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© IPA, 2006 - Carbonate Rocks and Reservoirs of Indonesia: A Core Workshop, 1992

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HOLOCENE CARBONATE SEDIMENTATION, PULAU SE€UBU,
JAVA SEA - THE THIRD DIMENSION
Robert K. Park', Charles T. Siemer? and Alton A. Brown3
ABSTRACT
This paper reviews the physiographic and climatic conditions under which the Pulau
Seribu coral reef system developed. Three shallow cores, from two of the islands, provide
insights into vertical variations in composition and diagenesis and into the coral island
growth history. The deepest borehole, 32.8 m, bottomed in stiff, siliceous carbonate
mudstone of apparent Pleistocene age. Age dating of selected coral debris at various depths
indicate that the vertical accumulation was largely achieved during the period 10,000-4500
yrs BP. This rate of 5-10 mm per year matches the initially rapid post Wisconsin sea level
rise. Since then coral island growth has been outward. The sediments are coral dominated
(50% or more) with only minor red and green algal material and a notable lack of fines.
The present island phreatic freshwater lenses are small. Overall cementation is limited but
does occur as spar calcite fill of coral calices, and meniscus high Mg calcite in near surface
beachrock. Marine cements include fibrous aragonite and stubby bladed high Mg calcite
and peloidal cryptocrystalline masses of both.' Limited evidence of aragonite dissolution is
present throughout the buildups. Top-down degradation of framework constituents is
underway which undoubtably will lead to the ultimate modification of primary depositional
fabrics. Porosities and pernieabilities are very high in the relatively unaltered Holocene
carbonate sediment, especially in the coral-rudstone rampart deposits which act as conduits
for seawater flushing and recharge of the coral-dominated carbonate buildups.
INTRODUCTION
General Statement
The fact that the Pulau Seribu coral reef system exists may be reason enough for some
to deem it worthy of study. Awareness of their rich diversity of coral species has existed from
some time (Umbgrove, 1947), but it was the discovery and subsequent production of several
hundred million barrels of oil from the underlying Early Miocene Baturaja carbonates that
focused the attention of the petroleum geology community on the Pulau Seribu. With that
incent'lve, geologists with interests in the development of Indonesian carbonate reservoirs have
certainly noticed the Holocene carbonate deposits; however, remoteness and the somewhat
difficult logistics have yet denied the &ea the depth of study accorded to some of the world's
classic areas of carbonate deposition.

&NJthtZSt SUmakd, J&t&

Con~ultant,Sedimento1y.g Division, P.T. Geoservim, Jakarta
' A R C 0 Exploration and Production Techno10g.v Company, Plko, Texas, USA

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The reasons for this study are simply stated. Almost half the cumulative production and
a sizeable proportion of the remaining oil and gas reserves in the Offshore Southeast Sumatra
and Offshore Northwest Java Production Contract areas, can be assigned to the Miocene
carbonates of the Baturaja and Parigi Formations. The more we understand the hows, whys,
and wherefores of their origins, the more effective will be our exploration and development
programmes. The key is process - of formation, of diagenesis, of preservation - and processes
are first best determined by an examination of the modern environment and its recent history.
Umbgrove (1947) comments on the rich diversity of species to be found in the coral reefs
of the East Indies but devotes most of his study to hydrology and climatology. Scrutton’s
excellent work (1976, 1978), derived from what may be called the first modern sedimentologic
investigation of the reef system, was based on sample data systematically collected from a series
of traverses across several of the islands and into the adjacent channel deeps. This, plus
Ongkosongo’s field guide (1988) provide a good description of the areal distribution of
sedimentary facies a i d document surface variations in composition and texture over parts of the
Pulau Seribu platform. Core data from the two coral islands examined in this study now add
a crucial third dimension necessary for a better understanding of the growth and depositional
history of the Seribu Platform carbonate buildups.

The questions to be answered are:
1) How did the platform form and when?
2) What is the platform made of?
3) What is happening and has happened to it?
4) What are the reservoir implications?
Equipment, Materials and Methodology

Two different rig assemblies were used to obtain the three full-diameter core sequences
that form the basis of this study. A Jacro 200 portable rotary rig assembly was used to drill the
first hole on Pulau Putri Barat. A 1.5 m-long core barrel with a surface-set diamond-face
discharge bit was used to cut a 4.75 cm diameter core from a 7.55 cm hole. Seawater was used
as a drilling fluid but this only exacerbated the poor recovery experienced in the largely
unconsolidated skeletal sands and interspersed coral rubble that make up the upper 20 m of cored
section. This rig did however take the hole to a total depth of 32.8 m and achieved excellent
recovery in the stiff, marine, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic mudstones and siltstones that
predominate in the lower 10 m.
‘After the poor experience with the rotary rig, a lightweight knockdown manportable type
diamond drill of the type much used for drilling seismic shot holes, was used for the drilling of
the two boreholes on Pulau Pabelokan. This Rig 135 model was equipped with an NQ3 split
inner tube core barrel, 1.5 m in length and fitted with an NQ3 surface set discharge bit which
cut a 4.75 cm diameter core from a 7.6 cm hole. No drilling fluid was used in this operation
and both recovery and drilling rate were much improved (hours versus days for the rotary rig).
The first hole (BH-1) in the centre of the island was taken to a depth of 11.5 m and bottomed
in relatively fine-grained skeletal sands. The second hole (BH-2), towards the edge of the
island, reached a total depth of 20.5 m, encountering mostly coarse coral rubble.
Once recovered, the cores were laid out in wooden boxes lined with plastic sheets, briefly
described, sealed and shipped to Jakarta for more careful examination. The mostly non-

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consolidated sediment cores required special handling in order to prepare them for photography
and description and to preserve them for permanent display. The objective was to allow
examination of the cores in the same manner that a consolidated limestone might be examined.
The larger coral fragments were individually cut into thin slabs (approx. 1 cm thick) and
cemented with epoxy into custom-designed plastic trays. Poorly consolidated sandy portions of
the cores (most of the core) were carefully resinated into place in the trays and brushed after the
epoxy hardened to provide a peel-like preservation. Core portions containing minor to moderate
amounts of carbonate mud and silt matrix generally became semi-consolidated through air
drying. These portions were slabbed dry, resin mounted and etched by washing and brushing.
Some portions of the core were also lightly etched with dilute (10%) HC1 to enhance visibility
of the rock fabric. Selected core samples were impregnated with blue-dyed epoxy and thin
sectioned for petrographic examination. In addition to the routine thin section preparation,
polished thin sections were prepared for cathodoluminescence study of the spar cements. This
was carried out at LEMIGAS (Jakarta) using a Technosyn Cold Cathode Luminescence model
8200 Mk I1 system. The catholuminescence stage is mounted on a Nikon petrographic
microscope equipped with a Microflex AFX-IIA photographic system. Operating conditions for
CL were set at 8-10 Kv with a 550-600 uA gun current.
Lithified reef flat and beachrock samples were collected where they crop out dong the
high water mark at localities on Pulau Gentang Besar and at the west end of Pulau Putri Barat.
These samples were also vacuum-impregnated with blue-dyed epoxy and thin sectioned. In
addition, selected coral material was sent to the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory of the
Geological and Development Centre in Bandung for age dating. The equipment used was an
Oken 14C measuring device.
Thin sections of impregnated core and surface samples were examined using a
petrographic microscope and quantitative analyses obtained via systematic point counting (300450 points) of identified grain types using a mechanical stage and tally counter. The procedure
followed was to count until a total of 200 "framework" grains, plus an additional 100-250 points
(depending on rock fabric) of "non-framework" components, had been identified. Framework
constituents included mainly corals, red algae (both branching and encrusting), Halimedu,
molluscs (bivalves and gastropods), echinoderm plates and spines, and benthonic foraminifera.
Non-framework elements are mainly void space, matrix and cement, with both intergrain and
intragrainhkeletal occurrences of each. Some disturbance of intergrain void space within the
non-consolidated samples was inevitable, even so, the recorded high porosities of greater than
35% attest to the prevalent primary fabric of these sediments.
HOW WAS IT FORMED ?
Location, Chronology and Geography
The Pulau Seribu system, located in the Southwest Java Sea, comprises a number of coral
reef islands ranging in size from a few tens of meters across to lengths of greater than 1 km
(Panel 1). In the southern part of the chain even larger atoll-lagoon complexes may be found.
The islands (estimates of total number range from 130 to greater than 700 depending on criteria)
sit atop a 40 x 10 km-long, north-south trending platform, on the west flank of a fault-bounded
structural arch, the Seribu High. That structure forms the boundary between the hydrocarbon
producing Arjuna and Sunda basins.

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This is further corroborated by the 7900 yrs BP age of a coral fragment from a depth of 19 m in the Pulau Putri Barat core.500 years BP. High volume sediment discharge accounts for the rapid progradation of the coastal plains throughout the Holocene which has effectively smothered reef growth along many coastal areas.500 years BP. 1978. 1978. aggressive river capture diverted this to the south and reversed the drainage in the eastern Java Sea area (van Tuyn. Tija et al. effectively isolating the Seribu Platform from mainland derived siliciclastic fines.. being generally less than 50 m deep and exceeding that depth only in those deeper parts inherited from the Pleistocene topography. The strongly seasonal prevailing winds track in diametrically opposing directions. notably. By 8. The Flores Sea had begun to spread westward and the Sunda Straits were breached to form a link with the Indian Ocean to the west. although a combination of storm and wave energy may do so. 1932 van Bemmelen. the suspended material is predominantly very fine skeletal carbonate with only minor siliciclastics. but under both sets of conditions the associated wind driven currents are focused through.000 years BP. west-northwest in the summer months. all help to confirm this. which v& Bemmelen interprets as a major Pleistocene river system draining westward from Sumatra. In addition.. 1985) and up to 9500 years BP along the Malaysian coast on the margins of what was the remnant of Sundaland (Tija et al. Logan. . east-west trending intraplatform channels (Panel 1) where current velocities of up to 4 knots have been measured. The platform lies outside of the main SE Asia typhoon track and is also largely protected from long period waves by the surrounding islands. 1970). Taken together. 1975). This channel acts as a sediment trap. 1988) have documented a now well established pattern of a slight fall in sea level from a highest Holocene level dated’at around 4000 yrs BP. where the current range is less than 31 %O (winter) to 33%0 (summer). numerous authors (McLean et al. which was close to the time of the apparent onset of carbonate/reef buildup in the Seribu chain. Given this geometry and high regional rainfall. Holocene sedimentation provides only a thin veneer and the present bathymetry (Panel 1B) is largely a reflection of the antecedent topography established during the last glacial low stand (van Bemmelen. Exposed Holocene reef terraces dated at up to 7000 years BP around the Sunda Strait (Cassoudebat et al. the Java Sea has remained shallow.000 years BP a connection to the South China Sea was forged and the transgression began to stabilize at around 4. east-southeast in the winter. The siliciclastic material that is found is very likely reworked material 2-4 . Monsoonal storms do create much choppiness but their short periodicity and low amplitude suggest they are unlikely to affect the sea bottom. High rainfall and runoff also contribute to the lower than average salinities that prevailed. The rate of sea-level rise throughout the Holocene was quite rapid with the result that these two water masses were united by about 9. Ongkosongo. With the breaching of the Sunda Strait. The present Java Sea is the product of an early Holocene transgression which was initiated some 11.. the larger islands of the archipelago have kept the sea relatively isolated from the world ocean system to which it is connected by just a few narrow openings. these factors account for the high turbidity reported by many divers in the area but. that is reconfirmed by our dating of coral (4440 yrs BP) from the relict reef rim exposed on Pulau Putri Barat.. and help maintain. fresh water run off from the surrounding land areas assumes a significant role. the deep (up to 70 m). and continue to prevail. about 1 m above the present mean sea level.Since its inception.. Throughout the SE Asia and West Pacific area. Of particular interest is the major deep channel which separates the Seribu Platform from the Java mainland. 1970). The Seribu platform stands in the divide between these two early Holocene drainage systems. 1987. in the Java Sea. This is reflected in the published sea level curves cited by Morner (1982) and shown here in Figure 1.

These sands. protected from wave action. Although never luxuriant. prevailing high humidity and low salinities. is no more than a stiff marine mudstone of apparent Pleistocene age. reef growth has thrived. such mangrove and ThaZassia clusters do contribute to a dampening effect of the aready small wave energies and allows some silt. In composition it comprises a mixture of terrigenous clay and carbonate fines. identifiable pellets are not common in the sub-surface. Despite the clear evidence of such activity.C to 30*C. mud size material is all but lacking among the Seribu platform carbonate sediments. Sediment Accumulation In this relatively isolated and protected area.and clay-size sediment to accumulate and be trapped by thin algal mats. giving more credence to the thesis of Umbgrove (1949) that the buildups initiated on bars of mud or silt. and salinities slightly fresher than normal sea water values. but some trapped fines do find their way into the underlying coral rich sediments. Generally. in which the reef cap is areally more restricted but still potentially quite thick. a common feature of Caribbean and Pacific reefs but notably of minor importance in the Pulau Seribu. have a hummocky mounded appearance typical of burrowing by Callianussa. which inhibited coral growth. a tidal range of 1. it should be noted that the islands cored fall mainly into his juvenile to early mature stages. as established by construction piling at Pulau Pabelokan and the Pualu Putri Barat core. the diversity of coral species is quite unparalled. Lack of early lithification of this nature is another distinctive feature of the modern sediments of the Seribu Platform due to a combination of limited exposure. For the most part. Significant accumulations of skeletal grainstones are confined to narrow beach strips around the exposed cays. sculpted by tidal or monsoonal currents and similar to those occurring in parts of the Java Sea today. but it should be noted that the "lagoonal" sediments within some of the larger southern atolls.80 m k . These sediments accumulated in a nearshore setting. This diversity appears to have developed at the expense of frame building and binding red algae.' Nor is there any well developed Holocene "reef cap" of the type identified and described by Hopley (1982) as covering and stabilizing the more mature patch reefs of the Great Barrier ' Reef chain off Eastern Australia. Although the buildups are small. in which spicules (alcyonarian/sponge ?) feature prominently (Plate 6D). the buildups are surrounded by locally derived fine-grained carbonate sands and silts which become intimately mixed together with the coarser reef debris by the ubiquitous and pervasive action of borers. in waters charged with temgenous fines. which comprise fine. presumably owing to rapid disintegration. "Bedrock". Minor exceptions are found in the most protected inner back-reef flat areas where mangroves and small 27zaZassiu meadows have become established.derived from Pleistocene claystones and siltstones exposed on the sea floor. Scoffin (2987) cites the Pulau Seribu .island chain as an example of patch reef development on an open platform but appears mistaken in his inference that they arise from a rocky foundation. which enjoys year-round ambieqt water temperatures in the range 26. At 28 m in the Pulau Putri Barat core there is a distinct colour change from grey above to grey-brown below and a measurable reduction in grain size with the sediments assuming the consistency of a moderately stiff clay. where water depths may increase to as much as 10 m. Piling data further suggests that this substrate was not planar but had some relief. rather than material carried in suspension from the mainland. However. Grazers and bacteria tend to remove most of the filamentous algae.5.to medium-grained skeletal debris. are devoid of any primary physical sedimentary structures and contain only very minor mud matrix. burrowers and grazers. These conditions prevailed during 2-5 .

in which the subtidal component becomes well developed and the cemented cap is thin. leading to the coalescence and enlargement of the buildups. The upper parts of the Pulau Pabelokan and Pulau Putri Barat cores consist mainly of coarse coral rubble and skeletal sands (Plates 1A-C. While this may seem logical and unsurprising it should be remembered that many ancient so-called "reef".000 years ago. macro or micro. The history of the Seribu platform carbonates would seem to echo this pattern. The terrigenous muddy skeletal sands which dominate the lower part of the section up to ca 20 m depth. that of the lag effect associated with a rapid transgression (Read et al.25 m is considered to represent a post Pleistocene unconformity surface. indicate marine conditions. or were molded by early Holocene storm and tidal currents..000 yrs BP. 3B-E. Scattered. The record from both islands from which core was obtained indicates that the Seribu chain comprises carbonate buildups of 25-30 m thickness which developed on little more than minor topographic features. including many of the Miocene Baturaja carbonate sequences from the same area of Indonesia. and the prevalence of benthic foraminifera. At Pulau Putri Barat. the dominant skeletal component is coral. the date must be regarded as a minimum. As this is approaching the limits of the age-dating procedure. 1977). 1986). much of the vertical growth we see on the Seribu platform appears to date from about 8000 yr to 4500 yrs BP. in essence. 5A-C). highly recrystallized coral debris persists to depths of at least 31. WHAT IS IT MADE OF ? A The most notable feature of all surface and core samples examined in this study is that they are coral dominated and mud deficient. At 31. when the post Wisconsin glacial rise in sea level outpaced carbonate banWreef development. From about 20 m depth to the surface. "reefal" and "near-reef" assemblages of the Indonesian Tertiary are remarkably deficient in coral debris. and have accumulated reefal carbonate sediment since the time of initial post Pleistocene transgression some 10. Schlager (1981) notes that AtlanWCaribbean reef/platform growth during the Holocene is characterized by an initial catch-up phase during which sea level rise at first exceeds reef growth but that. contain but a limited range of coral species and represent debris from the earliest patchy reef growth 10000-7000 years BP. This core record is. and the growth profile matches closely that for the Yucatan (MacIntyre et al. coral species proliferate and skeletal grainstones and even rudstones become more in evidence. Such topographic features were inherited from the Pleistocene. because of poor recovery.the early lag period which followed the initiation of the early Holocene flooding and were perhaps analogous to those found along the present northern coastline of Java.. Thus. which accords well with the Schlager's (1981) data. the boundary at 31. Since 4500 yrs BP sea level has been largely stable and growth has been largely outward. reef growth outpaces sea level rise and the reef builds up quickly tosea level.25 m in the Pulau Putri Barat core there is another sharp bpundary and the colour changes once more to a distinctive yellowish brown. None of the fauna recovered. Even within the surface grab samples from the intra-platform channels and deeper platform areas where more clastic fines are in evidence. sbbsequently. This marks the transition to the period of dominance of reef growth as the rate of post glacial rise in sea level slackens off (ca 4500 years BP). Based on this information and the more indurated character of the sediment. proved definitive for age determination but a detrital coral fragment from 31 m yielded a CI4 age of 40. at rates in the range 5-10 mm/yr. While this. reworking cannot be ruled out. only the uppermost 5 m and lowermost 12 m of record are considered 2-6 .5 m and recrystallized molluscan debris occurs yet lower.

comprising corals.25m) is interpreted as the inner wedge of a storm rampart deposit which accumulated in association with the highest Holocene reef rim. in which broken branches of Acroporu were the only immediately recognizable corals. These sediments probably accumulated in the deeper slope areas between the early patchy buildups. 2C-D). Recovery improved below 25 m in some poorly sorted skeletal sands. this depth being the boundary separating terrigenous-rich and terrigenous-deficient lithologies.5 m. or rampart facies. 4F). Glauconite and pyrite are minor but noteworthy components in this lower part of the buildup. which was probably a back-reef flat or possibly a lower shore facies. On Pulau Pabelokan.5 m. comprised chiefly of coral. 4C-E). where gorgonians and sponges assumed dominance over scleractinian corals. at least 20cm thick. some the product of 2-7 . sample depths through this intermediate section are questionable. All are heavily bored and appear partly recrystallized.E).10 m contains massive coral heads. Below this. as well as a variety of branching Acroporu species (PI. beyond the present beach gravels. 5 ) and includes a mixture of massive and branching types which clearly document the persistence of a beach gravel. 6. presently exposed at a uniform level around the south and west shores of the island. clarity was enhanced such that coral growth became dominant. at this location throughout much of the island's growth history. Sorting rapidly deteriorates with depth although matrix is never more than 15 %. persisted to TD at 20. molluscs. persist to 11. This loose sediment fills intraskeletal cavities and borings as well as cavities within the rubble framework itself (PIS. there is ample evidence of meniscus cements and micrite envelopes (PI. On this basis. 3A). Many of the coarser fragments are encrusted by red algae and serpulids and include minor amounts of echinoid debris. This pile of coral rubble is interrupted at 10 m by a 50 cm-thick moderately well-sorted. the recovered core consisted mostly of coral rubble. near the centre of the island. 2C). most of which shows signs of extensive boring. then a skeletal sand dominated section. fine-medium skeletal sand (PI.F). 4A. 7). This section is dominated by coarse coral rubble (PI. A second Pulau Pabelokan hole (BH-2) was drilled on the northern margin of the island just above the present high water mark.5-4. and with minor red and green algae (PI. 3D. The coral rudstone layer (2. algae (Hafirneda)and foraminifers (PIS. 2 m but sand-size matrix becomes increasingly common with depth.reliable. The matrix comprises silt-size carbonate fines. 5E. all of which contributes to the lithification of the crestal portion of the buildups.B). in which the sands are again moderateIy well sorted and coral dominated (PI. This core contains variably sorted medium to coarse skeletal sand. Matrix is mainly carbonate mud and cementation is largely restricted to fibrous aragonite linings in intraskeletal cavities (PI. The interval from 28-31 m is something of a transition zone in which reworked Pleistocene terrigenous material is intermixed with carbonate fines. lD. initially penetrated a thin root bed (Pl. Bioturbated skeletal sands.0 m silt size material becomes more common. The shallow rubble layer encountered at 3. 2B). In this and the underlying layer of coarse coral debris at 2. scattered coral debris (mostly Acroporu) and a relative abundance of alcyonarian/sponge(?) spicules. Poorly sorted skeletal sands. The bulk of the sediment throughout the borehole sequence is comprised of scattered coarse coral debris and molluscan fragments. the first borehole (BH-l). Because of poor recovery through these lightly compacted and uncemented sands. Matrix is completely lacking in the uppermost . However. and below 8. molluscan and foraminiferal debris. which are still largely uncemented but have variable amounts of carbonate mud matrix (Pls. drilling returns indicated that much of the "no-recovery" section comprised fine to medium skeletal sands with rare pockets of silt size matrix carbonate material (Pl. 3F. As water depths increased and turbidity reduced. 5D). Either depth or turbidity might create an environment which is relatively more restrictive to corals than sponges. 2A-B).5 m (PI. the true base of the Pulau Putri Besar buildup can be placed at 28 m.

While virtually absent in the lowermost sections.5-3.5-4. some the result of bioerosion (fish. but the echinoderms are still sparse to absent in the rampart and beach gravels of BH-2. increasing to as much as 10% only in the upper 3 m (above the storm rampart wedge). Their distribution generally tracks that of the echinoderm debris and they too were periodically overwhelmed by excessive storm activity. The upper slopes can be as steep as 60'-70' but tend to grade down to 45' as they merge with the channel floors (Scrutton. 1978). Halimeda makes up only 5% of the framework assemblage in the lower parts of BH-2. making up a consistent 10-15% of the framework grain constituents throughout the section. 6C-H. The other framework grains of note are benthonic foraminifers. Although present since the inception of carbonate accumulation. it is likely that these wedges represent the remnants of earlier lowstands or hiatuses rather than a single storm episode. The green alga. Halimeda. 6C-F). The core profiles show the Seribu Platform buildups to be largely made up of skeletal sands and sandy reef rubble and rimmed by narrow active margins with steep outer slopes.mechanical abrasion. The coring at Pulau Pabelokan suggests that at least some of the islands display the classic "bucket" anatomy (cf. Even in the more protected environment of BH-1 they remain but a minor framework component. but rises to 15% between 13-9 m. sponge and lithophagid). particularly of the corals. Bioturbation was probably extensive. bivalves and gastropods. which is locally prolific in surface sediments in and around the modern reef and reef flat areas. comprising radiating nests of needle shaped crystals that are more likely to be diagenetic cements (PI.9 m depth in Pulau Putri Barat and at 1. Halimeda comprises a significant portion (up to 33% of grains) in the lower 6 m of the cored interval and is clearly a major framework constituent of these more protected lagoon and reef flat sands. just below the main storm rampart accumulation. echinoderm fragments show a gradual increase upwards. Echinoderm debris. Schlager. some of the matrix has a distinctly pelleted appearance. Given their thickness. comprising 3-5% of the sediment framework fraction. These relationships are shown diagrammatically in Panel 2. The more sand-prone BH-1 section shows a slight upward coarsening from medium sand at 11 m to coarse/very coarse skeletal sands at the surface.C). In the "back-reef' area of BH-1. The interior sedimentary sequence is intermittently interrupted by layers of coarse coral rubble (coral rudstone). plates and spines. is also a minor component. 6H). 1981) comprising a reinforced rim of frame building organisms with the interior sands largely uncemented (cf. Branching and encrusting red algal material is ubiquitous. Those peloids having distinct boundaries are almost certainly of faecal origin but others have a more fuzzy appearance.5 m in BH-1 and 4-9 m and 12-20 m in BH-2 in Pulau Pabelokan. Below 16. rarely making up less than 50%. and in the rimhampart assemblage. Locally. which then wedges sharply towards the centre of the island (BH-1). The vertical section in Pulau Pabelokan BH-2 is characterized by a predominance of coarse coral gravels and rubble that clearly represent the core of the rampart accumulation. becomes noticeably more prevalent. and the remainder of diagenetic origin (PIS. comparable relationships described by Land and Goreau. coral debris is the dominant framework grain constituent. until overwhelmed by the massive storm rampart buildup. Subsequent recolonization increased their contribution to the framework assemblage to 3-5% in BH-1. They comprise 2-8 . shows more variability of distribution in the cores. peaking at 7-8% in the intervals 7-8 m in BH-I and 11-12 m in BH-2. Bladed and equant calcite crystals grow on earlier lime mud cement and line skeletal cavities (PI. The most notable are those found at 1. 7A. Molluscan debris. 1970). although disturbance of the unconsolidated sediments during coring precludes confirmation.5 m recrystallization and cementation. form a bare 5 % throughout the rampart assemblage of BH-2. In all of the core samples examined.

Spar cement is particularly prevalent among certain coral fragments (Pl. Rim cements in the form of needle aragonite is found lining intraskeletal cavities and some intragranular pore spaces throughout the core sections (PI. DIAGENESIS: WHAT HAS HAPPENED TO IT ? Perhaps the most striking feature of diagenesis in the Pulau Seribu cores is the remarkable paucity of cementation throughout much of the buildups.5-3. The actual "island" portion of the Pulau Seribu buildups remains quite small and as a result. This accords well with computations proposed by Budd & Vacher (1991) to determine the thickness of fossil freshwater lenses. associated freshwater lenses are also small. Despite the relatively high recharge (annual rainfall is 1. including clay minerals. 4D.75 m below the present surface. Samples from the near surface in BH-2 ( < 3 m) also show a high matrix content representing percolation and filtration of fine material through the present rim and shore assemblage. Although there is a slight tendency for such matrixhemen t to increase with depth. "Matrix" is a mixture of silt-size aragonite and high Mg calcite. it cannot be overstated as to just how insignificant cementation is throughout these buildups until one gets below 16 m. which are the combined products of biological and mechanical erosion. Other tropical areas of modern carbonate accumulation.an ubiquitous background component forming 3-5%) locally rising to 10% and. A s 3 common for most modern reefal carbonate assemblages. Exceptions include some traces of glauconite in the lower part of BH-2 and in the deeper (>25 m) sections of the Pulau Putri Besar core. 7F). near surface beachrock and reef flats excepted. both of the Pulau Pabelokan cores show a distinct colour change from brown to grey at a depth of 5. are notable for extensive amounts of relatively recent cementation.0 m. These reactive constituents may directly or/and indirectly have an ipfluence on cementation.E).0 m depth and interstitial pyrite cement was noted below 20 m. However. Because of poor recovery no such marker was noted at Pulau Putri Barat but an existing water well draws brackish water from 2.8 m) less than 15%. and in this respect the Seribu Platform carbonates are no exception. 8A). The cement fills coral calices and several generations of growth can be identified (see discussion below). The same is likely to be true at Pulau Pabelokan and so the colour change noted is thought to represent the base of the fresh/brackish water lens. Such is not the case in the Pulau Seribu. in one sample immediately above the storm rampart in BH-2.75 to 2. the freshwater recharge)lK (hydraulic conductivity) will be of the order of 104 to 2-9 . close to 15%. Siliciclastic material is generally lacking through the carbonate rich section of the buildups. This would make the lenses no more than 3 m thick in the centre of the islands. where recrystalization is more in evidence and the amount of cement may increase to comprise as much as 45% of the deposit. notably from the lower parts of the section but examples have also been found from within the upper storm rampart layer (Pl. Indications are that the current water table fluctuates seasonally between 1. and microcrystalline carbonate cement. where smectite-dominated clays and siltsize quartz are common. primary pore space is high. Total void space rarely falls below 25% and can be as high as 45%. One difference is that associated sediments in Belize contain a much higher proportion of siliciclastic material. The highly porous and permeable coral rich sands and gravels that make up the islands facilitate tidal recharge and mixing and ensure a permanent brackish condition. if present all. For a modern reefal buildup they propose R (amount of hence.5 m per year) the islands appear to be just too small to support much of a permanent freshwater lens. although even at TD (32. such as in Belize. marking an Eh boundary which may contribute to the luminescent banding in cements noted below.

9B-F).25 m. Luminescent cements. This latter exhibits similar luminescent properties as the associated red algal debris. (1985) from fossil Holocene reef terraces along the west coast of Java. John Kaldi (unpublished data. a feature which prompted Friedman (1985) to conclude that much of it derived from reworked skeletal material. Samples from above and within the present freshwater lens tended to exhibit only partial micritization of skeletal tests. and a cement with a bladed habit (P1:7C-E). with limited recharge potential. the most common cements are 8-15 mu fibrous aragonite needles. this cement exhibits a well developed luminescent banding (Pl. IOC-F). given the high permeabilities in effect. Elsewhere. The beachrock samples are well-sorted and graded medium. Cemented beach sands overlying exposed lithified reef colonies can be found at the west end of Pulau Putri Barat. 8B). slightly brackish phreatic lenses. Sept. H. Despite a vaguely pelleted appearance. of a meshwork of algal filaments and fungal hyphae which act as a filter to trap microscopic carbonate particles.lens thickness. lOB). personal communication. the high Mg calcite is clearly a cement having a well developed fine crystal form. will approximate 1-3%of the island's width. 3C. No dolomite was observed in the core samples examined. and in some Panamanian reefs by Macintyre (1977). on Pulau Gentang Besar. H computes at 2-4 m and. Perhaps more important than the size of any phreatic lens are the persistent high ambient temperatures and humidities. SEM examination of the cement shows it to be rather amorphous in character such that it might easily be dismissed as primary "lime mud". (1975) from peninsular Malaysia. by Amieux et al. (1990) in some beach rocks along the coast of Toga. by Friedman (1985) along the Red Sea coast. For an island the size of Pulau Putri Barat (400 x 200 m). are only likely to be poorly developed. A few coral samples from relatively shallow depths (4. and on other islands and is presumed equivalent or at least comparable in age to the beachrock described and dated at 3660 BP by Tija et al. 2-10 .C).D. 9A-C). 2A. Finely crystalline cements and matrix tend to comprise a mixture df non luminescing aragonite and luminescent high Mg calcite. With the islands having only thin. in part. In the beachrock samples. 8A). identical in form and composition to the beach sands that rim portions of the islands. (1985). Relatively minor amounts of sparry calcite cement. such as dolomitintion. which are found lining many in tra-skeletal cavities and occasionally external surfaces (Pl.e. noted above. however. the dominant cement is a finely cryptocrystalline carbonate mixture of both (Pls. Under these conditions.E). Similar cements were described by Cassoudebat et al. 9C-F). The latter was generally found infilling skeletal chambers (Pl. Many grains show signs of partial micritization and incipient neomorphic alteration to microspar (Pl. The whole remains extremely friable and although exhibiting well developed isopachous fibrous rim cements in some areas (Pl. was the only cement observed in samples from the area of the fresh-brackish water lens. and is therefore seen as an earlier marine cement rather than one of vadose origin. 10A. Somewhat surprisingly. Cathodoluminescenceexamination of a number of thin sections r evded that some of this material has a dull red to orange luminescence while other areas have none (PI. rather than as a meniscus cement. The development of the cryptocrystalline carbonate "matrix" via beachrock cementation processes offers a possible clue as to the origin of the "carbonate mud" which is so abundant in the underlying Tertiary carbonate buildups. mixing zone phenomena. 1992) suggests. the lower figure is more likely. most notably among the corals (Pl. Cathodoluminescence was more informative and revealed that some is high Mg-calcite (luminescent) while other pockets are non-luminescent aragonite ((Pl. 4D. i. as discussed in Scholle & Halley (1985). thought to be high magnesian calcite. is often held together by only poorly developed meniscus cements of cryptocrystalline carbonate (Pl.to coarse-sand shell hash. 5D-F). 2B). that much of this cryptocrystalline carbonate cement may be comprised. also noted by Cassoudebat et al. within the freshwater lens) possess a well developed spar calcite cement (Pl.

This lower coral is close to a sample dated at 40. the existence of similar luminescence behaviour both at depth and near surface. Corals provide the most common hosts to spar calcite cements and in many places more than one generation is evident. habitat. especially when compared to other tropical areas of carbonate accumula 2-1 1 . bathymetry and salinity. Perhaps the most important message from this is that micro-environments.000-7. Nevertheless. Only one significant 1. More striking than the rate of change in cement chemistry recorded by Adam & Schofield (1983). a study of some recent temperate water cements by Adam & Schofield (1983) demonstrates how rapidly such banding can develop. especially as a cause of longer term effects. However.have been variously depicted as developing at depths less than 500 m. Dr. others have spar cements in only a few calyx chambers. Boto et al. intra-Holocene hiatuses or falls. 1988). and precise timing of the banding also remains uncertain. Subsequent compaction induced release of iron and manganese from associated clays may add yet further confusion to the cement stratigraphy. (1990) describe similar phenomena in their Togoan beachrock samples. or way of life but rather was linked to growth rate.45 m depth an intermediate depth sample from 16. but rarely looked for in the Recent because of the general lack of luminescent behavior in modern sediments.a salutary warning to not read too much into such data.000 m. Clyde Moore (personal communication. and especially permeability variations at the microscale. short term features such as storms and tidal cycles are another. Any disruptions in the nearsurface capillary zone chemistry produced by any and everything. A stillstand or sea level fall might have induced some of the changes recorded at Pulau Putri Barat. 2. is the serendipitous nature of the circumstances which led to it . In addition to the sample from 3.000 yrs BP and this cement’s history is probably a relict Pleistocene paleosol feature..000 m.5 m showed some spectacular multiple banding (Pl. may have created the aberrations responsible for luminescent behaviour found preserved here. are highly sensitive to fluctuations in water chemistry and particularly susceptible to variations in redox potential that will affect Fe/Mn ratios and contribute to the type of lattice distortion that triggers luminescence (Frank et al. 1992) confirmed that similar banding has been recognized in some Caribbean reef sections and Amieux et al. (1991) reported on the luminescent behaviour of Recent biogenic carbonates in which it was suggested that this property is independent of mineral composition. 8C-F). suggests that the process is an ongoing one. Five samples through the Pulau Putri Barat core were examined for luminescent banding. Elsewhere.. What is striking about the core material is the relative absence of cementation throughout the buildup. others do not. while some remain devoid of any infilling material at all. The capillary zone between the water table and the ground surface and. Whether this was the cause of the fluctuations in water chemistry responsible for the luminescence signature is unclear. from sea level fluctuations to volcanic fallout. More recently Barbin et al. Insofar as sea water is the ultimate source of the critical components. (1982) discuss the probable linkage of Fe/Mn release to the chelating properties of organic components within the soil zone and supported by the spectacular luminescent banding found in some paleosols. can exert as much influence as general water chemistry on the morphology and rate of growth of cements.000-3. although Tija et al. and as deep as 4. While rates of evaporation versus rainfall recharge remain one possible cause of fluctuations in the water chemistry.25 m fall in sea level from ca 4500 years BP to present can be documented. possibly three. Rates of growth are susceptible to so many variables and while some corals exhibit spar cements. sea level fluctuations may also influence chemical variability. The presence of pyrite and glauconite provide clear evidence of the early availability of iron to the system. to a slightly lesser extent the phreatic lens. ontogeny.5 m showed only some poorly developed spar and vague banding while that from a coral at 32. (1975) argue for at least two. cryptocrystalline cements in yet others.

Once island complexes such as these are established. the bulk is almost certainly depositional from an environment not present in the modern Seribu Platform.. despite the diagenesis referred to above. Although the Pulau Seribu platform offers a plausible modern analogue for many aspects of the Miocene Baturaja deposition. the growth of which records a pattern of periodic freshwater recharge throughout the buildup's history. in particular. Porosity in the Holocene reef-associated buildups is high throughout the cored interval and. This pattern of evolution is a response to the rate of sea level rise during the Holocene. even minor fluctuations in sea level can expose large areas of reef flat which can develop a cemented veneer. it is worth mentioning the appearance of pyrite and glauconite. Minor dissolution of aragonitic skeletal debris accounts for the slightly chalky habit of some of the 2-12 . The back reef flat sediments are totally dominated by coral debris and a pattern of framework destruction and "micritization" via biogenic agents. providing some tangible evidence of the changes in Eh with depth. The Pulau Seribu buildups are notable for being so coral dominated. Cementation and the diagenetic breakdown of framework components noted here provide only minor sources of fines. (1982) will increase. Such diagenetic processes obviously would have a long way to go to match the apparently coral deficient accumulations that characterize many of the Miocene Baturaja buildups. to a degree. Similar effects will be achieved by major sea level lowering and associated karst related features. The sizes of the present islands are such that fresh water lenses are small and.g. compared to other areas of carbonate deposition. It occurs as irregular interstitial masses of very finely crystalline habit.tion (e. Samples from the Pulau Seribu boreholes indicate that corallite chambers. cementation is remarkably lacking. This is achieved largely at the expense of red and green algae. Whether such surfaces will remain sufficiently distinct upon burial to be recognized seismically may be doubtful but high resolution microresistivity devices such as the dipmeter might detect them. the potential for significant freshwater vadose diagenesis of the type envisaged by Wight et al. as the islands coalesce through lateral growth. Glauconite was slightly more widespread but also found in only trace amounts and may be an indicator of changing or evolving circulation patterns in and around the platform. intergranular cementation is limited. Belize). These features may be enhanced or masked by early diagenesis. CONCLUSIONS . are common hosts to phreatic spar cements. primary carbonate mud. Apart from the near surface lithification of the reef rim and reef flat. the sheer volume of lime mud present in the Miocene remains enigmatic.WHAT ARE THE RESERVOIR IMPLICATIONS ? Reefal carbonate buildups of the Pulau Seribu system are characterized by initially high rates of vertical growth of 5-10 mm per year followed by a period of outbuilding and areal enlargement. Such "surface" diagenesis hay include "micritization" of many of the framework grains and the production of finely crystalline cements which are easily mistaken for recrystallized. The former was found in Pulau Putri Barat below 20 m. especially that associated with a freshwater phreatic lens. but always makes up less than 2% of the bulk volume. Among the minor diagenetic components present. ineffective but. it may also have been true of similar bio-dynamic buildups that developed during the Tertiary. The "bucket" geometry of marginal reef rim development surrounding a sand-filled reef center seems to be confirmed by the Pulau Putri Barat and Pulau Pabelokan cores. neomorphism and cementation has become established.

M. 19-16. The absence of a major freshwater lens at present restricts the impact of such diagenetic processes but. p.rather than macro-environment which is controlling the rates and types of diagenetic reactions taking place. 53/2. DALONGEVILLE.. P.V. possibly creating effective internal seals within buildups and which might create sufficient velocity contrasts to be detected by seismic methods. J.. P. P. 1983.. BOTO.P. BERNIER.. a more blocky high Mg-calcite form less so. including oil and gas. 396-397. 1985. The Sedimentology Division of P. porosity and permeability that will result.. Geoservices and Arc0 Exploration and Production Technology for their support of this project and also to Pertamina for permission to present this data. Geoservices donated the materials and labor for preparing core samples for display and analysis. Petrol. Robertson Utania Indonesia also kindly donated time and support of several of their staff and facilitated the acquisition of some analyses. Hiatuses in growth may be marked by zones of increased cementation. and ISDALE. and hematite cements in a gravel from Islay. Rod Trigwell of Rod & Boy Drilling was most helpful in discussing coring procedures. Recent submarine aragonite.. 1989. and MEDWECKI (de). Marine fibrous aragonite rim cement is relatively common. p.deeper occurrences of skeletal material. Mag. K.. P. both this and mixing zone phenomena may become better developed. 315. John Kaldi reviewed the paper and offered many useful comments. v. 2-1 3 . DEBENEY. 199 I . The inhomogeneities of fabric. SCHEIN. A.. Fluorescent bands in massive corals result from terrestrial fulvic acid inputs to nearshore zone: Nature. DECROUEZ. Our thanks also to LEMIGAS and Dr. Scotland: J.K. 261-272. p. Cathodoluminescence of carbonate-cemented Holocene beachrock from the Togo coastline (West Africa): an approach to early diagenesis: Sedimentary Geology. p.. Sed. v 65. R... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors wish to thank the managements of Maxus Southeast Sumatra. K.. with time and the development of a larger freshwater lens.T. AMIEUX. will continue to influence the migration of fluids. RAMSEYER. v. ROUX and D. 417-421. Bernard Humphreys for access to and help with Cathodoluminescence work and to the staff at the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory of the Geological Centre for Research and Development at Bandung for their prompt turn around on age dating. REFERENCES ADAMS. E. Cathodolurninescene of Recent biogenic carbonates: an environmental and ontogenetic fingerprint: Geol.E.. fluid migration is largely uninhibited and it is the micro.T. V. P. Arc0 Indonesia. What is apparent is that given the high porosities and permeabilities that prevail throughout the buildups.T. and which are typical of many ancient carbonate assemblages (including the Miocene Baturaja of Indonesia). and SCHOFIELD. v.. magnesia calcite. 128/1. BARBIN.

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14-41.. Conv. 1947. p. O. and KIGOSHI. Co. N. P. eds.. Oxygen and carbon isotope stratigraphy for the Quaternary of Hole 502B: Evidence for two modes of isotopic variability: Init.. 1986. SOC. Publ. 107-110. IPA. and KOERSCHNER. M. GROTZINGER. R. Importance of diagenesis in carbonate exploration and production. Burial diagenesis: Out of sight. p.B.W.E.E. SOC. VAN BEMMELEN. M. (special volume). D.. FUIJI. Radiocarbon dates of Holocene shorelines in Peninsular Malaysia: Proc.H.. J.P. Sea level changes: Beaches and Coastal Environments: Hutchison Ross Publ. T. and Hams. Amer. 197-211.F. ed. and HARDIAN. Java Sea: Proc. TIJA. Martinus Nijhoff.Schwartz. 309-334. and HALLEY.W. p. J. SEPM Spec. of the DSDP.F. SE Asia: Bandung.S. SCRUTTON. 179-193. p. READ.A. R..L. 1982. 36. 91. 58. J. 1978. Models for generation of carbonate cycles: Geology. 5th Ann. SCOFFIN. H. Glasgow. 11th Ann.. 2-15 . Pulau Seribu Guidebook: IPA... M. Res. 1981.. 274 p. 1987.P. 210-235. Coral reefs of the East Indies: Bull.. 729-778. Conv. p. ONGKOSONGO... J.D. Geol. 1970. Aspects of carbonate sedimentation in Indonesia: Proc. Field Guide. UMBGROVE. 1985. Conf.R. p. Straussburg.M. N. W. BOVA. IPA. A.. p..L. SCHLAGER. SCRUTTON. 223227. p. K.. 1982. Indonesia. 455-464. P. Pt.Amer. The Hague.. 722-733. Reg.. p. Lower Batu Raja carbonates. v.. IPA. in: Proceedings of the 1976 Carbonate Seminar. 1978. p. W.. WIGHT. 1988.A.. PRELL.R. Min.A.. The paradox of drowned reefs and carbonate platforms: Geol. Bull.. 68.. The Geology of Indonesia (2nd Ed): Publ. 1982. v... Repts. Geol. Carbonate Cements. 1976. v.. Krisna Field.. out of mind: Schneidermann. An introduction to carbonate sediments and rocks: Blackie & Son. The Encyclopedia of MOWER. Modern reefs in the West Java Sea. S. v.F.. 14.. 1. No. W. SCHOLLE. 17th Ann Conv.

BP Curves for p a s t 10. z -15m -- Fairbridge 195 1 ---- -20m Ters. 1973 Momer 1976 Tooley 1974 Jelgersma 1 9 6 6 1 1 1 1 -25m ! I' Tija 0 'c 1903 C14Dates thls study A -30m I I I I I I I I 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 C" Time I03 yrs. compiled from several authors by Momer( 1982 ) and Ongkosono ( 1984 ) . -5m okan -10m a 01 L U Q.EUSTATIC CURVES FOR SOUTH CHINA SEA AREA +5m 0.000 yrs.

.%) <Cum. Soft to Moderate Induration in Air-Dried State. Red Algal. -28 -29 T Sp Splc. nonrecrystallized and non-cemented) coral-rubble/sand portions of the vertical sequence. -24 -25 -26 Qtz Hallmeda Glaue \Mollu Echln -27 FERRUGINEOUS(FeO-STAINED). Mud/Cement. Coral Material Non-Recrystallized but with Minor Aragonillc Rim Cement and Intraskeletal Carbonate Mud Matrix. Variety of Branching and Small Massive Type Corals.SILTY/SANDYMUDSTONE WITH SCATTERED RECRYSTALLIZED CORALS AND CARBONATE ROCK FRAGMENTS: Very Poorly-Sorted. Halimeda.to Very Coarse-Grained. Possible Stratification (Disturbed by Coring). SKELETAL (CORAL) MUD [WACKESTONE]. Basal Contact Sharp. Which is a Mix of Terrigenous Clay and Upward-Increasing Carbonate Mud. Medium. Variable Porosity (Highly Disturbed by Coring). Mat i rlx \ Fmwk Red'AIg \ Hal Hallmeda \ Mol Qlauc Uni. GRAIN SIZE OrVVviFMd CORE DEPTH FRAMEWORK SEDIME. / Matrix U>" e Fmwk . Terr.' Variable *•—•Amount of Carbonate Mud Matrix (10-25%) but Non-Cemented (Although Lightly Coherent In Air-Dried State). Red Algal and Halimeda Fragments and Very Minor Echlnolderm Fragments and Small Denthonlc Foraminifera.NT/ROCK GRAINS FABRIC (Cum.50 ' 100 IM) . Apparent NonOrganized Rock Fabric (Disturbed by Coring?). Mainly Coral Gravel Remaining. Lithologic description oi tore material from the borehole on Pulau Putri Barat (Besar). 5-10% Porosity (Intergrain/lnlraskeletal).Coral ilauc SILTY/ARGILLACEOUS AND GLAUCONITIC. O Unld RedAla Hal MoK / •Foram Coral Coral Fragment -2 Hallmeda Red A l g A Coral Mollusc' Forari Coral Fragment MxJICem Void Fmwk Skeleton Matrix I Sparry Cement Rim Cement \ Matrix \ Vmwk Void Space / Skeleton Rim Cement -5 Rim Cement Matrix 7 Coral Fragment Skeleton Void Space / -10 -11 Void Space CORAL RUBBLE I. Composed Mainly ol Coral Fragments (70-80% of Framework Fraction) wjth Minor Molluscan. Red Algal and Hallmeda Fragments and Very Minor Echlnolderm Fragments and Small Benthonlc Foramlnilera. Red Algal and Haiimada Fragments. Glauconite and Quartz Silt. Coral Fragments Non-Recrystallized.DESCRIPTION' • SKELETAL (CORAL) SAND [GRAINSTONE): with Local Mlcrocrystalllne Carbonate Matrix/Cement (Beachrock?) and Abundant Peaty Organic Matter at Top.%) 50 100 0 . Local Sandy Zones Display Abundant Coral Fragments along with Common Molluscan. Very Poorly-Sorted with Large Coral Fragments 'Floating" In a Mud 'Matrix". Echinoderm.d N Coralv yt V SpSpic 'old pace . Framework Fraction (40-65% of Rock). Non-Organized and Non-Cemented (Although Lightly Coherent in Air-Dried State). Matrix Pyr Echln -30 31 'old pace Unld Coral \ 32 Qtz Carb Frag Carb Cam O'VO VF Md FIGURE 2. Pebbly. Composed Mainly of Coral Fragments (65% of Framework) with Common Mollusc.to Coarse-Grained. Locally Moderately Indurated with Mlcrocrystalline Carbonate. Sediment Non-Consolidated. Fine. Variable Intraskeletal (Corallite) Porosity Ranging from 15 to 45%. Basal Contact Poorly Preserved but Apparently Relatively Sharp. Intergraln/ Intraskeletal Porosity (10-25%). Gravel-size Coral Fragments. Composed of Matrix (20-50% of Rock).RUDSTONE) WITH PROBABLE INTERSTRATIFIED SKELETAL (CORAL) SAND [GRAINSTONE1: Extremely Poor Recovery with Sand/Mud Matrix Washed Out. Foranrilnlfera). \ Skeleton Coral Fragment \ Unld Rim Cftinftnl Mollusc Hallmeda RodAIg \ Coral Fmwk Foram J -18 old Space Mollusc Coral Fmwk \ Echlrf/ Foram Matrix -22 23 SKELETAL (CORAL/ALGAL) SAND [GRAINSTONE]: Very Poorly-Sorted with Large Coral Fragments. Highly Iron Stained to a Yellowish-Brown Llmonltic Color.2 m. Mud Matrix with Silty/Very Fine-Sand with Scattered. A summary of the quantitative (modal analysis) petrographic data from selected samples is provided by the columns on the right. Composed Mainly of Terrigenous Clay and Quartz Silt/Sand with Recrystallized Coral Fragments and Crystalline Carbonate Rock Fragments. Also'Presence of Sponge Spicules. Core recovery was poor throughout much of the non-consolidated (i. Most Fragments Highly Bored. Moderately-Sorted. ProbableGradatlonal Basal Contact with Downward Increase In Sandy Matrix. Notable Occurrence of Sponge Spicules and Glauconite (Both up to 6% ol Framework Fraction). Minor Pyrite (1-2%).e. Which Contains Abundant Quartz Silt/Very Fine-Sand (10-15% ol Framework) Along with Abundant Coral Fragments (45-70% ol Framework) and Variety of Other Skeletal Fragments (Mollusc. Abundant Peaty Plant Matter In Upper 0..

E FIGURE 3. Composed of a Variety of Branching and Massive Type Coral Fragments Ranging up t o 20 cm Across (Some Large Coral Fragments Apparently in Growth Position). . %) 50 50 I Ither Fc DESCRIPTION SKELETAL (CORAL) SAND IGRAINSTONEI: Moderately Wellto Well-Sorted. Composed Mainly of Coral Fragments (70-80% of Framework) with Common Mollusc and Red Algal Fragments. . Only Minor Carbonate Mud Matrix and Local Microcrystalline Carbonate Cement (at 2. Non-Lithified. Algae. Note Tar Balls and Tar Stain (Contamination) in Upper 2 Meters. Angular . Rounded t o Well-Rounded.5 m. 35-40% lntergrain Porosity. Composed Mainly of Coral Fragments (45-75% of Framework) with Abundant Halimeda (Decreasing Upward from 33 t o less than 5%) and Red Algal Fragments (7. Selected Coral Fragments Display 3545% lntraskeletal Porosity. Lithologic description of core material from Borehole-1 (BH-1) on Pulau Pabelokan. Non-Lithified.t o Very Poorly-Sorted. Mangrove Roots at Top and Fragments at 2.to CoarseGrained. A summary of the quantitative (modal analysis) petrographic data from selected samples is provided by the columns on the right. Medium. Non-Stratified. I Hallmeda . Minor Carbonate Mud Matrix lup to 10%)and Only Local Aragonitic Rim Cement Within Coral Fragments.EC Coral'Fragments .12%).e. Core material is essentially non-consolidated (i..:' . ..to MediumGrained.to SubanguJar.FRAMEWORK SEDIMENT FABRIC GRAINS * (Cum. -.. but Probably Disturbed by Coring: Non-Lithified. Very Fine. Fabric Highly Disturbed by Coring.----2- CORAL RUBBLE IRUDSTONEI: Poorly Sorted. Fragments Extensively Bored.*. . -. 3040% Intergrain Porosity. (CORAL)' ." 5 . %) (Cum.': Void space . non-recrystallized and noncemented). :. Apparent Lack of Stratification (Burrowed?) but Disturbed by Coring. IGRAINSTONEI: SKELETAL SAND Poorly. 510%lntraskeletal Carbonate Mud Matrix Fill and 2-8% Aragonitic Rim Cement.5 m).

Algal Fragments (up t o 18%). Composed Mainly of Branching and Massive Type Coral Fragments (70-75% of Framework) with Common Red Algal Fragments (10-20%) and Mollusc Fragments (5%). Fine.. 20-30% Intergrain and lntraskeletal Porosity and 530% lntergrain and lntraskeletal Carbonate Mud Matrix (No Obvious Carbona!e Cement). . :alclte :ement .. Composed Mainly of Coral Fragments (50-60%of Framework) with Com(12. Fine. Angular. up to 35% lntraskeletal Carbonate Mud Matrix and Minor Amounts of Rim (Aragonite?) and Sparry Calcite Cements. Non-Organized and Non-Lithified (Although Lightly Coherent in Air-Dried State).-. -. SANDY/MUDDY CORAL RUBBLE IRUDSTONE]: Very PoorlySorted with Abundant Irregular Coral Fragments up t o Greater Than 5 cm Across. Selected Coral Fragments Display up to 45% Intraskeletal Porosity. ( : I' .-- - . Fabric Disturbed by Coring.to Very Coarse-Sand 'Matrix' and-lrrbgularCoral Fragments up to 5 cm Long. e LOCS.. Sparry Calcite Cement (10-25% or rock). Only 2-20% lntergrain and lntraskeletal Porosity. Some Samples are Entirely Coral). No Apparent Stratification (Burrowed?) but Probably Coring Disturbed. Minor Intergrain and lntraskeletal Carbonate Mud Matrix.. SKELETAL (CORAU RUBBLE~[RUOSTONEl~ Very PooGy-Sorted with Muddy. . %I 50 1 .5 rn). Apparent Non-Organized Rock Fabric (Disturbed by Coring). -. Some Coral Fragments are Partly Recrystallized (Reworked 'Older" Material?). Composed Mainly of Branching and Small Massive Type Coral Fragments (70-100%. . . ' corai SKELETAL (CORAL) SAND [GRAINSTONE]: Very PoorlySorted. nonrecrystallized and non-cemented) coral-rubblekand portions of the vertical sequence (down to about 16. Composed of a Variety of Branching and Massive Type Coral Fragments Ranging up to 10 cm Across. common red algal Fragments (10-20% of Framework). with Common Red.. . Non-Lithified with Greater than 40% lntergrain Porosity and Very Minor Carbonate Mud Matrix. SKELETAL(CORAUALGAU SANDIGRAINSTONE]: Moderately-Sorted. A summary of the quantitative (n~odalanalysis) petrographic data from selected samples is provided by theTTunk on the right.14%). Non-Organized. Fragments Extensively Bored. . Non-Lithified. CORAL RUBBLE [RUDSTONE]: Poorly-Sorted. CORE GRAIN SIZE DEPTH DESCRIPTION FRAMEWORK GRAINS (C. Non-Organized and Mostly Non-Lithified (Although Ughtly Coherent in Air-Dried G State). Very Minor Glauconite. Partly Recrystallized Carbonate Mud Matrix and Microcrystalline Calcite Cement (10-40%.. which Range from Sand size to as much as 8 cm across. Composed Mainly of Branching and Massive Type Coral Fragments (65% of Framework). RECRYSTALLIZED AND CEMENTED CORAL RUBBLE [ STONE]: Very Poorly-Sorted. Core recovery was poor throughout much of the non-consolidated (i. 12-18% Intergrain and lntraskeletal Carbonate Mud Matrix and Minor Aragonitic Rim Cement Associated with Coral Fragments. '. Lithologic description of core material from Borehole-2 (BH-2) on Pulau Pabelokan. G $parry . Q::ch& Mld FIGURE 4... . . SandylMuddy Rubble Irregular Coral Fragments up to Greater Than 5 cm Across. Trace of Glauconite. Skeletal Fragments Commonly Highly Recrystallizedand lnfilled with Intraskeletal. Composed Mainly of Coral Fragments (7045% of Framework) with Common Red Algal Fragments (5-15%) and Jidimda (510%). 3 0 4 5 % lntergrain Porosity. Angular t o Rounded. . %I 5P 1 SEDIMENT/ROCK FABRIC (Cum. Note That Precise Vertical Distribution is Unknown. SANDYIMUDDY. . .um. Mostly Non-Lithified but Lightly Coherent in Air-Dried State.. .t o Medium-Grained. with Only 50-60 cm-Core Recovery of Sand Between Coral Rubble Below and Above. 20:30% Intergrain and lntraskeletal Porosity. mon Red Algal Fragments (12-18%) andTraces of Glauconite. fncfudes Both Intergrain and lntraskeletal). -. Very Fine.e.to Very CoarseGrained. 'Pebbly".

quartz silt and glauconite (see PIS 2C-E).10-31.10-28. Abundant. 2. 31. medium. D. The core appears to have been deformed during coring. Such core material appears to represent the probable Pleistocene sequence underlying the "modern" Pulau Putri Barat coral-reef. 2F-H).4-0. The moderately sorted. 28.0-0.to coarse-grained carbonate sand (above) with muddy.5 m: Core fragments of moderately-cemented carbonate sand composed of mediumto coarse-grained.5 m: Moderately-sorted. H.25 m: Probable contact of moderately-sorted. C.25 m: Femginous (iron oxide-stained).30-2.2 m. Fragments illustrated here are not in original depositional position. This lithology may represent a relatively recent beach rock or lithified reef flat deposit.50-28. as well as probable abundant temgenous clay mixed with carbonate mud (see Pls. Selected core photographs from Pulau F'utri Barat (Besar).PLATE 1. 0. mostly branching-type coral fragments are shown surrounded by slightly-silty and argillaceous carbonate mud.1 m: Uppermost portion of core composed of brownish. .35 m: Typical highly-bored fragments of branching and small massive corals representative of much of the upper 10-15 meters of the core. All photos are of the same scale as that shown by the scale bar in D. very-poorly-sorted. Lower lithology also displays significant levels of glauconite. Also common within this lithologic unit are sponge spicules.65 m: Very poorly-sorted. B.00-32. Skeletal fragments such as coral and molluscs also are non-recrystallized. 28. 0.15 m: Ferruginous (iron oxide-stained). except for minor aragonitic rim cement. Sand contains a moderate amount of carbonate mud matrix but is non-cemented. quartz silt and sponge spicules. slightly calcareous and silty mudstone from the probable Pleistocene sequence that underlies the "modern" coral-reef buildup of Pulau Putri Barat. Skeletal fragments have been highly recrystallized. medium. The porous coral fragments at this level have not yet undergone recrystallization and cementation. Such core material also is representative of the poor recovery throughout most of the upper 25 meters from which most of the sandy and muddy matrix has been washed away. E.0 to 32. F. coral-rich sand contains abundant brownish plant matter. A.to very coarse-grained. 26. Also note the minor amount of lignitic plant material in the lower part of the photo. 32. coral-rich carbonate sand. peaty carbonate sand. sample depths 0. silty mudstone with abundant highlyrecrystallized coral fragments and calcareous rock fragments ( s k for example PIS. 2A).3-26. Borehole-1. coral-rich carbonate sand cemented with microcrystalline carbonate mud (see P1. 2C-E). coral-bearing wackestone/mudstone from lower portion of "modem" coral-reef buildup. Coral and molluscan fragments are non-recrystallized and non-cemented. coral fragments remain non-recrystallized. G. skeletal wackestone/mudstone (below).

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3 1. Note the typical high-birefringent nature of the terrigenous clay material and the abundant silt/very fine sand-size quartz grains. plane-polarized light view of highly-recrystallized coral material. F. 9D-F). ferruginous (iron oxidebearing) mudstone typical of the probable Pleistocene unit that underlies the "modern" Pulau Putri Besar coral-reef buildup. 31. plane-polarized light view of very-silty. . which is indicative of terrigenous clay.3 m: Low-magnification. elongate sponge spicules. Such recrystallization and cementation of coral material is not common in such shallow-depth zones. Macroporosity of this sample. Also note the echinoid spine at the upper left. poikilotopic calcite-crystal fabric is indicated by the various shades of crystal extinction. C.2 m: High-magnification. cross-polarized light view of silty and highly-argillaceous matrix. E.40 m: Low-magnification. Borehole-1. microcrystalline carbonate matrix/cement. cross-polarized light view of coral fragment which has been extensively recrystallized. 28. Note the high-birefringent nature of the matrix.30 m.O m: High-magnification. Such microcrystalline carbonate material probably formed as a cementing material during beachrock formation (see also Pls.6 m: High-magnification. this fragment probably was reworked from older. cemented and recrystallized portion of the exposed reef flat. Porosity illustrated here (blue epoxy) is due mainly to sample drying and handling. sample depths 0. mudstone. D. The coarse. greenish-brown glauconite "pellets" and quartz silt grains. Also note the common small benthonic foraminifera.PLATE 2. relatively non-altered coral fragments and the abundant brownish. including one (central left) filled with pyrite. measured in thinsection is about 25%. Note the abundant. B. but all intraskeletal porosity has been occluded during recrystallization. Note the lack of skeletal microstructure and light-colored sparry calcite filling intracoral areas.40 m: Low-magnification. 1. 29 . The irregular pattern of cracks resulted from drying of the core material. Notable features of this unit are the abundant. 25. 0. cross-polarized light view of very-silty. which contains )moderate amounts of quartz silt and sponge spicules. plane-polarized light view of matrix-rich skeletal wackestonetype lithology. Note the non-recrystallized and non-cemented coral fragments and the abundant matrix.35 m: Very low-magnification. Thin section photomicrographs from Pulau Putri Barat (Besar). 31.40-31. H. A. A remnant corallite skeletal fabric is visible. matrixrich skeletal' wackestone-type lithology from the lower part of the "modern" coral-reef buildup. G .2 m: Low-magnification. cross-polarized light view of probable beachrOck sample from upper part of core. plane-polarized light view of very poorly-sorted.

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sample depths0 to 10. but some fragments display intraskeletal carbonate mud "matrix" and aragonitic rim cement (e. due probably to bioturbation and disruption during coring. Smaller branching and massive type corals. 4.1-4. highly bored fragments of branching and small massive corals within the coral rubble portion of the core (3. very fine. 10. Fragments are not in original position and any matrix material that was present in the sample has been washed out during the coring process.5 m has been cemented with microcrystallinecarbonate "mud" matrix (see Plate 4C). The non-organized (i. .All coral fragments have been extensively bored. Selected core photographs from Pulau Pabelokan. see Plate 4D).12 m: Uppermost portion of core illustrating mangrove roots in unconsolidated. however.52 m: Portion of core from upper.1-4.00-1.55 m. The porous. )The large. are not in original depositional position.6-11. well-sorted carbonate sand with large coral fragment (left center) and lithified "clast" (bottom) with brownish mangrove fragments. 0. in part. The lithified sediment at 2.44-10.0 m). coral and algal sand (Pi.53-3. non-stratified) nature of the sediment is due. shown in the lower portion of the photo. C. The medium. 1. e. The porous coral fragments have.PLATE 3.6 m). B.43-2.6 m. The non-consolidated.. D. to disruption by coring and handling.11 m: Portion of core from upper. some fragments do display intraskeletal carbonate mud matrix and aragonitic rim cement (see Plate 4D). well-sorted carbonate sand illustrating "contact" of upper tar-stained (surface contamination) sand. wellsorted carbonate sand. massive-type coral fragment in the upper portion of the photo appears to have been cored in growth position.to coarse-grained. coral-rich sand is mounted in epoxy resin.17 m: Typical.07-4. 2). E.55 m: Portion of core typical of the poorly-sorted. 2. Fig.to medium-grained carbonate sand in the lower portion of the core (4. coral-rich sand in the lower part of the photo. aragonitic coral fragments have not yet undergone extensive recrystallization. Borehole-1.64 m: Large coral fragments from the coral rubble portion of the core (3. angular. A.. 4F) appears non-stratified. F.not yet undergone extensive recrystallization.0-0. Note the well-sorted nature of the rounded to well-rounded. 3.g. .

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9. Skeletal fragments illustrated here include coral. 3. 2.to coarsegrained carbonate sand impregnated with blue-dyed epoxy. plane-polarized light view of microcrystalline carbonate mud/cement in the lithified sediment sample shown in Plate 3C. Also note the relatively common lump-like fragments of carbonate mud which probably have been derived from the extensive fragmentation and abrasion of coral fragments containing intraskeletal carbonate mud. except for extensive microborings throughout. small benthonic foraminifera and reworked "lump" of carbonate mud. commonly with extensive microborings. small benthonic foraminifera. C.1 m: Low-magnification. Note the extensive microborings (irregular hairline features) within the coral fragments. sample depths 2. plane-polarized light view of porous coral fragment with intraskeletal carbonate mud matrix and intraskeletal. The brownish halo around the grains is a tar residue within the contaminated sediments of the upper few meters of the core. and echinoid fragments shown here. plane-polarized light view of rounded skeletal grains in a wellsorted carbonate sand. The repacked and impregnated sediment illustrated here displays an intergrain porosity of 35-40%. cross-polarized light view of well-sorted. medium. Thin section photomicrographs from Pulau Pabelokan.4 m: Very high-magnification. Porosity (blue-dyed epoxy) is a result mainly of incomplete cementation. Intergrain porosity (blue) within such impregnated. Note the well-rounded nature of most skeletal fragments. and mollusc. Borehole-1. including the coral. 3.4 m: High-magnification. B. very fine. rotalid. mollusc.PLATE 4. bivalve mollusc. Note also the intraskeletal macroporosity of the corallite areas (blue). The coral skeletal microstructure appears relatively unaltered. The intergrain microcrystalline carbonate is due either to minor recrystallization of carbonate mud matrix or(and) precipitation ' of microcrystalline carbonate cement.5 m: High-magnification. aragonitic rim cement. Halimedq.1 to 9. cross-polarized light view of aragonitic rim cement within a coral fragment (see photo D). but may be partly due to leaching of skeletal grains(?). . and the larger borings around the bivalve fragment. 2.0 m. A. Identifiable fragments include coral. echinoderm. D. E. unconsolidated sand ranges commonly from 30% to 40%.1 m: High-magnification.0 m: High-magnification view of poorly-sorted.to medium-grained carbonate sand. F. 2.

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Total porosity of sediments within this zone (16. . 10. Coral fragments are porous and unaltered. The unconsolidated sediment has been partly impregnated with epoxy to preserve the poorly-organized fabric. but probably has been highly disturbed by coring. relatively unorganized mix of carbonate sand.. Borehole-2. 18.71 m: Very poorly-sorted mix of skeletal (coral/algal) sand and large branching and massive type coral fragments.3 m.22-10. B.88 m: Coral rubble deposit of highly-recrystallized and cemented skeletal fragments composed mainly of coral and coralline (red) algal fragments.3-20. 4. F. The lack of definition of skeletal structure is due to extensive recrystallization.78 m: Sandy/muddy skeletal (coral) rubble composed of gravel-size fragments of branching corals and "matrix" of carbonate sand composed mainly of coral and coralline red algal fragments. within the phreatic zone. E.35 m: Very poorly-sorted. Such a non-stratified fabric may be due to burrowing.64-7. Total porosity (intergrain plus intraskeletal) ranges up to 30 % . 7. Rock fabric has been relatively undisturbed by coring and appears representative of typical coral reef rubble accumulation. Carbonate mud matrix (mainly intraskeletal) is common. sample depths 4. 5. which occurs at a depth of about 16.29-13.PLATE 5. Selected core photographs from Pulau Pabelokan.73-18. C. Such alteration appears related to its position below the fresh-water table. Overall the sediment displays 30-45 % intergrain and intraskeletal porosity. very fine: to medium-grained skeletal (coral/algal) carbonate sand displaying a massive-appearing fabric. 13. This non-lithified sand displays intergrain porosity of up to 40%.sandy/muddy coral rubble deposit with abundant branching coral fragments. Aragonitic rim cement is present within some coral fragments.19-5.37 m: Moderately-sorted. A.56 to 18.56-4. D. This relatively undisturbed core segments displays typical unorganized fabric of coral reef rubble. mud and gravel-size coral fragments. Total porosity (intergrain plus intraskeletal) of this non-cemented deposit ranges up to 30 % .43 m: Poorly-organized. Total porosity (intergrain plus intraskeletal) of such unconsolidated sediment ranges up to greater than 40%.5 m core depth) has been significantly reduced mainly by sparry calcite cementation.88 m.

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6 m: High-magnification.3 m: High-magnification. 13. porous coral-rich sediment (reef rubble). H. 8. 7. plane-polarized view of. plane-polarized light view of coral fragment partly infilled with dark brown-appearing carbonate mud matrix. .4 m: Low-magnification. 8.PLATE 6. Borehole-2. The angular silt-size carbonate fill within the borings is grazing debris produced by parrot fish. i D. Total porosity of such non-cemented carbonate sediment ranges up to greater than 40%. plane-polarized light view of skeletal sand with a carbonate "mud" matrix. 12. plane-polarized light view of poorly-sorted. Note also Halimeda and benthonic foraminifer. The mostly coral debris is still remarkably unaltered.6 to 12. white areas are isolated corallites not filled with blue-dyed epoxy. Total porosity (intergrain and intraskeletal) of such uncemented sediment samples ranges up to greater than 40%.5 m: Very-low magnification. 6. porous coral fragments.8 m: Very low-magnification.5 m: High-magnification. Total porosfty (mostly intraskeletal) of such sediments ranges up to greater than 40%. E. Some coral fragments have been partly infilled with carbonate mud. F.8 m. plane-polarized light view of bored coral fragment.0 m: Very-low magnification. Thin section photomicrographs from Pulau Pabelokan. plane-polarized light view of coral fragment illustrating blocky carbonate cement lining and partly filling corallite void. Blue represents intraskeletal porosity. A. Such cement is anomalous within this portion of the core sequence. . The remainder of the matrix is carbonate "mud" which is vaguely pelleted.to very coarse-grained carbonate sediment composed mainly of angular coral fragments. medium. Relict porosity is highlighted by the blue-dyed epoxy. which is partly infilled with carbonate mud in upper left. Note the extensive intraskeletal porosity of the coral fragment in the upper half of the view. and coralline (red) algal fragments. B. Halimeda and coralline (red) algae. some of which have been partly filled with carbonate mud. G. The obvious pelleted character could reflect a fecal origin but fuzzy boundaries suggest that these are cements with the darker cores representing the nuclei. C. 20. plane-polarized light view of very poorly-sorted carbonate sediment composed mainly of large.5 m: High-magnification. but most are unaltered. plane-polarized light view of carbonate sediment illustrating relatively large fragments of coral. 1. Moderate amounts of brownish-appearing carbonate mud matrix also are present within the coral fragment (upper left) and between large coral fragments (across central lower portion). sample depths 1.

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I C. Thin section photographs from Pulau Pabelokan. The coral fragment shown at lower right has been recrystallized and mostly infilled with sparry calcite cement. The very light crystalline material is sparry calcite which has partly infilled corallite voids. 18. Benthonic and probable encrusting foraminifera are shown at center left edge. Original corallite porosity is shown here to be almost completely filled with recrystallized carbonate mud (dark brown. are shown to be partly to completely infilled with sparry calcite cement. Partial moldic/vuggy porosity is filled with blue-dyed epoxy. Secondary mold/vug type pores are illustrated which appear to have resulted from the dissqlution of skeletal material (center and lower left). the original skeletal microstructure is partly preserved (e. which probably is a combination of carbonate mud matrix and microcrystalline cement. Borehole-2. m) and coarse-crystalline spany calcite.8 m: High-magnification. The most obvious skeletal fragments displayed are corals. They have been partly filled with sparry calcite cement. Remnant intraskeletal porosity is filled with blue-dyed epoxy. 16. Moderate amounts of dark brown-appearing carbonate mud also is visible and probably is due to early partial corallite fill with carbonate mud. D. Halimeda and foraminifers. B. The sediment appears to have been lithified mainly by microcrystalline carbonate (dark brown) which probably resulted from recrystallization of carbonate mud or/and precipitation of microcrystalline cement. Also note-that the surrounding microcrystalline carbonate "matrix" has been moderately recqstallized to microspar. 16. probably resulting from the dissolution of skeletal material. plane-polarized light view of lithified skeletal carbonate.. i . E. Microstructure of such recrystallized skeletal material is less distinct than that in unaltered coral skeletal material (see Plates 4 and 6). with resultant molds filled with sparry calcite cement. F.3 m: Very low-magnification. 16. The dark brown-appearing material in the left of the view is moderately recrystallized carbonate mud. plane-polarized light view of coral fragment that has been moderately recrystallized and partly infilled with sparry calcite cement. cross-polarized light view of central portion of view illustrated in photo A. snake-like feature at shown at right is a coralline (red) algal branch. plane-polarized light view of lithified coral rudite. Numerous skeletal grains have been dissolved with resultant molds filled with light-colored sparry calcite. fragments at center. - A. 18.g. Mold/Vug pores (blue).3 m: High-magnification. Note the recrystallized coral skeletal material at lower left and upper right. 16.3 to 18. The dark. The recrystallized skeletal material displays both remnant microstructure and calcite crystal fabric with large calcite crystals in optical continuity.5 m: Low-magnification. Note that the microstructure of the coral skeleton is less distinct than in unaltered coral fragments (see Plates 4 and 6).'some of which may have been original matrix.8 m: Low-magnification.PLATE 7. Such "matrix" may have been a result of recrystallization of original carbonate mud matrix or/and the development of microcrystalline carbonate cement. Note the moderately recrystallized carbonate mud (dark brown).8 m. cross-polarized light view of lithified carbonate sediment in which most skeletal grains have been dissolved. In some cases. cross-polarized light view of upper left portion of view shown in photo C.5 m: Very low-magnification. lower right and central upper portion). sample depths 16.

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PLATE 8. Depths 3. C. but under cathodo luminescence. Two orange bands are clearly evident but no corresponding features are seen in plane light. .25 m: High-magnification cathodo luminescent view of the central portion of A (box).5 m: High-magnification. showing more complex history of cementation with well defined dogtooth outlines growing on earlier non-luminescent carbonate .5 m: Same view as in C.25 to 32. plane-polarized light view of another area of sparry calcite cement.5 m: High-magnification. "mud" cement. 32. E. Thin section photomicrographs from Pulau Putri Barat (Bear) borehole (BH-1) showing phreatic spar cement stratigraphy.5 m. This cement character probably is analogous to the poikilotopic calcite crystal habit displayed in Plate 2H. 32.rim cement is also visible while the host coral is unaltered. F.25 m: Low-magnification. B. 3. 32. plane-polarized light view of spar calcite cement within coral calyx. plane-polarized light view of center of coral calyx showing well developed second generation equant spar calcite cement. 3. The exterior of the crystal shows no conformance to the internal crystal faces and the present boundaries are imposed by mutual interference from adjacent crystals.5 m: Same view as in E. An ear& . D. but under cathodo luminescence. A. 32. At least eight pale to bright orange bands are visible. showing a complex carbonate cement growth history.

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Lithified Reef Flat -.PLATE 9. Very low-magnification. F. . probably due to incomplete' cementation. a late-stage. High-magnification. Remnant porosity is shown by bluish-black areas. plane-polarized light view of coral-rich carbonate beachrock which has been cemented by microcrystalline carbonate and rim cement. bivalve and gastropod fragments. Thin Section Photomicrographs of Lithified Reef Flat and Beachrock from Pulau Gentang Besar. A thin rim of aragonitic(?) cement is shown lining most of the irregular pores. rather than as recrystallization of preexisting "elastic" carbonate mud. Finally. C. Beachrock -. Skeletal fragments shown include coral and gastropod fragments.Photos A-C. rather than by recrystallization of carbonate mud "matrix". cross-polarized light view illustrating the extensive microcrystalline carbonate cement. is shown by the blue epoxy-filled pores. cross-polarized light view of carbonate beachrock cemented with microcrystalline carbonate and rim cement. The dark brown-appearing. Very high-magnification. microcrystalline carbonate appears to have formed as a cement. Skeletal fragments displayed here include coral. D. Very high-magnification view of microcrystalline carbonate cement and rim cement probably composed of radial aragonite crystals which partially fill an irregular pore (bluish black). High-magnification. aragonitic(?) rim cement is shown partly filling several irregular pores (central lower and upper left portions of photo). Remnant irregular pores are bluish black. Probable recrystallized coral fragments are shown at center and lower right.Photos D-F. plane-polarized light view of carbonate sediment which has been cemented mainly by intergranular microcrystalline carbonate (dark brown-appearing). A. A portion of a partly recrystallized mollusc fragment is shown along the lower edge of the view. Remnant porosity. B. E. Low-magnification. Most of the skeletal fragments displayed in this view are coral fragments. The crystalline nature of the microcrystalline carbonate suggests that it may be forming as a cement. cross-polarized light view of the microcrystalline carbonate cement that is so abundant in this lithified reef flat sample.

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E. Low-magnification. The bladed cements display a slightly duller luminescence. F.also radial stubby high-Mg calcite cement. which probably indicates a high-Mg calcite composition. plane-polarized light view of moderately coarse layer in beachrock showing well-developed meniscus cement. Selected photomicrographs of beachrock from Pulau Putri Barat (Besar) showing cementation. Note . plane-polarized light view of heavily bored coral in which borings have been filled with micrite. . Low-magnification. Very low-magnification. Meniscus cements have a moderately bright orange-red luminescence suggesting it is probably composed of high-Mg calcite. B. but under cathodoluminescence showing micrite with strong orange-red luminescence. Same view as E.PLATE 10. D. top center. Low-magnification. but under cathodoluminescence. Same view as C. coral and mollusc). that is possibly a relict of earlier marine cementation. C. The coral fragment (center) and other skeletal debris are all non-luminescent. plane-polarized light view of coarser layer showing micrite geopetal fill of serpulid tube encased by encrusting red algae. A. . plane-polarized light view showing meniscus micrite cement lightly binding framework skeletal grains (red algae.