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# HANDOUT 10-1

σ xx

σ yx

σ xy
σ yy
σ yy
θ

σ xy
σ yx

σ xx

(a)

Normal
Shear
Max

(b)

Min

SHEAR STRESS AXIS

MAX NORMAL

(c)

MOHR
CIRCLE

MIN NORMAL

NORMAL
AXIS

HANDOUT 10-2 Shear Stress JYL Critical Point (End Point) Normal Stress Shear Stress JYL Normal Stress fc Critical Point (End Point) Shear Stress JYL Normal Stress σ1 .

HANDOUT 10-3 Critical Points Shear Stress Multiple JYL curves δ Normal Stress More cohesive fc MFF Less cohesive Non-cohesive σ1 .

Design chart for symmetrical slot outlet hoppers.2 δ=30 δ=60 1.8 40 δ=40 δ=35 1.1 δ=50 δ=40 δ=60 0 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Semi-included angle.5  and ff = 1.6 30 δ=30 1. degrees Figure 10-17. and δ = 50  gives θ = 30.HANDOUT 10-4 50 2 δ=60 δ=50 Flow Factor Curves δ=30 1.19 .7 1. ff Wall Friction.3 δ=45 δ=50 10 Flow Factor.9 Wall Friction Curves 1. For example (dashed arrows). δ w = 22 . degrees 1.4 1.5 δ=40 20 1.

δ w = 22 and δ = 50  gives . Design chart for conical outlet hoppers.8 30 δ=30 1.5  and ff = 1.HANDOUT 10-5 40 2 δ=60 δ=50 Wall Friction Curves 1.3 10 δ=30 δ=50 δ=40 δ=60 1.9 Flow Factor Curves δ=30 δ=40 1.6 1.29 .1 δ=60 0 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Semi-included angle. degrees δ=35 1. degrees Figure 10-18. θ = 20.7 1.2 δ=50 1. For example. ff Wall Friction.4 δ=40 1.5 20 Flow Factor.

Rotating Shear Test Wall material Get σ1 fc NORMAL STRESS SHEAR STRESS δw δw NORMAL STRESS 3. Rotating Shear Test Plot SHEAR STRESS vs NORMAL STRESS JYL SHEAR STRESS δ Internal Friction Get fc vs σ1 Get δ 2. Fit φw and δ to hopper correlation Get θ and ff. 1. θ Plot 1/ff on mff curve (fc vs σ1) to get CAS CAS MFF Get CAS fc Slope 1/ff 5. Use CAS and θ in correlations to select opening size.HANDOUT 10-6 Steps on using the shear stress data to design a hopper. in final design subtract 3 degrees for margin of safety) δ δw ff δ 4. (θ is the theoretical angle of the hopper. σ1 .

. D . the opening diameter. is given by D = H (θ ) CAS ρ g / gc o H (θ ) = 2 + θ 60 (10-12) θ Semi included angle (10-13) Where θ is in degrees. Figure 10-20. Typical values for H are about 2. D Figure 10-20. For symmetrical slot outlet hoppers the opening size is determined from W = H (θ ) H (θ ) = 1 + L > 3W CAS ρ o g / gc θ 180 (10-14) L (10-15) W (10-16) Figure 10-21. Symmetrical slot outlet hopper of opening size W x L.HANDOUT 10-7 For conical hoppers. from the charts in Figures 10-17 or 10-18.4. Conical Hopper with outlet size D and semi included angle θ .

Eq. µ = air density and viscosity ρp = particle density ρ = bulk density of the powder bed o (10-19) .4.5 ( D − kd p ) 2. B = given in Table 10-3 ρ .HANDOUT 10-8 10. Parameters in the Johanson Equation.2 FINE PARTICLES (dp < 500 microns) CARLETON EQUATION 1 2 4 4Vo2 sin θ ρ 3 µ 3 Vo 3 + 15 =g 5 B ρ pd p3 m = ρ o AVo where Vo = average velocity of solids discharging (m/s) A.1 COARSE PARTICLES (particles > 500 microns in diameter) MASS FLOW – JOHANSON EQUATION m = ρ o A where Bg 2(1 + m)Tan(θ ) θ = semi included angle of the hopper m = discharge rate (kg/sec) (10-17) ρ o = bulk density (kg/m3) g = gravity acceleration (9.58ρ o g 0.9 with k = 1.4. D= 4(cross sectional area ) (outlet perimeter) 10.4 if not discharge rate data are available.3 < k < 2. typically 1. diameter of outlet π A D2 4 m 1 W WL 0 FUNNEL FLOW – BEVERLOO EQUATION m = 0.5 where (10-18) dp = particle diameter (m) k = constant.807 m/s2) Table 10-3.(10-18) Parameter Conical hopper Symmetric slot hopper B D.