega offers sophisticated engineered solutions to keep the temperature of a room consistent while reducing overall energy costs. .input #3 at www.

AUTOMATION & CONTROLS HVAC COMMUNICATIONS LIGHTING ELECTRICAL PLUMBING FIRE. and replacing fluorescent. IL 60523 and additional mailing offices. IL 60523. International air delivery $325/yr. 53. 1111 W. LLC. No. by CFE Media. Return undeliverable Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. www. Read about them on page 25 and learn more about the firms at www. IL 60523. 22nd Street. 22nd Street. Except for special issues where price changes are indicated. however. Rates for nonqualified subscriptions. 1111 W. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 3 . electrical. Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media. Canada/Mexico. and fire protection engineering firms in North Postmaster: send address changes to CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER. Email: customerservice@ cfemedia. LLC. IL 60523. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40 | Is an LED right for your next retrofit project? Building owners are asking lighting designers and electrical engineers to help them save on energy costs. CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER copyright 2016 by CFE Media. CONSULTINGSPECIFYING ENGINEER is a registered trademark of CFE Media.AUGUST 2016 FEATURES 28 | 2015 sets new record for industry M&A Mechanical. CGD. there are ways to improve the design of nonresidential buildings to achieve maximum energy efficiency. Please address all subscription mail to CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER. 7. MEP/FP design revenue decreased. Suite #250. All rights reserved. PE AMARA ROZGUS 48 | HVAC codes and standards: cooling and energy efficiency DEPARTMENTS 07 | Viewpoint 33 | Codes & Standards Selecting education to enhance your career Balancing passive. SECURITY & LIFE SAFETY CONSULTING-SPECIFYING ENGINEER (ISSN 0892-5046. Oak Brook. health care facilities 11 | Career Smart How to avoid self-sabotaging your engineering career Testing burn characteristics via ASTM E84 87 | Advertiser Index 12 | MEP Roundtable 88 | Future of Engineering Facing the challenges of mixed-use buildings Managing increased transformer inrush current Codes and standards dictate the design of HVAC systems. monthly except in February. IL 60523. 22nd Street. CxA ENGINEERING DISCIPLINES Use the icons to identify topics of interest. regardless of whether such errors result from negligence. 22nd Street. Oak Brook.00 US and $35. GAYLE DAVIS. single copies are available for $30. NEIL CHURMAN ON THE COVER: he 2016 MEP Giants list features the top foreign. $180/yr (includes 7% GST. plumbing. TOM DIVINE. 22nd Street. or other lights with LEDs is in high demand. IL 60523. Periodicals postage paid at Oak Brook.csemag. active fire protection 09 | Research 85 | Digital Edition Exclusive Lighting in hospitals. Group Publisher /Co-Founder. GST#123397457). plumbing (MEP). CFE Media. LLC does not assume and hereby disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein. 1111 W. Oak Brook. electrical. 1111 W. GST #123397457) is published 11x per year. PE. $150/yr.csemag. Graphic courtesy: CFE Media COVER STORY 25 | MEP Giants revenue shifts The 2016 MEP Giants gross revenue increased compared to last year. Oak Brook. LLC. Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder. Suite #250. HID. Vol. Suite #250. Oak Brook. Suite #250. accident or any other cause whatsoever. E-mail: customerservice@cfemedia. LLC used under license. Jim Langhenry. including all issues: USA. Suite #250. Printed in the USA. and fire protection (MEP/FP) engineering firms active among wave of dealmaking. most likely due to company mergers and larger and more varied

6 weeks August MEP Giants coverage The August issue of Consulting-Specifying Engineer is focused on the 2016 MEP Giants. iOS 3. begins Sept. system efficiency level. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 Google+: http://google.csemag. www.0+ Facebook: www.csemag. which graphically indicates energy consumption in real time to promote an energy-conscious behavior. Free. 26.0+ Smart-Sense Room Control The Smart-Sense Room Control application by Distech Controls allows users to manage . which highlights the top companies that specialize in mechanical.slideshare. and receive news and advice from your peers. fan speed. This tool from Quincy Compressor is a calculation “worksheet” that provides users with an estimate of overall operating costs. Smith.csemag. Register for webcasts and earn continuing education at www. Also featured in the magazine is a pull-out poster of the 2016 MEP Giants. LinkedIn. Download exclusive project profiles from the MEP Giants at www. iOS 4.csemag. join the discussions. and money saved when applying ABB’s variable speed drives to typical fan and pump loads in place of direct-on-line and search for the headlines below to read theses Web-exclusive articles. lighting and blinds remotely. Free. begins Upcoming webcasts:  Sept. 4 weeks  Electrical Design for Motors with Ken LinkedIn: http://tinyurl. and SlideShare. and fire protection engineering. PE. 10. 12.twitter. and potential savings from having a complete efficiency quotient (EQ) analysis performed.Education sessions beginning in September online now csemag. 20: Next-generation lighting: the emergence of PoE for lighting and controls On-demand webcasts:  Lighting: LED specifications  Keep your cool while keeping your facilities cool  Critical power: Backup power to learn more about and download more than 300 mobile apps. which includes a list of the top 100 firms ranked by MEP design revenue.facebook. plumbing (MEP). 15: Critical power: hospital electrical systems  Sept. 3 weeks  Building Automation with Ron Bernstein. SlideShare: PE.0+ 4 Register for multi-week education sessions at education www. Exclusive Web items Visit Apps for Engineers Visit www. EQ Energy Efficiency Analyzer Consulting-Specifying Engineer is on Facebook. iOS education to earn continuing education credits. Google+. ABB Energy Calculator The ABB Energy Calculator by Armitage Communications is designed to estimate the energy.  Fan Efficiency: How to Exploit New DOE Regulations to Lower Fan Energy Use with Wade W.  Top ways MEP engineering services can make older buildings more efficient (three-part series)  Using energy-recovery systems to increase building efficiency  Changing environment: Higher adoption of multi-criteria detectors and the future of fire detectors  Your questions answered: Critical power: Backup power systems  Top MEP considerations when designing for elevator systems. Follow ConsultingSpecifying Engineer. It features the ECO-Vue leaf pattern. begins Sept. Twitter: www.

com/information Reznor_CSE_VRF.csemag.indd 2 07/28/2016 8:12:48 AM .input #4 at www.

and opportunities in the green buildings industry. universities.James Puritch Vice President. in a modern and environmentally constructed LEED Platinum-Certified facility. hospitals.csemag. R&D Camosun & UVic Co-op Alumnus Headquartered in Victoria. recreational and commercial facilities. please visit our website or sign-up for a facility tour at: www.reliablecontrols. including schools. we design and develop internet-connected building controls for a wide range of green buildings.php input #5 at British Columbia. To learn more about our solutions for .

Editor’s Viewpoint
AMARA ROZGUS, Editor-in-Chief/Content Manager
630-571-4070 x2211,
EMILY GUENTHER, Associate Content Manager
630-571-4070 x2220,
AMANDA PELLICCIONE, Director of Research
MICHAEL SMITH, Creative Director
ELISA GEISHEIMER, Production Coordinator
630-571-4070 x2213,

Amara Rozgus,

Associate, Environmental Systems Design Inc., Chicago
Principal, Mechanical Engineer, Arup, Seattle
National Program Executive,
Outcome Construction Services LLC, Kansas City, Mo.
Principal, Metro CD Engineering LLC, Columbus, Ohio
Senior Electrical Engineer,
Smith Seckman Reid Inc., Houston
Energy Modeling Wizard, TLC Engineering for Architecture Inc.,
Brentwood, Tenn.
Principal/MEP Engineering Director, Page, Austin, Texas
Vice President, Electrical Engineer,
CannonDesign, Grand Island, N.Y.
Mechanical Engineer, GRAEF, Milwaukee
Vice President, Jensen Hughes, Framingham, Mass.
Principal, Arup, Washington, D.C.
Vice President, ccrd, a WSP Co., Dallas
President, Koffel Associates Inc., Columbia, Md.
Independent Consultant, Oak Park, Ill.
Engineering Design Principal, Jacobs, Philadelphia
Senior MEP Engineer, Center for Sustainable Energy,
Mortenson Construction, Minneapolis
Chief Fire Marshal, Boulder (Colo.) Fire Rescue
Electrical Engineer, CH2M, Portland, Ore.
Chief Executive Officer, JBA Consulting Engineers, Las Vegas
Principal, Regional Engineering Leader,
DLR Group, Overland Park, Kan.
Senior Engineer, CDM Smith Inc., Boston
Principal, Health Care Market Leader,
Affiliated Engineers Inc., Madison, Wis.
Associate, SmithGroupJJR, Chicago
Vice President, CCJM Engineers Ltd., Chicago
Austin Operations Group Manager and
Senior Mechanical Engineer,
Stanley Consultants, Austin, Texas

Selecting education
to enhance your career


rom a young age, my parents
instilled a love of learning and
education in me. Learning came in
many forms—traditional school, traveling the world, and learning from people
who had much more worldly experience than I did. My grandmother, for
example, was a font of knowledge. She
shared much of what she learned via
stories, from her family living through
the Great Depression to her time in the
U.S. Marines to her travels both in the
United States and abroad.
Fast-forward a few years, and I spent
my high school days in a Jesuit institution where the teachers taught us to
learn and think independently, not simply regurgitate data from a book. And
then came college—an option available
to those who can handle the academic
rigors as well as pay for the years of classes, sometimes living away from home
and juggling all of the fees that schools
tack onto many degree programs.
In short, I was lucky to have received
a high-quality education. Even after
college, I continued to take classes, earn
certifications, and attend education
sessions. Via associations and other
groups, I expand my knowledge today,
whether in person or online.
According to a proprietary ConsultingSpecifying Engineer research study, 6 in
10 members of the audience attend one
of our many webcasts to obtain continu-

ing education. The same number contacts a manufacturer or visits its website
to obtain continuing education via a
webcast and obtain more information
about a technology or system.
Starting on page 60, several manufacturers highlight the varied ways they
offer education to their clients, consulting engineers, and other building
professionals. Companies realize that
they need to offer unbiased education
to bring engineers up to speed with new
technologies; some of this is done via
lunchtime sessions while other education is done en masse via an online tool.
The 2016 MEP Giants, highlighted on
page 25, also feel that continuing education or updates to software or other
computer-based tools are key to making
their companies cutting-edge or, at least,
keeping up with the competition.
Education comes in many forms.
Some may be on-the-job training. Mentors often take junior staff members
under their wing to show them the
ropes. Online education has become
de rigueur because many people can’t
afford to leave their desk, have too
many client meetings outside the office,
or simply cannot attend multiday conferences.
I encourage you to take advantage of
the multiple ways to learn. Give yourself and your career an extra edge with
some additional education.

Senior Electrical Engineer and Acoustics Engineer,
KJWW Engineering Consultants, Rock Island, Ill.
Campus Energy Market Leader, MEP Associates, Verona, Wis.
Lead Electrical Engineer, McGuire Engineers Inc., Chicago

Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016


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Top HVAC product
selection factors





P d


S i

Figure 1: Eight in 10 mechanical
engineers agree that product quality
is very important when selecting one
HVAC product over another. Courtesy:
Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2015
HVAC and Building Automation Systems Study

8 in 10

fire protection engineers are responsible for determining
requirements/writing specifications
for fire and life safety systems.
Source: Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2016 Fire and Life Safety Study


of electrical engineers specify circuit breakers, fuses,
etc.; emergency and standby power
equipment; and transformers for
new and existing buildings. Source:
Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2016
Electrical and Power Study


of firms specify more
than $1 million annually in lighting
and lighting control products for
new and existing buildings. Source:
Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2015
Lighting and Lighting Controls Study

More research
Consulting-Specifying Engineer covers several research topics each year.
All reports are available at

Lighting in hospitals,
health care facilities


he Consulting-Specifying Engineer 2015 Lighting and Lighting
Controls Study indicated that
47% of engineers specify, design, or
make product selections for hospitals
and/or health care facilities. Below
are five lighting and lighting control
findings as they relate to hospital and
health care facility projects:
1. Annual specified products value:
The average engineering firm specifies
$868,411 in total lighting and lighting
control products for new and existing
hospitals and health care facilities.
2. Changes affecting design: Within
the past 2 years, 59% of hospital and
health care facility designs have been
very affected by changes to LED technologies and specifications. Forty-one
percent of engineers also reported that
changes with lighting codes and standards have affected their projects.

3. Top challenges: Inadequate budget (78%), interoperability and complementing systems (65%), and lighting
controls sequence of operations, integration, etc. (64%) are the most difficult challenges for lighting engineering
and design in hospitals and health care
4. Products specified: Eight in 10
engineers specify LEDs; lighting controls; and/or T5, T8, or T12 fixtures for
hospitals and health care facilities.
5. Design factors: When selecting
lighting products for hospitals and
health care facilities, engineers compare product quality (100%), energy
efficiency (99%), and manufacturer’s
reputation (95%).
View more information at
Amanda Pelliccione is the research
director at CFE Media.

Issues affecting the future of lighting design
in health care facilities
Controls, building


Codes,, regulations,






LED fixture

t b
d t


Keeping up with new/
changing technology


Figure 2: When looking toward the future of lighting design in hospitals and health
care facilities, engineers are most concerned about changes to codes/regulation/
standards, designing for energy conservation/efficiency, and keeping up with new/
changing technologies. Courtesy: Consulting-Specifying Engineer FOR MORE RESEARCH INFORMATION
Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016


csemag.Manufactured Engineered Headquartered Owned (NASDAQ:: AAO AAON) input #7 at .

Boston How to avoid self-sabotaging your engineering career Avoiding certain mindsets can mean professional success. be courteous to your fellow workers. is essential for everyone. You will be amazed at how many “Every morning when you reach your desk. and. and should never be allowed to be the reason for delaying the project. After achieving a few goals. you do not need any book to tell you how to succeed. The truth is. write down a list of future goals. To an engineer. 3. which eats away all the promise and eventually makes a person useless. physically and mentally. the problem goes away. Your boss may compliment you on a job well done or a project brought to completion to the immense satisfaction of the client. He is a member of ConsultingSpecifying Engineer’s editorial advisory board.csemag. etc. any ambiguity should be cleared by having a group discussion or conversation with the client. If you’ve had a setback in your life. For engineering projects. 4. PHD. to have a hassle-free and litigation-free career. Do not be a lone wolf. CDM Smith. some people procrastinate due to fear of success. write down a list of future goals. Instead. add it to your to-do list for the next few days. The collective gist of all them is that you need to work hard and drive yourself to the limit. they are sure to come back and haunt you. make an intelligent remark the next time a new technology is discussed. Your goal should be obtaining the ability to times solutions pop out during your discussions. 5. When told about a new technology. If you cannot take care of the problem immediately. He has authored several papers in the transaction of IEEE and two sections in electrical engineering handbooks. professor management emeritus at the Saunders College of Business at the Rochester Institute of Technology. www. which are always done in a group. Think forward. 6. Do not slide into obsolescence. of course. too. Complacency has always been an enemy of progress. A lot of books are available on how to succeed in your life. make a mental note to do some research to know 2. The following are some of the things you should not do in your career: 1. Ignore the compliments. By far. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 11 . be financially comfortable. have an open mind. He has more than 20 years of experience in the design of electrical distribution systems. Think forward. or concept. PE. for nothing can be gained by your self-analysis and self-condemnation. Most people have a failure of some kind in their lives. Keeping fit. success should mean professional recognition of his or her technical expertise.Career Smart SYED PEERAN. A healthy body and an alert mind will banish despair and give you the courage to deal with any situation. aim not at 100% but 200% of your job description and expectations. This also increases comradery and friendship. do not try to analyze the causes.” — Syed Peeran Ironically. What everyone needs are some pointers on things you should not do. Problems do not go away. calls procrastination “career suicide in slow motion. if you do all of the above. polite and dress well. Andrew DuBrin. It is like a cancer. Do not procrastinate. which can cause your career to nosedive. and you are afraid that your boss or a client will embarrass you by pointing out the weak part of your project. Every morning when you reach your desk. to have a stable domestic life. to rise to the highest possible position in the company. Do not bask in the limelight of appreciation. Self-pity is another enemy of progress. software. Success has different meanings for different people. be punctual. This is exactly what you should not do. success will come to you anyway. Some people think that if you procrastinate long enough.” People procrastinate due to a fear of failure. Syed Peeran is a senior engineer with CDM Smith Inc. Discuss your problems with your colleagues as often as you can. it is tempting to sit back and be complacent. the most common reason for procrastination is that there is a part of the project you have not understood well.

1 trend you see today in the design of specialized buildings? Dave Crutchfield: For our work with athletic training facilities. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and generator support is now a major part of a stadium. PE. Facility owners are seeing the need to focus on environmental impact and total cost of ownership. S. PE. Design Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 of the supporting electrical systems was simple. Kan. “Train how you compete” is the goal. I’ve seen increased interest in buildings that are both architectural award winners as well as energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. Sports teams now have a full information technology (IT) staff just the same as any business. BEMP Senior Energy Engineer. CSE: What other trends should engineers be aware of for such projects in the near future? Laue: Building owners are not the only group looking to improve the energy performance of buildings. Minneapolis Robert Nixdorf. in the past 2 years. and technology giants are partnering in implementing the latest technology on a large stage. counties. with little or no interface between them. security. For example. Oathout: The biggest trend we see for sports arenas is the use of solar panels that not only deliver clean and renewable energy. 12 CSE: What’s the No. With the cost of tickets becoming so high. training can take place in a conditioned space. which can be transitioned into an environment resembling an unconditioned outdoor space using HVAC controls. integrating all components into a common network. No longer is it enough to just be at the game. much in the same way as it is for a tech company. LEED AP Energy + Engineering Leader. PE. This transition can happen multiple times throughout the day depending on the weather. Center for Energy Performance M. Today. LEED AP BD+C. and www. so providing spaces that have HVAC systems that can mimic outdoor conditions is important. Julianne Laue: The primary focus in specialized buildings has historically been on architectural design and external image. LEED AP Vice President WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff San Francisco Rodney V.MEP Roundtable Dave Crutchfield.csemag. Years ago. Mortenson Co. I’ve seen a decreased interest in green building certification and an increased interest in low-energy design and incorporation of renewable energy. More cities. That being said. Robert Nixdorf: Technology has become a driving factor in sports facilities. .C.A. Future flexibility is essential. we are seeing large-scale data centers being built into facilities. Facing the challenges of mixed-use buildings Fulfilling the demands of a mixed-use facility can be challenging. This combination of “architectural energy” offers organizations a platform to integrate corporate social responsibility into the strategic business plan and to market it to key audiences. but also activate an amenity space to engage fans visually and highlight the stadium’s commitment to a lower carbon future. LEED AP Principal RMF Engineering Charleston. and audio-video systems were all treated as separate entities. Over the past 10 years in my career. You have to be able to keep the fans’ interest and give them something well above and beyond what they can experience on television. Rodney V. Here. the telephone/data systems. Principal DLR Group Overland Park. the fan experience has become so important. Oathout. we see a trend in providing environments for the student-athletes that will mimic the conditions in which they play. professionals with experience on such projects share advice and explain how to end up with positive results. considering the structure’s diverse components. Julianne Laue.

Smarter lighting control systems allow for more efficient workflow. The submetered data needs to be useful to the owner’s facility management team as well as be digestible by occupants. creating a vibrant and high-energy environment for fans within the plaza. This has increased the need for submetering of electrical. Focusing on LED. The combination of solar power and other onsite energy sources. and waste. These programmable LEDs illuminate the skylight cavities to produce changing light patterns.Figures 1 and 2: The new solar canopy on the East Plaza at AmericanAirlines Arena is DLR Group’s first renewable solar power system design at an NBA arena. Oathout: We believe that the advancement of equipment used to create microgrids will become more important in sports venues. LED sports lighting also offers an improved color rendering index (CRI) of 85+ over traditional metal halide sources with a CRI of 65. First and foremost is the energy savings available that can be gained over traditional lighting sources and control systems—sometimes as much as 50% of the lighting energy for the new levels inside and outside the venue. you have the introduction of features like color-changing technology or the integration of DMX controls to bring the fan experience to www. particularly during off-hours. like combined heat and power systems. The solar canopy integrates 14 solar skylight rings with building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs). All photos courtesy: DLR Group states are requiring performance disclosure for energy. CSE: What was the most recent specialty project you’ve worked on? Oathout: The entertainment venue adjacent to the AmericanAirlines Arena is a unique and exciting project completed in November 2015. Concealed within the soffits of each skylight is a dynamic. an underused outside concrete plaza was converted into a place of community and commerce after a solar canopy was constructed. as maintenance personnel can activate the lights they need through their smartphone rather than trying to reach security on the radio to turn them on. gas.csemag. The need is for data that can be used technically as well as to influence occupant behaviors. a technology that embeds solar cells into sheets of clear glass. but also promotes engagement with sustainability and Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 13 . The goal was to create an installation that not only brings an amenity to the arena. color-changing LED system. As home of the Miami Heat. Nixdorf: The continued rise of LED lighting and technology-driven lighting control systems have created a number of opportunities in the design and operation of a sporting venue. whether it is featured lighting on the exterior of the building or enhanced pregame or player introductions. Crutchfield: Engineers need to be aware that more clients are requesting their spaces be more flexible and able to deliver different indoor conditions with a fast turnover. and water use. can improve their environmental footprint by reducing the source energy required to operate the facility. water.

MEP Roundtable
renewable energy. The team was comprised of DLR Group, architect/engineer;
NRG Renew, a solar developer; Skanska,
contractor; and Miami Heat, owner.
Crutchfield: RMF Engineering
provided the mechanical, electrical, and
plumbing (MEP) engineering for the

contractor and MEP subcontractors were
brought to the table at a very early stage to
assist the design team with coordination
and pricing to keep the project on budget.
To make the best use of everyone’s capabilities, the BIM work for the HVAC and
plumbing systems was performed by the

“A commissioning agent is involved in 90% of our projects. The most successful projects bring the CxA in early
and engage this person in the integrated design process
with the rest of the team.” — Dave Crutchfield
University of South Carolina’s indoor
football training facility and their football operations facility. The projects were
located in the area surrounding the existing Williams-Brice football stadium in
Columbia, S.C. The team involved
Ratio Architects and their local partner,
Watson Tate Savory Architects. Our
team at RMF handled the MEP design
of the indoor football training facility.
This facility gives athletes the ability to
practice in a fully controlled (heated
and cooled) environment. However, if
the coaching staff determines that the
athletes need to condition to the typical South Carolina heat/humidity, the
facility can be operated as a naturally
ventilated space. After that conditioning
activity is completed, the facility can be
brought back into air conditioned control in a short amount of time.
Nixdorf: We have recently completed
the MEP and lighting design on a new
70,000-seat football stadium designed to
host NFL football as well as major league
soccer, college football and basketball,
and many other types of events. The
building is designed with an operable
roof over the playing field and a translucent flexible ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) exterior skin. The stadium
is pursuing a LEED Platinum rating,
implementing many sustainable features,
such as water-efficient fixtures, daylighting control, and LED lighting, along
with an efficient HVAC system. Because
of the expedited schedule, the general

subcontractors in collaboration with the
engineers to make the transition from
design drawings to coordinated shop
drawings much more seamless.
CSE: What unusual requirements
do specialty projects have from an
engineering standpoint?
Laue: Many specialty buildings are
large in size, have multiple space types,
and have diverse operating schedules.
These project types need more individually controlled zones. More zones, units,
and controls result in higher costs. To
stay on budget, the HVAC systems can
get value-engineered to a point where the
building can be difficult to control. Engineers need to fully understand all uses for
the facility and provide flexible systems to
maintain comfort.
Oathout: The occupancy patterns
associated with sports venues provide
unique challenges for the design engineer. These facilities tend to be large and
generally empty except for the duration
of the event. Systems like lighting, HVAC,
and plumbing need to be designed with
scalability in mind to achieve a desirable
environment during all occupancy levels.
Nixdorf: Specialty projects like a sports
facility require the building to be looked
at under many different uses. A stadium
designed for football may also plan to
host soccer matches or Final Four basketball. In addition, the venue may also plan
other events, such as concerts, monster

Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016

truck rallies, or large trade shows. Different events require different lighting and
HVAC schemes. If there is an operable
roof, you have to consider how to address
events with the roof open or closed. Most
sports venues include many types of specialty uses all in one building, such as
high-end kitchens, laundry, hydrotherapy
rooms, or sauna and steam rooms. You
have to plan for sports medicine suites
that include training and taping rooms
and even x-ray equipment. You also have
television and radio studios with specific
electrical and acoustical requirements,
many different technology spaces, centralized beverage distribution, and various repair shops—some requiring special
ventilation requirements, such as spray
paint booths.
Crutchfield: Specialty projects seem
to always have multiple unusual MEP
requirements. Often, the indoor space
temperatures and humidity levels have
ranges that are outside the normal
ranges for typical office spaces. This
makes it necessary to understand how the
building will be used by the occupants.
CSE: Describe the commissioning
process for a specialty project. At
what point was your team brought
in, and what changes or suggestions were you able to implement via
Crutchfield: A commissioning agent is
involved in 90% of our projects. The most
successful projects bring the CxA in early
and engage this person in the integrated
design process with the rest of the team. If
the CxA is merely used to check construction, the value of that process lessens. The
CxA should be a team member from the
beginning and should not be there just
to push paper.
Nixdorf: Commissioning a sports arena
is a unique task. Arenas are designed
and built with the identity of the city and
teams that call these facilities home, and
the commissioning process has to verify
that the installed systems maintain an
enjoyable viewing environment for the

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MEP Roundtable
spectators as well as for the groups participating in the planned events. There
are ideas that are designed within a
stadium that have never been tested or
sequenced for that given environment,
and it is up to the commissioning team
to verify the system procedures in these
one-off types of environments, to ensure
the systems and sequences will meet the
demand requirements for a sports venue.
The commissioning team is an asset in a
large project, such as a sports venue: The
team’s role through construction is to be
sure the owner’s project requirements are
captured in the basis of design and carried out through the construction of the
CSE: Explain some of the codes,
standards, and guidelines you use
as a guide. Which codes/standards
should engineers be most aware of
in their design of such projects?

Laue: Codes are adopted at the state,
county, or city level. It is important to
know the most current codes for the
city in which you are designing or
building the project. The three main
codes I reference in any project are
ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise
Residential Buildings/IECC, ASHRAE
Standard 55: Thermal Environmental
Conditions for Human Occupancy,
and ASHRAE Standard 62.1: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality.
These detail minimum requirements
for efficiencies, controls, design, commissioning, thermal comfort, and air
quality. Applying these codes early
to energy and indoor environmental quality models can help ensure
not only a code-compliant building,
but also one that is energy-efficient,
healthy, and comfortable to the occupants.

Crutchfield: While most codes and
regulations are standard, when it comes
to athletic facility designs, understanding the National Collegiate Athletic
Association (NCAA) and professional
sports organizations’ rules and regulations is also important. We need to
ensure that our equipment does not
interfere with games and that acceptable clearances are provided around
the fields to keep the athletes safe. We
tend to want to get our equipment as
close to the distribution point as possible to minimize operating costs, but
an extra few feet of athlete deceleration
space can make the difference between
a highlight reel catch and a highlight
reel catch that results in an injury.
CSE: What unique HVAC requirements do specialty projects have
that you wouldn’t encounter in other

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which mean specialty controls and flexible HVAC design. and many were not designed for cooling. the changes in building code requirements regularly . However. Some additional requirements include high ventilation and exhaust rates for specialty areas. de-humidification. Each scenario requires different controls and setpoints. hockey the next. requiring additional carbon monoxide detection and added exhaust. along with pre-balancing the seating bowl air-distribution grilles prior to installation.Oathout: Sports venues commonly have large variations in occupancy and environmental requirements. Indirect conditioning of the public concourses is common.csemag. HVAC system design is complicated by large quantities of ventilation air. and this limits HVAC system selection and increases design coordination between architects and mechanical engineers. input #10 at www. vehicle-access areas are CSE: When retrofitting existing buildings. Nixdorf: Unique HVAC requirements include exhaust systems for specialty areas. Arenas may need to be designed for a basketball game one day. humidification. The HVAC requirements for hockey games are very different as compared with a monster truck race or an empty arena. Forced air requires ductwork that may not fit well in the existing floor-to-floor heights. The HVAC systems must be scalable and designed to achieve the many environmental requirements of the venue. Moisture control in buildings that were not designed for air conditioning can also provide challenges that need to be overcome. A challenge specific to operable-roof facilities is designing a system and heating/cooling strategy to provide comfort and efficiency. and how have you overcome them? Laue: Existing buildings—especially historic buildings—were not designed for forced-air systems. such as locker and training rooms. and then maybe a monster truck rally or rodeo soon after. painting. Laue: Due to the overall volume of the spaces and the density of the occupants. Oathout: There are many challenges that arise when retrofitting an existing building. whether the roof is open or closed. there are two factors that commonly surface. First. or carpentry shops. such as welding. In many cases. what challenges have you faced. and the intermittent and varying use of the facility. smoke management. and under various weather conditions. Arena operators will tell you that this example is probable in just one week’s event calendar.

chilled beams. Our ultra low-profile modular wireway is so discreet it’s barely noticeable as it elegantly blends in to any environment while accommodating power and data.480. such as displacement ventilation under the seats. lighting. it is both. and radiant heated/ cooled slabs provide great efficiencies. Nixdorf: Renewable energy generation is becoming a common feature of modern sports venues. Net zero energy remains an elusive goal for most projects. ® Connect without core drilling connectrac. trenching and unsightly power poles. HVAC systems bear the brunt of the energy savings. 1. Due to the highly variable occupancy of an arena. Lincoln Financial Field. but a fully integrated design that involves passive and active design strategies from all designers. such as precooling. Oathout: We have numerous examples of solar energy projects being incorporated into sports venues. etc.877. but offsetting the annual energy consumption of a stadium through building-integrated renewables is extremely challenging. That being said. Building operators can incorporate strategies. we have seen that two owners who are separated by a utility provider boundary may have vastly different payback periods. HVAC. When teams take advantage of climate. With renewable energy incentives varying based on local/ regional incentives. Laue: Achieving “net zero” is not a systems approach provided by the engineers. Cooling strategies. controls. engineers need to ask specific questions of the stakeholder on environmental requirements and tolerance for variation. but a fully integrated design that involves passive and active design strategies from all designers. they can be subjected to very high peaks in electrical demand. CSE: Energy efficiency and sustainability are often a request from building owners and chief information officers (CIOs). A more interesting challenge is the evolution of the public perception of an acceptable indoor environment. CSE: What types of renewable energy systems have you recently specified to provide power for such projects? This may include PVs. largely because of the high energy-use intensity of this building type. Some universities have the opportunity to build PV arrays that are large enough to claim a net zero stadium. What net zero energy and/or high-performance systems have you recently specified on specialty projects (either an existing building or new construction)? Connectrac ® Wireways provide a proven power and IT alternative to expensive and disruptive core drilling. allowing more environmentally friendly electrical generation.csemag. the chances of achieving a high-performance design increase. ground-source heat pumps or high-efficiency boilers and chillers are a must. At the plant level. etc. and use of energy-storage systems can manage peak loads.” — Julianne Laue impact HVAC design.MEP Roundtable “Achieving ‘net zero’ is not a systems approach provided by the engineers. On the air side. This is generally considered more of a cost issue than an environmental issue. Specific projects include FedEx Field. dedicated outdoor-air systems (DOAS) with energy recovery that are coupled with virtual routing and forwarding (VRF).com/information 18 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 . More than ever. products.5637 input #11 at www. but in reality. Crutchfield: We often specify PV systems and provide economic analysis of the various renewable energy options for clients. This also puts less demand on the grid. wind turbines. significantly reducing energy costs. MetLife Stadium. can significantly improve occupant comfort and reduce energy use was compared with conventional overhead cooling systems dumping air into the seating bowl.. High-efficiency lighting and HVAC systems can go a long way to reducing energy consumption.

5637 Connect without core drilling Patent Pending connectrac.877.NEW Connectrac 2.7 Under-Carpet Wireway It’s so subtle you’ll ask yourself – where is it ? Introducing Our NEW .csemag. Our ultra low-profile modular wireway is so discreet it’s barely noticeable as it elegantly blends in to any environment while accommodating power and ® 1.7 Under-Carpet Wireway Connectrac ® wireways provide a proven power and IT alternative to expensive and disruptive core drilling. input #12 at www.480. trenching and unsightly power poles.

We need to push the profession to be leaders of overall design teams vs. verify auto-controls operate as designed. Then. but if the building is not comfortable. Laue: Engineers need to push for greater involvement earlier on in the design process. The intent of these projects is more than energy . What. and AmericanAirlines Arena. Precision Time Protocol (PTP). we encourage maintenance staff to remain engaged in the construction process—to give them an understanding of how the design is being input #13 at www. energy performance. the intrinsic knowledge they have of the design and construction process allows them to operate the building in a manner that retains the high-performance aspects. We have a huge responsibility to the people within the buildings to provide them with spaces that are thermally comfortable. (in milliseconds) I The History of Power Monitoring. owners and occupants will adjust to the building program and aesthetics. After the design process is over and construction begins.csemag... the need to identify the maintenance staff and engage them in the design phase is critical.) require the building facility team to follow certain practices to be effective. can an engineer do to help increase chances of success in this area? Oathout: We continue to stress the importance of the human element in building performance. etc. Levi Stadium. CSE: Many aspects of sustainability (power. After a building is about:  Automation and controls  Electrical/lighting/power  Fire/life safety Events Happen .. and healthy. Engineers need to fill the information gap with their owners by staying involved with projects after completion to ensure the stakeholders understand the design intent and maximize the performance of the facility. 1588 SM ms Waveform capture TM Sequence of Events Recorder Precision timing Today 2000s 1990s CyTime Web-enabled Power monitoring at the speed of NOW ! Diagnose root cause. participants or subs to others. and sustainability requirements of a project.cyber-sciences. they strive to be a symbol of public outreach of the venue’s renewable energy program and placemaking to supplement the entertainment value for the patrons. Equipment and system designs have become more complicated to achieve the code. C r u t c h f i e l d : With any highperformance buildings.csemag.MEP Roundtable NRG Stadium. Download our 20-page white paper on PTP and you’ll ♥ 1588 too: www. enables 1-ms time-sync over Ethernet. identify slow breakers before they increase arc flash hazard. without glare. HVAC. acoustically enjoyable. We need to be aggressive in design meetings and stress the value of the services we bring. Engineers can benefit from their operations knowledge while maintenance personal benefit from having an increased understanding of the design. per IEEE 1588. well-lit. Read more at www. they will never be happy. after the construction process is over and the building is operational. if anything.

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432. T he 2016 MEP Giants generated approximately $47. 95).992. The complete table of rankings is provided at www. 35% said the economy was the biggest corporate challenge. More than a dozen firms either joined the list for the first time or returned after an absence in reporting data: IPSIntegrated Project Services LLC (No. (No.csemag.6 million in 2015. Oak Brook. 30). a 10. 1 firm—as it has since 2013—with 14% of its gross revenue dedicated to MEP design.837 4 WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff $153.P. 86). Table 1 shows the top firms based on MEP design revenue. 54).4 billion in gross annual revenue during the previous fiscal year. (No. LaBella Associates D. $102.000.9% decrease over 2015 revenue.750. Ill.458.000 5 Stantec $143. 75). Editor-in-Chief. (No. Middough EwingCole (No. which was the same as 2015). Dewberry (No. 98). About 58. 2 in 2015). 63% of firms reported it Table 1: Top 10 firms by MEP design revenue Rank Firm MEP design revenue ($) 1 Jacobs $1. Several mergers and acquisitions occurred in the past year (21%.1 million per firm.239.000 7 HDR $117. The RMH Group (No.2016 MEP Giants revenue shifts The 2016 MEP Giants gross revenue increased compared to last year. Professional Engineering Consultants PA (No. and Southland Engineering (No. the MEP Giants earned $6. most likely due to company mergers and larger and more varied projects. 89). particularly Black & Veatch (No. For this reporting period.587 Table 1: The top 10 firms are listed by MEP design revenue. Last year.591.C.000 10 Syska Hennessy Group $99. which is how the MEP Giants are ranked. though it continues to decrease year over year. Farnsworth Group Inc. A couple of larger firms opted not to participate in the 2016 MEP Giants. Jacobs topped the list as the No. Loring Consulting Engineers Inc.210 6 JENSEN HUGHES $126. 90). 51 in 2015).225 8 Arup $113. (No. 92). Westlake Reed Leskosky (No.064. and fire protection (MEP/FP) engineering design revenue. All graphics courtesy: Consulting-Specifying Engineer Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 25 .000 2 AECOM $750. 60 in 2015).000. BY AMARA ROZGUS.000 3 Burns & McDonnell $215. 39). Leach Wallace Associates Inc. (No. in 2014.000. Thorson • Baker + Associates Inc.11 billion in mechanical. Consulting-Specifying Engineer.351 9 Affiliated Engineers Inc. electrical. Ballinger ( for the article “2015 sets new record for industry M&A”). 71). Participants indicated that “the economy’s impact on the construction market” is the greatest challenge.5 billion increase from 2015 in which the firms generated $41. 32). changing the name and face of many companies and moving some firms up the list due to a larger combined revenue (see page 28 www. (No.000. MEP/FP design revenue decreased.csemag. plumbing. This year. Table 2 shows the top MEP Giants firms based on total gross revenue. and Kohler Ronan LLC (No. with an average MEP design revenue of $61. which lowered both the gross annual revenue and MEP design revenue for this year. 26% indicated it was a challenge. a drop from $68. 11). a $5.7% of all 2016 MEP Giants’ revenue is generated from MEP design.9 billion in gross revenue.

000. 8 fire protection engineers.2016 Engineers on staff MEP design revenue by project type 44% New construction Mechanical 37. electrical. In 2016. More firms are bringing some specialty services in-house. cal engineers. the amount of new construction is nearly the same as retrofit/ renovation work. including controls/ building automation systems and/or control sequences and energy modeling. fire protection. each 2016 MEP Giants firm has 83 mechanical engineers. and 27 environmental engineers on staff.7% 39% Retrofit/renovation Electrical Maintenance/ repair/operation 7% Commissioning (new buildings) or retrocommissioning 7% 38. When it comes to sustainable engineering.114. These numbers have remained constant over several years. The number of projects submitted in the past fiscal year to the U. www. 85 electri- Figure 2: Similar to data from previous MEP Giants research. Engineering services are provided in North America (Mexico.138. On average.000 14% 3 Burns & McDonnell $2.900 engineers on staff (see Figure 1). the Middle East (33%).110 6% 4 WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff $1.500. there are 21. Many subcontract specialty services including acoustics (63%).000. Canada) 54% of the time. 1.000.S. and environmental engineers.328. the number of U.590.csemag.8% Other Fire protection Plumbing Figure 1: Among those employed by the 2016 MEP Giants.900 mechanical. Green Building Council LEED projects decreased slightly for this reporting period. 26 3% Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 (42% of firms are providing services).250.332 projects were submitted for LEED certification in 2016.000 8% 5 Stantec $2. Other challenges include “staffing: quality of young engineers” (19%) and “evolving information technologies for design or project management” (14%). computational fluid dynamics modeling (23%). Project types The 100 firms listed here don’t handle all aspects of engineering. the 2016 MEP Giants have 21.based projects. indicating the breadth of their engineering work. as the biggest challenge.4% 7.000.705.245 total engineers employed).380.000 2% 45 STV $398. plumbing. In . and construction management (20%).000 7% 14 exp $375.1% 3. Nonengineering staff comprises 141.688 engineers.943 6% 7 HDR $2. MEP engineering employment numbers The 2016 MEP Giants firms employ 63. the MEP Giants earned 83.9% of their MEP design revenue for U.00 7% Table 2: This shows the top 10 firms by gross annual revenue.S. MEP design revenue is one-quarter or less at all of these firms.832. and the European Union (27%). Other areas of growth include Asia Table 2: Top 10 firms by gross annual revenue Rank Firm Gross annual revenue ($) Total MEP revenue % 2 AECOM $18. Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star Buildings Label increased to 347 from 301 projects in 2015.S.717. Asian projects have increased over last year and surpassed the Middle East for international work. Several opportunities are open to MEP Giants outside the United States. 17 plumbing engineers.203 employees.000 23% 50 Gannett Fleming $352. where 1.9% Environmental 12. the Caribbean (27%).484. a slight uptick from 2015.410. up very slightly from 2015 (63. security system design (26%).000 11% 53 CDM Smith $1.463 projects were submitted in 2015.000 4% 1 Jacobs $12.673.

A tie in the top third (at No. 24% are employee-owned firms. transportation 9% Engineered multi-dwelling buildings. and government/military. and other (3%). However. not all consulting firms were willing or able to participate in this year’s MEP Giants survey. and schools. repair. MEP Giants indicated that they split their time between new construction (44%) and retrofit/ renovation (39%). the Consulting-Specifying Engineer (CSE) staff collected and analyzed data from several consulting and engineering firms.csemag. computational fluid dynamics modeling (23%).  12. Some of the top mechanical.  Top sources of work/contracts come from private owners (via a direct consulting contract). the results do not fully represent the construction and engineering market as a whole. Rounding out the data Several new questions were introduced in the past couple of years to help provide a better picture of how the MEP Giants firms are managing their businesses.3 million). office buildings. the 2016 MEP Giants earned revenue in three key building types: hospitals/health care facilities. read the October 2016 issue on the Commissioning Giants. and colleges or universities. which has deviated only slightly from past years. The minimum MEP design revenue required for consideration is $5 million. Figure 3 breaks down the various building types MEP Giants work in. more than 100 engineering firms provided their information for the MEP Giants Some interesting facts about the 2016 MEP Giants:  62% are privately owned firms. plumbing. however. commissioning or retro-commissioning (7%). with nearly identical questions asked in previous years and more than 100 engineering firms participating this year.  Aside from standard labor and overhead costs. 34) is unusual. the health care and office building markets were at the top for this reporting period. with some newcomers or firms re-entering the program.  2.8% of MEP Giants’ engineers are female. 15% Office buildings 12% Colleges or universities 12% Industrial or manufacturing facilities/warehouses 11% Government or military facilities 9% Utilities. and operations (7%). Data and percentages are based on the top 100 companies that responded to the request for information.csemag.MEP design revenue by building type Hospitals/health care facilities Many MEP Giants firms subcontract specialty services including acoustics (63%). In 2016. although the smallest firms on this list far exceed that minimum (the smallest firm’s MEP design revenue was $9. electrical. Rounding out the projects are maintenance. architects and design-build contracts (equal percentage). restaurants 7% 6% K-12 schools As shown in Figure 2. and construction management (20%).  The state of New York is home to the most headquarters (13%). For a more in-depth report on commissioning. www. we present a qualified portrait of where the top engineering firms stand in 2016.241 people (on average) account for nonengineering staff at each firm. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 27 . with Pennsylvania and Ohio tying for second place with 10% each. retail complexes. firms spent the most on new tools (such as software or hardware) in the past fiscal year. METHODOLOGY At the beginning of the year. The 2016 MEP Giants firms continue to work on several projects in hospitals and health care facilities. public works. office 5% Research laboratories Figure 3: As we saw in 2015. Read about several project profiles in a special interactive display at www. and fire protection (MEP/FP) engineering firms submitted their firms’ profiles to CSE. security system design (26%).

with 21% of the MEP Giants reporting making an acquisition in 2015. audio/ video consulting. Since then. Perhaps most notable among them was the merger of KJWW Engineering Consultants (Rock Island. Stantec’s wave of dealmaking has continued into 2016 with the acquisitions of VOA Associates (Chicago). (Oakbrook Terrace. Morrissey Goodale tracked 234 domestic M&A transactions in 2015. and acoustical and lighting design firm Sparling (Lynnwood.). education. The combination creates a 900-employee workforce spread across 25 national and five international locations and strengthens their position in the health care. Calif. Consulting-Specifying Engineer’s 2016 MEP Giants were a major part of the deal activity. 6 JENSEN HUGHES (Baltimore) was also busy last year. and MWH Global (Broomfield.) and TTG Engineers (Pasadena. Bury (Austin. announcing four transactions in 2015: Nexus Technical Service Corp. this year’s No. Ill. health care.csemag.) to form IMEG/KJWW/TTG. Wash. electrical. plumbing. Stantec (Edmonton. entertainment. striking six deals in 2015. British Columbia). industrial. and fire protection (MEP/FP) engineering firms active among wave of dealmaking. Texas). 15 MEP Giant. the firm has continued to grow through M&A. No.).com . Erin Engineering and Research (Walnut Creek. matching the same total reported in 2014.). Ill. and transportation markets. Morrissey Goodale LLC. matching the same total reported in 2014. 2015 set a new bar for dealmaking among A/E firms. government. and electrical engineering. JENSEN HUGHES announced that middle-market private equity firm. but KJWW and TTG seem to have found a good fit between their businesses that creates a broader platform with additional depth and diversification. was among the most active acquirers last year. Colo. announcing three more transactions so far in 2016. BY NEIL CHURMAN. Toronto). Houston O n the heels of 2014’s recordsetting year for mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in the architectural and engineering (A/E) industry. technology-design consulting. 28 MEP Giants accelerate growth through M&A With firms seeking to capitalize on a strong economy. The merger of two similarly sized firms Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 in the A/E industry is a somewhat rare occurrence.2016 2015 sets new record for industry M&A Mechanical. and science and technology. Gryphon Investors (San Francisco) completed a majority investment in JENSEN HUGHES. Notable among them were the acquisitions of power and electrical engineering firm VI Engineering (Houston). higher education. Then in December. MEP Giant No. Sereca Consulting (Richmond. particularly in commercial development.). Alberta). which represents a more than 5% increase over 2014 (see Figure 1). www. many of the MEP Giants looked to M&A in 2015 as a means of accelerating growth. 5. Calif. with 21% of the Giants reporting making an acquisition in 2015. and Randal Brown & Associates Engineering (RBA. Consulting-Specifying Engineer’s 2016 MEP Giants were a major part of the deal activity.

7 HDR (Omaha. 19 DLR Group (Minneapolis) to form DLR Group | Sorg.C. All graphics courtesy: Morrissey Goodale Top states for firm sales 31 Texas 25 California 14 Illinois.) acquiring one of western Canada’s leading architectural practices in CEI Architecture (Vancouver. Vt. a consulting firm that provides comprehensive Mechanical. Ill.Y.. 94 RTM Engineering Consultants’ (South Barrington. interiors. a leader in security consulting for financial institutions and educational. www.).). Louis) acquisition of Ducibella Venter & Santore (Hamden. Pa. struck two deals in 2015. D. a specialized HVAC and electricalsystems design firm.C. an MEP firm based in Tucker. No. a provider of mechanical.and private-sector clients. and fire suppression engineering as well as commissioning services. and HESM&A Inc.). adding Strategic Science & Technology Planners (Arlington.). and structural 222 175 2007 175 180 180 2011 Year 2012 2013 180 2008 151 152 2009 2010 2014 236 2015 Figure 1: Domestic merger and acquisition (M&A) activity was up more than 5% in 2015 over 2014. Conn.  No. a design firm that provides architecture and interior design services. 67 Greenman-Pedersen (Babylon. Virginia Washington 5 Figure 2: Texas and California topped states for industry mergers and acquisitions (M&A) in 2015. New York 11 North Carolina 10 Florida 9 Georgia.) acquisition of DPC Engineering (Elmira Heights. Calif. N. and Page (Washington.  No. and museum facilities. 25 Giant. announced that it acquired a majority interest in IPS.) merger into No. commercial. and retail markets.). 36 HGA Architects and Engineers (Minneapolis) acquired ReelGrobman (San Jose.). N.Y.). this year’s No.  TMP Consulting Engineers’ (Boston) merger with No. electrical.Y. construction services Quite a few of the 2016 MEP Giants focused on deals that expanded other aspects of their building design services including architecture. Massachusetts 8 Pennsylvania 7 Colorado. MEP Giants round out building design. 29 MEP Giant. and No. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 29 . educational. D.) acquisition of Milan Engineering (Winter Park. health care. this year’s No. electrical. Some of the notable architectural deals among the Giants included No. a mechanical and electrical engineering firm known for serving the commercial. In May 2016. In addition. Neb.csemag. acquiring two Atlanta-based firms: KLG Consulting Engineers. 89 LaBella Associates’ (Rochester. Fla. N.) when Alleghany Capital Corp. governmental.) acquired ORW Landscape Architects & Planners (White River Junction. Salas O’Brien. 51 Bala Consulting Engineers (King of Prussia. Other notable transactions within the MEP space included:  No. Salas O’Brien continued its expansion in Georgia with the addition of Minick Engineering. 11 IPS-Integrated Project Services (Blue Bell. Va. and fire protection (MEP/FP) engineering services to public. 100 Ross & Baruzzini’s (St.Domestic M&A activity including Aon Fire Protection and Engineering. hospitality. Ohio 6 Michigan. Pa.). British Columbia). which allowed the firms to broaden their range of engineering services and market sectors. plumbing. Sorg Architects’ (Washington. a laboratory-planning and design architecture firm. The investment community also took an interest in MEP Giant No.

corporate and commercial. extended its reach into Texas with the acquisition of Houstonbased Wilson Architectural Group. a nearly 40-person architectural firm with a portfolio of health care. a provider of structural engineering services for developers. This dynamic appears to have slowed the overall pace of consolidation. Overall.). consulting. Churman works with AEC firms to deliver M&A. 34 RMF Engineering (Baltimore) acquired CxAnalytics (Williamsburg. if the pace of dealmaking remains. sports and recreation. with 31 sales of Texas-based A/E firms in 2015. construction (AEC) www. Texas was the hottest state for industry M&A last year. and advisory solutions.S. Morrissey Goodale is a CFE Media content partner. so far in 2016 Through May 2016. Dealmaking slower. North Carolina. New York. a provider of owner’s project management services. No. 4 WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff (New York City) acquired Halvorson and Partners (Chicago).com 312-738-3800 input #17 at www. structural. California came in a close second with 25. Morrissey Goodale tracked 88 domestic M&A transactions. albeit not to the degree of 2015’s record-setting numbers.csemag. and institutions worldwide. and geographies. While the decline of more than 15% is considerable. Va. and civic buildings in Houston and throughout Texas. Neil Churman is a principal consultant at Morrissey Goodale LLC. Both buyers and sellers appear to be selective in the opportunities they are pursuing. with buyers aiming to stick closely to their strategic plans and court firms that align with their targeted markets. and No. Mass. as compared with 104 through the first 5 months of . the new LPD Y Strainer has a cleaner. but still strong. Other Giants sought to round out their program-management. MEP Giant No.).2016 This year’s No. 45 STV (New York City) acquired Diversified Project Management (DPM. laboratories.-based A/E firms this year. state. free fluid flow.). and research firm that exclusively serves the architecture. and commissioning capabilities.metraflex. Based in the firm’s Houston office. and other states that saw 10 or more deals last year include Illinois. Many sellers are coming off record performance in 2015 and are seeking deals with strong valuations commensurate with strong profitability. SAVE YOUR ENERGY New LPD Y Strainer dramatically reduces energy loss Completely redesigned. and local governments as well as the higher education and health care markets. services. leaner internal geometry and massive screen surface area to allow smooth. Calculate your savings at: Metraflex. 32 MEP Giant. we still expect more than 200 sales of U. private owners. Newton. industrial. Va. a management. consulting. a commissioning firm that serves federal. but we anticipate that the wave of acquisitions will continue for the remainder of the year. and Florida (see Figure 2). Dewberry (Fairfax. engineering.

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Rather.csemag. in many instances. One might argue that such a provision does not offer balanced fire protection.” One of everything could include sprinklers. Prior to requiring sprinkler protection in all new ture in an area in which sprinkler protection is not even provided.” There have been code-change proposals submitted to eliminate a passive fire protection feawww. including the International Code Council (ICC). While an NFPA 13R sprinkler system certainly may reduce the number of fires that spread to the attic space. some people define balanced fire protection as “one of everything. Md. the concept of balancing passive and active fire protection has been debated in the codedevelopment hearings in the United States. what happens if the wall is not capable of resisting the passage of smoke due to some compromise in the integrity of the wall? As a separate consideration. Those same codes often reduced the corridor-wall requirement to an assembly capable of “resisting the passage of smoke” if the building. or smoke compartment. PE. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 33 . is protected with an automatic sprinkler system. it may be less clear when a prescriptive requirement for a 1-hour fire barrier or 1-hour fire partition is reduced to a nonrated assembly due to the presence of an automatic sprinkler system. fire suppression systems. the concept of proper proportion will be used in trying to define the phrase “balanced fire protection. the sprinkler protection may already be required and fire data is used in an attempt to substantiate the reduction or elimination of one or more passive fire protection features. However. what happens if the sprinkler system fails to effectively control the Learning objectives  Explain the International Code Council (ICC) and NFPA’s elements and integration of both passive and active fire protection to reinforce one another. Others may not promote the concept of one of everything. should the fire start in the attic space—or spread to the attic despite the sprinkler system—there would be no protection feature in the attic space to offset the omission of the draft-stopping. Koffel Associates. sprinkler systems seem to be at the forefront of the discussion regarding balanced fire protection. and legacy code organizations. and fire-resistance-rated construction. A historic perspective of balanced fire protection As evidenced by the testimony at codedevelopment hearings. active fire protection Fire protection engineers should consider the building’s construction. even though sprinklers are not provided in the attic space. With respect to balanced fire protection. automatic detection. BY WILLIAM E. there is an attempt to offset the cost by reducing or eliminating one or more passive fire protection features. Columbia. was not protected with sprinkler protection. In some instances. or smoke compartment. the word “balanced” can be defined as being in proper proportion. FSFPE.Codes & Standards Balancing passive. Consider these ideas to determine whether the fire protection system is in balance: If a fire occurs in the building protected with a sprinkler system. there are proposals to require sprinkler protection in certain buildings and. F or more than 2 decades. For example. NFPA. While there are other forms of active fire protection. Sprinkler systems seem to be at the forefront of the discussion regarding balanced fire protection. For the purposes of this article. they will support retaining existing passive fire protection feature requirements due to the fact that the active fire protection feature is not 100% reliable. and smoke control when designing active and passive fire protection systems. codes generally required a 1-hour corridor if the building. proposals have been submitted to eliminate draft-stopping in a combustible attic space if the building is protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system complying with NFPA 13R: Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Low-Rise Residential Properties.  Assess the differences between active and passive fire protection systems and learn which codes pertain to these systems. Typically. KOFFEL.

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csemag. The committee subsequently was discharged in 1990 and the responsibility for NFPA 550 was reassigned to the NFPA Standards Council. For purposes of this article. John R. there have been essentially no technical changes to the guide since the first edition.nfpa. At the top of the Fire Safety Concepts Tree in Chapter 4. “or” gate: “Manage Fire” and “Manage Exposed.nfpa.. Obtain free access to the 2012 edition of the code and graphics at www. thus reducing the impact of the . He noted that this experience is most likely due to the increased presence of sprinkler protection and fire-resistance-rated construction in high-rise buildings.belimo. For example. Note that this branch contains two offshoot branches connected by an With the exception of updating reference standards. High-Rise Building Fires. experience is such that there is a lower risk of fire and associated losses in high-rise building fires than in other buildings of the same property use. there have been essentially no technical changes to the guide since the first edition.Codes & Standards fire? If a fire occurs in the building that is not protected with a sprinkler system. The committee was established to be responsible for developing system concepts and criteria for fire protection in buildings.S. self-adjusting end stop logic ensures zero leakage at 200 psid close-off 6 NEMA 4X rating and universal power supply input from 24 to 240 VAC/DC input #21 at www. PhD.” The objectives of the Manage Fire branch are to reduce hazards related to fire growth and spread. The Manage Exposed branch includes coordination involving the items specified in the fire Unrivaled. the focus will be on the “Manage Fire Impact” branch of the tree. the “or” gate indicates that the desired fire safety objectives can be achieved by either preventing the fire or managing the Obtain free access to the 2012 edition of the code and graphics at www. that the U. Innovative Design User Friendly Proven Reliability Belimo’s new butterfly valve is the most Hall Jr. and reliable high flow solution for HVAC > Learn more: www. 6 Up to 80% less power consumption 6 Unique position indicators viewable from long distances and any angle 6 Patent pending. With the exception of updating reference standards. what happens if the 1-hour fire partition is compromised? Does the code have a proper proportion of passive and active fire protection? Are there any tools to assist in answering these questions? Passive and active fire protection features often complement each other. NFPA 550 NFPA 550: Guide to the Fire Safety Concepts Tree was developed by the NFPA Committee on Systems Concepts. energy efficient. noted in his report.

If a fire protection engineer were to use NFPA 550 in evaluating proposals to change a prescriptive code. design professionals typically will do a qualitative risk assessment by comparing the level of risk to some known factor. Again. the decision was reached based on looking at the overall Fire Safety Concepts Tree. controlling the combustion process. It’s a challenge to find sound probability data for many of the branches of the tree. Several years ago.csemag. The client generally assumes that code compliance results in an acceptable level of risk. For the most part. such as a code-compliant building. they should be proportioned to provide an acceptable level of risk. or with the three branches within the Manage Fire branch. It should be noted that this could result in increasing either the passive or active fire protection features at the “expense” of the arcomnet. or other valued 800. they wanted the fire contained to the room of origin. In a performance-based design approach.” Whereas all of the branches identified are connected by an “or” gate. prescriptive codes generally contain requirements related to preventing fires. and managing those exposed to the fire. Managing the fire risk If we go back up to the top of the tree. 36 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 www. Fire experience in the United States has indicated that we are not 100% successful with either of the two major branches of the tree. but in the end. other. there are clients that want to better quantify the level of fire risk that exists within their . However. controlling the fire by construction.” “Suppress Fire. Koffel Associates worked with a hospital client. they did.424. it should be noted that passive fire protection features and active fire protection systems also play a role within the Manage Exposed branch of the tree. Using their fire experience and data shown in the NFPA’s Fires in Health Care Facilities report. Therefore. everything is focused on the fire safety objectives.” and “Control Fire by Construction. The enhanced fire detection also impacted the “Manage Exposed” branch of the tree. In today’s market. with the two branches under Manage Fire Impact. one could determine what the likelihood would be that a fire would spread beyond the room of origin over a period of time. Questions were asked of the hospital administration as to what would be an acceptable outcome should a fire occur in the facility. NFPA 550: Guide to the Fire Safety Concepts Tree was then used to identify ways in which the risk could be reduced to an acceptable level. although the purpose of the codes is to provide a reasonable or acceptable level of safety. Hospital administration could then make a risk-informed decision as to whether they wanted to invest additional funds and provide a level of safety beyond that which was required by the applicable codes. when looking for alternative compliance methods or a means to reduce the fire risk. he would need either probability or frequency data to evaluate the code-change proposals.5080 input #22 at www.Codes & Standards Engineering specs done right safety objectives. This would be an appropriate method to ensuring that there remains some balance between passive and active fire protection features. the primary objective for the client is to provide a code-complying building in a cost-effective manner. Determining risk tolerance of building clients MasterSpec® for building projects SpecText® for civil projects F or many design professionals. the interested stakeholders in the project would define the fire-safety objectives. before we continue with these two branches.csemag. However. if one is able to be 100% effective with any of the branches. such as people. suppressing the fire. In this instance. the others are not needed. With a prescriptive code approach. The remainder of the article will focus on proportioning or balancing the Suppress Fire and Control Fire by Construc- tion branches. The Manage Fire branch then contains three more branches: “Control Combustion Process. fire-safety objectives generally are not stated explicitly. The investment was in enhanced fire detection Download a FREE trial today and not passive fire protection features. especially for the occupants (patients) within the room of origin.

40 (or 8 fires/year) spread beyond the room of origin. tem operating and being effective when the fire was large enough to activate a sprinkler in all health care facilities was input #23 at www. there were an estimated 1. hospitals. Looking at NFPA’s Fires in Health Care Facilities report for the period 2006 to 2010. hospitals. BuildingIQ. This rate of fire spread beyond the room of origin considers all types of wall assemblies that might be present as well as the likelihood that sprinklers are present in 64% of the fires. clinics. 10-25% HVAC energy cost reduction 60% percent reduction in hot/cold calls Empowered Facilities teams Improved tenant comfort Enable your clients. include nursing homes. The NFPA report also indicates that automatic sprinkler systems were present in 64% of the fires in hospitals and hospices during the time period. as used in the NFIRS database. because it is no longer a factor included in the NFIRS database.csemag. One civilian injury and no fire deaths were associated with the fires that spread beyond the room of origin. clinics. as indicated in the report High-Rise Building Fires. Ironically. one could point to NFPA 550 and ask what is being done to retain the current level of safety. we are still not able to quantitatively apply the Fire Safety Concepts Tree to this one scenario involving balancing passive and active fire protection as it relates to corridor walls in hospitals. Is something being done to improve the reliability of the sprinkler system or is the reliability considered acceptable? Is something being done to prevent some of the XXXDTFNBHDPN$POTVMUJOH4QFDJGZJOH&OHJOFFSt"6(645 37 The energy intelligence platform for services that meet your client’s evolving needs. The use of frequency data also can be helpful if cost is a consideration. because the cost-benefit analysis for a specified period of time can be estimated. and doctor’s offices. What cannot be determined is whether the spread beyond the room was to an adjacent room or to the corridor. such as the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS). The report does not break down the reliability of the sprinkler system just for hospital fires. Of those 1. as used in the NFIRS database. From the code-development perspective. mental health facilities. Schedule a demo. A specific data report could be requested for sprinkler protection for hospital fires. but the dataset will start to become relatively small (in this case. can provide frequency data for many of the branches of the tree. The database also does not identify whether the boundary walls of the rooms had a fireresistance rating or not. the requirement for corridor walls in hospitals was mentioned previously. For . the average property loss per fire was lower for the fires that spread beyond the room of origin than it was for those contained to the room of origin. and doctor’s offices. During a 5-year period. especially those involving smoke spread. the overall reliability of the sprinkler sys- Despite all of the data. Even frequency data will not be available for all considerations. However. the Society of Fire Protection Engineers Engineering Guide to Fire Risk Assessment recommends the use of frequency data instead of probability data.000. there was 1 civilian injury resulting from fires that spread beyond the room of origin and the average property loss per year from such fires was $200. Data sources.For that reason. It should be noted that health care facilities. Modern prescriptive codes are based more upon a qualitative risk assessment with considerations similar to those contained in NFPA 550. include nursing homes. or 183/year). 915 fires. Here is an example of what we can ascertain from the data: The frequency of a fire spreading beyond the room of origin in all hospital fires is 8/year (less than 3% of the hospital fires). if a proposal was submitted to reduce the amount of passive fire protection currently required because of the above data summary. mental health facilities.430 fires. It should be noted that health care facilities.430 structure fires in hospitals and hospices with no civilian deaths.

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If a proposal was submitted to increase the amount of fire protection currently required. and is recognized as an expert in the fire protection/life safety aspects of codes and standards.2016 Ultimately. many of us would prefer to use performance-based design methods and fire risk assessments for all of our carelusa. The reality is that most clients will accept a building that complies with the prescriptive code.carelusa. titanium 22 Ti 47. but more on an anecdotal basis than a statistical basis CAREL USA L. many of us would prefer to use performance-based design methods and fire risk assessments for all of our projects. A more detailed review of the 40 incidents might result in some better . the typical question that will be asked is how will the risk improve and at what costs.867 ±1% Consider design methods William E. a fire protection engineering design/consulting firm. | www. input #25 at www. To the extent the design profession wants to advance the use of true performance-based design methods. to the limited number of incidents. or when the client wants a design based upon risk assessment. The reality is that most clients will accept a building that complies with the prescriptive code. He is a member of the Consulting-Specifying Engineer editorial advisory board. When the client or design professional is seeking an alternative to the prescriptive code. but rather a recognition of the limitations of the existing system that was not originally developed to support performance-based design methods. Koffel is president of Koffel Associates. the designer has to assume the level of risk of a fire spreading beyond the room of origin during a hospital fire will increase if the passive feature is eliminated. we may need to start with developing a better data system that provides us with the information that is needed. the current data system in the United States does not provide an easy way to quantify the impact on the level of risk in this instance.csemag. and there is an assumption that the prescriptive code balances passive and active fire protection features to provide an acceptable level of safety. The increased use of true performance-based design methods also should result in an improved balance between passive and active fire protection features.Codes & Standards Ultimately.L. When done properly. a comparative risk assessment should properly balance passive and active fire protection features. PA 17545 Phone (717) 664-0500 | Fax (717) 0664-0449 sales_usa@carel. Unfortunately. fire from occurring? Is something being done to better control the combustion process? If the answer to these three questions is no. This is not a criticism of the NFIRS. in part. ADCLPUSEN1 . the limitations of data will often result in the use of a comparative risk assessment. 385 South Oak Street. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 39 Guaranteed accuracy heaterSteam titanium. unprecedented precision and reliability The natural solution for relative humidity control in applications where service continuity is crucial.

Differences in photometrics between original and altered fixtures. A s LED illumination technology improves in efficiency. and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). such as ballasts. LED retrofit options Many of the code issues that arise in LED retrofit projects are the same code issues involved in lighting-replacement projects. reflectors. through a retrofit project requires a measure of care. in which luminaires are removed and replaced in their entirety. LED retrofit kits can come in a variety of configurations. these are the most popular options.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. retrofitting existing fluorescent or incandescent luminaires will be an attractive alternative to wholesale fixture replacement. including ASHRAE Standard 90. In this case. reliability.  Levels for emergency lighting must comply with the NFPA 101: Life Safety Code after the project is complete. 2015 . building owners become interested in cost-effective ways to apply LED lighting in their facilities. lighting power density reductions driven by energy codes. BY TOM DIVINE. In many cases. www. 2013 edition. HID. This article explores the effects of some of the applicable codes on LED retrofit projects. For fixtures using tubular lamps. an “LED retrofit” is the replacement of a luminaire’s light source with an LED source while leaving some part of the fixture in service. A retrofit project also may include replacing other components. or to LEDs. PE.Is an LED right for your next retrofit project? Building owners are asking lighting designers and electrical engineers to help them save on energy costs. lamp holders.  Maintaining luminaire listings. and other items. and quality.1 and International Energy Conservation Code. required by the NEC.. Some of those code provisions are:  Projects that alter or replace 10% or more of the lighting in that space will trigger lighting power density and control requirements of ASHRAE 40 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 Standard 90. and replacing fluorescent. including replacing components.csemag. and LED illumination characteristics may impact compliance. while others have unique aspects related to retrofit projects.  Explore LED retrofit replacements. Authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs) may view the listing status of altered luminaires in a variety of ways. or other lights with LEDs is in high demand. Smith Seckman Reid Inc.  Identify the pros and cons of specifying LED lights in certain building applications. or lenses. ballasts. Houston Learning objectives  Compare the codes and guidelines that define LED use. government entities may have different requirements:  Replacement of lamps with tubular LED assemblies together with replacement of ballasts with LED drivers.

thus they will not trigger requirements of the energy codes. space is affected. For exterior luminaires. ASHRAE 90. IECC specifically describes projects that replace only lamps. Both codes require that the total lighting power does not increase for a project to enjoy the exception. less efficient fixtures. the typical practice is to replace luminaires entirely while retaining the poles. their original labeling remains in force. as stated on its manufacturer’s label or as determined from the ballast manufacturer’s product literature. are likely to be viewed by AHJs as maintenance activities rather than alterations. ASHRAE 90. The power density allowances of the energy codes will. removal of ballasts. for projects involving other types of retrofits in addition to lamp replacement. This provision may make compliance difficult. and direct connection of the ac source to the lamp holders.  Replacement of lamps with selfballasted LED assemblies. All graphics courtesy: Smith Seckman Reid Inc. Lighting controls ASHRAE 90. particularly parking lot installations. To comply. However.LED retrofit versus parabolic fluorescent photometrics LED retrofit Parabolic fluoresecent Figure 1: This graphical comparison of photometric distribution patterns shows two luminaires. other provisions of the codes will exclude power reductions due to straightforward lamp replacements from the calculated lighting power density of the overall project. while ASHRAE 90. For projects involving only lamp replacements. if not entirely out of reach.  Replacement of lamps with tubular LED assemblies specifically manufactured for compatibility with a particular ballast type without other modifications to the fixture. but does not address lamp replacement alone.1 specifically establishes that projects replacing both lamps and ballasts must meet its provisions. or both as repairs.1 9.csemag. lens.1 and the IECC require quite a lot of lighting control including automatic shutoff and either selectable lighting levels or dimming. to some extent. Retrofits involving simple lamp replacement. one fluorescent and the other LED. For nearly all lighting retrofit projects. IECC requirements are invoked when more than 10% of the fixtures are modified. More invasive retrofits involving removal or replacement of existing ballasts and other fixture components do not enjoy any repair exemption in the energy codes. emitter. drive the selection of retrofit kits toward more efficient yet costlier options. and internal driver. A number of kits are available to retrofit screw-base lamps with one-piece units consisting of a trim ring. the retrofit fixtures must gen- For downlights. ballasts. actual power reductions as a result of lamp replacement won’t impact the calculated value of the lighting power density. Energy codes Retrofit of more than 10% of the lighting in a space must meet the lighting power density and lighting-control requirements of the energy codes. These requirements Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 41 . the requirements of the codes become enforceable.1 provisions become effective when more than 10% of the lighting load in the www. this exemption will avoid any necessity for compliance with the energy codes while still providing the owner with energy and maintenance reductions associated with LED lighting.1. For older. retrofit kits normally provide for replacement of lamp holders with a self-contained unit containing an LED emitter and heatsink and a separate LED driver that replaces the ballast.4 requires that lighting power densities be calculated using the highest wattage of each fixture. Engineers designing retrofit projects under these codes must verify that the specified retrofit kits can provide adequate illumination. This chart applies only to two specific fixtures and does not describe a general relationship between LED and fluorescent fixtures. the lighting power densities allowed by the current editions of the energy codes are much lower than any that were in effect at the time the original lighting was installed. when the threshold is reached. without other modifications. Because fixtures remain Lighting power density erally use considerably less power than the original fixtures.

depending on the applicable code. For lighting fixtures. listings matter. Replacing ballasts and lamps with similar devices are typically seen as maintenance activities by the AHJ. and other components assembled in a prescribed fashion. fixture listings may have an impact on the owner’s coverage. so long as illumination levels are reasonably uniform when those controls are active. These controls can be implanted by dimming all the luminaires. On the other hand. while the IECC doesn’t describe daylighting-control requirements for parking garages. Depending on the details of the facility’s insurance policy. In practice. replacing lamps and ballasts with LED drivers and LED lamps are seen as alterations. Typically. manufacturers attest that fixtures meet the relevant UL standard for safety and operation leaving the factory. and automatic shutoff. the codes require automatic daylight-responsive controls. In applying the listing mark. and the kit is certified by the manufacturer of the original luminaire. in which tubes alone or tubes and ballasts only are . Controls adequate to comply with the energy codes are unlikely to be installed in existing systems that do not warrant a lighting ret rof it. for light fixtures. Both codes include detailed requirements for occupancy sensing. For further information. That testing entity must periodically evaluate the luminaire for acceptability. And. because the NEC requires them on light fixtures and retrofit kits. vacancy sensing. selectable by occupants. It’s worth noting that these requirements can largely be avoided by restricting retrofits of tubular lamps to the simpler options. 42 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (NEC) 410. they’re typically required and verified by AHJs. and it must be acceptable to the AHJ. ASHRAE 90. Listings typically specify the intended purpose of the device and the conditions under which it may be safely installed. ballasts. or dry locations. National Electrical Code Figure 2: An LED retrofit fixture replaces a high-intensity discharge fixture in a parking garage. www. ASHRAE 90. requiring some means of establishing that the resulting fixtures are listed. n A listed retrofit kit installed in a listed luminaire is acceptable. any of the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories recognized by OSHA will be acceptable to the AHJ. Where daylight is available from windows or skylights. but does not strictly require continuous dimming. the listing agency is often UL. For most spaces. by selectively controlling some of the lamps in each luminaire. IECC requires continuous dimming down to 15% of the total lighting power.csemag.” A listed device appears on a list of acceptable products published by a testing organization. An AHJ may take one of several positions regarding whether a retrofit is acceptable: n A retrofit is acceptable only if the kit is listed. or by extinguishing some of the luminaires. and full shutoff. listings are typically developed for particular housings. Alterations to a fixture—as opposed to repairs—have an impact on the fixture listing. Light fixtures are generally listed for installation in wet. For installed lighting fixtures. both codes require multiple lighting levels.LED retrofits can add considerably to the cost and complexity of a retrofit project. with no effect on the original listing when performed properly. AHJs will check luminaire listings in field inspections and also may require listing information as part of the permit application. the luminaire is listed.1 calls for a minimum of four illumination levels. with the lowest stage limited to no more than 50% of the connected lighting power. This is a restrictive position. shown under daylight conditions. lamps. Adding these controls can be costly. For parking garages. The acceptability of the listing status of any particular installation is specifically left to the judgment of the AHJ.1 requires automatic shutoff and motion sensor control that reduces lighting power by at least 30% during periods of inactivity. In the United States. damp.6 requires that light fixtures and retrofit kits be “listed. a number of recent articles covering energy code requirements for LED lighting are available. lamp holders.

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Early guidance was vague regarding paths to compliance and suggested that almost any alteration would void the listing and necessitate a costly field evaluation from the listing agency. It’s worth noting that UL has issued a number of safety alerts for specific retrofit kits.1 fc and a maximum-to-minimum ratio of no more than 40:1. The term “egress lighting” is generally held to describe lighting levels required when utility power is available. the clarity of UL guidance has improved. Emergency lighting requirements are 1 fc average over any walking surface with a minimum of 0. UL has offered a number of guidance documents over the past few years describing its view of how a retrofit affects a lighting fixture’s listing. contractors and installers would be well-advised to verify the UL listings of retrofit kits to avoid any unpleasant surprise at final inspection. will generally be eager to visit the facility after dark to ensure that measurements aren’t affected by outdoor light from windows . A “frequently asked questions” document from 2016 states that retrofits performed on listed fixtures using UL-classified retrofit kits will generally be compliant with UL standards for fixtures. that lead to a public way. AHJs typically take these requirements very seriously. These requirements are applicable to passages that lead to an exit and. outside the building. while the term “emergency lighting” refers to periods when utility power is Life Safety Code NFPA 101: Life Safety Code. and where there is doubt about compliance. normally involving unusual assembly instructions that may be overlooked by installing personnel.csemag. specifies illumination requirements for egress lighting and for emergency lighting. 2015 edition. input #27 at www. While these issues are normally not the province of specifying engineers. With no listing of any kind for the assembled retrofit components and the lack of installation instructions for the assembly. These labels are normally provided by the manufacturer of the listed retrofit kit to both meet this requirement and relabel the luminaire for its new wattage as required by the energy codes. UL requirements also state that an altered luminaire that won’t accept fluorescent lamps after conversion must be clearly labeled to warn personnel not to attempt to install fluorescent lamps. without a listed kit. and field evalua- tion or further assessment will typically not be required.LED retrofits n A retrofit made with listed components. It also has issued warnings of counterfeit listing markings for various lighting components. Egress lighting requirements are 1 fc for horizontal walking surfaces and 10 fc for new stairways. few AHJs would accept this installation. As the retrofit market has matured.

A typical design might call for every third fixture in the egress path to be served from emergency power. LED retrofits present a special challenge. either the appearance of emergency fixtures must be coordinated with the remaining fixtures or the same retrofit kits must be used throughout the project area. Manufacturers generally are reluctant to pursue these listings. lacks standards for the power requirements for directly driving emitters. In facilities with emergency generators. These requirements may be verified by the electrical inspector or by the fire marshal. listing agencies are reluctant to certify any particular battery source to Figure 3: An LED retrofit fixture for parking lot lighting.and skylights. products and processes. So is the way you use provides the latest knowledge on commercial and institutional facility construction and management. operate with any particular driver and emitter array in the absence of direct tests of the entire assembly.controleng. with a variety of power requirements. in general. fondly called “bug eyes” or “frog eyes. it’s necessary to verify that the new lighting arrangement will provide adequate illumination in the egress path to satisfy the requirements of NFPA 101 by photometric studies. Engineering is personal. There is a limited number of selections available for retrofitting battery-powered emergency fixtures.csemag. as testing is expensive and the lifecycle of LED products is unpredictable and often short. CFE Media delivers a world of knowledge to you. Visit www. The LED market is still young . showing the LED emitters and reflector. whether by retrofits with LEDs or another technology or by wholesale replacement of luminaires. safer and more efficiently. Figure 4: The other side of the LED retrofit fixture for parking lot lighting is shown with LED power supply and serves engineering professionals in the oil and gas industry with expert content on new technology. the normal practice is to serve standard fixtures from the generating system at regular intervals along the egress path. battery-powered emergency lighting is usually implemented by adding an emergency ballast with battery backup to selected general-purpose light fixtures to avoid appearance issues with self-contained emergency lighting units. you need a trusted source of information: CFE Media — Content for Engineers CFE Media is home to four of the most trusted names in the business: delivers a wide array of strategies and solutions to help control system designers create a more efficient process. Visit www. For any kind of lighting modifications. Consequently. such as a diesel generator. Where aesthetics are important. Power for emergency lighting is typically provided by individual battery packs installed with fixtures or from an alternate power source for the facility. To do your job better each day.plantengineering.oilandgaseng. LED emitters can be configured in a variety of ways. Personally. as a practical matter. Visit www. In architecturally significant delivers a plant-floor knowledge and expertise to help manufacturers operate smarter.” For these installations. Visit www.

are generally directional emitters. He has spent nearly 20 years in the consulting engineering field. or other optics in front of the emitters. log-on to www. diffusers. Tom Divine is a senior electrical engineer at Smith Seckman Reid Inc. LEDs.indd 1 2/13/15 8:59 AM fixtures—darker than the minimum BLC925 CSE SmokeCurtain Ad. .LED retrofits For LED retrofits. LEDs typically fail slowly. Dispersion is effected using lenses.. Fixtures may be rearranged and reinstalled in a denser pattern. engineers can better specify products to meet clients’ needs. providing nearly full output for their lifetime until they flicker or darken. Consequently. lower-end retrofit kits may present a more directional illumination pattern than the original fixtures. allowable lighting levels typically will be lower than original illumination levels.. so knowing which products serve specific needs is beneficial. additional luminaires should be used sparingly. or bug eyes. with the past several years designing and engineering health care facilities. curtains automatically lower to aid emergency egress by protecting exit routes from smoke and heat. In contrast. For more information.0 fc is required— levels may be too low after modifications are complete.1 fc required by NFPA 101—and in bright spots below fixtures. LEDs can gently drift out of compliance. By better understanding the code and listing requirements of LED lighting.csemag. with light levels drifting downward over time due to aging and heating effects. Due to the effort and cost of achieving adequate dispersion with LEDs. and fire alarm design for hospital and health care projects. Energy-efficient lighting also is in high demand. Additional fixtures may be sconces or downlights installed at dim spots. where architectural considerations aren’t an issue. For any lighting replacement or retrofit broad enough to trigger the energy codes. emergency-egress lighting issues may be exacerbated. at the component level.2 fc in the egress path where input #28 at www. throwing light in a narrow cone directly in front of the devices. lighting. or by the artful arrangement of the emitters. Products are equipped with an electric motor that holds the retracted curtain at ceiling level and unrolls the fabric automatically upon receiving a signal from a fire detection system. Divine is a member of the Consulting-Specifying Engineer editorial advisory board. fluorescent lamps and ballasts typically fail more abruptly. Supplemental lighting conflicts with the requirements of the energy codes and with project goals for energy efficiency projects. Solutions generally involve supplemental lighting in the egress path. resulting in maximum-to-minimum ratios higher than the code allows. He is responsible for power. Wherever the existing installation provides marginal compliance with the code—say. resulting in dark spots between Out of Sight. In the event of a fire. an average level of 1. Peace of Mind Automatic Smoke and Fire Curtains Open Up Design Possibilities Colt automatic smoke and fire curtains from Bilco stay hidden until they’re needed.

and custom solutions. Purpose . input #29 at www. CRAHs. ultrasonic humidifiers. STULZ is ready to listen to you at www. air handling units.stulz-usa. Our expertise is listening to our customers and delivering purpose built cooling solutions for data centers and other mission critical STULZ engineers a full line of CRACs. STULZ is a TCO focused solution provider of energy efficient temperature and humidity management technology.User driven. . PE. Providing comfort cooling and energy efficiency in nonresidential buildings is an ongoing task for engineers and designers as they increasingly have to focus on energy-efficient building codes and highperformance buildings. however. Texas D ata from the 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) shows that the United States consumes 6. Energy Information Administration www.S.963 trillion Btu of energy generated for commercial buildings.963 trillion Btu) Adopting codes and standards for energy efficiency Other Office equipment Computing Space heating 13% 25% 3% % 6% 7% 10% 7% 9% 10% 10% Water heating Lighting Cooking Cooling 48 Ventilation V til ti Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 dards to establish minimum efficiency requirements for new-building construction. ventilation. Standards define the industry’s agreedupon minimum technical requirements.  Define HVAC codes and standards. They also establish the industry’s minimum standard of care. operations.  Understand cooling systems to maximum energy efficiency. and instructions for engineers. Courtesy: U.HVAC codes and standards: cooling and energy efficiency Codes and standards dictate the design of HVAC systems. National survey data shows approximately 50% of the HVAC energy is used for cooling. Austin. guidelines. BY GAYLE DAVIS. Efforts to reduce energy use led to the development of energy codes and stan- Learning objectives  Examine owner and local codes for cooling system designs. Energy codes and standards present designers with guidelines to enforce minimal energy savings through efficient design and implementing various equipment technologies. there are ways to improve the design of nonresidential buildings to achieve maximum energy efficiency. Refrigeration Designers in the HVAC industry must be familiar with codes and standards. CGD.963 trillion Btu. designers. Estimated end-use energy consumption (Total energy use: 6. or manufacturers. and renovations. A building’s energy impact is determined by initial design decisions. and the owner’s project budget. Stanley Consultants. Standards Figure 1: This chart represents the estimated end-use energy consumption as reported in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS). Total energy use reported for the 2012 CBECS totaled 6. Figure 1 shows that 44% of commercial building energy use is for HVAC and refrigeration.csemag. building additions. CXA. and refrigeration purposes.

equivalent. Mariana Islands Puerto Rico* AK FL U. does not have a national energy code or standard. the Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Energy Conservation and Production Act to support. equivalent. The U.1 address building systems such as building envelope.S. energy codes and standards are adopted at the state and local jurisdiction levels. Department of Energy. Building Energy Codes Program in the United States are mostly voluntary consensus standards. and participate in energy code development as managed by ASHRAE and the International Code Council (ICC). or more energy efficient 19 ASHRAE 90.. “incorporation by reference. In the U. states and territories. In contrast. or no statewide code.S. or more energy efficient 18 ASHRAE 90. The path that energy codes and standards take for adoption varies by locality. minimum HVAC equipment efficiency. Both references have adopted code language to increase state adoption and improve enforceability. such as adding figures. or amend the standard’s language.1-2007/2009 IECC. * Adopted new code to be effective at a later date As of April 2016 Figure 2: State-Adopted Commercial Code Status as of April 2016. In general.S.” www. equivalent. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association (SMACNA). a code is a standard that has been enacted into law by an authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) such that a designer is legally required to comply with that standard. or more energy efficient Older or less energy efficient than ASHRAE 90.S. and IEEE. These standards may or may not be written in enforceable language.1-2007/2009 IECC. Courtesy: U. and system controls. The standards also set the minimum energy efficiency and system design requirements. IECC and ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010/2012 IECC. which means they are regularly maintained and are developed through a consensus A building’s energy impact is determined by initial design decisions. operations. service water heating. even though the federal government supports the development of energy codes and standards.WA NH MT ME VT ND MN OR ID WI SD RI MI WY PA IA NE NV IL UT IN OH CO CA WV KS AZ MA NY OK NM MO NC TN AR SC AL MS TX VA KY GA CT NJ DE MD DC America Sam Samoa Guam LA N.S. DOE evaluates ASHRAE Standard 90. DOE activities include evaluating energy and cost benefits associated with changes to ASHRAE Standard 90.1: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings and International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).” An AHJ may amend the standard to incorporate or remove requirements. HVAC systems. Because there is no national energy code. The code may also include references to additional standards that can also be enforced. lighting (exterior and interior). This map shows the various codes and standards with publication edition as adopted throughout the U. or tables.1 as the reference standard for commercial-building energy efficiency. and the owner’s project budget. charts. evaluate. such as replacing the word “should” with “shall. NFPA. Examples of industry organizations that develop voluntary consensus standards are ASHRAE. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 49 . This procedure is called. Virgin Islands HI* 6 13 ASHRAE 90.1-2013/2015 IECC.csemag. and IECC as the reference standard for residential-building energy efficiency.

If (3) VAV dampers are open > 90% and the zone temperatures are > zone setpoints. then the SAT setpoint shall be reset to T min. This is just one method to reduce energy use by monitoring ambient and space temperature conditions. For example. regarding allowable exemptions to particular code provisions. building. the SAT reset sequence shall resume. All necessary updates are completed to meet or exceed the current edition of ASHRAE Standard 90. and renovations to buildings. standards. Many states also have their own code update cycles that occur independently of ASHRAE. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for www. and editions in force vary.1 have been listed adjacent to each other where applicable. which allows for an alternate compliance path through ASHRAE Standard 90. 8. The codes. if not identical.csemag.6% site-energy savings above buildings designed under ASHRAE Standard 90. If QA DP > 60°F (adjustable). and operating high-performance green buildings. Courtesy: Stanley Consultants 50 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 and requirements documents similar.1-2013 would achieve 8. 26.7% energy savings. ASHRAE Standard 189. and IECC updates.1 requires demand-control ventilation (DCV) for high-occupancy areas served by systems with one or more of the following features: air-side economizer. The IECC and ASHRAE have worked together over the years to make the two codes’ language Supply air temperature reset Supply air temperature (°F) 65 Outside air temperature (°F) 70 T max (Adjustable) T min (Adjustable) Notes: 1. states will have until Sept. 2.1. When OA DP ≤ 57°F (adjustable).1 revises the DCV requirement to include systems with an outdoor airflow greater than 1. some differences do exist between the two documents.HVAC codes and standards: cooling and energy efficiency energy code adoption is initiated when the DOE issues a positive determination based on the most recent version of ASHRAE Standard 90. or outdoor airflow greater than 3. Designers are encouraged to consult with their local permitting agency and the AHJ to determine energy code requirements for states without an energy code. Designers may find the ASHRAE Standard 189. In jurisdictions that allow either compliance path. then SAT reset shall be suspended and the DAT shall be 55°F. Many states have adopted the IECC commercial code. 26.1 User’s Manual helpful because it provides explanatory material that further elaborates on the requirements and intent of the ASHRAE Standard 189. DOE. ASHRAE’s Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) series also provides design and energy efficiency recommendations for various building types based on improvements to ASHRAE Standard 90. the following resources may provide additional guidance and recommendations for high-performance building system design.1. to file compliance certifications with the DOE or request an extension.000 cfm. If ASHRAE Standard 189. The publication of a positive review sets in motion statuary requirements directing states and local authorities to certify they reviewed their building codes.1. additions.000 cfm. While the AEDG series was developed based on previous versions of ASHRAE Standard 90. and 7.1 requires the DOE to issue a determination on whether the new edition will improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings over the existing edition. the DOE released a final determination that ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010.1 Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green Buildings “provides total building sustainability guidance for designing. the recommendations can still be applied to buildings designed to ASHRAE 90.1-2013 or update its existing commercial building codes and standards.1. Each new edition of ASHRAE Standard 90.1. However. On Sept.1 as the design energy code and must complete the entire design using the chosen code. thereby increasing the potential for energy-saving opportunities. automatic modulating outdoor air (OA) damper.1.5% source-energy savings. 2014. Corresponding equivalent code requirements between IECC and ASHRAE Standard 90.” This standard may be applied to new construction. 2016. the designer must choose either IECC or ASHRAE Standard 90. the minimum system design requirements and equipmentefficiency requirements presented in that standard supersede the requirements presented in ASHRAE Standard 90. With the 2014 determination. Each state has 2 years to adopt ASHRAE Standard 90. Compliance with codes and standards In addition to the previously mentioned codes and standards.1 requirements.1 is used for the design effort. most notably. ASHRAE Standard 189. Table 1 provides a summary of the HVAC cooling system energy and efficiency requirements according to the IECC and ASHRAE Standard 90. Figure 3: This possible control scenario of the air handling unit (AHU) discharge air temperature is based upon the outdoor air (OA) temperature. Figure 2 shows the status of state energy code adoption as of April .

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lighting system. the owner should be brought into the design process to ensure that the project goals are being met and the maintenance staff has the expertise to service the systems. service water heating. Whether the project is new construction or a renovation. It should be noted and understood that energy savings in one discipline may enhance or detract savings and opportunities in another. Each design discipline has specific design requirements that must be met to comply with code. HVAC cooling loads and equipment selection For any new construction or renovation project. and plug/ process loads arranged by climate zone. Courtesy: Stanley Consultants 52 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 www. These guides provide recommendations on building envelope. highly efficient designs using high-performance HVAC systems most often require added effort and collaboration from all design team members as compared with conventional designs. HVAC systems. In addition. which provides feedback to the building controls system allowing for monitoring and control of the return air (RA) and outdoor air (OA) airflow provided to the building. the AHU can modulate the outside and return air to meet demand. the selection of office equipment. effective HVAC system is to decide on energy goals early in the design process. The system includes an airflow measuring device. The dampers can be modulated to provide 100% OA during economizer mode. These initial decisions will direct the selection of HVAC systems and equipment. as the building ventilation needs change. and goals to achieve or exceed the minimum code requirements per the owner’s . Even though the AEDGs are centered on new construction. Figure 4: This multizone air handling unit (AHU) schematic system shows the controlled devices for an air-economizer cycle. In addition. if under the control of the design team. the recommendations can be applied to renovations. project goals for energy efficiency. The first step in designing any efficient. Establish project goals for energy efficiency The design and use of highperformance HVAC equipment can result in significant energy and cost savings.HVAC codes and standards: cooling and energy efficiency possible energy savings. design team members must effectively communicate their design intent and required coordination items throughout the design process. For the above reasons. a thorough understanding of the owner’s project requirements and budgetary constraints is critical. While many of the AEDG recommendations are simply selecting between systems. This interaction applies not only to HVAC systems. This is often accomplished through a “basis of design” document that clearly communicates the design team’s understanding of the owner’s requirements. but also to the envelope. and.csemag. Many components affect HVAC loads and energy consumption including building envelope. a comprehensive knowledge of the building environment is critical. Each design discipline may also be presented with various opportunities for energy savings throughout the design phase. fenestration. A building that meets minimum energy code requirements will have a different HVAC system strategy and components than a building that achieves 30% energy savings beyond code minimum. lighting systems. fenestration (glazing and doors).

csemag. Check out some of our webcasts on topics like: • HVAC: Cooling systems • Critical Power: Back-up power systems • Lighting: LED specifications • Critical Power: Hospital electrical systems • Electrical: Wiring and cabling • Critical Power: Circuit protection. circuit breakers.Learn about the latest engineering trends and technologies while earning CEU credits. UPS. and more www. protection via .

telecommunications closets. as they may prevent the air handling unit (AHU) system from resetting the supply-air temperature (SAT). critical zones are served by dedicated systems separate from the central AHU systems. In addition. Energy models analyze the proposed design energy requirements as the system operates over the entire year. Designers should develop and maintain working relationships with manufacturer representatives as a means to use them as a resource during the design process. plug loads. This means that the systems are intentionally oversized at least 98% to 99% (8. Consequently. This design strategy decreases the required water-flow rate and reduces pump energy. such as diversity.HVAC codes and standards: cooling and energy efficiency lighting. Designing a chilled-water system to operate at higher temperature differentials has the potential to reduce the equipment cost and energy use as compared with the traditional 10°F delta T approach. These minimum efficiencies represent the “worst legal” equipment allowed in the design. to avoid unnecessarily oversized equipment. If critical zones are served by the AHU system. such as the following code-required systems: n Variable air volume (VAV) fan systems with variable speed drive and static pressure reset controls n Variable capacity pump systems with variable speed pump systems with pressure-reset controls n Variable capacity chiller systems with variable speed compressors Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 n Variable capacity cooling tower systems with variable speed fans and reset controls n Temperature-reset controls: . IECC and ASHRAE Standard 90. there are many ways to design a cooling system. Cooling system design and controls As previously mentioned. Typical systems operate at 50% or less of their rated maximum capacity. it is unreasonable to apply a safety factor to the calculated building load when the load is assumed to occur on the hottest weather design day with all zones at peak conditions. etc. lowtemperature chilled-water systems are often used with thermal storage systems. equipment loads. or not apply them at all. Another approach would be to produce low-temperature water (38 to 40°F). and weather.and cooling-load calculations are not the same efficiency standards for all HVAC equipment. The above considerations would also apply to chilledwater-reset strategies. Often. This makes part-load equipment performance a critical consideration for cooling equipment sizing.585 to 8. Consider selecting equipment and systems that can operate efficiently at part load. chilled-water systems can be designed for high-temperature differentials of 12 to 18°F delta T. shading.” Standard 183 provides methods and guidelines for developing building HVAC load calculations. all lights on. Designers should also consider the following when selecting cooling equipment. oversized cooling equipment may cycle excessively or not effectively dehumidify. For example.672 hours/year) of the time. Designers should consider equipment safety factors carefully.) require consideration of these critical zones. Oversized equipment may operate less efficiently and at a higher capital cost. as building energy modeling. all equipment operating.Air-side supply air temperature reset . Accurate HVAC load calculations lead to properly sized equipment. occupancy. and each room is occupied by the maximum number of occupants allowed by fire code (higher occupancy than is reasonable). www. For example.Water-side systems for chilledwater temperature reset and condenser-water temperature reset.csemag. HVAC cooling systems are sized to meet design cooling conditions that meteorologically occur 1% to 2% (88 to 175 hours/year) of the year. This affects the owner’s project budget and operating expense. cooling systems almost never operate at full design load. Higher differential temperatures have the added benefit of requiring small pipe sizes and reducing the pipeinstallation cost. Load calculations measure the energy that the HVAC system must add or remove from the zone to maintain the design conditions. Modern computer-aided load analysis tools allow the designer to reduce excess oversizing by removing many uncertainties. Both IECC and ASHRAE Standard 90. Request two or three equipment or system selections from the vendor and perform a simple payback analysis to justify any added equipment cost to the owner. Producing a lower leaving water temperature does use more chiller energy that may not be offset by gains in pumping and fan energy savings. Air-side systems with coolingonly zones (electrical rooms. and sequence of operations. heating. to name a few. . An example of a supply air temperature reset schedule is shown in Figure 3.1 mandate minimum equipment54 for consideration. the system should be capable of meeting the zone loads at the reset SAT. Reviewing the AEDG may provide an idea for enhanced cooling-equipment efficiencies based on the climate-specific tables Designers should develop and maintain working relationships with manufacturer representatives as a means to use them as a resource during the design process.1 require building heating and cooling loads to be determined per ASHRAE Standard 183 or an “approved equivalent computational procedure. However. . in the context necessary to make both large-scale and everyday decisions with confidence! Download the Consulting-Specifying Engineer Editorial Research Studies: www.Turning research into insights makes for better business decisions Improve your engineering business with Consulting-Specifying Engineer Research. How does your firm compare with your competition in… • • • • Revenue Experience Products/Systems you specify Project types and locations What do these results mean for your future and how may it affect your competitiveness? Find out now. Four key topic areas are available: • Fire and Life Safety • Electrical and Power • Lighting • HVAC/BAS Get the information you need. download our latest research and help increase your firm’s business.

4. or both. n Systems with direct digital control of individual zone boxes must report to the central control panel and have a static pressure reset schedule based on the zone requiring the most pressure.9— Duct & plenum insulation & sealing 6.3—Controls Minimum system controls requirements C403.4.1.2—Calculations Calculate design loads per ASHRAE Standard—Air system design & control 6.1-2013 Section Section summary C403. which may present the owner with savings even though the selected chiller is less efficient.2.2. for a particular climate zone. A fixed.2—Duct & plenum leakage Minimum insulation & sealing requirements C403.2.4.1—Equipment sizing N/A Equipment output capacity must be ≤ calculated design load C403.4.6—Energy recovery System requirements to include energy-recovery ventilation C403.3— HVAC equipment performance requirements n Building automation systems (BAS) must employ time-of-day schedules and have night-setback/ setup temperature setpoints. schematically shown in Figure 4.3—Piping insulation Minimum insulation requirements C403. Table 6. Utilities may offer a better electric rate to “shift” the chiller load to off-peak hours.2—Duct & plenum insulation.5.1 does not require air-side economizers in climate zones 1A or 1B because of limited operation hours in these hot and humid climates.13. Besides minimum system design requirements.3. and labeling requirements Minimum efficiency requirements for equipment C403.csemag.2.8—Ventilation controls for highoccupancy areas Demand-control ventilation requirements C403. A system with optimal start controls saves energy by reducing the HVAC system run time hours. The temperature can be reset based on OA temperature.4.000 cfm.2. exterior zones and interior zones cannot be zoned together.2. An additional energy-saving opportunity is to implement a chilled-water temperature reset schedule.4.1— Calculation of building design loads 6.4. the high-limit setpoint is higher.1. 6. IECC and ASHRAE Standard 90. Economizer requirements for comfort cooling can be waived. n Optimal start controls for individual air systems must have a supply-air capacity greater than 10.000 Btu/h.1—Fans system power & efficiency Allowable fan-motor horsepower requirements Table 1: This comparison of HVAC energy codes can help the engineer navigate IECC and ASHRAE Standard 90. For example. In cooler. n Multiple-zone VAV systems must employ a supply air temperature reset schedule based on OA temperature. provided the cooling system efficiency meets or exceeds the percent improvement listed in ASHRAE Standard 90.2. dryer climates. The following items are required to meet this minimum standard: n Group zones into similar thermostatic control zones controlled by a single thermostat. dry-bulb temperature-type air-side economizer. All other climate zones require economizers on systems with a cooling capacity greater than or equal to 54. This is preferred over programmable thermostats because the occupants cannot override the zone setpoint.1—Equipment .4.4. Comfort cooling systems may require a water-side or air-side economizer to provide free cooling when outdoor conditions are able to fully meet or partially meet the cooling load.11— Mechanical system completion 6.10—Piping insulation 6. zone-cooling demand. Courtesy: Stanley Consultants 56 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 www. or a combination.7— Energy-recovery ventilation systems 6. adjust loads to account for energy-recovery systems.1 establish minimum HVAC control required for systems.6—Ventilation 6.4. Table 1: Mandatory HVAC code requirements IECC 2015 Section ASHRAE Standard 90. C403. ASHRAE Standard 90. verification. zone-cooling demand.4—HVAC system controls 6.7—Submittals Submittal & commissioning requirements 403.2.HVAC codes and standards: cooling and energy efficiency Chillers may be operated during off-peak electrical periods or when the equipment operates more efficiently to store energy (such as ice or water) for cooling the building during the day when electric rates are higher.1. enable point in a warm and humid climate would be 65° F.

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such as variable speed and capacity equipment. When formally published. neutral air to the space. The efforts of this committee resulted in the creation of Guideline 36. efficient and right-sized equipment selection. The requirements are based on climate zone. ASHRAE developed a set of control sequences for commonly used HVAC systems. Bypass dampers must be installed around the energy-recovery device when an HVAC system uses an air-side economizer. but a general guide is presented in ASHRAE Standard 62.6. and boilers). When an energy-recovery device is required. the system must have a minimum 50% effectiveness. the OA is pre-cooled and partially dehumidified. steam coils.1 outlines when a system must use DCV. defined energy goals.1. plate heat exchangers. complete interdisciplinary coordination. www. 62. Dedicated OA systems can be used in conjunction with single-zone or multiple-zone systems. More than one strategy may be used to further reduce DOAS energy costs. Right-sizing the heating and cooling equipment will have a cascading energy savings (such as reduced pumping power. and multiple design iterations. such as space humidity. the OA is preheated and partially humidified. hot-water coils. and owner’s requirements. Commonly used air-side energy-recovery devices are run-around loops. many different HVAC systems and control strategies have been created to standardize control sequences and aid in the design process. these sequences are under a public review (draft) period and have yet to be finalized. With these steps and understandings. ASHRAE has recently created a committee tasked to develop and maintain the best-of-class control sequences that will meet or exceed the requirements of ASHRAE Standards . and 90. Gayle Davis. state codes and standards. ASHRAE Standard 62. These sequences provide a good starting point for the designer who can expand the sequences to suit the particular HVAC system requirements. This can be achieved with sensible heat-exchange devices (sensible energy transfer only) or total energy-exchange devices (sensible and latent energy transfer). efficient sequences are meant to control air-side systems that use fully programmable. The exhaust and outdoor airflows should be balanced as close as possible to maximize energy transfer and to maintain building pressurization. During cooling operation. He has experience in project management. modern direct digital control (DDC) BAS. provided that the ventilation-air dewpoint temperature is sufficiently below the zone dewpoint temperature.HVAC codes and standards: cooling and energy efficiency Throughout the years. When an energy-recovery device is required. percent OA. Cooling ventilation and energyrecovery systems Dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) can reduce energy consumption by removing the ventilation OA conditioning and dehumidification load from the zone-cooling loads. These high-performance. cool. A separate DOAS unit will heat.1.1 provides exact conditions when an HVAC system requires energy recovery. DOAS configurations may include direct-exchange (DX) coils. should also be considered during the design process. Because control sequences are key in achieving energy management and savings. The requirements are based on climate zone. and industrial facilities. is a project manager/ mechanical engineer with Stanley Consultants. and heat wheels. The control sequence of operation can be complex. indirect gas-fired heating. DCV can use a combination of space carbon dioxide (CO2) sensors in heavily occupied zones and occupancy sensors in normally unoccupied and limited-occupancy zones. and an energy-recovery device. these standardized sequences will provide the industry with premium building controls that will yield high-performance systems. Exhaust-air energy recovery is used to precondition the OA stream by moving Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 energy to and from the exhaust airstream. and design supply airflow. It is imperative to downsize the heating and cooling equipment based on the adjusted design loads with energy recovery. This can reduce cooling energy and can partially meet the zone sensiblecooling load. and many other factors.5. and dehumidify the OA to deliver dry. designers are better prepared to tackle many of the system design challenges encountered in comfort cooling. chilled-water coils. Table 6. As of today. During heating operation. The terminal HVAC equipment capacity must then be reduced to account for the coolingload offset caused by the cold OA supply.csemag. design and commissioning of mechanical systems for building services. Note that many design paths can be taken. downsized chillers. percent OA. total energy wheels. the system must have a minimum 50% effectiveness. Maximizing HVAC cooling system designs for comfort cooling and energy savings requires a good understanding of owner and local code-related requirements. and design supply airflow. n Integrate demand-control ventilation (DCV) with modulating dampers and airflow-measuring stations with the dedicated OA system. This has the added effect of offsetting the space-latent load 58 n Consider supplying cold OA rather than neutral-temperature air directly to the zone. central heating and cooling plants.

com/POY. Please look for the full MEP Giants special feature on www. www. Topics covering every vertical—critical power. a top-notch search engine that segments results by category. data centers— give engineers a great opportunity to learn about the latest industry practice while getting FREE CEU CSEmag. Subscribe today at www.csemag. Look for the POY winners online at www. and Newswatch: Data Centers. For 34 years.csemag. Product of the Year: 2014 marks the 10th year that Consulting-Specifying Engineer holds the annual Product of the Year (POY) contest. and thousands of archived articles. electrical.csemag. and eNewsletters—an all-around go-to site to gather information and find solutions. Codes & Standards. Product and Media Showcase. fire. codes and standards. Offering High-Value Content In-Print and Online 40 Under 40: The Consulting-Specifying Engineer 40 Under 40 program was born out of Consulting-Specifying Engineer’s ongoing mission to foster mentoring in the engineering industry.Supporting Engineers In-Person. It is the premier award for new products in the HVAC. electrical. listed by total MEP design revenue. the MEP Giants list is used by many engineering firms to track their growth and prominence within the MEP engineering industry. plumbing (MEP). eNewsletters: The wide array of eNewsletters gives engineers a way to stay on top of the latest news in a convenient and easy-to-read electronic format. MEP Giants: The MEP Giants program features the top mechanical. Webcasts: Need some continuing education? Look no further than www. HVAC. 40 of the most talented young professionals supporting the building community are nominated by their mentors and honored throughout the year in print. and plumbing systems engineering Sign up for Fire & Life Safety. videos. Pure Power. online. Electrical Solutions. case studies. HVAC. is a highly rated industry website with industry news updated throughout the .com/webcast. lighting. and in person. and fire protection engineering firms. fire and life safety. You’ll also find Webcasts.csemag. Newswatch: Hospitals.

Education and personal development are vital to the advancement of the engineering community. Inc. We invite you to explore and celebrate the educational efforts of the following companies participating in our innaugural Educating Engineers program: Aaon Gripple ARCOM Innovent Baldor Janus Fire Systems Barron Lighting Group Mitsubishi Electric Cooling & Heating Belimo Air Controls Bradleys MOTORS BuildingIQ Carel USA Connectrac Contemporary Controls Firetrace Industrial Fujitsu General America. Reliable Controls Reznor SPX Cooling Technologies STULZ Air Technology Systems Titus Valent . Greenheck Fan Corporation Navien America Inc.

This training includes information on all the available AAON controls options. AAON provides multiple Product Showcase Trailers that travel throughout North American year round directly to customers’ marketing@aaon. During this training AAON Warranty and Service personnel cover the unique features of AAON equipment and what to expect during startup and maintenance. system design details. such as psychrometrics. The Tulsa University Room has seating for up to 100 people with high definition video and audio capabilities. offering many different learning opportunities for building industry professionals AAON offers many education opportunities for consulting-specifying • 918-583-2266 www. AAON provides Technical Brochures on the AAON website about many HVAC related topics. Training topics are focused on what is most important to the customer. and general HVAC engineering training. Tours include a complete walkthrough of the state-of-the-art AAON manufacturing and laboratory facilities.A AON believes in the importance of education. product application. AAON offers customer visits that include tours and training by AAON personnel. AAON webinar training is available to AAON representatives and their customers with video recordings available after the live sessions are completed. a wide range of topics including new and current product insights. motors. AAON believes education is the key to our shared success. Online webinar training is provided by AAON engineering and sales personnel throughout the year.csemag. Throughout the year AAON provides hands-on service technician training. These trailers allow customers to “kick the tires” of real AAON equipment and often include supplemental training on the features and applications of the products. building owners. cabinet construction. and energy recovery. humidity control. and service technicians. Technical brochures allow customers to learn about industry topics on their own schedule. contractors. At both the Tulsa and Longview manufacturing facilities.aaon. including fans. Contact your local AAON representative to learn more with . These trainings cover input #31 at www.

SpecBuilder Desktop®.csemag. and supporting documents. works on a database of MasterSpec specifications. input #32 at www. ARCOM’s team of full-time specification writers is the most experienced in the industry with over 300 years of combined specification writing experience. specializes in master specifications. MasterSpec is endorsed by ACEC and NSPE. automatically incorporating preferences within MasterSpec sections. accurate. Sustainability Tool helps you easily specify multiple sustainability requirements. the specification experts. Supporting Documents: • Summary — Section scope overview Specification Productivity Tools MasterWorks automates many of the word processing functions associated with specification editing and production. and up-to-date specifications to engineers. containing building engineering specifications used by over 80% of the top engineering firms. including the most complete water and wastewater specifications. for engineers MasterSpec® the most trusted and comprehensive master guide specification system. ARCOM. eliminating hours of research and editing time. and specification decision-making tools for the construction industry. Master Guide Specifications – Written by engineers. and workshops are available.5080 • 800. reference standards. Based on the user’s answers to specific product needs.424. SpecText® master guide specification system focuses on infrastructure construction.A RCOM is dedicated to providing reliable. continuing education. webinars. SpecText is endorsed by ACEC. specification productivity software. • Evaluations — Industry recognized “Green Sheets” with comprehensive information on section topics • Checklists — Drawing and specification coordination checklists To ensure users get the most out of ARCOM’s products. Manufacturer and Product Tool used to globally arcomnet. find and specify products and manufacturers for specific sections. Each specification section includes editing . a powerful question-and-answer wizard. Additional checklist and reporting tools make assembling project manuals quick and easy. SpecBuilder Desktop automatically and intelligently edits each MasterSpec specification. manufacturer and product comparisons.

5 days per input #33 at www.baldor. students will gain in-depth knowledge of the Features and Benefits of Baldor’s motor products. The new course is part of the customer education classes that we offer to assist you. Transportation to and from Ft. Students will also learn how to properly select and apply the correct product to specific applications. transportation (from hotel to class and return) and class www. Each student will need to provide their own laptop computer to access and utilize the motor selection tools taught in the class.N ew Baldor Customer Education Course Announced The Baldor Advanced Motor Academy The Baldor Customer Education team is pleased to offer the Baldor Advanced Motor Academy at the Baldor Electric training center Ft. Smith. Smith is the responsibility of the student.Whitfield@baldor. Included in the course agenda are tours of two motor plants and a test lab. food.csemag. For further information please contact: Chris Whitfield Training Specialist website to review dates and descriptions of all available classes and register for the next Advanced Motor Academy session. Arkansas This class will be scheduled to run twice per year for . Smith campus include: hotel. Baldor Education classes at the Ft.Electrical Chris. Enrolled students are expected to have 3-5 years of experience in the industrial motor field. Please check the Customer Education section of the baldor. Arkansas. our customers. Baldor Advanced Motor Academy at the Baldor Electric training center in Ft. In this program. Smith.

Constructed of high quality 20 gauge steel. these compact designs deliver best-in-class optical performance and are packed with cost-saving maintenance features.csemag. The SCL Series.barronltg.1" x 5. these units lead the industry with maximum on-center spacing up to 60'. and an exclusive 58deg wide beam lens delivers best min-to-max ratio for lower mounting height or shorter corridor . “We listened to our customer’s needs to provide a solution for performance and lowering ongoing maintenance repair time and costs for years to come. designed for wall or stem mount applications. And the innovative. combines performance and dependability with a clean. Engineered with a tool-less. If you would like to be a part of the next engineering focus group for Barron Lighting Group in Phoenix. more information about the SCL or CRL Series or any of the many quality lighting solutions please visit www.barronltg. introduces the latest generation of emergency lighting. the SCL and CRL Series. owner.E xitronix Innovates Emergency Lighting with Revolutionary Maintenance Features Barron Lighting Group. architectural appearance. SCL and CRL Series emergency lighting The CRL Series. hinged door that provides safe access to the 6V NiMH battery without exposure to line voltage. Protected with brown-out circuitry and a standard 5 year fixture/ 5 year pro-rated battery warranty.6w fully adjustable LED lamp heads. input #34 at www. AZ. designed for recessed T-bar ceiling applications. these USA assembled units deliver longlasting emergency lighting. is a compact 9. and president of Barron Lighting 888-533-3948 • 623-580-3948 www.” says Alan" and operates through a wide temperature range of 0-40C. the originator of the LED exit sign in the Exitronix brand. patent-pending numeric indicator display ensures error-proof fault/ status detection. Utilizing 3.

input #35 at www. and comfort. A highly skilled team of operators. BuildingIQ’s Predictive Energy Optimization (PEO) is a cloud-based solution that requires little change to existing infrastructure. utility 888-260-4080 | www. BuildingIQ’s software-as-a-service solutions are augmented by a Managed Services team that works with existing facilities organizations to drive more efficiency in their buildings. BuildingIQ’s PEO solution provides visibility into these disparate sources of data and also closes the loop between collecting the data. building engineers. already smart buildings become smarter – everyday. and convergence of data from multiple sources are driving the evolution of Smart Cities and Smart Buildings. PEO works by creating a thermal model of a building based on variables such as weather forecasts. to external factors such as weather. and expedites return on investment. and data scientists complement BuildingIQ’s technology platforms. already smart buildings become smarter – everyday. and implementing changes in the building.csemag. everything is becoming “smart” and the concept of “Smart Cities” is growing around the world. To learn more contact Carter Kohlmeyer at carterk@buildingiq. mitigates risks affiliated with new software. Energy sources With PEO. It then calculates the most efficient HVAC operating strategy for the next 24 hours and implements it in real-time by making adjustments to temperature and pressure set points at the air handler or zone level. building characteristics. With .W hat makes an HVAC system smart? BuildingIQ answers the question. Real-time data. Lately. occupancy patterns.buildingiq. and occupancy. optimizing consumption. wind) and utility tariffs can contribute to energy costs. energy pricing. increased automation. Especially promising is technology that provides visibility into energy consumption in large buildings — which represent 30% of global energy consumption— and potentially lowering it. PEO eliminates capex hurdles. Factors that affect a building’s energy consumption range from HVAC equipment. Purchased on a subscription basis. (cogeneration.

info@connectrac. and increasingly.csemag. data and communications to all interior commercial applications without core drilling. Connectrac has dedicated itself to providing its customers with cable management that not only gives a subtle and elegant look to a • 1.5637 Connectrac. while maintaining the ability to be moved or adjusted.877. Connectrac products are available throughout the US. government agencies and universities are faced with retrofitting their facilities to keep up with the demands of technology. For the last decade. government agencies. Canada. Connectrac’s non-intrusive wireways are also easy to understand and easy to install. Easy access to data. Corporations. schools and universities. Connectrac gives you a input #36 at www. Additionally. Need to change the location of your cable pathway or add more cabling? Perfect! Connectrac wireways can simply be moved to where you desire. Within a couple of hours.S earching for a Cable Management solution? Look no further than Connectrac Wireways! Connectrac® wireways are the best floor-based solution for bringing power. no-bump aesthetic with our In-Carpet wireway. intrusions on employees and neighboring tenants. but is also easy to install. all without disrupting the workflow of your office or having to schedule installation at inconvenient hours. and is quickly becoming the go-to solution for top corporations. With core drilling or trenching come the hassle of disruptive installations. Connectrac gives you the look and feel you desire in your workspace at an affordable price. our wireways can be laid down and ready for use. trenching or unsightly power poles. Connectrac allows any workspace to transform elegantly and . around the world. power and telecommunications has become critical in the world of cable management. and they have the accessibility to add any cabling you need. Providing a variety of options and finishes. and additional costs.

ccontrols. Contemporary Controls has produced several products Built on the Sedona Framework and participated in Tridium’s Sedona certification program.ccontrols. Those with experience with Niagara Framework will have no problem understanding Sedona Framework. For those without Niagara experience. All that is needed are the suitable kits and manifests for the connected Sedona .7070 www. It has a similar look-and-feel to the popular Niagara Framework™ and it is IP-based. the graphical representation of components linked on a wire sheet to create applications is intuitive and can be easily learned with a minimum of training. components are assembled onto wire sheets creating applications. developed by Tridium. Using Niagara Workbench or a Sedona tool.csemag.963. Contemporary Controls provides the necessary kits and manifests for its series of Sedona products with the SAE download. such as Contemporary Controls’ Sedona Application Editor. Contemporary Controls has developed a Java-based Sedona tool called Sedona Application Editor (SAE) This language is ideally suited for graphical representation of control strategies. In addition to developing custom Sedona components that complement those More can be learned by visiting the Technical Support ( For those using Contemporary Controls’ BAScontrol series of Sedona controllers. input #37 at www. Contemporary Controls has developed a Java-based Sedona tool called Sedona Application Editor (SAE) for those individuals who do not have access to Niagara Workbench and need to program Sedona Tel: 630.htm ) pages for the various Sedona products. As a Sedona developer. a Sedona Project Backup and Restore (SPBR) utility is available that not only archives Sedona application programs but controller configurations as well in order to have a complete project backup.2 certified and the BAScontrol series utilizes similar technology. The BASremote is Sedona 1.S edona Framework – Helping Engineers Create a Truly Open Controller Sedona Framework is a component-oriented programming language.

To arrange a time for one of our team to join you and add new tools to the fire protection options that your team offers. Firetrace International’s systems are different to systems or approaches from other manufacturers. With our original Firetrace Detection Tubing Systems. please email Email: info@firetrace. input #38 at www. Firetrace International training session in Santo Domingo From our ever-increasing network of distributors who sell.csemag. or help you increase design flexibility to enhance your projects. to the engineering groups who design rooms or designate equipment-level fire protection. the benefits of Firetrace International have led to opportunities worldwide. our E4 Novec systems use familiar hardware – only at a higher pressure – to achieve performance or give us a call: USA +1 888 786 0780.firetrace. the concept of equipment-specific fire suppression – supplemental suppression that is not code based – is often very new to the training participants. But as the systems are explained and the various applications are introduced. but when the value of the increased design flexibility and the cost savings from the simplified pipe network is realized. For example. For many the benefit of this increased performance isn’t readily . an engineering team or employees.F iretrace International: educating engineers for the future At Firetrace International. We are always happy to present to engineers – either from within the fire suppression sector or indeed from outside the industry – on the value of new technology systems or how equipment-specific fire protection can benefit them. be it for a new distributor. UK +44 (0) 1293 780 390. and the questions and new application ideas start flowing. We have learned that training. we are very proud to see how awareness of the unique fire protection approaches offered by our systems is continually growing. we can almost see the ‘lightbulb’ coming on around the room. the level of excitement in the training room jumps. is critical to our success. install and maintain our systems around the world.

Fujitsu General America. variable refrigerant flow systems. dynamic training input #39 at www. the term “VRF” is now commonplace in the domain of Mechanical Engineering and Contracting. engineers rely upon established professional skill sets to conceive. www. experienced with designing DX systems. Comprehensive Airstage Training Likewise. Inc. engineers. “Lunch and Learn” to individual. Successful adoption of VRF Systems by mechanical contractors relies significantly upon established skills with traditional HVAC systems.A irstage Fundamentals to Basis of Design With the growing popularity of variable refrigerant flow systems in recent years. which significantly reduce operating costs by minimizing otherwise wasted heat transfer. to 3 through 5 ton single phase systems. create and specify HVAC systems to meet design conditions for commercial buildings. Although the fundamentals of a vapor compression remain a constant. application and installation processes used by mechanical contractors vary significantly with VRF compared to traditional systems. where you will be equipped with both fundamental and product specific knowledge to establish Airstage VRF as an energy efficient Basis of Design. through simultaneous heating and cooling capability. Comprehensive knowledge of VRF systems application and installation is the foundation to facilitate mechanical engineers in making the transition from the traditional HVAC system design to . Fujitsu General America provides comprehensive training for Airstage VRF Systems. As with mechanical contractors. Airstage VRF training venues available to engineers and contractors vary from 1 to 3-day formal classroom instruction.csemag. incur new application methodologies when considering a VRF system.fujitsugeneral. We invite you to invest in Airstage training. from 6 through 24 ton three phase heat pump and heat recovery systems. conducted by Fujitsu engineers and qualified instructors. The introduction of heat recovery systems offers application solutions to a buildings’ challenging load profile.

com and click on the Education tab. Greenheck offers online opportunities for engineers to learn more about a wide range of HVAC subject areas. applications and codes. conditioning and control equipment. and an ever-growing selection of special-purpose products such as dampers. energy recovery ventilators.25 hour PDH credit) 9Fan Accessories (. project profiles and podcasts discussing topics such as motor starters and mixed flow inline fans.2 (1 hour PDH credit each) 9Fan Coatings (. To receive certificates of completion for PDH credits earned. Learn more at   . Courses include: 9Fan Fundamentals Modules 1.csemag. HVAC University is held at various times throughout the year at Greenheck’s Schofield. Engineers can earn Professional Development Hour (PDH) credits through Greenheck’s HVAC University developed specifically for HVAC design engineers.G and click on the Library tab. relevant knowledge that will help you improve your understanding of the latest HVAC trends. Visit greenheck. engineers must set up a My Greenheck account.25 hour PDH credit) 9Fan Motors (1 hour PDH credit) For more on these courses. centrifugals and vane axials. Instructional videos cover topics such as Vari-Green motors and Greenheck’s latest cloud-based eCAPS software that helps engineers select the best value fan for the application. Engineers can also earn PDH credits through several Greenheck online training courses that can be taken for free at your or contact your Greenheck rep for more information. the worldwide leader in manufacturing and distributing air movement.25 hour PDH credit) 9Fan Construction Materials (.1 and 1. visit greenheck. Along with this comprehensive product line. offers educational opportunities for engineers. lab exhaust systems and more. There you will find numerous application and industry articles.25 hour PDH credit) 9Fan Bearings (. louvers. Choose from 25 courses offering practical. Greenheck’s vast product line includes roof-top and wall-mount exhaust fans and ventilators. Wisconsin headquarters and a limited number of seats are available. makeup air units. input #40 at www.


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and Piping With manufacturing facilities in the USA and and MSS & ICC compliance. 1-866-474-7753 or 1-630-406-0600 grippleinc@gripple. and load-rated alternative to hanging with threaded rod or other methods. Gripple has revolutionized the way contractors suspend Ductwork. • Installation solutions for every type of building structure – Concrete. www. IKEA stores. and reduced loading of the interior structure on a job site. 7x7 and 7x19 cable construction. and Electrical services. all with a 5:1 safety factor. • Lightweight & compact products – Means fewer materials to transport. No cutting or tools are needed to install. Daytona Speedway • www.csemag. Mechanical. Gripple offers many advantages over suspending with threaded rod. and many government & military . UL & CSA input #41 at www. As a proven. metal deck. Gripple boasts a proud resumé of thousands of construction projects around the world where their cable hangers have been used to suspend services. Gripple cable hanger and bracing products have numerous approvals including SMACNA verification. • Five load rated hanger sizes – with cable diameters from 1/16" to 1/4". wood. Gripple prides itself on having created the cable hanger industry and developing it into the preferred means of suspending services for construction. including the new Minnesota Vikings football stadium.G ripple is Your Partner for the Suspension and Bracing of Ductwork. including: • Ready-to-use kits – Include a length of cable (stock or custom lengths available) with your choice of end fixing and a Gripple fastener. Electrical Services. Gripple continues to develop new and innovative products that solve contractor’s suspension challenges and save them hours of time on installations. Facebook data centers. In addition. Over the past 15 years. certified. Lighting. increased safety. and SWLs from 25 to 715 lbs per hanger. etc. Piping.gripple.

com Innovent ® is a business of Unison® Comfort Technologies 1 to learn more about designing and maintaining healthy and efficient pool environments. which use outside air to control space humidity levels. but they • Videos • Case studies polluted with chloramines. then the recirculated air flowing over the water can become loaded with chloramines. This means chloramines will build up in the water and cause health effects in the swimmers. this is what the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says about chloramines and pool operation: Air handling systems might remove moisture from the air. Innovent Air Handling Equipment 612-877-4800 • sales@innoventair.Series Pool Dehumidification Units. If the air surrounding the water is Information about Innovent’s and minimize interior corrosion full of chloramines.html input #42 at www. improve indoor air of pool environment resources including: For example. If chloramines are not exhausted to the .com www. 1 Visit innoventair. To help you understand these increasingly complex spaces we created an online library (www.I ntroducing Your Online Resource for Healthy and Efficient Indoor Pool Environments Innovent is committed to healthy and energy efficient indoor pool environments.cdc. pool operators need to consult with • Application advice technical representatives on how to maximize the use of their air • Energy analysis • Guidelines from independent organizations • don’t necessarily bring in enough fresh air or exhaust enough air handling system to reduce chloramine accumulation while keeping heating costs down.innoventair. chloramines can’t off gas in the surrounding air.

Janus Fire Systems provides many resources to the design professional to help in the decision making www.M aking the Right Fire Protection Decisions for Your Business Greenfield or renovation of commercial or industrial facilities is a complex process made up of components which rely on expertise from many resources. commissioning and service of the systems we manufacture. Janus Fire Systems personnel participate in many standard’s committees. The design professional must have the proper tools to allow them to make decisions on the most viable protection solutions to suit the needs of their client. (SFPE). As well as. Many of the staff members are also active members of the national and local chapters of the Society of Fire Protection Engineers. This gives our personnel a unique input #43 at www. Janus Fire Systems® is a manufacturer of special hazard fire extinguishing systems comprised of 3M™ Novec™ 1230. Janus Fire Systems regional sales personnel are valuable resources and available to meet one-on-one to discuss needs for a specific project. Last but not least. In support of the NFPA standards making process. FM-200. Janus Fire Systems’ staff is deeply involved in the work of the Fire Suppressions Association (FSSA) and their non-partisan educational seminars for interested parties. product or to offer overall industry information. studying educational materials germane to the special hazards suppression systems sector of the fire protection industry. as well as installation. Engineered Dry Chemical and Detection equipment. understanding of the intent of the standard and how it applies to the systems we manufacture. Choosing the most appropriate protection method can be a difficult task.csemag.janusfiresystems. The Janus Fire Systems website includes specification guidelines and product data sheets available for reference 24/7. Feel free to contact us at 219-663-1600. High and Low Pressure Carbon Dioxide. The front line is our global distributor base which has undergone training in the use of the Janus Design Suite software. Fire protection is one element of the construction process and it has many .com/information info@janusfiresystems.

life cycle programming. WSHP.Mitsubishi Electric is the only VRF manufacturer to offer a building automation solution that integrates diverse mechanical systems.I f You Want Exceptional HVAC Efficiency alongside IndustryLeading Support. You’re Ready for Mitsubishi Electric.Unique HexiCoil™ zinc-aluminum heat exchanger technology delivers a significant reduction in required refrigerant charge. Maximize your building’s operational efficiency through central control. Mitsubishi Electric Cooling & Heating (Mitsubishi Electric) provides the products and support you need to confidently apply Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) technology. remote management and data collection for all mechanical systems.Mitsubishi Electric’s cloud-based life cycle cost modeling program can be used to make system cost comparisons for old and new buildings. The optimized refrigerant circuit design maximizes heat transfer with minimal power . CITY MULTI Efficiency Evaluator Helps You Specify the Best HVAC System . • Compare Mitsubishi Electric VRF systems to other existing or proposed HVAC systems including VAV. into one seamless management package. fan coils and chillers/boilers • Calculate expected whole building energy usages.Mitsubishi Electric’s Professional Solutions Group will support your project from initial vision through successful startup. maintenance costs and estimated LEED® points • Illustrate operating performance • Enhance onsite system specification discussions Learn more about Mitsubishi Electric’s industry-leading products and support at MitsubishiPro. including VRF. graphics and documentation Implement Diamond Controls™ for Efficient Operation of your Entire Building .csemag. input #44 at www. CITY MULTI® L-Generation VRF Improves Efficiency Up to 54% . • Up to 50% less refrigerant required • Up to 54% more efficient • Up to 30% smaller footprint Professional Solutions Group Provides Support from Vision through Start-Up . Services include: • Site-specific design support • Project management and consulting • Contractor and Owner training • Installation supervision • Diamond Controls design.

a 20 page application guide. CAD drawings and Revit files.csemag. Navien regularly attends shows including AHR and ASPE to inform engineers about the NPE series tankless water heaters. “Our goal is to provide engineers with the resources and assistance they need for their decision process”. and find assistance with sizing calculations.navien. Led by an experienced and knowledgeable team of trainers. Lunch and Learn events. and NHB series Navien supports and educates engineers primarily through office visits. Specialty Channel Sales . specific one-on-one meetings.navien. For more information please contact Manny Jimenez. says Brian Fenske. meetings and exhibitions provide an excellent opportunity for engineers to learn in-depth about Navien products. commercial specialists and sales representatives Navien focuses on application perspectives along with product features and benefits for the engineering community. specifications. Navien’s Lunch and Learn brings education opportunities to engineers Through Navien’s website us. Commercial Coordinator at manny. Circulation and venting capabilities. application drawings and submittals is provided. phone conferences and local and national trade shows.H ow the Leader in Condensing Technology Educates Engineers As an ASPE Sponsor and the recognized leader in condensing technology. Navien’s Lunch and Learns. engineers can access application drawings. Navien understands the importance of providing resources and assistance to engineers working in the industry. input #45 at www. Attendance at local and national trade shows and events is another way that Navien educates low gas inlet pressure requirements and an EF rating of up to or visit us. NCB series combi-boilers.99 attracts and interests engineers at manny.jimenez@navien. discuss issues specific to their region. Assistance with sizing. “We assist engineers in everything from energy savings calculations to sizing and budgetary equipment costs”.

or view the Advanced BACnet Training Manual to help you take full advantage of BACnet for your projects. or download any of the online software manuals. *. and *.csemag.dwg. Your request will be automatically sent for info@reliablecontrols.E ngineers Benefit from Reliable Controls’ Consultant and Engineer Support Center To obtain credentials: 1) Click on the [Support] link on our homepage and choose Support Center Login from the dropdown.svg formats. BACnet Resources . Download the entire product drawing library as Visio 2007 Stencils. Product Drawings . 2) Click on [Apply for an Account] then choose Consultant / Engineer from the account dropdown.png. go ahead and begin to download the benefits! Guide Specifications . Software Official Releases . Once you have received your credentials.Choose from over one hundred product drawings in *.Save time in specifying a complete BTL-Listed native BACnet DDC system by downloading our guide specifications in CSI Master Format 1995 and 877-475-9301 www.Download a complete and current list of BACnet Protocol Implementation conformance Statements (PICS).com .reliablecontrols. 3) Fill in the Contact Information then click on the Submit Request button. Your junior system designers will be enlightened to have the “fully annotated” guide specification that provides valuable references and background information. Feel confident that you have the most current and comprehensive engineering and technical documentation produced directly by the manufacturer. Engineering Submittal Sheets and User Guides Download the complete range of product submittal sheets and hardware user guides. input #46 at www.Download and install Free Trial Versions of RC-Archive and RC-Reporter software and begin archiving and analyzing a limited number of objects from any accessible IP-connected BACnet facility.

for the ultimate in energy efficiency and occupant comfort. only the primary unit will run. Go to www. input #47 at www. our VRF works with Reznor DOAS and makeup air system for a wholebuilding solution. When you choose a cutting-edge system. a single controller can be configured to operate multiple indoor units. Indoor Units For indoor units. reducing energy usage.reznorhvac. These include cassettes. you have options. Our new VRF systems can simultaneously heat and cool different zones.F or a Whole-Building VRF Solution. Did you know that a single Reznor VRF outdoor unit can run up to 36 separate indoor zones and operates at up to 28.csemag. At part load conditions. Reznor equipment has all of the benefits of conventional VRF units as well as some advanced features: higher fuel efficiency.1 IEER? Reznor modular units can be combined to provide higher capacity. . you get cutting-edge features. longer pipe runs. BMS communication types include BACnet and Modbus. This designated primary unit alternates at 8-hour intervals. An example of or call your Reznor Sales Engineer at 800-695-1901. floor-mounted. Engineers Can Turn to Reznor Reznor brings advanced heating and cooling to your commercial spaces. A single indoor unit can be controlled by either a wireless or wired controller. And. automated commissioning and easy-to-use selection software. Plus. Find out why successful engineers rely on Reznor. wall-mounted and ducted units. outdoor VRF units Outdoor Units The benefits of a Reznor VRF system don’t stop at simultaneous heating and cooling. evening out equipment usage and prolonging equipment 1-800-695-1901 www.reznorhvac.

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com/information .COM OFF Button FREE SAMPLES Input #102 at www. Videos. and get our digital edition. Input #105 at Want to receive your Consulting-Specifying Engineer magazine as a digital publication? Update your subscription.csemag.indd 1 84 Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST MONTH 2016 2016 2/24/2014 11:37:44 AM www. Update now at: www. 75hp LEARN MORE AT A company of MARECHAL ELECTRIC GROUP Input #101 at www. 2 IN 1 NEW DURAQUENCH™ 50% LESS COST THAN COMPETING SYSTEMS Pumped water mist system: • Economical fire suppression • Reduces collateral damage PLUG / RECEPTACLE & DISCONNECT SWITCH Line of Sight Disconnect Switch • Meets NEC requirements • Up to 200A Input #104 at www.csemag.7642 Input #100 at www. Case Studies and White Papers.csemag. Apps.csemag. on a more interactive and user-friendly platform.MEDIA SHOWCASE FOR ENGINEERS Your place for new Input #103 at www. in your email in-box.433.

The digital edition includes tabletfriendly viewing (HTML5). www. for exclusive content and for more technical feature articles. KARL HOUSER.csemag. and an emailed link as soon as it’s ready. including: research  Electrical and power systems  Fire and life safety for a variety of research Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 85 . DE-1 Testing burn characteristics via ASTM E84 ASTM E84 is used to assess the surface burning characteristics of building products. headlines linking to longer versions. LEED AP Visit www. The results help fire protection engineers better understand how various materials will react during a fire. BAS  Lighting and lighting controls  2016 MEP Giants  Salary survey.Digital Edition Exclusive Content Visit www.csemag.

Class B. NFPA 101: Life Safety Code requires that “interior wall or ceiling finish that is required elsewhere in this Code to be Class A.csemag. Through the E84 test. The results help fire protection engineers better understand how various materials will react during a fire. while SDI provides some measure of the amount of smoke a sample emits as it burns. The purpose of this test is to observe the flame spread along a sample in order to determine the relative burning behavior of the material. LEED AP. When is the E84 test required? The 2015 International Building Code (IBC) specifies that “interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be classified in accordance with ASTM E84 or UL 723. York.” www. Learning objectives  Demonstrate the tests required to assess surface burning characteristics of building products. or Class C shall be classified based on test results from ASTM E84. Intertek. both flame spread index (FSI) and smoke developed index (SDI) are reported for a given sample. DE1 ASTM E84: Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (often referred to as “E84”) is one of the most frequently specified standard test methods for assessing the surface burning characteristics of building products. FSI is the measurement for the speed at which flames progress across the Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 interior surface of a building. or UL 723. BY KARL HOUSER.  Examine how the test is run and how to use the results. Pa.Testing burn characteristics via ASTM E84 ASTM E84 is used to assess the surface burning characteristics of building . PE.” Additionally.

It should be noted that the “fuel contributed” measurement is no longer in use. In such cases. or its intended use. while the Canadian version requires that certain samples be mounted on the floor. All graphics courtesy: Intertek The FSI and SDI indices are used to establish a scale for the rate at which flame spreads and smoke develops during an E84 test. For U. What is a Steiner Tunnel? Developed by Albert Steiner in the 1940s. and as such there is no real “pass” or “fail. and while there are no pass-fail criteria in the standard. additional fire bricks are installed on the floor of the tunnel and the view glass is removed. the product may be limited or prohibited.S. Is certification required? No.csemag. because certification is a quality-control process that helps to ensure that the product being tested is the product being manufactured. Under the Canadian standard. The progress of the flame is then monitored through viewports on one side of the apparatus and recorded. results for a sample will differ between the U. and to the exhaust/scrubber system. Given these variations in the testing. UL 1256 also references a modified version of the Steiner Tunnel for use on certain roofing systems. If a sample’s values do not meet code directives. During the test. with software computing the various data points to derive the FSI and SDI. certification can be used as a way to differentiate a product from similar market products. building and construction. and a forced draft is provided in order for the movement of air and products of combustion within the tunnel. inspection. a testing. and Canada. general contractor. building owners. What if a product fails? Passes? ASTM E84 is a comparative Figure 2: During a test. the Steiner Tunnel (see Figure 1) is a steel box lined on its sides and floor with fire brick. and others in the construction community.high fire chamber with two burners at one end providing 89 kW of energy. How is the test run? An E84 test is conducted by placing a 24-in. UL 723. long sample into a Steiner Tunnel (see description of a Steiner Tunnel below). it may be advisable to run additional tests (perhaps with modified materials) to legitimately improve the product’s FSI or SDI.Figure 1: The Steiner Tunnel was adopted as an ASTM standard in 1950 and given the designation of E84. whereas red oak calibration material has an FSI and SDI of 100. Equivalent standards are maintained by NFPA and UL as NFPA 255. This is not allowed for U. Houser is responsible for outreach to architects. from the Canadian version of the Steiner Tunnel test is the way in which the sample is mounted in the testing chamber. testing because any products mounted on the floor of the tunnel are no longer qualified. wide x 24-in. able lid. Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 DE2 . though both will provide important test data. and with certain modifications as CAN/ULC-S102. However.S.S. As the leader of Intertek project consulting services. the sample is mounted on the roof of the testing chamber. and featuring a removwww. the product sampled and tested after certification must not vary wildly from that used for original certification. The tunnel contains a 12-in. the sample is mounted on the ceiling under a removable lid. Smoke developed is also measured through the optical density of a light obscuration meter. The Steiner Tunnel was adopted as an ASTM standard in 1950 and given the designation of E84. depending upon the composition of the sample. and certification organization. certification is not required for E84 tests. wherein the test is administered through the use of two burners which provide 89 kW of energy. If product certification is involved.S. and Canadian versions of the test? The major difference that distinguishes the U.” The test generates numbers expressed as FSI and SDI. code officials. reinforced cement board calibration material has an FSI of 0 and an SDI of 0. at Intertek. Karl Houser is the senior fire protection engineer. This shows a test in progress.S. For example. testing. certain codes and regulations define required FSI value and/or SDI value for appli- cations and installations. both flame spread index (FSI) and smoke developed index (SDI) are reported for a given sample. What are the differences in the U.

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Lenexa. www. International Association of Electrical Inspectors. these design changes also can impact other characteristics of the transformer. it Consulting-Specifying Engineer • AUGUST 2016 becomes extremely important for engineers to verify inrush current values. However. Managing increased transformer inrush current The Department of Energy’s 2016 efficiency standards change transformer efficiency requirements. and the increased application of K factor and specialty transformers. the industry started to experience some nuisance tripping of the primary OCPD when sized at 125%. with the advent of the 2010 DOE legislation.S. Greg J. and NFPA. the desire to use higher efficiency transformers. In the past. To help customers with this new challenge. If sized HAUSMAN. and even between transformer types/ratings from the same manufacturer.csemag. with more than 35 years of experience in the electrical distribution equipment industry. which provides adequate overload and shortcircuit protection for the wire and for the transformer.3(B) and sized primary OCPDs for low-voltage distribution dry-type transformers at no more than 125% of the transformers fullload primary ampere (FLA). Inrush current is an important consideration when selecting an overcurrent protection device (OCPD) to protect the transformer. Department of Energy (DOE) new efficiency levels for low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers came into effect at the beginning of 2016. If the primary OCPD requires to be sized larger than 125%. It is vital for design engineers to be aware of inrush currents for low voltage dry type distribution transformers. However. and using different core constructions. lowering of the induction level of the core.Future of Engineering BY GREG J. this information can be easily obtained from the manufacturer. T he U. manufacturers can employ various design strategies including the use of high-grade steel. Inrush currents However. Today it is not uncommon for the theoretical maximum transformer inrush currents to be as high as 20 to 30 times the primary FLA of the transformers. Technically known as CFR title 10 Chapter II Part 431 (in Appendix A of Subpart K 2016).com . Although changes in transformer size and cost are significant considerations. He is an active member of IEEE. Inrush current can be less obvious but equally important when designing a system with new DOE 2016 compliant transformers. the design engineer can take advantage of NEC Table 450. the new efficiency requirements are more commonly referred to as the DOE 2016 Efficiency levels. Eaton. and inrush current characteristics. Kan. this may not be the case with all manufacturers. cost. especially in our modern high-efficiency world. When this possibility for higher inrush currents is compounded with the many variations in construction methods and materials between manufacturers. And now with the possibility of even higher inrush currents as a result of DOE 2016. To meet these new efficiency levels. some manufacturers design and test standard (or most common) DOE 2016 transformers to allow the primary OCPD to be sized at 125%. the OCPD may operate during system start-up and prevent the transformer from energizing. Read the longer version of this online at: www. Hausman is a senior application engineer at Eaton.csemag. many design engineers took advantage of NFPA 70: National 88 Electrical Code (NEC) article 450 table 450. Remember to always review NEC labeling and consult with manufacturers before installing. With the primary OCPD sized at 125%. this topic takes on additional importance. the transformer is fed with the lowestcost cable and conduit. including size.3(B) (OCPD sizing up to 250%) and NEC article 240.21 to avoid the need to provide a secondary circuit OCPD at the transformer when feeding a lighting panelboard or load.

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