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ASIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENT, RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM

Term Paper II

Shampoo Production

Course: ED 78.20 Industrial Waste Abatement and Management

Instructor:

Prof. C. Visvanathan

Prepared by:

Mr. Oukham

Phounpakone

ID.104319

Ms. Lalitcha

Imchuensri

ID.104480

Ms. Jarussaeng

Molen

ID.104509

Mr. Bidur

Dahal

ID.104539

Mr. Artid

Prakitcharoensuk ID.104689

Mr. Pradeep

Munasinghe

ID.104713

Ms. Cao Thi Van Hau

ID.104771

Mr. Seng

ID.104748

Date of submission: 26 April, 2007

Bunrith

Table of Contents
1

2

3.

Introduction

1

1.1

Background

1

1.2

Cosmetic Market in Thailand

1

1.3

Types of Cosmetics

1

1.3.1

Shampoo

1

1.3.2

The Worldwide Market Potential of Shampoo

2

1.3.3

Asia Market

3

1.3.4

Thailand

3

Shampoo production process

3

2.1

Raw materials

3

2.2

Processing

4

Waste Treatment Practices
3.1

Wastewater

6
6

3.1.1

Pretreatment

7

3.1.2

Primary Treatment

7

3.1.3

Secondary Treatment

7

3.1.4

Tertiary Treatment

7

3.2

Air pollution

7

3.3

Solid Waste

8

3.4

Noise Pollution

8

4

Environmental issues related to shampoo production

8

5

Cleaner Production

10

6

Pollution Norms

10

7.

Case study – Unilever Thai Holding Ltd.

11

7.1

Introduction

11

7.2

Shampoo process

11

7.3

Wastewater management

12

7.4

Solid waste management

14

7.4.1

Type of solid waste

14

7.4.2

Waste management

14

7.4.3

Waste collection

14

Appendix A-F

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd 

1

Introduction

1.1

Background

Pa g e | 1 

The word “cosmetics” comes from the Greek word kosmetikos meaning “skilled in
adornment/decoration”. The way people wear makeup and the reasons why they wear it
have changed dramatically over time and through different cultures. It is believed that
cosmetics have been used as early as Egypt circa 4000 BC to fulfill beautifying needs.
According to some sources numerous forms of cosmetics were extracted from the fertile
land of the Nile River. The shepherds and hunters of the Mesolithic Period would often
smear their bodies with locally made cosmetic products.
1.2

Cosmetic Market in Thailand

The cosmetics industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in Thailand. The year 1997 saw
the fastest growth period in the cosmetic industry, with a growth rate of 20 percent.
Although the economic crisis has had a negative impact on consumption levels, results
during 1999-2000 show that the cosmetics industry’s growth rate was at 15 percent.
Thailand’s exports of cosmetic products increased by 72 percent in 2003 compared to a
year before. The cosmetics market was expected to grow at an average of 18 percent in
2004, due mainly to Thailand's positive economic situation and expected positive GDP
growth.
In 2005 cosmetics and toiletries in Thailand continued to record strong growth increasing
by 7% of the previous year. The main factor behind growth of the market was increasing
retail prices caused by an increase in energy prices and a change in consumer behavior in
favor of expensive products. The most dynamic performances in 2005 were seen in skin
care, fragrances and men's grooming products. On the other hand, growth in areas such as
bath and shower products, hair care and oral hygiene was significantly lower as these
products had already achieved widespread penetration.
Imported cosmetic products accounted for approximately 24 percent of the total market.
Major countries of origin included Belgium, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom,
Italy, China and the United States.
As of 2003, there were 800 manufacturers of cosmetic products listed with the Industrial
Works Department of the Thai Ministry of Industry. Approximately 70 percent of them are
clustered in the Bangkok metropolitan area. Thailand is a major producer and exporter of
shampoo products, which accounted for 40 percent of the total export value of cosmetic
products in 2003.
1.3

Types of Cosmetics

Today the cosmetic products range from simple skin creams, soaps and shampoos to
special lotions, base creams, moisturizers, nourishers, cleansers, protectors, rejuvenators
and conditioners for body, face, hands, eyes, lips, mouth, hair, nails and so on.
1.3.1

Shampoo

Shampoo is a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles,
environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair
(without stripping out).Shampoo, when lathered with water, is a surfactant (surface active
Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan 

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management 

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT 

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co., Ltd   

P a g e | 2 

agents, i.e., wetting agent). Shampooing is frequently followed by conditioners which
increase the ease of combing and styling.
1.3.2

The Worldwide Market Potential of Shampoo

The latent demand (or potential industry It shows the top 3 regions cover come 87
percent of the global latent demand for hair
earnings) for hair care shampoo was
estimated to be $7.4 billion in 2005. The care shampoo
distribution of the world potential industry Table 1: Worldwide Market Potential for
earnings, however, is not evenly distributed
Hair Care Shampoo (US $ mln): 2005
across regions. 2005 data shows that Asia is
Latent
the largest market with $2.4 billion or 33
% of
Demand
Region
percent, followed by Europe & the Middle
Globe
US $ mln
East with $2.2 billion or 29 percent, and
2,360
33
then North America & the Caribbean Asia
with$1.9 billion or 25 percent of the world Europe & the Middle
2,163
29
market.
East
601
8%

North America & the
Caribbean

2,360
33%

1,862
25%
289
4%

93
1%
2,163
29%

1,862

25

Latin America

601

08

Africa

289

04

Oceana

93

01

7,368

100.0

Total

Source: Philip M. Parker, INSEAD, 2005
www.icongrouponline.com

Asia

Africa

Europe & Middle East

Oceana

North America & Caribbean

Latin America

Figure 1: Worldwide market potential (US $ mln: 2005)

World Market Trend (2000-2010)

W o rl d m a rk e t [U S $ b i l l io n ]

The world market for hair care shampoo some other reasons for its continued
had steadily declined from the period growth.
between 2002 and 2004 as these products
had
already
achieved
widespread
8.2
penetration. However, it showed positive
8.0
growth after 2005. The main factor behind
growth of the market was increasing retail
7.8
prices caused by an increase in energy
7.6
prices and a change in consumer behavior
in favor of expensive products. Increase in
7.4
demand
by
growing
population,
7.2
widespread commercial advertisement of
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
the hair care products, change in life style
year
due to improved quality of life in major
regions like China and India, etc were
Figure 2: World market trend

Instructor: Prof. C. Visvanathan 

ED78.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management 

Enviromental Engineering and Management, AIT 

2012

N No ep rt h al Ko re a Ca m bo di a Ja pa n I n So di a ut h Ko re In do a ne sia Th ai lan d Ta i Ph wa ilip n pi ne s M al ay Ba s ng ia la de Ho sh ng Ko ng Vi et na m Sin ga po re Bu rm a Sr iL an ka 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Ch in a Percent (US $ mln) Market Potential for Hair Care Shampoo in Asia:2005 Countries Figure 3: Comparison of shampoo market in Asia 1. Asia contributes about 33 percent of total world shampoo market where Thailand contributes three percent of the market share.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co.18 million or almost 34 percent. Bangkok city.33 percent of the Asian market.3 Pa g e | 3  Asia Market In case of Asia. Shampoo ingredients must be biodegradable as other body care products to minimize health effects. India and Japan have a bigger share of the product.47 million or 16. 2005 data shows that China is the largest market with $796. The shampoo market is almost steady for the last few years in Thailand.. Indonesia and Thailand with approximately six percent. till 2010. antimicrobials agents.3 million or 22. i. It has also been observed that the market of hair care shampoo shows a similar fashion as that of world market with a slight decline till 2004 from 2000 and then increase steadily after that.1 Raw materials Hair shampoos are highly formulated products based on a limited range of cosmetically acceptable surface active agents. C. It has been predicted that the market would continue to grow in the similar fashion for next five years.e.4 Thailand Thailand is also a major player of hair care shampoo market contributing around one percent of the total global market share. pearling agents. 2 Shampoo production process 2.91 percent of the world market share (Appendix B). AIT  . and then India with $385. alone contributes about 94 percent of the Thai shampoo market share whereas the city contributes 2.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. colours and fragrance.85 percent. The other top three nations with one digit percentage share of Asian market of the product include South Korea. world rank 14 in hair care market. Ltd  1. Each ingredient has specific functions and roles in shampoos.3. It shows that the top 3 regions cover 73 percent of the Asian potential demand for hair care shampoo.3. five percent and three percent respectively (Detail data in Appendix A). plus conditioning agents. Visvanathan  ED78.83 percent in the Asia region and 0. followed by Japan with $539. Following points given below are some of Instructor: Prof. three most populated countries China.

containing 20–40% solids. either clear or opaque (pearlised). However.. Medicated shampoos generally use similar ingredients and added specific medicant. Conditioners are normally fatty components such as fatty alcohol. as well as organic molecules with a molecular weight greater than 100. Since conditioners are effective than shampoo. Shampoos can be made in various physical forms such as liquids. reverse osmosis membranes play a role in production of demineralized water. Instructor: Prof. serve as foamers and detergents which are easy to soluble in water. with thorough mixing between each addition.2 Processing Shampoos are manufactured by simple blending in a stirred vessel.basic. herbal extracts and silicon. 2. adjusted to approximately pH 5. natural gums or cellulose derivatives. creams. very low concentrations (0. • Conditioning agents make hair easy to comb after drying. Vessels are typically constructed from stainless steel. amphoteric. monoglyceride. Sometimes a moderate amount of heat is used to reduce the viscosity and so facilitate ease of mixing therefore vessels are equipped with low pressure steam heating coils. shampoo for animals may contain insecticides or other medications for treatment of skin conditions or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange. aerosol and dry. including five categories (primary anionic . In cosmetic industry. Liquid shampoos are common. AIT  . cationic and nonionic). Totally different from hair care products for human. Ltd    P a g e | 4  the main components of shampoos along with their characteristics.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. Demineralized water is most commonly used in order to minimize contamination of the product.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. For instance. • Surfactants. Composition of shampoos can be modified for special application. Visvanathan  ED78. These membranes act as a molecular filter to remove 95 to 99% of dissolved salts and inorganic molecules. lanolin. secondary anionic . The reverse osmosis membrane also removes more than 98% of residual biological and colloidal matter from the feed water. C.mild. Dispersed and emulsified mixes are achieved by means of the central rapid speed movement. • Thickeners and foam stabilizers remain viscous to avoid precipitation and stability against hydrolysis at higher temperature or extreme pH. Shampoos for infants are formulated with particular emphasis on minimal eye irritancy and skin mildness.5% by weight) are sufficient. They can be polymers. paste. A limited range of proprietary ingredients are used to meet these needs.5 and viscosities in the ratio of 500– 1500 centipoise. Ingredients are weighed or metered incrementally into the mixing vessel. Some pearlising agents are waxy solids at ambient temperature and require melting in a drum oven or similar before use. dandruff shampoos contain fungicides such as zinc pyrithione and selenium sulfide which reduce loose dander by killing Malassezia furfur. vegetable oils. the description of shampoo ingredients is given in details in Appendix C. although glass-lined vessels are still used in some processes.

In some segments of the industry.73/104.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. filling machine. label-attaching and aluminum foil clapper.8 m3/day x 1 tons/m3 = 59.9 tons/day = 43.3 + 60 = 104.8 = 104. one manufacturer may produce a shampoo base which is sold to.8 m3/day Figure 4.Outputs Material balance: Inputs 104.9 tons/day Losses Percentage losses Instructor: Prof.Deionized water . and further processed by.17 tons/day + Losses = 0.Chemicals .17 tons/day = Outputs + Losses = 104.Inputs Outputs: .Product . Ltd    P a g e | 5  No further processing is required after blending.6 tons/day = 23.7% ED78. this second level processing will involve only the addition of water.3 tons/day = 60 m3/day x 1 tons/m3 = 60 tons/day = 21. bottle-washing machine.73 tons/day Note: Shampoo density : 1020 kg/m3 Wastewater 59.3 m3/day Product 43.Washing water .37 tons/day = 59.73 tons/day = 0. AIT  .Mass balance diagram for shampoo production Inputs: .02 tons/m3 = 44.Waste water . Washing water 60 m3/day Chemicals 21. C. the formulator.3 m3/day x 1 tons/m3 = 23. lid-revolving.6 tons/day Process Deionized water 23..6 + 23.37 + 59.9 = 0. Visvanathan  = 21. and the product may be packed off directly from the mixing vessel by filling system which composes of auto-bottle settling machine.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. color and fragrance. Typically.5 m3/day x 1. Proprietary and/or therapeutic ingredients may also be added at this stage (Appendix D).5 m3/day Losses 0.8 tons/day = 44.

solid waste. bottle and cardboard are sold to recycling shop. SOx. it produces fewer amounts of pollution. Most of the solid wastes are plastics. In order to meet the Thai standard of wastewater effluent discharge. laboratory experiment. Air pollution is one of the problems found in this factory but it is not a big problem because fewer amounts of gas emission. Solid waste is another pollution factor in the factory. secondary treatment. noise pollution is also found within the factory. Moreover. Table 2. C. cardboards. Noise almost comes from blending machine and filling machine. Ltd    P a g e | 6  3. and noise pollution.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. and domestic wastewater (Appendix D). and tertiary treatment (Appendix E).1 Unit mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L of pt o C Concentration 350 700 3000 650 200 120 10 50 9 700 29 Wastewater Wastewater refers to the water discharged after use which contains the characteristics as shown in table 2. dust and soot.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. NOx. Wastewater treatment plant consists of primary treatment. As this factory is small. is emitted to the atmosphere. This problem is solved by putting these processes in a closed room and all workers have to use ear plugs or ear mufflers. Wastewater is collected and mixed together from washing operation. and food waste and yard waste. air pollution. AIT  . and food waste and yard waste are collected by municipal solid waste collectors. bottles. Instructor: Prof. and aerosol. wastewater. Visvanathan  ED78. Beside these three main pollutions. All gases coming from the factory are treated by using wet scrubbers and bag house filters. sludge dewatering and disposal is also implemented. The recycled materials such as plastic.Wastewater Characteristic Parameters BOD COD TDS TSS Alkalinity Oil and Grease pH Total N Total P Color Temperature 3.. Waste Treatment Practices Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing produces only hair care shampoo with the capacity of 44m3/day. wastewater treatment plant was implemented. cleaning.

 C. The biological treatment process can convert much of the dissolved organic material in effluent to water. piping and sludge dewatering equipment. air pollution is found from the boiler. and GAC back washing. air pollution is not a big problem in this factory. Visvanathan  ED78.4 Tertiary Treatment The components remaining after primary and secondary treatment are residual SS. The pollution control devices are shown in Table 3.1. Color and some other trace elements. Tertiary treatment designed to remove these components is activated carbon adsorption. Ltd    3. paper must be removed from the waste effluents to reduce abrasion and prevent damage to pumps. 3. 3. The main purpose of using the activated carbon adsorption is to remove the color of the effluent treated water for reusing to the cooling tower. fire fighting. CO2 or organic suspended solids and expected BOD removal is 70-95%.0 to prevent disturbance in secondary biological treatment systems. cardboard.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co..dissolved air floatation. by using heavy oil. gardening. and (3) a recycle system for returning solids removed from the liquid-solids separation unit back to the reactor.1.1. The process consists of the following three components: (1) a reactor in which the microorganisms responsible for treatment are kept in suspension and aerated. scrapper at the bottom and skimmer at the top of the tank to collect all settleable solid and to remove all the floating matter (oil and grease). usually in a sedimentation tank. Among the three unit operations . Suspended growth biological treatment process is used here to treat the wastewater.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. Therefore. Instructor: Prof. Floatation process is used to separate solid or liquid particle and to concentrate biosolids.1. 3.2 Primary Treatment The main objective of primary treatment in the factory is to remove the settleable portion of SS and oil & grease. residual BOD. The excess sludge from the secondary sedimentation tank is collected to sludge thickener in order to increase the solid content for dewatering process. dispersed air floatation.1 P a g e | 7  Pretreatment Coarse solid such as plastic. AIT  . and weighting room. floor washing. road cleaning. For the wastewater of this shampoo factory. cavitations floatation .dissolved air floatation is used which consists of dissolved air under a pressure of several atmospheres introduced at the bottom of the tank. Equalization & Neutralization play an important role of storing wastewater coming from the processes in batch operation and adjusting the pH between 6.2 Air pollution Nurture Shampoo factory is a small manufacturer which is equipped with all modern facilities and new technologies.5 and 8. However. (2) liquidsolid separation. mechanical bar screens and Equalization & Neutralization are used for the operation.3 Secondary Treatment Secondary treatment is designed to remove BOD associated with dissolved organic material in the effluent and normally uses biological processes. 3.

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co.3 Wet Scrubbers Solid Waste In the process of making shampoo.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. we use biological treatment process after removing oil and grease. 4 Environmental issues related to shampoo production No by-products are produced during the shampoo manufacturing process. it will not have large quantity of solid waste. plastic and cardboard will separate from the waste and sell for recycling. Washing out the blending vessel and other washing purposes will produce an effluent which will contain some shampoo. cardboard and plastic from production process and the office and food waste from the canteen and yard waste from cleaning the garden. AIT  .Solid waste generation Source Waste Unit Quantity Management Office Paper and Plastic Kg/day 10 Recycle shop Operation Cardboard and plastic Kg/day 40 Recycle shop Canteen Food waste Kg/day 65 Municipal collection system Garden cleaning Yard waste Kg/day 5 Municipal collection system 3. But if we consider the cosmetic industry where we have size reduction processes will produce much more noise than the shampoo production alone.4 Noise Pollution Mainly in Shampoo production process. The other solid wastes will be collected by the municipal solid waste collection system (Table 4). Visvanathan  ED78. boilers. Instructor: Prof. Paper.EOP Technologies for the Air Pollution Abatement Processes Air Pollution Control Device Raw material preparation (Dust) Dust collection system (bag house filter) Utilities (Boiler) 3. In our industry we have separated sound proof rooms to keep these units and for the workers we will provide personal protective equipments like ear plugs and mufflers.. Since all reputable manufacturers of these products use fully biodegradable surface active agents. Ltd    P a g e | 8  Table 3. This is not a big environmental issue. Mainly we have paper. noise is produced by dissolve tanks. mixers and filling machines. Table 4. C.

Waste water coming out of the production process will have a higher pH value because we use some basic solutions as our raw materials. we can make this issue to minimum. But in our process we are using deionized water as the solvent media. In our industry we provided more ventilation for the areas where we have these production units and for workers we provide personal protective equipments like dust masks and respirators. In wastewater TDS content is considerably high. Noise pollution: As mentioned earlier. When we adjust the pH of the incoming wastewater in the equalization tank. AIT  .Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. mixers and filling machines. NOx and other emissions from the furnace will be absorbed by the packed tower which is connected to the furnace whereas we have implemented SOx reduction technologies like Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Processes (FDG). This method produces high-function cosmetic materials offering the efficacies of active ingredients contained in the cosmetic material as well as the effects of titanium micro-dispersion water. Mainly we have paper. Paper. Floor cleaning waste water also comes to the wastewater treatment plant. The other solid wastes will be collected by the municipal solid waste collection system. As a newly constructed industry our machines like mixers and filling units we have this technology. Noise pollution may be significant if we consider cosmetic industry as a whole. (Eg. Dust and soot is produced in the mixing units and the packaging area. We can not eliminate the odor problem and we use a dilution method as these odors are non toxic. In general Cosmetic industries contain high TDS values.. SOx. plastic and cardboard will be separated and sold for recycling. because we have lot of colloidal particles in the wastewater. Instructor: Prof. cardboard and plastic from production process and the office whereas food waste from the canteen and yard waste from cleaning the garden. It contains lot of colloidal particles and the spilling of the raw materials.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. We try to minimize the wastewater amount generate in the production process by implementing CIP (Clean in Place) as much as possible. Adjusting the pH is a must in our treatment process because we are going to use biological treatment process to remove BOD. Water pollution: The major pollution source is the waste water coming from the production process. In the manufacturing process of shampoo we experience odor problems due to the chemicals which we use in the production process. boilers. We will not be going to reuse the raw materials which are coming as waste. noise is produced from dissolve tanks. Air pollution: Mainly in shampoo production process we have air pollution due to NOx. And also the incoming wastewater contains lot of forms. and particulate matter and vapor. NOx is produced from the furnace and SOx and vapor from the fuel which is used to heat the boiler. C. Visvanathan  ED78. Caustic) Solid wastes: We do not get large quantity of solid waste from the process. Ltd    P a g e | 9  ‘Treated water’ using newest inventions like titanium micro-dispersion water technology can be used for various cosmetic materials instead of normal demineralized water.Following are some of the Environmental Issues we found out in Shampoo manufacturing industry.

. As a new industry we have the best available technology in the present days. paper and cardboard will be separated from other solid wastes and sell to the recycling shop. Ltd    P a g e | 10  5 Cleaner Production Cleaner production is the main tool to reduce the pollution from industries which applies integrated preventive strategies to processes. without any toxic by-products. AIT  .Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. Shampoo bottles made from beet extracts that biodegrade in compost pile. For shampoo production. For the Cooling tower we plan to use the treated effluent. we have a plan to do regular checking of noise generated by the machine units. there is no specific pollution norm in Instructor: Prof. Noise reduction: Even though this is not a big issue in Shampoo production. By directly unloading the raw material in to the storage silos will reduce the dust generation.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. road cleaning and gardening purposes. And that will be used in floor cleaning. biodegradable bottles. as well as other benefits such as a better company image and better working conditions. fire fighting. Following are some of the aspects addressed as cleaner production approaches. Recycling: In the boiler water will be recycled and use it back. Unloading the raw material will be one of the dust generating points. Dust Control: Dust and soot can be controlled using bag filters or wet scrubbers. Solid waste management: Segregation of solid waste will be promoted as an essential part of the process. or fabrics that break down in soil safely. Most of the machines are run by computer softwares which will give accurate measurements on batching and mixing of ingredients. Raw Material quality will also be monitored and changed accordingly to achieve optimum conditions. shampoo manufacturers care about non-polluting materials such as organic ingredients (saponin extracted from pods of Acacia aulucumiformis). We will maintain the machines according to the guidelines provided in Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) specification. products and services to increase economic efficiency and to reduce risks to humans and environment. Especially plastic. and lower treatment costs. Implement cleaner production may not solve all environmental problems at a facility. Process modification: When environmental issues becomes more important. but it will decrease the need for installing and operating end of pipe treatment equipment and reduce the quantity of hazardous waste that must be treated and disposed of. Visvanathan  ED78. C. Cleaner production means economic savings from reduced consumption of raw materials and energy. 6 Pollution Norms Pollution norm is used to compare the pollution loading from the actual practice to the standard or guideline. Plastic bottles from the quality assurance unit will be washed and reused. We need to supply what ever the amount we loose due to evaporation losses. This will lead to optimum raw material usage.

Then they are mixed in bulk material mixer at approximately 80oC. anti-proof. So far. Table 5.75 1.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. 7.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. It has penetrated deeper not only into their culture but also in the commercial market within a span of 70 years in the country. Currently.1 0.5 0. garment products and others that fulfill every demand of Thai lifestyle. Therefore. Ltd    P a g e | 11  the WHO guideline.. Visvanathan  ED78.1 0. AIT  .3 7. etc.9 Liquid Soap tn anhydr - 0. as they claim. Their products range from food products. Instructor: Prof. Some components vaporize easily such as perfume so that they need to be mixed separately at lower temperature of 25oC in side mixer. 7.1 Liquid Detergent tn anhydr - 2 - - Table 6.625 0.875 1. Unilever has about 3000 professionals in their factories located at various parts of Thailand. straightenup.Wastewater Pollution Load Parameter Flow [m3/day] Unit [U] Flow [m3/tn] BOD [Kg/tn] COD [Kg/tn] TSS [Kg/tn] 0il [Kg/tn] Pollution load 110 tn product 2. Shampoo products from Unilever were introduced in Thailand in 1976 with brand names of “Clinic & Clear” and “Sun silk”. They have been the trade leaders in Thailand for the past 30 years or more.1 Introduction Unilever is a part of Thai people’s lifestyle. we compare the pollution load of our production with some of the soap production processes given in WHO guideline as shown in table 5. C. Product categories include anti-flat.5 6 6 0. Case study – Unilever Thai Holding Ltd. Raw materials must be prepared and weighed by weighing machine. cleaning products.2 Shampoo process Shampoos are produced by mixing all ingredients (Figure 5). The company’s vision is “to respond every demand with new products”.Typical Pollution Norms for Soap Production Unit [U] Waste Volume [m3/U] BOD5 [kg/U] TSS [kg/U] Oil [kg/U] Soap from kettle boiling tn product 4. Unilever’s products have been the most sold items in Thailand market.

500m3/day. machines are cleaned by hot water at 80oC. Perfume (25oC) Raw Materials 8 1 2 3 7 5 4 6 1. Clean in place unit Figure 5. pH 4.3 Wastewater management Waste water of shampoo production in Unilever Thai Holding Ltd. Bulk mixer 3. Filling machine 7.243 – 5. Visvanathan  ED78. After that.. Main mixer 5. Parameter Influent Effluent IEAT Standard 5.Shampoo process flow diagram 7. COD (ppm) 4.5 7–8 6–9 2. Ltd    P a g e | 12  After premixing.Waste water characteristic of Unilever Thai Holding Ltd. Bulk material storage 6.849 30 – 150 750 61 – 202 < 10 10 492 – 1. C. BOD (ppm) 3. Side mixer 4.8 – 11. ingredients are mixed properly in main mixer at about 32oC. varies in pH values (Table 7). Oil & Grease (ppm) 5. Table 7. Storage tank 8.635 < 50 200 1. AIT  . Treatment includes physical-chemical processes as well as biological process as shown in figure 6.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. Suspended Solid (ppm) Instructor: Prof.035 15 – 50 500 3.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. the liquid is transferred to storage tanks before being filled into bottles or refill bags. Flow rate is of 4. When production batch completes. Pre-weight station 2.

Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. Visvanathan  ED78. AIT  .Wastewater flow diagram Instructor: Prof.. C. Ltd    Incoming Liquid waste P a g e | 13  Fat Trap Equalization Tank pH Tank CO2 Coagulation Tank Chemical Treatment Polymer CO2 Alum and CaCO3 Flocculation Tank Sedimentation Tank Sludge pond pH Tank 150 ton Tank Holding Pond Filter Press Sludge cake Disposing by WMS Aeration Pond Biological Treatment Sludge pond Treated Water Pond To CETP Polymer Mixer Sedimentation Tank Figure 6.

detergent.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management.e.e. Instructor: Prof. plastics. yard. they will divide waste 2 groups consisting of recycle waste and un-reusable waste. Visvanathan  ED78. used oil etc. Hazardous waste i. AIT  .7 million Bath. batteries. The latter will send to incinerator inside factory or landfill outside factory. etc.. plastic bags. bags to put raw materials. office paper.e. b. metallic scrap and oil waste.4. 7.4. etc. Figure 7. metal container.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. are compressed as shown in figure 8. b.e. casket. etc. d. Compression solid waste b. Figure 8. wrapping up plastics. fluorescent bulbs. etc. Incineration After waste separation. box. Waste for disposal by incinerator consists of scrap common waste and hazardous waste. Ltd    7.3 Waste collection Waste collected to landfill site includes scrap hazardous waste which consists of chemical contaminated container i. sheath. Common waste i.e. Plastic i. Waste collection a) Contaminated container. Compression Waste from residue raw materials. spray bottles.4 Solid waste management 7. Waste for sell consists of paper. food waste. c. Annual revenue from waste selling is of 1. Layout of waste collection zone is shown in appendix F. 7. C.8 million Bath. Waste management a. Disposed waste annual expenditure is 1. fluorescent bulbs.1 Type of solid waste a.4. canned.2 P a g e | 14  Paper i. b) Waste collection and recycle process a. scrap of paper etc.

fiberite and carton. Figure 9. Waste collecting truck and transportation d. • Revenue from contaminated container is around 1. Ltd    P a g e | 15  c.700. AIT  . Visvanathan  ED78. used oil etc. Contaminated container • Plastics tank size 200 L.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. C. Instructor: Prof.. metal tank size 200 L. Waste disposal Waste disposal process selected in Unilever company have two ways are compound of incineration which is situated in factory and other wastes not be able to burn going to landfill to be buried.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. e.000 Bath/annual. Transportation Rubbish is both compressed and loose waste by using container as shown in figure 9.

epa. 2007.osha. Clean-In-Place (CIP) Applications (online). Metcalf& Eddy. January 28] Eckenfelder Jr.dk/fgd-ct121. Asian Productivity Organization #HC 415 I 52 G74 2000-04 Assoc.html www.tripod.wikipedia. Product shampoo.gov/ttn/catc/dir1/ffdg. Fourth Edition.htm http://hypertextbook. W. Ltd    Reference APO’s Demonstration Projects..stepan.asp?id=384 [2007. Material Safety Data Sheet: Citric acid. Mary Ann H.com/services/Audiology/hearing/workplaceguidelines.pdf www. Prof.20: Industrial Waste Abatement & Management  Enviromental Engineering and Management. 1981.msue. January 28] Laws and Standards on Pollution control in Thailand.com/energyconcepts/airenergy_tips.html www.Pleumchitt Rojanapanthu. Wesley.co.cfm www.asp. C. 2005.net/Library/AB6%20VMI%20Trimix. 1989.com Instructor: Prof. 2005.ab6.icongrouponline.pdf www. Bangkok.55 A1 I 53 2005. 2000-2004. Michican State. Available: www.. 4th Edition 1997.uk/index. AIT  .Kim AIT http://en.com [ 2007.optek. Stepan. Washington DC 20005.com/ www. Srandard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Visvanathan  ED78.edu/msue/iac/disasterresp/HomeImprovement/wq24. (online). 2005.gov www.org/wiki/Flue_gas_desulfurization#References http://energyconcepts. Reverse Osmosis (RO).pdf OPTEK. Available:http://www. Industrial Water Pollution Control #TD745 E23 1989 Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand.stronghealth.Nurture Shampoo Manufacturing Co. Pharmacy Department. (online).cashflo. Franson.com/en/products/formulations. Treatment and Reuse. Dr. Hair Care Products.msu. Wastewater Engineering.06) Dr.pollutiononline. Lecture of Air pollution (ED78.sciencelab. Available: http://www. Available: http://web1. 2003.bwe. Annual Report 2005 # HD 890. Thailand Chemical & Laboratory Equipment. Faculty of Pharmacy Mahidol University. (online).com/Application_Note/General/English/3/CleanInPlace_(CIP)_Applications.shtml www. Fifteenth Edition.com/facts/2006/TatyanaNektalova.

33 2009 78.90 2.Appendix A Market Potential for Hair Care Shampoo in Asia (US $ mln): 2005 Country Latent Demand US $ mln % of Asia China Japan India South Korea Indonesia Thailand Taiwan Philippines Malaysia Bangladesh Hong Kong Vietnam Singapore Burma Sri Lanka Nepal North Korea Cambodia Papua New Guinea Laos Macau Brunei Mongolia Bhutan Maldives Other Total 796.95% 2.25 0.02 0.47 0.307.97% 3.34 26.37 1.16 0.40 0.97% 2.90 Hair Care Shampoo (US $ mln): Thailand 2000 .86 33.07 0.35 32.97% 0.94 113.11 1.98% 0.21 2.73 53.73 2001 74.85 16.33 5.98% 0.30 385.04 2.580.51 32.93% 0.80 2004 70.10 10.69 33.97% 0.68 1.66 2010 80.45 32.11 2.14 32.740.98% 0.79 2.50 1.98% .359.92 71.02% 3.504.69 35.47 135.icongrouponline.74 22.04 0.84 3.38 2002 73.82 2.00% 2.00% _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Source: www.73 67.06 0.430.423.98% 0.534.27 1.86 2.97% 0.98% 0.73 32.04 2005 71.14 0.com The Market for Hair Care Shampoo in Asia: 2000 US $ % of Year mln Globe 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2.2010 % of % of Year Thailand Region Globe 33.00 2008 76.00 0.00% 3.69 2.02 0.09 0.06% 3.42 2.56 1.04% 3.18 539.62 11.12 0.com 2.10 0.83 0.83 3.10 2.33 32.10 2.34 1.51 32.98% 0.487.icongrouponline.98% 0.03 0.96 5.84 2.359.19 Source: www.80 0.36 2006 73.69 2.353.46 0.14 2000 75.76 4.42 33.06 2003 71.68 2007 75 33.04% 3.00 100.52 2.02% 3.54 31.68 39.99 19.659.87 2.

76 1.02 0.02 0.04 0 0 0 0.44 0.01 0.02 0.73 0.Appendix B Thailand: Hair Care Shampoo in 2005. US $ mln City Bangkok Chon Buri Songkhla Nakhon Ratchasima Chiang Mai Khon Kaen Nakhon Si Thammarat Phitsanulok Hat Yai Total World Rank 14 435 933 US $ mln 66.01 0.55 0.03 0.4 0.02 100 0.83 0.icongrouponline.46 1.91 0.01 0.167 1.11 0.12 0.28 0.02 71.17 0.03 0.01 0.150 1.48 0.629 1.11 3.78 2.01 0 3.01 0.966 %Country %Region %World 93.39 0.361 1.06 2.45 0.217 1.97 Source: www.com .61 0.63 0.

4-hydroxy.4 To modify these characteristic. meaning they can interact with a surface Disodium Cocoamphodiacetate AMPHOSOL 2C 8. Citric acid 2-Hydroxy-1.2. adding dye.3dimethylbutyramide. Butyramide Panthenol 22.4 acid.4 To modify characteristic.8 To improve the foaming characteristic.propyl ester 22.2 To adjust pH Sodium hydroxide Caustic Soda 112.3propanetricarboxylicacid 112.Appendix C Raw Materials Quantity Day Chemical Name Trade Name (Kg) PEG-150 Distearate STEPAN PEG 6000 DS Purpose for which it is used 244. Benzoic acid. manufacturers add fragrance and governmentally approved.2 To add smell aromatic 4-(2-Hydroxy-1naphthylazobenzenesulfonic D & C Orange No.976 To improve the foaming characteristic. Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaince AMPHOSOL CS-50 2.976 Surfactants are surface active ingredients.2 To adjust pH Sodium chloride Salt or Sea salt 112.4 To increase the viscosity Sodium Laureth Sulfate STEOL CS-230 8.4 To preserve Propylparaben . Sodium salt) 244. DL-2.2 To adjust viscosity - Orange blossom 600 112.4-Dihydroxy-N-(3hydroxypropyl)-3.692.

Appendix D Processes Diagram Waste water Ground water DI water Ingredient Boiler Weighting Air Pollution Steam heat up to 70oC Cooling tower Dissolve tank Steam Reverse Osmosis Mixing tank Condense water Hot water Lab Test Wastewater QC Holding tank Bottle Cleaning Drying Waste water Filling Waste water Packing & Labelling DI – Deionized QC – Quality Control QC Dispatch .

Appendix E Wastewater Treatment Flow Chart Industrial Process Primary Treatment Pretreatment Industrial wastewater Screening Coarse solid Disposal Equalization & Neutralization Flow and pH adjustment Floatation (DAF) Oil and Grease & Settled Suspended Solid removal Tertiary Treatment Secondary Treatment Biological Treatment (Aerobic) Secondary Sedimentation Sludge Thickener Dewatering Adsorption (GAC) Landfill Discharge (Reuse) .

Equalization & Neutralization Operation Process Screening Chemical Floatation Flow meter and Control device Effluent Water Waste Effluent Water Pressure control valve Waste Water Analysis Effluent Water Coarse solid Sludge Discharge (Reuse) Secondary Clarification Primary Landfill Return Sludge Activated Carbon Effluent Water Analysis Air blower Thickener Dewatering Sludge Cake Flowchart of Wastewater Treatment Plant .

Appendix F Figure G: Layout of Waste management Unit Route Disposal Waste Recycle Waste Empty bin 2 Empty container to be sold Empty Bin Truck Parking 1 Truck Parking 2 Empty Bin 1 Storage Tank Shrink Wood Toilet Room Incinerator Building Garden Equipment Room Rest Room .

NER market for Shampoo is valued at Rs.207 33. The domestic shampoo market has grown at a CAGR of about 10% during the past the period 1997-98 to 2001-02. the NER market for shampoos is estimated to be Rs.anti-dandruff shampoos. NER market has grown at a CAGR of about 16% during the period 1997-98 to 2001-02. various other types of shampoos can be manufactured like. Consumer preferences/ profile and consumption pattern. 1.207 crore in year 2001-02. Considering that the market will grow at the same growth rate in next 10 years. etc. in the case of shampoo manufacturing unit. 11. The NER shampoo market is estimated to grow at about 12% over next 10 years.207 33. Shampoo market in India has grown at compounded annual growth rate of about 10% during period 1997-98 to 2001-02. In the year 2011-12. 104 crore. 33. with the same infrastructure. It is important to note that. the domestic shampoo market in India is estimated to be Rs. the shampoos have significant demand in the North-East Region (NER) as well as at national level.4 1. a unit can manufacture a multiple variants without significant changes in the equipment. All other organised players are meeting the demand of NER from sources/ manufacturing facilities outside the NE region. PLANT CAPCITY AND PRODUCTION TARGETS Plant capacity and production targets for the proposed unit have been arrived at based on following factors: .000 crore in the year 201112.SHAMPOO MANUFACURING UNIT INTRODUCTION Indian shampoo market is valued at Rs. Based on the demand-supply gap analysis. MARKET POTENTIAL Exhibit 1 provides the shampoo market size in terms of all India domestic market and NER market in year 2001-02. Crore) All India NER Market Size Market Size 1.4 Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL) is the only large organised shampoo manufacturer in NER and it is catering to the national demand from its facility in Doom Dooma in Tinsukia district in upper Assam.8% of the domestic shampoo market. Exhibit 1 Shampoo Market Size (2001-02) Particulars Shampoo Total (Shampoo) Source: AFF Research (Unit: Rs. herbal based shampoos.3 crore in the year 2001-02.4 crore in year 2001-02 and accounts for about 2. tools and processes. The estimated demand-supply gap for shampoo products is about 34% of the total NER shampoo market (2001-02) and is valued at Rs. 3. The following shampoo variants can be manufactured at the proposed manufacturing unit: (a) Normal Shampoo (b) Shampoo with Conditioner Apart from the basic classification indicated above.

Pigments. Water The requirement of water for 200-kg batch shampoo-manufacturing unit is approximately 3. ELECTRICITY Approximate power requirement of a 200-kg batch shampoo-manufacturing unit is 40 kW.4 lakh bottles per annum (@ 100 ml per bottle) Capacity Utilisation: 50% (Year 1) Full Capacity Utilisation: Year 2 RAW MATERIALS AND INPUTS Raw Materials Raw materials used in the process depend upon the type of shampoo manufactured. in any shampoo manufactured there are two types of raw materials used: Active Ingredients (AIs) – These are the chemicals used in manufacturing the shampoo. The water used for this process should be De-mineralised and free from any kind of impurities. Ammonium Chloride. The mixture is agitated for about 20-30 .The economic size for manufacturing for NER region is 200-Kg batch size (Based on the discussion with large shampoo manufacturers and various units involved in contract manufacturing). There is an opportunity for about 2 to 3 shampoo manufacturing units of similar size in NER. Initially.000 litres per day. Summing up: Batch Size: 200 Kg. etc. With annual sales realisation of Rs.6 crore. Typically. Active ingredients used in the manufacturing process are different for different variants.(a) Product Mix (based on various shampoo products proposed for manufacturing) (b) Demand : Supply Gap (in the North East Region) (c) Minimum Economic Plant Size. Rated Capacity of the key equipment The proposed plant will have a batch size of 200 kg in one shift and will operate on two-shift basis. Zinc Pyrithione. the raw material goes through a Quality Check (QC) and if approved various Active Ingredients (AIs) and other raw materials are dispensed for processing. Initially. MANUFACTURING PROCESS The flow chart for the manufacturing process is as shown below in the Exhibit 2. Sodium Hydroxide. on a single batch basis (two batches per day) Plant Capacity: 11. Fragrances. etc. which can be availed from the nearest sub-station of respective State Electricity Board (SEB). The shampoo manufacturing process is a batch process. 2. active ingredients and other raw materials are taken into a vessel known as ‘Mixing Vessel’. Subsequently. Others. The mixing process is carried out at a specific temperature (about 75 to 800 C). are added. It would primarily cater to the needs of the NER.Other ingredients include Citric Acid. In this vessel the raw materials are mixed with hot water. the manufacturing unit will be accounting for about 15 to 16% of the total NER shampoo market (considering the retail value of the products as the unit will be involved in contract manufacturing) and about 45% of the demandsupply gap of NER shampoo market in year 2001-02. Commonly used active ingredients include emulsifying/ suspending agents like Ammonium/ Sodium Lauryl Sulfate. It is proposed that the unit would be involved in contract manufacturing for a larger shampoo manufacturing/ marketing company. Pigments. the solution is taken to another vessel (known as ‘Side Vessel’) and other ingredients like Fragrances. etc.

minutes to form a homogenous solution. proceeding with packing. Before. Citric Acid or Sodium Hydroxide is used to adjust pH of water. If required. the solution goes through an Intermediate Process Quality Check (IPQC) related to the efficacy of the product.temperature and is ready for packing. Exhibit 2 Flow Chart for Shampoo Manufacturing Process . the solution is brought back to room. Finally.

Preservatives. Normally. the solution is transferred to the packing assembly through a pipeline. Primary Packing for shampoo products can be done in the following ways depending upon the requirement- . IPQC Test IPQC Approved Primary Packing Product Packing Inspection (If required) Product Information Leaflet (if required) Secondary Packing QC Notapproved Re-packing QC Test QC Approved Product Thereafter.Raw Material Sampling QC Not Approved QC Test Raw Material Handling QC Approved Raw Material Dispensing Mixing Vessel Mixing Raw Material Mixing Section Hot Water Side Vessel Mixing/ Agitation Recover IPQC Not Approved Reject Fragrances. the capacity of the shampoo product assembly line is dependent on the throughput of packing machinery. etc. Dyes.

The land is taken on a long-term lease. The proposed unit would not be involved in the basic formulations related research in the initial years. etc are considered constant. 3. STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY The plant should adhere to the norms laid out in Indian Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) standards under The Drugs and Cosmetics Act. Sr. etc. eight working hours per shift The unit operates for 300 working days in a year The unit has a batch size of 200kg. fixed charges for land development are considered at Rs 250 per sq. The manufacturing unit should adhere to the norms laid out in The Drugs and Cosmetics Act. As far as the shampoo manufacturing equipment is concerned. As per norms.Bottle/ Container packing Sachet/ Pouch packing After filling the shampoo in a bottle/ sachet. Cost of various other activities like manpower is assumed to be constant. Also. the manufacturing technology for NE region would not differ from other regions as the same is not region specific. Lease Rentals: Rs. 3. utilities like fuel. Items Value Basis No. However. for example US FDA in case of the United States.5 per sft. 250 Corporation per sq. it is sealed appropriately.5 per sft. Additionally. In the primary packaging section. lease rentals are assumed at Rs. The sales realisation from finished goods is also assumed constant for 10 years from the year of commencement . Machinery and equipment cost --Costs of leading machinery suppliers inclusive of installation charges 3. QUALITY. Additionally. etc. Additionally. the various manufacturing details are printed onto the primary pack like batch number. 2. the process equipment is widely available in the country. mtr. if required. KEY ASSUMPTIONS The plant is a single assembly line unit. 1. the product is sent for secondary packing. The costs of the raw materials. It should be noted that as the proposed unit would be involved in contract manufacturing. In most of the cases secondary packing is done manually. if required. date of manufacturing. for the products. maximum retail price of the product. the manufacturing process related technology would be provided by the principal organisation for which the contract manufacturing would be carried out. which are manufactured for exports markets should meet stricter norms. Miscellaneous fixed assets --Industry norm 4. The unit operates in two shifts. product information leaflet is inserted inside secondary packing. Land development Development Assam Industrial Development charges: Rs. Provision for contingency 10% of total capital Assumption expenditure . as required by The Drugs and Cosmetics Act. electricity. packing materials. mtr.

000 1. Interest on working capital 9% 16.600. Includes cost of conversion during manufacturing (i. Particulars No . No . 4. Unit Rate Rs. 8. m.600. 12.e. Land and Site Development Sr. m. 19. 21.000 B. 250/ sq. 1. m. m. Other Expenses --- 15. 9. Labour Power and fuel Repair and maintenance Inventory: Raw materials (RM) Inventory: Finished goods (FG) Bills receivable Creditors Product distribution expenses 14. 7. 2007 Under the Central Comprehensive Insurance Scheme. Subsidy on insurance premium 100% 18.) 125. Subsidy on plant and machinery 30% 17.000/ sq. 1997 Under the Central Capital Investment Subsidy Scheme. FINANCIAL ASPECTS A. 1. Raw material prices 6. Particulars Building and Civil Work Total Units 400 sq.5. 10. utilities) and variable product distribution costs 3% subsidy on working capital loan under the Central Interest Subsidy Scheme. 11.000 125. 2007 Industry norm Landed cost at the factory gate (inclusive of transportation cost and excise duty) Units Unit Rate 500 sq. Land and Site Development Total --------2 Months 1 Month 1 Month 1 Month 7% Landed cost (including transportation) Prevalent rate in NER Prevalent charges in NER Industry norm Industry norm Industry norm Industry norm Industry norm Taking into consideration average distribution costs. BUILDING AND CIVIL WORKS Sr. Total (Rs. Rs. 13.000 . Subsidy on Income Tax Debt : Equity ratio Interest on term loan Margin money for working capital RM cost 100% 60 : 40 12% 25% 22.) 1. 20. Total (Rs.

No. PLANT AND MACHINERY Sr. No.C.000 500. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Particulars Quantity (Nos. Fixed Assets Total (Rs.000 1.) 25.000 E.000. Utilities and 7. 1 2 3 4 Particulars Furniture and Fittings Office Equipment Fire Fighting Equipment Cost of Tube-well Total Misc.500.000. MISCELLANEOUS FIXED ASSETS Sr.000 100.000 200.000 600.100. RAW MATERIAL Raw materials consumed for manufacturing any shampoo are of two types- .manufacturing unit D.500. 1 nos.000 310.000 1.000 Utilities/ Misc. Transformer.000 20. Water Plant. PROVISION FOR CONTINGENCY Provision for contingency.000 1 nos.000.000 500. etc.000 2.000 F. Control Panels and Cabling.) Total Cost (Rs.@ 10% of the total capital investment OPERATING COST A.) 1 nos.000 Equipment Note: Above mentioned equipment is indicative for the proposed shampoo. 1. 1 nos.000 1. Compressors 1.000 10. PRELIMINARY AND PRE-OPERATIVE EXPENSES Sr.000.000 50.000 500. Other Equipment Electrification.000 195.) 100.000 Total Machinery. Particulars 1 Detailed Techno-economic Feasibility Study 2 Loan Processing Fees 3 Establishment expenses Total Preliminary & Preoperative Expenses Total Cost (Rs. Generation and Distribution Steam Generation Units.) Manufacturing Equipment Mixing Vessels Side Vessel Bottle Filling/ Packing Machine (16 Station) Sachet Filling/ Packing Machine Unit Cost (Rs. 500.

800 528.000 12. used in manufacturing process) Sr.Tech BE Matriculate Nos.000 132. Salary Annual per Manpower Month Cost (Rs. No.Tech BE/B. No. D. 110 2 Raw materials consumed per batch Kg.000 Water Litres 3.019.000 79.000 316. C.000 264.) 1 20.800 264.000 211. 200 3 Number of batches per year Nos. POWER AND FUEL Particulars Units Consumption Unit Cost Annual Cost per day (Rs.000 Furnace Oil Litres 75 8 180.200 11 Security Personnel 2 3. Particulars Total Cost (Rs.Active Ingredients (AIs) Others (like binding materials.000 198. OTHER EXPENSES Sr.000 132. No. etc.000 10 Business Development Executives Graduate 2 8.167.) .000 1 2 4 2 8 8 26 15.000 5.) (Rs. fragrances.000 2.400 Total Cost of man-power 32 2.000 Note: (1) Manpower cost also includes Perks @ 10% of annual salary (2) There is no specific requirement of other highly skilled and specifically trained manpower apart from the normally available qualified manpower as mentioned above at the proposed manufacturing location.Tech BE/B. 13.200 Total Indirect Labour 6 620. 600 Total Raw Materials Consumed per Annum Rs. Particulars Units Value 1 Average cost of raw material Rs. per Kg.640.) Electricity (40 kW) Units 527 6 948.Tech + MBA/MMS BE/B.000 Note: Above raw material consumption pattern is calculated at 100% capacity utilisation of the manufacturing unit working for 300 days per annum and two shifts per day basis.000 10. B. Particulars Qualification Direct Labour 1 Factory Manager 2 3 4 5 6 7 Production Manager Chemists Engineer and Technicians Skilled Workers Semi-skilled and Un-skilled Workers Other Misc. pigments.000 CA 9 Accountant CA 1 10.000 316.000 0 0 Total 1.) (Rs.500 198.000 Source: It is assumed that ground water is tapped through tubewell and hence water is considered free of cost. LABOUR Sr.600 MBA/MMS + 1 15. Personnel Total Direct Labour Cost Indirect Labour 8 Finance Manager BE/B.000 3.000 2.128.

000 100.) 2.000 100. 4.) Fixed Repairs and maintenance Advertising and promotion expenses Lease rent for land Office Administration and other misc.260 Total 5.1.600.100.398.000 310. Margin money @ 25% of total Working Capital – Rs. Sr.) Land and Site Development Cost Building and Civil Works Plant and Machinery Misc. expenses Professional and legal fees Bank charges and commissions Printing and stationary Insurance and taxes Total other expenses E.000 20.97 Note .000 100.492. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Particulars Total Value (Rs. 1. 11.939.000 1.710 1 Month of sales value 2.* Transportation subsidy is added to Gross Profit while calculating the profitability of the unit FINANCIAL ANALYSIS A.470 Note: 1.Sr.349. 2. No.500 790. Total Working Capital 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Particulars Raw Materials Packing Materials Finished Goods Bills Receivables Outstandings Norms 2 Months of raw materials 2 Month of packing materials 609.000 933.711. Fixed Assets Preliminary and Pre-operative Expenses Provisions for Contingency Margin Money for Working Capital Total Cost of the Project Means of Finance Total Cost of Project Promoter’s Equity (40%) Loan from Bank/FI (60%) 125.750 Total (Rs. Particulars Total Cost (Rs. Cost of Production .349. 6.64 Rs.16 crore.000 195.618 Rs.194. The break-up of the capital investment is indicated in below.000 7.750 500.020 1 Month of cost of production 1.612. No.194.618 CAPITAL INVESTMENT The capital investment required for the project is Rs.000 1.500 1 Month of Raw Material and Packing Material 1.618 11.000 1.000 210.000 300.61 lakhs Rs. Working capital requirement indicated above is at 100% capacity utilisation.

Sales realisation at 100% capacity utilisation is around Rs. Annual sales values indicated above are after taking into consideration opening and closing stocks Return on Investment (ROI): 32% D. lakhs) Particulars Capacity Utilisation Sales Realisation Operating Costs RM and PM Costs Formula A B Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 5 Yr 6 Yr 7 50% 100 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% % 110 263 263 263 263 263 263 75 179 179 179 179 179 179 Labour Costs 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 3. B. The unit achieves operational breaks-even in the first year of operations. Other Overheads Interest on Working Capital Gross Profit incl. Figures indicated above are rounded-off 2.019. 1 2 3 4 5 Particulars Total (Rs. of Bottles (Nos.000 26.) Sales Realisation per Bottle (Rs.419.) 1 Shampoo (Various variants) 1.167.140. No. Turnover Annual sales realisation of the manufacturing unit with the assumed product mix is illustrated below.397 21. Profit and Loss Statement for 10 Years (Unit: Rs. Breakeven Analysis The breakeven analysis for the proposed shampoo-manufacturing unit is indicated below.000 4. No.Sr. 2.334.128.140.63 crore. Particulars No.000 Total 1.) Total Sales Realisation (Rs.1 26. .000 364.600 1.117 Raw materials Packing materials Administrative overheads Other overheads Interest on working capital Total cost of production Note: Cost of production indicated above is at 100% capacity utilisation.) 13. Transport Subsidy Interest Depreciation PBT Tax PAT Cash Profit GP Margin NP Margin 6 2 11 4 11 4 11 4 11 4 11 4 11 4 C=A-B 7 49 49 49 49 49 49 D E F=C-(D+E) G H=F-G I=H+E J=C/A K=H/A 8 12 -12 0 -12 0 7% -11% 8 10 31 0 31 42 19% 12% 7 9 34 0 34 42 19% 13% 6 8 36 0 36 43 19% 14% 5 7 37 0 37 44 19% 14% 4 6 39 0 39 45 19% 15% 3 5 41 0 41 46 19% 15% Note:1.120 2.000 Note: For simplicity purpose all the sales mentioned above are in bottle of 100-ml weight C. Sr.740.334.000 23.

lakhs Rs. In case of the herbal shampoos. The closest source for procuring raw materials (apart from herbal ingredients) is Hyderabad or Delhi. lakhs Rs. 110 263 lakhs % 154% 66% Note: 1. lakhs Rs. Annual sales values indicated above are after taking into consideration opening and closing stocks SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS AND PACKING MATERIALS The raw materials that are required for manufacturing shampoo products are not locally available in NER.Particulars Capacity Utilisation Sales Realisation Variable Cost of Sales Direct Material Unit Yr 1 Yr 2 Yr 3 Yr 4 Yr 5 Yr 6 Yr 7 (%) 50% Rs. Figures indicated above are rounded-off 2. lakhs Rs. the raw materials and packing materials can be procured from West Cluster (Mumbai. lakhs Rs. etc. Repairs and Maintenance) Repairs and Maintenance Manpower Cost Interest on Term Loan Total Fixed Cost Break Even Point Actual Sales Realisation Break Even Sales at % of Capacity Rs. lakhs 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 102 214 214 214 214 214 214 Contribution Rs. Arunachal Pradesh. Mentioned below are few sources of raw materials- .) through the Government approved agencies. lakhs Rs. few vendors are present in NER but they are relatively small in size. lakhs Rs. As far as packing materials are concerned. Additionally. lakhs Rs. lakhs 110 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 263 263 263 263 263 263 55 132 132 132 132 132 132 20 47 47 47 47 47 47 6 11 11 11 11 11 11 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Interest on Working Capital Total Variable Costs Rs. etc) but the cost of transportation will increase substantially. Ahmedabad. lakhs 7 49 49 49 49 49 49 7 12 12 12 12 12 12 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 7 6 5 4 3 27 32 31 31 30 29 28 168 263 163 263 159 263 154 263 150 263 64% 62% 60% 59% 57% Packing Cost Conversion Cost Direct Labour Fixed Costs Other overheads (excl. certain raw materials like Heena and other herbs are available in NER (in hilly states like Meghalaya. lakhs 405 173 Rs. lakhs Rs. lakhs Rs.

400067 Tel: +(91)-(022)-28390770 Rolex Lanolin Products Ltd. Road. 22855034 Fax: +(91)-(022)-22821779 Standard Silica Pvt. Nariman Point. Road. Delhi. 52/58 Babu Genu Road. Arcadia Building. T. 24-26 Jivraj Shamji Building. Civil Lines. Ground Floor. Rana Pratap Bagh. J. Churchgate. G. 5Th Floor. Delhi. Andheri (E).com India Dye Chem D 9. Mumbai. 7Th Floor. Mumbai. Mumbai. Tata Road. P. Industrial Assurance Building. P.110007 Tel: +(91)-(011)-27244736 Fax: +(91)-(011)-27459097 Jayant Vitamins Limited 12. Mumbai. 22017395 Fax: +(91)-(022)-22015990 Silicones Industries (India) Limited 502. Ltd. Bandra (E).400020 Tel: +(91)-(022)-22821113 Suru Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals 11 Sona Udyog.22911653.EI Dupont India Limited Sahar Plaza Complex.110054 Tel: +(91)-(011). Bhargava Lane.400002 Tel: +(91)-(022)-22012251. Mumbai-400021 Tel: +(91)-(022)-22855033.400069 Tel: +(91)-(022)-28378500 Fax: +(91)-(022)-28376321 Email: info@suru. 22519414 Mentioned below are few sources of packing materials- .

mktg@vsnl. Opera House.com Classic Crown & Closures 21. 24095829 Fax: +(91)-(022)-24078219 Email: sales@vorapack. S.Anil Tubes 524 Sandharst Building. Kolkata. Estate. Crescent I E. Ahire Marg.in Caravan Packaging Limited G 3. Haryana.net. Ranade Road. Smaller clusters for machinery manufacturers include Delhi. Andheri (E).400019 Tel: +(91)-(022)-24078193. Ahmedabad. etc. Kherani Road. King’s Circle. . K. Ltd.400028 Tel: +(91)-(022)-24467704 Fax: +(91)-(022)-24368477 Vora Packaging Pvt. Shivaji Park. S V P Road. Most of the machinery manufacturers are based in Mumbai. Mumbai. Hind Service Estate.400004 Tel: +(91)-(022)-23896559 Fax: +(91)-(022)-23802286 Email: anilchem. Saki Naka. Mumbai -400072 Tel: +(91)-(022)-28522859 SOURCE OF MACHINERY AND EQUIPMANT Most of the machinery for manufacturing shampoo products is manufactured locally. Mumbai. Mumbai. 467/A. TV Indl. Off.

D.24168516 Spanpak Systems B 136. New Delhi-110064 Tel: +(91)-(011). Ltd.7291805 Website: www.24162551 Fax: +(91)-(022). Worli. Amsedkar Road.atlascopco. Road.27146416/17 Fax: +(91)-(020).com Atlas Copco (India) Limited Sevanagar.27146637 Website: www. Clock Tower.net.27292103.400012 Tel: +(91)-(022). Vatva.400018 Tel: +(91)-(022).23354465 Swastik Industries A 76. 4. Ambekar Nagar. Pune.com Aquatech India Limited Plot No. Phase II.24964926 Email: autopack@bom3.411019 Tel: +(91)-(020). Pvt. Okhla Industrial Area. LBS Marg. Road. P. Ahmedabad.thermaxindia. Parel. Near D.vsnl. Gopal Das Bhawan. Industrial Estate. 28. Mumbai. DDA Shed. Ltd. G.27538203 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT Thermax (India) Limited Thermax House. Mumbai-Pune Road. 24934406 Fax: +(91)-(022). Vatva.24974800.110001 Tel: +(91)-(011).com . New Delhi. Baner Park. Pune. New Delhi. 1804. Ghatkopar. 3. GIDC Industrial Area. 101 C. Phase III.aquatech. 3604/ 05.25415882 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Limited 1St Floor.in Packing Machinery Pvt.28597620 Ambica Engineering Works Plot NO. 27291104 Fax: +(91)-(020). Shivajinagar. 380045 Tel: +(91)-(079)-22744262 Fax: +(91)-(079)-22744262 Cadmach Machinery Co. GIDC Phase IV.25512122 Fax: +(91)-(020). M/ Celler.110020 Tel: +(91)-(011). Plot No. Ltd.400080 Tel: +(91)-(022). 382445 Tel: +(91)-(079)-25831491 Emkey Engineering Works B 33. Ahmedabad. Mumbai. Dr. B. A. Mumbai. Dapodi.PROCESS EQUIPMENT Autopack Machines Pvt. Pune. Poonam Chambers.411012 Tel: +(91)-(020).Barakhamba Road.411007 Tel: +(91)-(020). Ghatkopar (W).25512242 Website: www. Aundh. Hari Nagar.

400011 Tel: +(91)-(022).ionxchng.commun@ho.in Courtesy : NEDFi . Pune.24938737 Website: www.ionindia. Dr.27147711 Ion Exchange.Email: asa@aquatech. Moses Road.co. E.4110112 Tel: +(91)-(020). Mumbai.24939520/23/25 Fax: +(91)-(022).com Alfa Laval (India) Limited Shivajinagar. Mumbai Tiecicon House. Mahalaxmi.com Email: ho.27147721 Fax: +(91)-(020).

ความไม เที่ยงตรงของเครื่องวัดน้ําหนักในหมอผสม 4. The scope of this study is focused on soft.24 และระยะเวลาใน การผลิตลดลงจาก 151 นาที เปน 116 นาทีซึ่งคิดเปน รอยละ 23. it was found that there were 4 major problems that impact to production Right First Time.12 ไปเปนรอยละ 78. They include 1. . Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Cause and Effect diagram are used as quality tools for problem identification and analysis in shampoo production.เชียงใหม แขวงคลองสาน เขตคลองสาน กทม. which is the large volume shampoo production of the case study company that starts from raw material preparation step until discharging to storage tank.คุณภาพของวัตถุดิบในการ ผลิต 2.18 Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop standard procedure for shampoo products in cosmetic manufacturing for the improvement in term of Right First Time. FMEA) และ แผนภูมกิ ารวิเคราะหเหตุและผล (Cause and Effect diagram) ไดถูกนํามาใชในการวิเคราะหและระบุถึง ปญหาในกระบวนการผลิตแชมพู จากการศึกษามีการ พบวามีปญหาหลักๆที่สงผลถึงเรื่อง Right First Time อยู 4 ประการ ซึ่งก็คือ 1. 10600 โทรศัพท 0898912824. clean and beauty shampoo production. Based on this study.com บทคัดยอ งานวิจยั นี้มวี ตั ถุประสงคเพื่อศึกษาการจัดทํา มาตรฐานสําหรับกระบวนการผลิตแชมพูในโรงงาน เครื่องสําอางเพื่อการปรับปรุงประสิทธิภาพในเรื่องของ Right First Time ขอบขายของการวิจัยจะเนนถึง กระบวนการผลิตแชมพูในกลุมเพื่อใหผมนุมสวย ซึ่ง เปนกลุมที่มกี ารผลิตมากทีส่ ุดของบริษทั ที่เปน กรณีศึกษา โดยจะเริ่มตั้งแตกระบวนการเตรียม วัตถุดิบจนกระทั่งถึงการถายผลิตภัณฑไปยังถังเก็บ การวิเคราะหลักษณะขอบกพรองและผลกระทบ (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis.ความ ผิดพลาดจากคน ปญหาเหลานีไ้ ดนาํ ไปสูปญหาใน เรื่องของ Right First Time และ ระยะเวลาในการผลิต ซึ่งสงผลกระทบตอประสิทธิภาพของการผลิต จากผล การวิเคราะหนําไปสูการจัดทําขั้นตอนมาตรฐานซึ่ง เปรียบเสมือนเปนตัวควบคุมคุณภาพในกระบวนการ ผลิตแชมพู ผลจากการทําขั้นตอนมาตรฐานนีไ้ ดชวย ใหเรื่องของ Right First Time ในการผลิตปรับปรุงจาก รอยละ 60.การจัดทํามาตรฐานในกระบวนการผลิตแชมพู Development of Standard Procedure for Shampoo Production จักรพันธ บุญกิตติพร 121 ถ. 024397344 E-mail: oung_22@hotmail.ความบกพรองของวิธีการทํางาน 3.

Moreover. As a result. The result of analysis leads to the development of standard procedures which serve as quality control for shampoo production. production batch time also can be reduced from 151 minutes to 116 minutes which is 23. human error. Production process will be analyzed to identify potential failures that affect to the product quality and process performance. China and India are fast developing country and they have quite low cost on labor and many resources to develop their businesses. standard procedure deficiency 3. Data collection will be considered and apply to achieve process standard of production. This implementation can help improve Right First Time and production batch time in the shampoo production.18%. inaccuracy of load cell in main mixer 4. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is studied in this study as a tool to help developing process standard in cosmetic manufacturing to improve production management in terms of quality. Batch time . Introduction At present. color standard are product parameters that must be controlled to get the right product quality and they have to be adjusted several time before getting the proper specification. Production batch time of shampoo products should be improved as well since shampoo is the main product of this plant.12% to 78.quality of raw material 2. Companies have to find the way to gain more market share and profits to stay in the business. Statement of the problem From cosmetic plant data. 1. pH. Cosmetic industry is also one of them that can not survive without efficient production management. This also affect to the production batch time since it takes a lot of time per each adjustment. companies in Thailand need to 2. Manufacturing efficiency improving including production cost reducing plays vital part on any industries. Viscosity.24%. cost and time. These problems lead to Right First Time and production batch time problem which affect to production. Since we live in global village now.12% for Shampoo products which is relatively low. develop their competition edge to compete with international competitors and also the local one. it impacts to the productivity and efficiency of cosmetic plant. density. the competition in many businesses is very intense. The Right First Time can improve from 60. Cause and effect of that failure including process control will also be identified and evaluated. %active. it can achieve the Right First Time only 60. process improvement is even more significant important. Consequently.

there are other problems occurred in the cosmetic plant such as machine break down. Since Right-First-Time problem can affect to the production batch time problem. product development supervisor and quality assurance supervisor. water and steam will also reduce as batch time reduces as well. man.reduction can be a huge benefit to the factory. method and machine. FMEA team members will brainstorm all potential causes of failure for each process step of shampoo production process that affect to Right First Time problem. Process FMEA Table will be used in documentation and facilitating the FMEA process. The ideas would be classified into 5 categories of cause and effect diagram – material. This process will be facilitated by using process flow chart of shampoo production. measurement. In addition. Recommended actions need to be filled in process FMEA table. Research Methodology Process FMEA is applied to eliminate or minimize all possible causes that have impact to Right First Time problem in shampoo production. The information from this analysis will be used to fill in the columns of the process FMEA table in relationship to the potential effects of failure and current process control. Cause and Effect diagram technique will be used to categorize the team’s ideas. Table 1: Percentage of Right First Time of shampoo products Table 2: Production batch time of shampoo products 3. . The FMEA concept is “team approach”. Energy cost such as electricity. so the FMEA team must be crossfunctional and they must be willing to contribute to the project. Standard procedure is needed to be developed for control raw material specification and mixing process of shampoo production to improve this production Right First Time. However. Responsibility and Target Completion Date is also important when assigning to appropriate team member. process development supervisor. it does not influence too much on the factory. it should be the focus improvement of this research. The team in this study consists of production engineer.

the author will use those criteria in rating the score in order to prevent the confusion when implement this FMEA process to the case study company.Table 3: Severity evaluation criteria Table 4: Occurrence evaluation criteria Figure 1: Process flow chart of shampoo production Table 5: Detection evaluation criteria Figure 2: Cause and Effect Diagram Since the case study company has their own evaluation criteria about the score of severity. occurrence and detection. It means that the RPN of failure that has higher score than 18 must be addressed and taken into consideration to find solution and improvement. . The FMEA team agrees to pursue failures on RPN value > 18 based on maximum score for the RPN is 125 (5*5*5 from severity. In addition. occurrence at 3 and detection at 3. occurrence and detection). RPN score at 18 come from acceptable level of severity at 2.

Table 6: Example of process FMEA for shampoo production .

At last. . Therefore. the FMEA team implements them in shampoo production. Quality Assurance Process Development After the recommended actions are finished. 15 items of high-risk area are addressed. In addition. the FMEA team can have meeting to take proper actions to find the solutions for those failures.Table 7: Summary of process FMEA that the RPN value is higher than 18 Table 8: Summary action for FMEA project Production From Summary of process FMEA that the RPN value is higher than 18. The team collects the data of Right First Time problem in shampoo production and compares with before implement the improvement. items and standard procedure column of action plan in table 8 are represented as the action to improve the failures in table 7 and standard procedure generated to solve the problems respectively. the action plan is created for each related departments.

Moreover.Right First Time % Right First Time after implementation 21. % Right First Time before implementation 39. production batch time also reduce from 151 to 116 min after the implementation. After the FMEA implementation. shampoo production in this case study achieves the Right First Time only 60. Results Prior to FMEA implementation. This will lead to reduction of production cost and help the company has more competitive power to compete in the market and gain more profit.Right First Time Figure 3: Comparison of Right First Time between before and after the implementation Figure 4: Comparison of production batch time between before and after the implementation 5. this implementation can help improve Right First Time and production batch time in the shampoo production.88% 60.12% Right First Time Non. As a result. Production can save time from quality control time because of higher Right First Time achievement.4.24% Right First Time Non. Conclusion Main problems of shampoo production are quality of raw material and standard procedure deficiency which can be controlled . this shampoo production can achieve the Right First Time target at 78.24% of total batches.76% 78. This will lead to batch time reduction for shampoo production.12% of total batches. Therefore.18% when compare with prior to the implement starting. this company can save production batch time for 23.

Right First Time of this shampoo production has increased from 60. This raw material needs to be completely dissolved in order to let shampoo has its fully cleansing property.12% to 78.2%. The standard procedure for shampoo production would be summarized as following. 2. The procedure for percentage of viscosity modifier measurement is generated. 2. there is improvement in term of production Right First Time and production batch time. The new mixing procedure can help team to control this material. Moreover. To improve Right First Time for shampoo production. ƒ Functional material This material will help shampoo provide conditioning effect to consumer. ƒ Amount of water Amount of water for flushing in the shampoo production can lead to inconsistent of %AI in shampoo batch. Base on the result. ƒ Surfactant 1. From these . Therefore. Since the alternative material is quite hard to dissolve in the mixer. In order to improve Right First Time of shampoo production.18% batch time reduction. surfactant must be added at 12. ƒ Viscosity modifier 1. so the procedure to ensure surfactant dissolution is generated. new standard procedure for preparing this material has to be generated. viscosity modifier needs to be controlled at 25%. team will pre-weigh water for flushing in shampoo batch follow by new standard procedure instead of flushing in different amount as operators usually do. The right amount of functional material can be added into main mixer by new standard procedure. Standard procedure for percentage of active measurement for surfactant would help team to know amount of surfactant that would be added in the production. From implementing these standard procedures. ƒ Preparation of suspending agent The preparation process of suspending agent must cover an alternative material problem. ƒ pH modifier Standard procedure for % pH modifier measurement would help control pH modifier specification and improve Right First Time.and improved by these new standard procedures. Production batch time is also reduced from 151 minutes to 116 minutes which is 23.24%.

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