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1.

Introduction
There are four research questions for this mini project that need to be
investigated in order for it to yield an in-depth analysis towards the
teachings and how they would relate to the acquisition of the second
language. The first question is about the proportion of teacher talk to
students talk while the second question is about the proportion of
display question and referential question. The third one is about the
“wait time” for answering questions and the last one would answer the
question of the increase or decrease in the learning potential for the
students.
For the first question which is about the teacher talk and student talk,
there are several studies identified related to it. One of it is by (ZareBehtash & Azarnia, 2015) Zare-Behtash and Azarnia in the year 2015
on a study titled, A Case Study of Teacher Talk Time and Student Talk
Time in an Iranian Language School. In this study, the researchers are
bidding to increase the attention of teachers towards their classroom
exchanges and also towards how much the teachers need to speak in
the classroom by reviewing the amount of teacher talk time and
student talk time in the classrooms. For this study, the participants are
chosen from Isfahan’s Kavosh Language School in Isfahan City, Iran.
The lessons recorded for the purpose of the analysis are from the
classes taught by four of the selected teachers over the duration of five
weeks. The data is then quantified and broken into two parts; the
teacher talk time move and the student talk time moves. Based on the
data analysis provided by the research, it is clear that teacher talk time
dominated the classroom by the average of 75% of the whole class,
followed by students talk time at 19% and lastly by the time spent by
students on various activities in the classroom by 6%. This study shows
that teacher talk is very dominant in the classroom and teachers
should be aware of this so that their content of the lessons and also the
classroom objectives are not obstructed in any way.

The second article for the research question is a titled ‘An Investigation and Analysis of Teacher Talk in College English Class’ by Min Liu and Lei Zhu in the year 2012. Based on the analysis of the videotape transcription and also the results of the survey. A questionnaire is also distributed among the students with the help of their teachers. The study is conducted to investigate the classroom interaction of which four English teachers’ lessons are videotaped and transcribed for further analysis. teacher talk time. it can be concluded that the teacher talk controlled the majority of the classes while student talk is lacking in every classes. The next article for the research question is by Mohammad Zohrabi. questioning pattern and also the feedback pattern. This problem is also contributed towards the number of students in a classroom where lesser number of students in a classroom make it easier for teachers to control the classroom. This research paper is included in this mini project due to the fact that two of its research questions coincide with the research questions proposed in the mini project. Min Liu and Lei Zhu described this as a prevalence of one-way communication in a classroom of which the teachers themselves considered themselves to be the sole contributor towards interaction in the classroom. The results of the questionnaire also show that the most of the students who answered the questionnaire come to an agreement that their teachers spend more than 20 minutes talking in the classroom. the same study by Min Liu and Lei Zhu revealed that more display questions are asked by the teachers rather than the referential questions in all of the classes involved in the study. Massoud Yaghoubi-Notash and Sanaz Yousefzadeh Khiabani with the title Teachers’ Use of Display vs. This study is intended to research on the teacher talk pattern of which the researchers would study and analyse three phenomenon of teacher talk which include. As for the second research question for the mini project which is the ratio of display questions to referential questions that the teachers employed in a classroom. Referential Questions across Different .

The results show that those who use the strategies of turn-taking and wait-time are more beneficial in the assessment of the conversation rather than those who do not use the . the participants include a teacher and 46 students where the students are made up from three classes of different proficiency. The next research question is on the wait time in a classroom. The result shows that the uses of display questions are higher in the elementary classes but significantly lower in the advanced classes. the focus for this journal is investigating how wait-time and turn-taking strategies develop and affect learners’ skills in communication. The data is collected by means of observing the teacher and recording the audio from each classes plus the use of observation checklist for the occurrences of selected phenomena. For the referential questions. the teacher prefers to use them more in the advanced classes as compared to the intermediate and elementary classes. In this study. The participants for this study are 60 English students from Dezful. Both the teacher’s questions and the students’ responses are transcribed and quantified to be analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Iran of which all of them are male and are divided into two groups. the control group and the experimental group. The teacher prefers to ask more display questions to the beginners but lessen the usage of such questions as the levels of proficiency increases. The experimental group has been given the turntaking and wait-time strategies to be applied in their classroom interaction while the control group is using the traditional way of communication in the classroom. The study also found that the balances between the two types of questions are needed to boost the students’ learning potential. intermediate and advanced level. Based on the title. This article’s focus is on the effect of both type of questions in different levels of proficiency which include the beginner. The first article for this research question is a journal article by Parviz Habibi and Bahman Gorjian in the year 2015 titled ‘The Potential Impact of TurnTaking and Wait Time on Iranian Foreign Language Classroom Interaction Enhancement’.Proficiency Levels.

strategies. Teacher B.86% . The recorded lesson is 40 minutes which is equivalent to the school’s allocated one period class. The lesson requires the students to pronounce targeted words properly and express their opinions fluently. Analysis Total Talk Time Teacher Talk Time Students Time Display Questions Talk Teacher A 288 Teacher B 138 143 91 145 47 6/13 13/14 = 92. the strategies employed in the classroom are able to expressively influence learners’ developing conversation skills thus increasing the values of such approaches. 3. Based on the study. Teacher A’s class consist of 24 standard 5 pupils of SK Dato’ Kayaman. The lesson serves as an introductory lesson of verbs and the objectives of the lessons require the students to list down at least 5 verbs and underline or identify at least 10 verbs in an essay. studying in SMK Permatang Bonglai. The recorded lesson is 59:55minutes. The teacher who teaches the primary school students will be referred to as Teacher A while the latter. 2. Teacher B’s class consist of 25 Form 1 students. The teacher recorded the audio using an audio recording app of his cell phone. Data Collection Procedures The teachers who are involved in this project are two teachers that teach primary school students and secondary school students respectively. The objective of the lesson is to improve students’ pronunciation and fluency. The researcher sets up the camera at the back of the class and record the whole activity during the lesson. The recording was done using a camera and a tripod. Teacher A has recorded the audio of his class while Teacher B recorded a video of her class.

Second. However. this section prefers to discuss the indication of the lesson conducted by the teacher. Teachers should avoid excessive talk time and it must be limited so that it will not take up the majority of the talk time (Tsegaye & Davidson. Teacher A teaches vocabularies to his primary school students. Primary students may require more instructions and clarifications when compared to the secondary school students. Hence.1 Total Talk Time As seen in table 1. 2014). teachers should try to reduce the time of their talk. Thirdly. the teaching model. Even though the duration of the two lessons are the same.2 Teacher & Students Talk Time Ratio The discussion about teachers’ and students’ participation in class is an inevitable subject. the content of the lesson. Teacher A deals with primary students while Teacher B teaches in a secondary school. The teacher did walk around and facilitate each group personally and the interaction was not able to be recorded. Teacher B deploys Co-operative Learning in her teaching and it has resulted in groups’ work and discussion which has led to a significant loss of TTT count to the whole class. Other than factors affecting TTT as discussed above. Teacher A’s TTT is 288 while Teacher B’s TTT is 138. the final analysis will be tied back to the observation made by the researchers. First.Referential Questions Average Wait Time 7/13 1/14 = 7. students need ample chances practice speaking the target language. 3. This may due to several factors. there is a vast difference between the total talk time (TTT) between the two teachers.14% 2-3 seconds 2-3 seconds Table 1 3. In an ESL classroom environment especially. the input is varied because of classroom control. . the school type. This factor alone has increased the TTT significantly as students are required to practice the newly learned vocabularies and the simulation of the games also contributed to the huge amount of the TTT. His class requires drilling and he uses several games to incorporate the targeted vocabularies.

Contrary to the referenced article. in this mini project however. Teacher B’s Students Talk Time is aligned with Cook’s suggestion which says students talk time should be at least 30% of the total talk time. 3. 2009) Teacher A asked more referential questions compared to Teacher B. Meanwhile Teacher A’s class has almost the same proportion of talk time.4 Referential Questions The use of referential questions over display questions is likely to stimulate a greater quantity of classroom interaction. Hence. This is due to the fact that the teacher applies Co-operative Learning in the class. the class taught by Teacher B (secondary school). his main objective of the lesson is to improve students’ pronunciation and fluency. the students were given ample opportunities to practice their pronunciation through drilling and game playing.3 Display Questions The uses of display questions are normally higher in the elementary classes but significantly lower in the advanced classes.Teacher A’s ratio is 143:145 while Teacher B’s ratio is 91:47. This indicates that the lesson allows the students to practice speaking in the class. Teacher A aimed to . 3. 2013). Teacher B’s class however requires the students to list at least 5 verbs they know and also identify at least 10 verbs from a given essay. shows a higher number of displays questions compared to Teacher A (who teaches in primary school). Furthermore. For Teacher A’s class. Therefore the class is focused on pronunciation and the students were not required to display any known knowledge other than their pronunciation. Teachers also prefer to ask more display questions to the beginners but lessen the usage of such questions as the levels of proficiency increases (Zohrabi. the turn of the conversation should not be the fixed pattern: teacher asks student answers teacher responds. Teacher B had asked more display questions compared to Teacher A because she needs to constantly check her students’ understanding in the targeted grammar lesson. This make a lot of sense in the context of their main objective of their lesson. This may indicate that the students practice speaking a lot. (Xuelian. Yaghoubi-Notash. and in Teacher B’s class. & Khiabani.

5 Average Wait Time Teachers who take the time to wait for students’ answers will be more likely to influence a learner’s conversations skill positively. what did you have for recess? Did you go for 6 recess just now? T: Did you go for recess just 7 now? T: Did you go for recess just now? She added the gesture of eating. (Zare-Behtash & Azarnia. 3. she cupped her hand and gestured the hand into her mouth to simulate . maybe lack in patience in term of waiting for the answers from the students.improve the students’ fluency whereas Teacher B focused more on written grammar aspect. Both teacher A’s and B’s wait time is really minimal and thus may have discouraged the students to participate more in the class. 2015) A good teacher should use turn taking and wait time strategies to allow students to express themselves.6 Evidence of Construction Teacher B’s class Extract 1 5 T: Alright. Teacher A and B are both in their mid-twenties. Such approaches will enhance students learning ability and allow them to have a better experience in an ESL classroom. Teacher B had only asked 1 referential question throughout her entire lesson and this may indicate that the teacher is too focused on the written grammar aspect that she had totally forgotten to allow students to practice their spoken language freely in the context of the classroom interaction. 3. It is vital for the students to be able to express themselves in the L2 because they live in a rural area whereby the classroom is their only chance and space to practice speaking English. hence.

okay. you can learn. eat. the students kept quiet when the teacher asked them whether they had recess. However. you can list 5 verbs. underline or identify five verbs. right? So. the students still face problem in communicating with the teacher. As seen in turn 6. T: Where did you have your 10 recess just now? T: Where did you eat? She showed the gesture for eating. 11 12 LL: Canteen! T: At the canteen. after you go back. 15 T: By the end of this class. The teacher then deploys negotiation of meaning by paraphrasing and use shorter question. In Malaysian classroom context. 8 9 LL: Yes. (Cook. did the students manage to respond and this opens a room for further interactions for the teacher and the students. It is also an action. . Only after the gesture. What is that? What is “eat”? 13 14 LL: Makan. Negotiation of Meaning Due to the nature of the class. Translation however is the component of style that has had the least effect on traditional EFL teaching. yes. She took out a marker pen and started to write on the whiteboard. which is a beginner L2 proficiency class. The teacher uses hand gestures to suggest eating as their recess. after i finished with the class. T: Makan. many students expect their English teacher to translate the meaning due to the fact that the teacher and students are Malays and therefore share the same L1. Eat is makan. the teacher speaks slower and uses non-authentic input in the classroom.the act of eating. 2008).

said. i will give you some pictures with words. right now we know the verbs. T: sneeze! very good! L: sitting. “what is verb?” as she answered. T: yes? L: sneeze.7 Evidence of Obstruction Teacher A’s Class . all the verbs. Checking for Confirmation When the teacher asks a question to the whole class. She makes sure everybody else in the class understand the input by requiring answers from various students. reading. 3. are you in your groups right now? alright. do it in your groups. she showed the gesture of eating. L : running! T: running. LL: / fishing! / reading! / T: fishing. eat! what else? can anyone tell me what else? 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 L: play. very good. T: sitting. can you do it? right. she requires multiple answers from various students. Teachers who are perceptive and keen to check for confirmation and who do not always accept the first contribution a student offers are more likely to maximize learning potential than those who do not (Walsh. what else? L: sneeze. 2002). L: swimming! T: swimming. T: play? very good. enough. alright. i want you to identify or find the verbs. very good.Extract 2 16 T: Just then your friend.

((2)) 142 L: Nametag T: I like people who wears nametag? What colour is the nametag? 143 Like yours? Or like his? ((4)) or like that? (Inaudible) so just say. teacher interruption happened when a teacher interrupted the students while they are still mentally preparing their . you say it. wears black. L: I ((2)) like. did you say everything? 141 Who. L: I like.. L: =people… white tudung. L: I like people wears… T: =who wears L: =who wears ((4)) (inaudible) T: Okay. who has eyeballs ((2)) a tie. I like people who wears nametag.Extract 1 140 L: I like people who ((5)) … T: who? ((3)) okay. Extract 2 169 170 T: =who? 171 Extract 3 185 186 T: =I like 187 188 T:=people 189 Extract 4 L: I like people … L: who wears ((2)) red ((2)) tudung. 2002... Teacher Interruption: According to Walsh. L: I like ((2)) people who ((2)) wears tie.

they are asked questions thus flooding their head with possible distractions that could be deterring their thinking processes. the students understand that in the future. It is the same case as in example 3 and 4 where the teacher completes the students’ sentences rather than giving them a chance to do it so. Although this can be said that the teacher wanted to help the students. According to Walsh in the year 2002. In all of the extracts above. For example.sentences. For the second example. the teacher only manages to confuse the students due to the fact that when they are making sentences. c) becoming creative with their language. a) producing a complete sentence with possibly a more complex language. before the student even finished what they wanted to speak. asking questions for the students when the students are trying to form the sentences. b) expressing their opinion. This will resulted in a generation of learners that are overly dependent towards their teacher. 4. in turn 169. spoon-feeding them all the information without them having to search for it. using less teacher echo and a good use of silence. learning potential would have been increased as opposed to what the teacher did. These will definitely not going to be helpful in the long run because of the fact that by doing so. their teacher is always going to be helping them. the teacher actually interrupted the students’ thinking processes and thus probably deter them from being able to complete their sentences. in turn number 140. By doing this. resulting in various problems towards the students’ language acquisition. the teacher interrupted many students midsentence and before they even got a chance to finish their sentences thus preventing them from. the teacher interjected again with the students. This reduces the chance of them being able to complete their sentences. by reducing interruption. Self-Reflection 4. but in doing so. the teacher cut in their sentence production and gives more information about what the teacher thinks the students wanted to say.1 Teacher A .

This is due to the fact that by analysing the teacher talk time. my talk as the teacher far exceeded what I think should be. I may have ignored the feelings of my students thus reducing their motivation and interest level to learn. but the students should be able to practice their language and at the same time even dare to experiment with their language so that maybe they are able to creatively manipulate the language so that they are able to convey their opinions clearly. It has taken me aback due to the fact that because of my inexperience. My experience in the teaching world could only amount to a very insignificant number. constructed by the analysis. the students are mostly obstructed in their learning of the language and the fact that this could be a major obstacle in their acquisition of the language. I found out that in my classroom. I now confirm that I am indeed lacking in those area. I . I should research more on how to let my future students speak more and able to convey their opinions freely in my classroom so that their control of the language can improved to a better state. I think from this point onwards. But it seems that I have unknowingly talk more so that the classroom would be able to progress with going into total silence as in the lack of response from the students. As a solution for the previous problem. In my opinion. types of questions and also the wait time. is seems that I used more display questions rather than referential questions. I agree that students should be able to freely talk with each other in the targeted language so that they are able to advance more in terms of language acquisition. In the area of teacher talk and student talk. In my lesson for this mini project.Based on the analyses that are done on the research questions. a merely 6 months’ time or 0.5 years. By having more teacher talk in the classroom. Though I believe that the teacher is the prime source of language in the classroom setting. it is clear that I have so many improvements due. Therefore. The second research question deals with the ratio of display question and referential questions. I have still in need of many self-improvements while gathering more skills suited for teacher.

used questions to test the knowledge of the students rather than finding out their opinions. in order for me to avoid this this from deteriorating into unwanted territories. This is very crucial in a classroom due to the fact that the students perhaps do not have a good control of the language thus requiring a longer time to respond to when asked in the targeted language. This can be detrimental towards the learning progress as the students would subconsciously understand that the teacher only care about the lesson and not about themselves. . I should be able to open up their minds and having them to think outside the ordinary concept of classroom learning so that they themselves are able to freely think beyond the classroom into the boundaries of their life. In the future. b) they are bored with the classroom or c) they do not understand anything at all. Wait time is simply the time needed for the students to be able to formulate a correct use of the language. a silent classroom is a sign of either. this could be a misstep in my implementation as a teacher. If I am to teach again. my wait time are simply less or non-existent in nature. This way. In my lesson. When they misunderstand that they are of no use than simply getting good grades in their examination. Based on the studies shown. The last part that I wanted to reflect on is regarding the wait time. their self-esteem and confidence would plummet and the will lose the interest towards learning. This can be seen as a very extremely terrifying aspect of their motivation level decreasing. This will lead them to be distance towards learning the language thus further removing their level of interests towards the language and towards learning in general. This is what I am afraid for thus prompting me to be the one to continue the interaction in the classroom by being the mediator in the interaction myself. Wait time is actually very important as it allows the students to form their language and cannot be treated as a sign of misunderstanding. I admit that I certainly did not want the classroom to be in total silence because in my mind. a) the students are not getting anything from the classroom. their minds can surely of a first class citizen that is surely demanded as a person in the world nowadays.

They always use their L1 and no matter how I force them to use English. The proficiency level of the students I teach ranges from low to intermediate. and a teacher is graded on how well his students answered the exam.I have to bear in my mind that sometimes silence is not a sign of weakness but simply a buffer in order for students to process the language and I should be able to wait a little longer before interrupting students’ language formation. When I began teaching. thus propelling them to a greater heights in their lives. 4. it is a good thing that I have just started in the teaching profession thus giving me more time to improve myself and my teaching skills so that I am able to make a good difference in the hearts of the students. This mini project has made me realize what my mistakes are. A student is graded based on how well he answered the exam. Based on the reflection. I have now realized that there are still many improvements should be done to my teaching strategies. the improvement my students made were just small when compared to the effort I have made. I applied almost all the theories I’ve learnt before I became a teacher. I told myself that the process of learning is far more important than the result the students yield at the end of the year. I have always been struggling in teaching because no matter what I did. they just don’t want to. However.2 Teacher B I am an English teacher with 5 years of teaching experience. I started to focus on the result instead of the process. Then. they cannot communicate with me using English. reality struck me. I taught the students how to gain marks according to what the rubrics needed. After doing this mini project. In the midst of everything. I started focus on the exam paper instead of the students’ communication progress. I can assume that within the criticism I have given myself. even though the students made some progress in term of the exam paper. . I have been teaching in a rural area.

I used to think that it is alright for them to do so as long as they incorporate some English but now I know that I should teach them to use the proper language.According to Cook. but a proper sentence with me correcting them using the right strategies such as recast or other corrective feedback strategies. The students do communicate with me in L2 but the language is almost pidgin or they may answer me in incomplete sentences. Students should be allowed to express themselves in the class in order for them to have a better language learning experience. . not just using ungrammatical language. I tend to use more non-authentic language in the class in order to get the students to understand me. Due to the fact that the classes I am teaching are low proficiency level classes. I am really glad to know that my students talk time in this mini project is about 30% of the total talk time. students talk time should be 30% of the total talk time. However. I know now the importance of limiting my own talk time in order for my students to practice their English more.