Organized by
Silicon Institute of Technology,
Bhubaneswar and
Circuit Club
CIRCUITICA: Know your Circuits using SPICE
Ramaprasad Panda
Associate Professor, EEE Department
Silicon Institute of Technology,
Bhubaneswar
Ohm’s Law
I=V/R
Georg Simon Ohm (17871854)
I
= Current (Amperes) (amps)
V
= Voltage (Volts)
R
= Resistance (ohms)
How you should be thinking
about electric circuits:
Voltage: a force that
pushes the current
through the circuit (in
this picture it would be
equivalent to gravity)
How you should be thinking about electric circuits: Resistance: friction that impedes flow of current through the circuit (rocks in the river) .
How you should be thinking about electric circuits: Current: the actual “substance” that is flowing through the wires of the circuit (electrons!) .
Would This Work? .
Would This Work? .
Would This Work? .
The Central Concept: Closed Circuit .
circuit diagram Scientists usually draw electric circuits using symbols. cell lamp switch wires .
Simple Circuits • Series circuit – All in a row – 1 path for electricity – 1 light goes out and the circuit is broken • Parallel circuit – Many paths for electricity – 1 light goes out and the others stay on .
1 2 .
What do you notice about the brightness of the bulbs? • Add a third light bulb in the circuit.PARALLEL CIRCUIT • Place two bulbs in parallel. What happened? . What do you notice about the brightness of the bulbs? • Remove the middle bulb from the circuit.
A .measuring current Electric current is measured in amps (A) using an ammeter connected in series in the circuit.
A A SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT .measuring current This is how we draw an ammeter in a circuit.
measuring voltage The ‘electrical push’ which the cell gives to the current is called the voltage. It is measured in volts (V) on a voltmeter V .
V SERIES CIRCUIT V PARALLEL CIRCUIT .measuring voltage This is how we draw a voltmeter in a circuit.
• Use Ohm’s Law to compute resistance Series Circuit Voltage Current Resistance Parallel Circuit Voltage Current Resistance .OHM’s LAW • Measure the current and voltage across each circuit.
measuring current SERIES CIRCUIT • current is the same at all points in the circuit. 2A 2A 2A PARALLEL CIRCUIT • current is shared between the components 2A 2A 1A 1A .
fill in the missing ammeter readings. 3A ? 4A ? 3A 1A ? 4A ? 4A 1A 1A ? .
therefore current can not flow The voltage decreases because the current is decreased and the resistance increases. .The circuit is no longer complete.
.The current remains the same. The total resistance drops in a parallel circuit as more bulbs are added The current increases.
Christmas tree lights • Parallel Circuits – both ends of a component are connected – e. household lighting .g.g.Series and Parallel Circuits • Series Circuits – only one end of each component is connected – e.
3A ? 4A ? 3A 1A ? 4A ? 4A 1A 1A ? .copy the following circuits and fill in the missing ammeter readings.
measuring voltage Different cells produce different voltages. The bigger the voltage supplied by the cell. . a voltmeter is connected across the components Scientist usually use the term Potential Difference (pd) when they talk about voltage. the bigger the current. Unlike an ammeter.
measuring voltage V V V V .
5V 1.series circuit • voltage is shared between the components 3V 1.5V .
parallel circuit • voltage is the same in all parts of the circuit. 3V 3V 3V .
remember the rules for current and voltage in series and parallel circuits. .measuring current & voltage copy the following circuits on the next two slides. complete the missing current and voltage readings.
measuring current & voltage a) 6V 4A A V V A .
measuring current & voltage b) 4A 6V A V A V A .
answers a) b) 4A 6V 6V 4A 6V 4A 4A 3V 2A 3V 4A 6V 2A .
Voltage. • If I have one volt (J/C) and one amp (C/s). then multiplying gives Joules per second (J/s) – this is power: J/s = Watts • So the formula for electrical power is just: P = VI: power = voltage current .24 x10^18 electrons/second). and Power • One Volt is a Joule per Coulomb (J/C) • One Amp of current is one Coulomb per second (6. Current.
Kirchoff’s Laws .
t.r. ground) • Branch – a circuit element between two nodes • Loop – a collection of branches that form a closed path returning to the same node without going through any other nodes or branches twice .Circuit Definitions • Node – any point where 2 or more circuit elements are connected together – Wires usually have negligible resistance – Each node has one voltage (w.
branches & loops? R1 + +  Vs Is R2 R3 Vo  .Example • How many nodes.
Example • Three nodes R1 + +  Vs Is R2 R3 Vo  .
Example • 5 Branches R1 + +  Vs Is R2 R3 Vo  .
Example • Three Loops. if starting at node A A B R1 + +  Vs Is R2 R3 Vo  C .
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) • The algebraic sum of voltages around each loop is zero – Beginning with one node. add voltages across each branch in the loop (if you encounter a + sign first) and subtract voltages (if you encounter a – sign first) • Σ voltage drops .Σ voltage rises = 0 • Or Σ voltage drops = Σ voltage rises .
Example • Kirchoff’s Voltage Law around 1st Loop A I1 + I1R1  B R1 I2 +  Vs + + Is R2 I2R2 R3 Vo  C Assign current variables and directions Use Ohm’s law to assign voltages and polarities consistent with passive devices (current enters at the + side) .
Example • Kirchoff’s Voltage Law around 1st Loop A I1 + I1R1  B R1 I2 +  Vs + + Is R2 I2R2 R3 Vo  C Starting at node A. add the 1st voltage drop: + I1R1 .
Example • Kirchoff’s Voltage Law around 1st Loop A I1 + I1R1  B R1 I2 +  Vs + + Is R2 I2R2 R3 Vo  C Add the voltage drop from B to C through R2: + I1R1 + I2R2 .
Example • Kirchoff’s Voltage Law around 1st Loop A I1 + I1R1  B R1 I2 +  Vs + + Is R2 I2R2 R3 Vo  C Subtract the voltage rise from C to A through Vs: + I1R1 + I2R2 – Vs = 0 Notice that the sign of each term matches the polarity encountered 1st .
Circuit Analysis • When given a circuit with sources and resistors having fixed values. you can use Kirchoff’s two laws and Ohm’s law to determine all branch voltages and currents + VAB  A I B 7Ω + + 3Ω 12 v  VBC  C .
Circuit Analysis • • • • By Ohm’s law: VAB = I·7Ω and VBC = I·3Ω By KVL: VAB + VBC – 12 v = 0 Substituting: I·7Ω + I·3Ω 12 v = 0 Solving: I = 1.2 A + V AB A I B 7Ω + + 3Ω 12 v  VBC  C .
6 v + VAB  A I B 7Ω + + 3Ω 12 v  VBC  C .2 A • So VAB = 8.4 v and VBC = 3.Circuit Analysis • Since VAB = I·7Ω and VBC = I·3Ω • And I = 1.
2 A • From the viewpoint of the source.Series Resistors • KVL: +I·10Ω – 12 v = 0. the 7 and 3 ohm resistors in series are equivalent to the 10 ohms I + + 12 v  10Ω I·10Ω  . So I = 1.
Series Resistors
• To the rest of the circuit, series resistors
can be replaced by an equivalent
resistance equal to the sum of all resistors
Series resistors (same current through all)
I
I
...
Σ Rseries
Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL)
• The algebraic sum of currents entering a
node is zero
– Add each branch current entering the node
and subtract each branch current leaving the
node
• Σ currents in  Σ currents out = 0
• Or Σ currents in = Σ currents out
Example
• Kirchoff’s Current Law at B
A
B
I1
R1
I2
+

Vs
+
I3
Is
R2
R3
Vo

C
Assign current variables and directions
Add currents in, subtract currents out: I1 – I2 – I3 + Is = 0
67 A And VAB = 26.Circuit Analysis A I1 10 A + I2 8Ω  + 4Ω  + VAB  B By KVL: .33 volts .I1∙ 8Ω + I2∙ 4Ω = 0 Solving: I2 = 2 ∙ I1 By KCL: 10A = I1 + I2 Substituting: 10A = I1 + 2 ∙ I1 = 3 ∙ I1 So I1 = 3.33 A and I2 = 6.
667 Ω So VAB = 26.Circuit Analysis A + 10 A 2.667Ω VAB  B By Ohm’s Law: VAB = 10 A ∙ 2.67 volts Replacing two parallel resistors (8 and 4 Ω) by one equivalent one produces the same result from the viewpoint of the rest of the circuit. .
e. they have the same voltage across each resistor): 1 Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + ∙∙∙ + 1/RN • For two parallel resistors: Req = R1∙R2/(R1+R2) .Parallel Resistors • The equivalent resistance for any number of resistors in parallel (i.
Example Circuit Solve for the currents through each resistor And the voltages across each resistor .
add polarities and expressions for each resistor voltage .Example Circuit + I1∙10Ω + I2∙8Ω  + I3∙6Ω + I3∙4Ω  Using Ohm’s law.
Example Circuit + I1∙10Ω + I2∙8Ω  + I3∙6Ω + I3∙4Ω  Write 1st Kirchoff’s voltage law equation 50 v + I1∙10Ω + I2∙8Ω = 0 .
25 ∙ I3 .Example Circuit + I1∙10Ω + I2∙8Ω  + I3∙6Ω + I3∙4Ω  Write 2nd Kirchoff’s voltage law equation I2∙8Ω + I3∙6Ω + I3∙4Ω = 0 or I2 = I3 ∙(6+4)/8 = 1.
Example Circuit A Write Kirchoff’s current law equation at A +I1 – I2 .I3 = 0 .
I1 = I2 + I3 • Substituting into the 1st KVL equation 50 v + (I2 + I3)∙10Ω + I2∙8Ω = 0 or I2∙18 Ω + I3∙ 10 Ω = 50 volts . so we can solve for the currents through each resistor. that are used to find the voltage across each resistor • Since I1 .I2 .Example Circuit • We now have 3 equations in 3 unknowns.I3 = 0.
5 Ω Or: I3 = 1.Example Circuit • But from the 2nd KVL equation.25∙I3 • Substituting into 1st KVL equation: (1.538 amps .25 ∙ I3)∙18 Ω + I3 ∙ 10 Ω = 50 volts Or: I3 ∙ 22.5 Ω + I3 ∙ 10 Ω = 50 volts Or: I3∙ 32. I2 = 1.5 Ω = 50 volts Or: I3 = 50 volts/32.
25∙I3 = 1.538 amps I2 = 1.15 volts .461 amps • The voltages across the resistors: I1∙10Ω = 34.Example Circuit • Since I3 = 1.923 amps • Since I1 = I2 + I3.23 volts I3∙4Ω = 6.38 volts I3∙6Ω = 9. I1 = 3.61 volts I2∙8Ω = 15.
Example Circuit Solve for the currents through each resistor And the voltages across each resistor using Series and parallel simplification. .
Example Circuit The 6 and 4 ohm resistors are in series. so are combined into 6+4 = 10Ω .
Example Circuit The 8 and 10 ohm resistors are in parallel.4 Ω . so are combined into 8∙10/(8+10) =14.
Example Circuit The 10 and 4.4Ω .4 ohm resistors are in series. so are combined into 10+4 = 14.
Example Circuit + I1∙14. I1∙14.46 A .4Ω – 50 v = 0 Or I1 = 50 v / 14.4Ω  Writing KVL.4Ω = 3.
4 v  If I1 = 3.4 v . then I1∙10 Ω = 34.Example Circuit +34.6 v  + 15.6 v So the voltage across the 8 Ω = 15.46 A.
6 v  + 15. I1I2I3=0.93 A By KCL. then I2 = 15.4/8 = 1.4 v  If I2∙8 Ω = 15.Example Circuit + 34. so I3 = I1–I2 = 1.53 A .4 v.
from high to low potential. charge will flow in one direction . This is called direct current (DC) • Batterypowered circuits are dc circuits. .Direct Current • If the voltage is maintained between two points in a circuit.
Alternating Current • If the high & low voltage terminals switch locations periodically. • Circuits powered by electrical outlets are AC circuits. . the current will flow “back and forth” in the circuit. This is called alternating current (AC).