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Section A

[60 marks]
Answer all questions in this section
1. Diagram 1.1 shows the Vernier calipers which is used to measure the internal diameter, d,
and the thickness, l, of the mug in Diagram 1.2.

Table 1 shows the measurements obtained.

Quantity measured
Internal diameter, d
Thickness, l

Measurement
7.25 cm
0.75 cm
Table 1

(a) What is the sensitivity of the Vernier calipers?

_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(b) Match the quantities measured with the parts of the Vernier calipers that used to
measure the mug.

X
Internal diameter, d
Y
Thickness, l
Z
[2 marks]
(c) Name one measuring instrument that is more sensitive than the Vernier calipers.
_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
2. Diagram 2.1 shows a spring mattress which has elasticity properties.
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(a) (i)

What is the meaning of elasticity?

_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(ii)

Give one reason why a spring will not return to its original length when
extended to a certain length.
_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(b) Diagram 2.2 shows a spring with original length of 10 cm extended to 15 cm when
100 g load is attached to the spring.

(i)

What is the extension of the spring?

_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(ii)

Diagram 2.3 shows a spring system which consists of three identical springs
and 100 g load attached.

Calculate the value of y.

[2 marks]
3. Diagram 3.1 shows a feather and a plastic ball release from the same height.

The velocity time graph for the two objects is shown in Diagram 3.2

(a) Name two forces acting on the feather and the plastics ball.

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(b) Using the graph in Diagram 3.2,
(i)

Explain the motion of both objects.

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(ii)

State which object will reach the ground first.

_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(c) Explain your answer in (b) (ii).

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(d) The feather and the plastic ball are now dropped in a vacuum. Compare the motion of
the two objects?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
4. Diagram 4.1 shows a metal block of mass 1 kg at initial temperature 30 oC is heated by 12
V, 48 W immersion heater for 15 minutes.

(a) What is meant by specific heat capacity?

_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(b) If the final temperature is 90oC, calculate the specific heat capacity of metal block.
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[2 marks]
(c) Diagram 4.2 shows a phenomenon which occur in our daily life.

(i)

Using the physics concept, explain how the phenomenon occurs.

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
[3 marks]

(ii)

Name the phenomenon that occurs

_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

5. Diagram 5.1 shows a ray of light entering from the air to liquid A.
Diagram 5.2 shows a ray of light entering from ait into liquid B.

(a) (i)

Compare the speed of light in a liquid medium with the speed of the light in

air.
_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(ii)

State the common characteristic for the bending of light ray in Diagram 5.1
and Diagram 5.2.
____________________________________________________________________
_

[1 mark]
(iii)

State the relationship between the change in the speed of light and the
direction of bending of light when light moves from one medium into another
medium.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(iv)

Name the phenomenon shown in Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2

_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(b) Diagram 5.3 shows a point P at the bottom of a swimming pool appears to be at point
Q to the observer.
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(i)

Complete Diagram 5.3 by drawing light ray to show how the image of the
point P is seen at Q.
[2 marks]

(ii)

Calculate the refractive index of the water in the swimming pool.

[2 marks]
6. Diagram 6.1, Diagram 6.2 and Diagram 6.3 show identical metal blocks of mass 40 g
which are in the three different situations.

Diagram 6.1

Diagram 6.2

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Diagram 6.3

(i)

Compare the reading of the spring balances.

_______________________________________________________________
[1mark]

(ii)

State the physical quantity that causes the difference in the spring balance
_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(i)

Compare the reading of the spring balances.

_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(ii)

Compare the density of the water to the density of the cooking oil.
_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(iii)

State the relationship between the density of the liquid and the physical
quantity stated in your answer in 5 (a)(ii).
_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(c) (i)

Compare the pressure at point X and point Y in Diagram 6.2

_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(ii)

Write the equation involving difference in pressure, P, surface area of the

object, A and the physical quantity stated in 6 (a)(ii)
_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

7. Diagram 7.1 shows a rocket which is used to launch a spacecraft that carries supplies to
the International Space Station. The rocket engine works on the principle of conservation
of momentum.

(a) Based on the principle stated, explain how the rocket produces a thrust to move
upwards.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
(b) Diagram 7.2 shows the apparatus to launch a water rocket at a competition in school.

The water rocket moves vertically upwards with an initial velocity of 15 m s-1.
Calculate the maximum height of the water rocket.

[2 marks]
(c) Suggest modification that can be made to the water rocket in 7(b) so that it is more
stable and can fly higher based on the following aspects:
(i)

Shape of the water rocket

_______________________________________________________________
Reason
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(ii)

Pressure of air inside the water rocket

_______________________________________________________________
Reason
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(iii)

_______________________________________________________________
Reason
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

8. Diagram 8.1 shows the arrangement of apparatus used to investigate a Gas Law.

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Diagram 8.1
(a) Name the gas law involved in this experiment.
_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(b) Based on the experiment in Diagram 8.1,
(i)

Sketch a graph of gas pressure, P against temperature, T.

[1 mark]
(ii)

State the value of temperature of gas in the unit of Celsius when its pressure is
zero
_______________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

(c) The pressure of gas in container is 1.55 x 10 5 Pa and its temperature is 12oC. Calculate
the pressure of the gas if the temperature is increased to 37oC.

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[2 marks]
(d) Diagram 8.2 shows a pressure cooker.

Diagram 8.2
Using the kinetic theory of matter, why the pressure of air on the pressure cooker is
increased when the temperature is increased.
_____________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
(e) Suggest modifications that can be made to the pressure cooker that enables it to
function safely.
(i)

Thickness of the wall

_______________________________________________________________
Reason
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

(ii)

Number of lock
_______________________________________________________________
Reason
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
Section B
[20 marks]
Answer any one questions from this section

9. Diagram 9.1 shows air bubbles P and Q released by a diver.

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Diagram 9.1
(a) State one factor affects the water pressure on the diver.
[1 mark]
(b) Based on Diagram 9.1:
(i)

Compare the size of the air bubbles, the depth of the air bubbles and the
pressure on the air bubbles P and Q
[3 marks]

(ii)

Relate the size of the air bubble with the depth of the air bubble.
[1 mark]

(iii)

Relate the depth of the air bubble with the pressure of the air bubble.
[1 mark]

(iv)

Deduce a relationship between the volume of the air bubble with the pressure
on the air bubble.
[1 mark]

(c) Explain the relationship in 9 (b)(iv) using the kinetic theory of matter.
[3 marks]
(d) As a marine science student you are assigned to consider the characteristics of a
diving suit and other accessories used in deep sea diving.
You are required to suggest the characteristics of the diving suit and the accessories
that would enable the diver to dive to a greater depth safely.
State and explain your suggestions based on the following aspects:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Attire of the diver

Extra equipment to enable the diver to dive effectively
Material of the gas tank
Size of the gas tank
Nature of the gas in gas tank

[10 marks]
10. Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show light ray is passing through a water prism and a
glass prism. The refractive index of water is 1.33 and the refractive index of glass is 1.51

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Diagram 10.1

Diagram 10.2

(a) What is the meaning of the refractive index?

[1 mark]
(b) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the angle of incidence, the refractive
index and the critical angle of the water prism and the glass prism.
Relate the refractive index with the critical angle. Regarding to the comparison
between the angle of incidence and the critical angle, deduce the light phenomena
involved.
[5 marks]
(c) Diagram 10.3 shows a diamond ring and a glass ring.

Diagram 10.3
Explain why the diamond ring sparkles more than the glass ring when light passes
through them.
[4 marks]
(d) Diagram 10.4 shows a simple solar tank as a water heater.
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Diagram 10.4
Using appropriate physics concept, explain the modification that can be used to make
a solar tank more efficient.
Your answer should be include the following aspects:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Type of mirror
Position of the water tank
Colour of the tank wall
Specific heat capacity of water tank
[8 marks]

(e) State two advantages of using solar energy.

[2 marks]

Section C
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[20 marks]
Answer any one question from this section
11. Diagram 11.1 shows structure of a jet engine. The jet engine produces forward thrust for
an air craft by using the Newtons Third Law of Motion and Principle of Conservation of
Momentum.

Diagram 11.1
(a) (i)

[1 mark]

(ii)

Explain, in terms of Newtons Third Law of Motion and Principle of

Conservation of Momentum, how the jet engine produce forward thrust.
[4 marks]

(b) Table 11.1 shows the characteristics of four different structures of jet engine.
Jet
engine
P
Q
R
S

Size of exhaust
nozzle
Large
Small
Small
Large

Melting point of
Low
High
High
Low

Number of
Small
Small
Large
Large

Size of combustion
chamber
Small
Large
Large
Small

Table 11.1
Explain the suitability of each characteristic of the jet engines and determine the most
suitable jet engine to be used as an engine of an air craft that can produces greater
forward thrust. Give reasons for your choice.
[10 marks]
(f) A Boeing 747 has four engines, each capable of providing 250 000 N of forward
thrust. The mass of the air craft including engines s 400 000 kg.

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(i)

[3 marks]

(ii)

The air craft must reach a speed of 85 ms-1 to achieve take-off.

Calculate the minimum length of runway needed for this air craft.
[2 marks]

12. Diagram 12.1 shows a clinical thermometer is used by a doctor to check the temperature
of a patients body during medical treatment.

Diagram 12.1
(a) What is meant by temperature?
[1 mark]
(b) Referring to the principle of thermal equilibrium and the working principle of a
thermometer, explain how a doctor can check his patients temperature during the
medical treatment.
[4 marks]
Diagram 12.2 shows a thermometer which is not calibrated has a mercury column of
length, L0 is 5.0 cm when the temperature is 0 oC and L100 is 25.0 cm when the
temperature is 100oC. The mercury column, L is 12.0 cm when put into liquid X.

Diagram 12.2
(c) Determine the temperature of liquid X.
[2 mark]
(d) Determine the value of the temperature in 12 (c) in Kelvin
[1 mark]
(e) What is the length of the mercury column from the bulb at temperature 30oC?
[2 marks]

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(f) Diagram 12.3 shows cross sectional shape and the characteristics of the material of
the four rice keepers, J, K, L and M which are used to maintain the temperature of the
hot rice.
Characteristics
material:

of

Melting point: 68oC

Specific heat capacity: 800
J kg-1 0C-1

Rice keeper J

Characteristic
material:

of

Melting point: 240oC

Specific heat capacity: 1
900 J kg-1 oC-1

Rice keeper K

Characteristic
material:

of

Melting point: 240oC

Specific heat capacity: 1
900 J kg-1 oC-1

Rice keeper L

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Characteristic
material:

of

Melting point: 68oC

Specific heat capacity: 900
J kg-1 oC-1

Rice keeper M

Density: 800 kg m-3

Diagram 12.3
You are required to determine the most suitable rice keeper which is able to maintain
the temperature of the hot rice for a long time and can be moved from one place to
another.
Study the characteristics of the four rice keepers from the following aspects:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Melting point
Specific heat capacity
Density
Material between the inner wall and outer wall