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Global System for Mobiles
Mrs. Shweta Shah



Principles of Cellular Telecommunications
Features of GSM
GSM Network Components
GSM Terrestrial Interfaces
Introduction to Microcellular


Principles of Cellular Telecommunications
Features of GSM
GSM Network Components
GSM Terrestrial Interfaces
Introduction to Microcellular

anywhere. 4 .Basic concept  Cellular system developed to provide mobile telephony: telephone access “anytime.”  This was a simplified version of the system used today.

.  Users within the coverage area transmit and receive signals from the base station.  Users outside the coverage area receive/transmit signals with too low amplitude for reliable communications.System Architecture  A base station provides coverage (communication capabilities) to users on mobile phones within its coverage area.  The base station itself is connected to the wired telephone network.

First Mobile Telephone System One and only one high power base station with which all users communicate. Normal Telephone System Entire Coverage Area Wired connection .

police car phones.g.. e.Problem with Original Design  Original mobile telephone system could only support a handful of users at a time…over an entire city!  With only one high power base station. users phones also needed to be able to transmit at high powers (to reliably transmit signals to the distant base station). 7 .  Car phones were therefore much more feasible than handheld phones.

Improved Design  Over the next few decades.  Although these core ideas existed since the 60’s. researchers at AT&T Bell Labs developed the core ideas for today’s cellular systems. it was not until the 80’s that electronic equipment became available to realize a cellular system. 8 .  In the mid 80’s the first generation of cellular systems was developed and deployed.

 The cellular concept: multiple lower-power base stations that service mobile users within their coverage area and handoff users to neighboring base stations as users move.The Core Idea: Cellular Concept  The core idea that led to today’s system was the cellular concept. 9 . Together base stations tessellate the system coverage area.

GSM: System Architecture 10 .

GSM network  Divided into Mainly Four Parts:  The Mobile Station  The Base Station Subsystem (BSS)  The Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS)  The operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) or The Operations and Maintenance System (OMS) 11 .

12 .

System Architecture  Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)  Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC)  Network Subsystem Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR) 13 .

Therefore. 15 .Mobile Station (MS = ME + SIM) The MS (Mobile Station) is a combination of terminal equipment and subscriber data. ME + SIM = MS. The terminal equipment as such is called ME (Mobile Equipment) and the subscriber's data is stored in a separate module called SIM (Subscriber Identity Module).

which is unique for that particular device and permanently stored in it.  This identity number is called the International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) 16 .MS  The hardware has an identity number associated with it.

Mobile Equipment  There are three main types of ME:  Mobile phone handset mounted equipment or vehicle  Portable Mobile Phone  Handheld Unit 18 .

Mobile Equipment Different Terminals : differing principally by their power and application namely. max allowed output power is 20 W. Advanced technologies can decrease it to 0.  Fixed terminals : installed in cars.8 W 19 .  Portable Terminals : allowed output power is 8W.  Handheld terminals: ~ 2 W.

 RF power capabilities  Encryption capability  Frequency capability  Short message service capability 20 .

21 .  Any alterations within the SIM is protected against IMSI.Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)  It is a smart card which plug into the ME and contains information about the MS subscriber  The SIM contains several pieces of information:  International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)  This number identifies the MS subscriber. it is periodically changed by the system management to protect the subscriber from being identified by someone attempting to monitor the radio interface.  Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI)  This number identifies the subscriber. It is only transmitted over the air during initialization.

It is comprised of a country code.  Mobile Station International Digital Network (MSISDN) Services  This is the telephone number of the mobile subscriber. a network code and a subscriber number.  Most of the data contained within the SIM is protected against reading (Ki). Location Area Identity (LAI)  Identifies the current location of the subscriber. Also updates the current location of subscriber. 22 .  Subscriber Authentication Key (Ki)  This is used to authenticate the SIM card.

 In order to identify subscriber to the system. 23 .  Terminal can not be operated without SIM  SIM is protected by four digit personal identity Number (PIN)  SIM cards are designed to be difficult to duplicate. user can access all the subscribed services.Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)  SIM is a smart card that identifies the terminal After inserting SIM into terminal. subscriber can use any services in any terminal. SIM uses parameters like IMSI  Using SIM.

This makes international roaming independent of mobile equipment and network technologies. 24 . The subscriber is identified by an identity number called the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI).  SIM can store SMS. charging information and list of important numbers.  SIM achieves separation of user mobility from equipment mobility.  The SIM also executes the Authentication Algorithm.

 The BSS provides the link between the MS and the MSC. 25 .Base Station System (BSS)  It comprises a combination of digital and RF equipment.  The BSS communicates with the MS over the digital air interface and with the MSC via 2 Mbit/s links.

 three major hardware components:  The Base Transceiver Station – BTS  The Base Station Controller – BSC  The Transcoder – XCDR 26 .

27 .

portability & minimum costs  Limited control functionality 28 .  It communicates with the MS.  Each BTS will support 1 or more cells.  Consists of high speed transmitter and receivers (up to 16) depending upon density of the user.The Base Transceiver Station – BTS  It contains the RF components that provide the air interface for a particular cell.  It’s transmission power defines the size of the cell  Requirements for BTS: reliability.  The antenna is included as part of the BTS.

The Base Station Controller – BSC  Controls multiple BTS  Performs radio resource management  Assigns and releases frequencies and time slots for all the MS in its area  Reallocation of frequencies among cells  Hand over protocol  Time and frequency synchronization signals to BTS  Power Management of BTS and MS 29 .

30 .

hopping BSC X X X Mgmt of terrestrial channels X Mapping of terrestrial onto radio channels X Channel coding & decoding X Rate adaptation X Encryption & decryption X X Paging X X U/L signal measurement X Traffic measurement X Authentication X Location’s registry & update X Handover mgmt X 31 .FUNCTION BTS Mgmt of radio channels Freq.

but they also adds redundancy into the network. A BTS need not communicate directly with the BSC which controls it. or located at different sites “Remote”. including stars and loops. 32 .  Another BSS configuration is the daisy chain.  chaining BTSs adds transmission delay hence the length of the chain must be kept sufficiently short to prevent the round trip speech delay.  Other topologies are also permitted.BSS Configurations  The BTSs and BSC may either be located at the same cell site “co-located”.  Daisy chaining reduces the amount of cabling as a BTS can be connected to its nearest BTS rather than all the way to the BSC. it can be connected to the BSC via a chain of BTSs.

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 Although the transcoder is considered to be a part of the BSS. it is very often located closer to the MSC.The Transcoder – XCDR  The Transcoder is used to compact the signals from the MS so that they are more efficiently sent over the terrestrial interfaces. 34 . it is often found physically closer to the NSS to allow more efficient use of the terrestrial links.  Although the transcoder is part of the BSS.

35 .

 It is required to convert the speech or data output from the MSC (64 kbit/s PCM).  Rate Adaptation is required when the equipment at one end is a TA (Terminal Adapter) connected to a synchronous or asynchronous device (or ISDN network) running at a speed lower than 64Kbps. into the form specified by GSM specifications for transmission over the air interface. that is. . between the BSS and MS (16 kbps and vice versa).Transcoder (XCDR)  This is an entity that performs a transcoding function for speech channels and RA (Rate Adaptation) for data channels.

 The content of the 16 kbps data depends on the coding algorithm used.  The required bandwidth is therefore reduced by processing the 64 kbps so that the amount of information required to transmit digitized voice falls to a gross rate of 16 kbps. The 64 kbit/s (PCM) if transmitted on the air interface without modification. would occupy an excessive amount of radio bandwidth.  There are two speech coding algorithms:   Full Rate speech algorithm Enhanced Full Rate speech algorithm .

Speech coding .

8 kbps on the air interface which includes forward error correction.8 kbps 3 kbps of control data Forward error correction .  In the uplink direction the BTS adds in TRAU data which will be used by the transcoder. 13 kbps compressed speech + 22.  The 13 kbps of speech data is processed at the BTS to form a gross rate of 22. The TRAU data on the downlink will be used by the BTS.Full Rate speech algorithm  It produces 13 kbps of coded speech data plus 3 kbps of control data which is commonly referred to as TRAU data (Transcoder Rate Adaption Unit).

Enhanced Full Rate speech algorithm  It is an improved speech coding algorithm and is only supported by Phase 2+ mobiles and is optional in the Network. i. .  It produces 12.e.  One block of the full-rate speech codec consists of 260 bits of speech data. 182 bits.2 kbps from each 64 kbps PCM channel. which must be encoded.  The TRAU data in this case is made up to 3.8 kbps to keep the channel rate to and from the BTS at 16 kbps as for Full Rate. each block contains 260 information bits. They are graded into two classes (class I. class II. 78 bits) which have different sensitivity against bit errors.

4 kbps may also be used) up to a gross rate of 16 kbps. .8 kbps or 2.6 kbps (4.Data coding  For data transmissions the data is not transcoded but data rate adapted from 9.


Network Switching System .

 Includes Databases needed in order to store information about subscribers and to manage their mobility.  It manages communications between the GSM network and other Telecommunications networks. ISDN user. 48 .Network Switching System  Main role : to manage communications between mobile users and other users like another mobile user. PSTN user etc.

 The components of the Network Switching System are listed below:        Mobile Services Switching Centre – MSC Home Location Register – HLR Visitor Location Register – VLR Equipment Identity Register – EIR Authentication Centre – AUC InterWorking Function – IWF Echo Canceller – EC 49 .

50 .

Mobile Services Switching Centre (MSC)  Mainly do call switching like telephone exchange  It is the Central part of NSS.  When the MSC provides the interface between the PSTN and the BSSs in the GSM network it will be known as a Gateway MSC (GMSC).  Allocation of radio resource (RR)  Handover 51 .

 The functions carried out by the MSC are listed below:
 Call Processing

 Includes control of data/voice call setup,
 inter-BSS and inter-MSC handovers and
 control of mobility management (subscriber validation and

 Operations and Maintenance Support
 Includes database management,
 traffic metering and measurement, and

 Internetwork Interworking

 Manages the interface between the GSM network and
the PSTN.

 Billing

 Collects call billing data.


HLR (home location register)
 Considered as very important data base that stores
information of subscriber belongings to covering area
of MSC.
 Store the current location of subscriber and services
to which they have access.
 HLR maintain the following data on a permanent basis:
 Subscriber ID ( IMSI and MSISDN)
 Current location
 Supplementary Service subscription to
 Supplementary Service information and restriction.
 Mobile terminal characteristics.
 Billing/account information.
 Subscriber status (registered / deregistered)
 Authentication key and AUC functionality
 Mobile subscriber roaming number

 When subscriber enter the coverage area of new MSC. VLR associated to this new MSC and it will request the information about the new subscriber from corresponding HLR.VLR (visitor location register)  The VLR contains a copy of most of the data stored at the HLR. 55 .

 Temporary subscriber information resides in VLR includes:  Mobile status (busy/free/no answer etc.  Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN).).  Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI). 56 .  Location Area Identity (LAI).

 Each VLR controls several LAIs and as a subscriber moves from one LAI to another.  As the subscriber moves from one VLR to another. a location area may typically contain 30 cells. the LAI is updated in the VLR. the VLR address is updated at the HLR.  Each area is assigned a Location Area Identity (LAI). 57 . Location Area Identity  Cells within the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) are grouped together into geographical areas.

58 . yet only by a single MSC Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number. •It is the area in which the subscriber is paged. •Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers.•The location area is a group of cells.

this makes it very difficult for the call to be traced and therefore provides a high degree of security for the subscriber.  On entry to a new LAI.  The TMSI may be updated in any of the following situations:  Call setup. 59 . Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity  The VLR controls the allocation of new Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) numbers and notifies them to the HLR.  On entry to a new VLR.  The TMSI will be updated frequently.

the TMSI or the MSRN.  Typically there will be one VLR per MSC. 60 .  This number is assigned from a list of numbers held at the VLR (MSC). Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number  As a subscriber may wish to operate outside its “home” system at some time.  The MSRN is then used to route the call to the MSC which controls the base station in the MSs current location. the VLR can also allocate a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN).  The database in the VLR can be accessed by the IMSI.

as it is registered in the VLR of the MSC.An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is covered by one MSC and which is reachable. 61 .

The PLMN service area is an area served by one network operator. 62 .

GSM identifiers  Identification of Mobile Subscriber  International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)  Temporary IMSI (TMSI)  Mobile Subscriber ISDN number (MSISDN)  Identification of Mobile Equipment  International Mobile Station Equipment Identification (IMEI)  Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) 63 .

64 . not more than 15 digits IMSI= MCC + MNC + MSIN where.International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)  Stored in SIM. MCC : Mobile Country Code MNC : Mobile Network Code (CODE OF HLR) MSIN : Mobile Subscriber Identification No.

IMEI (International mobile station equipment identity )  Uniquely identifies mobile equipment internationally  unique 17 or 15 digits = type approval code + final assembly code + serial number + spare digit • IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR + SP  Type Allocation Code: 6 decimal places centrally assigned  Final Assembly Code: 2 decimal places manufacturer-specific code  Serial Number: 6 decimal places uniquely identifying a unit of this model  Spare : 1 decimal place • Is registered by the Network operator and stored in Equipment Identity Register (EIR) 65 .

 Periodically changed by VLR  Local Mobile Subscriber Identity (LMSI)  Is an additional searching key given by VLR  It is also sent to HLR  Both are assigned in an operator specific way 66 .TMSI and LMSI  Temporary mobile subscriber identity (TMSI):  32-bit number assigned by VLR to uniquely identify a mobile station within a VLR’s area  Has only local and temporal significance  Is used in place of IMSI for security reasons  Valid in the range of VLR.

Mobile Subscriber ISDN number MSISDN     “real telephone number” of a MS It is stored centrally in the HLR MS can have several MSISDNs depending on SIM It follows international ISDN numbering plan  Country Code (CC): upto 3 decimal places  National Destination Code (NDC): 2-3 decimal places  Subscriber Number (SN) : maximal 10 decimal places  MSISDN =CC + NDC + SN 67 .

Location Area Identifier LAI  Location Area Identifier of an LA of a PLMN  Based on international ISDN numbering plan  Country Code (CC): 3 decimal digits  Mobile Network Code (MNC): 2 decimal digits  Location Area Code (LAC) : maximum 5 decimal digits. coded in hexadecimal  Is broadcast regularly by the BTS on broadcast channel 68 . or maximum twice 8 bits.

 It is maximum 2*8 bits  LAI + CI = Global Cell Identity 69 . individual cells are uniquely identified with Cell Identifier (CI).Cell Identifier (CI)  Within LA.

• The GSM network identifies each cell via the global cell identity (GCI) number assigned to each cell. 70 .•The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station.

MSRN (Mobile Station Roaming Number)  Temporary location-dependent on ISDN number  Calls are routed to MS by using MSRN  Is assigned by locally responsible VLR to each MS in its area  Is done either at each registration or when HLR requests it for setting up a connection for incoming call  Is done in such a way that current MSC can be determined from it  Structure same as that of MSISDN  To hide exact identity of subscriber.  VCC : Visitor Country Code  VNDC : Visitor National Destination Code 71 .

 GMSC is often implemented in the same machine.Gateway Mobile Switching Centre (GMSC)  Gateway is a node interconnecting two networks. 72 .  International Switching Centre (ISC) : is used to connect to other mobile networks of international networks.  GMSC is the interface between cellular mobile network and PSTN.

 Black List  Contains IMEIs of MS which have been reported stolen or which are to be denied service for some other reason. however.  Grey List  Contains IMEIs of MS which have problems (for example. 73 .Equipment Identity Register (EIR)  The EIR contains a centralized database for validating the IMEI  The EIR database consists of lists of IMEIs organized as :  White List  Contains those IMEIs which are known to have been assigned to valid MS equipment. faulty software). These are not. sufficiently significant to warrant a ‘‘black listing”.

Call Processing Functions (EIR) 74 .

 The authentication process will usually take place each time the subscriber “initializes” on the system. 75 .  The AUC/HLR centre can be co-located with the MSC or located remote from the MSC.Authentication Centre (AUC)  It will normally be co-located with the HLR as it will be required to continuously access and update as necessary the system subscriber records.

secure data stored on the SIM card is calculated and compared with the data held in the HLR database.Authentication Process    1. which is held in the SIM card. This number is calculated together with Authentication Key (Ki) stored in the SIM card by authentication algorithms (A3. The AUC is a processor system. The Authentication Process is as follows: A random number (RAND) is sent to the Mobile from the AUC. It performs the "authentication " function. A8). 76 . 2. In the authentication process.



The calculation of RAND and Ki will get two results.
I. a response called as SRES, which are returned
to the AUC.
II. Another is an Encryption Key (Kc) which is
stored in the SIM card.
The Encryption key is used to encrypt data that
is sent over the air interface in order to make the
interface more secure.
While the mobile is carrying out these calculations,
the AUC carries out exactly the same
calculations using the RAND and ki stored in the
HLR. Then AUC also gets a response.


The AUC compares it with the response from the
subscriber. If the responses produced by the AUC
and the subscriber are the same, the subscriber is
permitted to access the network.


The Encryption Key produced by the AUC is stored
and sent to the BTS to enable ciphering to take


this depends upon the network to which it is being connected.  Some systems require more IWF capability than others.Interworking Function (IWF)  The IWF provides the function to enable the GSM system to interface with the various forms of public and private data networks currently available. 81 .  Data rate adaption.  Protocol conversion.  The basic features of the IWF are listed below.



But this case will be very different for the call between MS and land subscriber.Echo Canceller (EC)  An Echo Canceller is used between PSTN and MSC for all voice circuits.  The GSM system delay may be caused by processing. 84 . speech encoding and decoding etc. This would not be apparent to the call between MS. call  The total round trip delay is approximately 180ms.  Echo control is required at the MSC because the GSM system delay can cause an unacceptable echo condition even on a short distance with PSTN.

with the GSM round trip delay added and without the EC. It is well known that. .wire to 4wire hybrid transformer is required in the circuit because the standard telephone connection is 2wire.  This transformer causes the echo. in the PSTN a 2. the effect would be very irritating to the MS subscriber and disturbing speech. Thus.  However. During a normal PSTN land to land call. which does not affect the land subscriber. no echo is apparent because the delay is too short and the user is unable to distinguish. Echo controller is required between PSTN and MSC.



 This area of the GSM network is not currently tightly specified by the GSM specifications.  The Operations and Maintenance System comprises of two parts.Operations and Maintenance System  The operations and maintenance system provides the capability to manage the GSM network remotely. . it is left to the network provider to decide what capabilities they wish it to have.


 The NMC resides at the top of the hierarchy and provides global network management.Network Management Centre (NMC)  The Network Management Centre (NMC) has a view of the entire PLMN and is responsible for the management of the network as a whole. .

Monitors nodes on the network 2. Enables long term planning for the entire network . Monitors GSM network element statistics 3.Functionality of NMC 1. Passes on statistical information from one OMC region to another to improve problem solving strategies 4.

 OMC-R : OMC assigned specifically to BSS  OMC-S : OMC assigned specifically to NSS . BSC and BTS.Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC)  Operation and Maintenance Center is a centralized facility that supports daily management for the whole GSM system including MSC. HLR.  An OMC manages a certain area of the PLMN thus giving regionalized network management.  The OMC provides a central point from which to control and monitor the whole network entities as well as monitor the quality of service provided by the network.

. 4. The OMC should support the following functions as per ITS–TS recommendations: 1. Performance Management. Configuration Management. Fault Management. Security Management. 5. 3. Event/Alarm Management. 2.

OMC Functional Architecture .


infrastructure .