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Sep. 2014, Volume 8, No. 9 (Serial No. 82), pp.

1145-1150
Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, USA

D

DAVID

PUBLISHING

Optimization of Resource in the Industry of Construction
Francisco Javier Gutierrez Garcia, Pedro Pérez Díaz and Pedro Sanchez Luis
Department of Construction Engineering, University of La Laguna, Tenerife 38204, Spain
Abstract: Time and cost are two of the most important factors to consider in each construction project. In order to maximize
performance, both the client and the contractor will work to optimize both the duration of the project and its cost. We show a model of
linear entire mixed programming to solve the considered problem. The aim is to minimize the project total time, by means of the
assignment of equipments of work to the different production lines of the activities to realizing. The fundamental beginning is to
support the same production (rate of production in meters/day of the activity in view of the equipment of work) for the different
equipments to achieve the maximum efficiency in each period of time. With the limited availability of resources, the work must be
continuous and the period of time between operations and final must be kept. However, this paper also presents the bibliographical
study on methodologies of the optimization of construction processes in response to the two objectives: time and cost. This will
consider the use of meta-heuristic techniques, such as population based algorithms.
Key words: Optimization, construction process, heuristics, mathematical programming.

1. Introduction
The economic crisis that everybody is going through
in Spain has targeted all sectors of industry, the
construction industry being one of the most affected
ones.
The fact that the construction industry is sensitive to
the adverse financial conditions present in Spain, the
limited financial resources and high competition in the
market makes it necessary to perform project planning
and control of works.
For years, builders have been limited to relying on
experience and intuition, without regard to optimum
needs of the resources used in the construction process.
In small projects, the planning of resources can be
developed by experience, but in large projects in which
investments and, therefore, the risks are much higher,
planning involves the optimization of processes that
arise in the construction industry.
The principal aim of this paper is to make a
bibliographical study on the methodologies raised in
the associated document to support the planners and
administrators in the capture of better decisions about
Corresponding author: Francisco Javier Gutierrez Garcia,
engineer, research fields: physical and engineering. E-mail:
fjguti@ull.es.

time-cost in an efficient way.
Indexing the type of problems that we can meet, we
have two types of problems of optimization: first, we
find mono-objective problems of optimization, in
which the development takes us to the optimization of
the resources to reach the minimal cost of the project or
the minimal term of execution in an independent way.
In this type of work, it is not that the term of execution
or the cost of the project is ignored, but depending on
the variable in study the other one is taken as a constant.
These types of problems are removed since, in most
cases, the reduction of the term of execution takes into
account an increase of the cost or, on the contrary, a
reduction of the cost. Normally, it supposes an increase
of the term of execution of any project. For this reason,
the type of problems we really face are those in which a
formulation is in use one multi-target, since the cost of
a project and the term of execution are closely
associated.
The second one of the principal aims of this work is to
explore the analysis of the information corresponding
to a practical case that one finds nowadays in the south
of Tenerife, where only time studies are made.
Another contribution of this work is the
mathematical formulation by means of a model of

finally. Luo Gang. in the fourth column. Tang Guochun 2005 Zhang Lian-ying. They show the complexity of the optimization with limited resources on fully linear works. • author(s) of the paper or article.2 Classification of Problems As shown in Tables 1 and 2. In the first column. Xingxia Wang. The comparative study is made from the time of execution of the work to the time provided by the mathematical formulation. Methodology • type or aim of the work indexed on paper or article is reduction of project cost. Omer Tsimhoni promodel and simrunner [3] Research on the unlimited resource leveling optimization with PSO [4] Construction project scheduling problem with uncertain resource constraints [5] Genetic algorithms in resource optimization of construction project [6] Resource leveling in construction by genetic algorithm-based optimization and its decision support system application [7] Zhiyong Chen. USA China Civil Engineering Journal Chinese Journal of Engineering Mathematics Julin He. This optimization is done regardless. mono-objective (Table 1) [1-7] and multi-objective (Table 2) [8-15]. colony of ants and swarm of particles).Optimization of Resource in the Industry of Construction 1146 linear entire mixed programming to solve the problem. 2. Zhida Du. Title Genetic algorithms for optimization of resource allocation in large scale construction project [1] Optimizing construction planning schedules by virtual prototyping enabled resource analysis[2] Author (s) Year of Medium publishing Methodology publishing Jianwen Huang. Neo Chan. project cost and development time of the project. H. it appears medium publishing and.4 Comparison of the Real Time and the Optimized One We proposed a model of linear programming. • way of publication of the paper or article. in the second. the third shows the year of publishing. 2. reduced development time 2. Jiun-Ching Huang 2000 Journal of Automation in Construction Genetic algorithms Minimize project time . or reduction both. 2. Zhong-Ping Wan. Guo. Weisheng Lu. with which we achieve a substantial reduction of project time and the project cost. the classification of problems are as following: • title of the paper or article.3 Selection of Article of Reference Resource-constrained continuous repetitive scheduling projects is for the with steels-based production units [16]. Focio construction repetitive projects using 2008 G. Mono-objective references. Table 1 • year of publication of the paper or article.1 Bibliographical Review We show a bibliographical review of problems of optimization developed recently. it shows the title of paper accessed. it shows the name of authors. These tables are arranged in six columns. at any time. therefore. • mathematical proposed model on the paper or article (genetic algorithm. Martin 2009 Skitmore Simulation and optimization for Chachrist Srisuwanrat. the fifth and sixth columns show the methodology and aim studied in the paper. Ioannou. Rui Chen 2010 Heng Li. the cost of funds and. the project cost. Li Ning Lu 2001 Journal of Tianjin University Genetic algorithms Minimize project time Sou-Sen Leu. 2.L. Chung-Huei Yang. Hua 2007 Zhou Aim Journal of Computers Genetic algorithms Minimize project time QUT Digital Repository Genetic algorithms Minimize project time Determinist method Minimize project time Particle swarm Minimize project time Simple algorithms Minimize project time WSC (Winter Simulation Conference) Phoenix.

Osama Moselhi 2001 3. Kandil 2006 ProQuest. it showed: activity. Title Integrating efficient resource optimization and linear schedule analysis with singularity functions [8] Optimization research: Enhancing the robustness of large-scale multi-objective optimization in construction [9] Author(s) Lucko Gunnar Kandil Amr. 4.1 Activities Activity A: ML (linear meter) of placement of prefabricated girder. DC. Mingxing Yi project based on SPSO algorithm [10] Year of Medium publishing publishing Journal of Construction 2011 Engineering and Management 2010 2008 Multiple resource constraint Habib Fathi.4 Plans of Work In Table 5. • The delivery time between operations and end must be kept. 4. J. Dissertations & Theses Genetic algorithms A hybrid mechanism for optimizing construction simulation models [13] Taoming Cheng. It includes the following restrictions: • Limited availability of multiple resources. Yanliang Chen 2005 Journal of Automation in Construction Genetic algorithms Development and application of a O. 4. USA First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries (ICCIDC–I)Pakistan Methodology Aim Genetic algorithms Minimize time and project cost Genetic algorithms Minimize time and project cost Genetic algorithms Minimize time and project cost Genetic algorithms Minimize time and project cost Multi-objective optimization for large-scale highway construction projects [12] Amr A. Chungwei Feng. • The work must be constant and must not have dead times. hybrid genetic algorithm for resource 2002 Tah optimization and management [14] Engineering Construction and Architectural Management WILEY (online library) Genetic algorithms Minimize time and project cost Optimizing resource utilization for repetitive construction projects [15] Journal of Management in Engineering (ASCE) Genetic algorithms Minimize time and project cost Khaled El-Rayes.Optimization of Resource in the Industry of Construction 1147 Table 2 Multi-objective references. Problem of Reference The mathematical model is proposed by the teachers/aces [16]. sub-activity and our selection as a function of available resources and daily production combining different choices. Abbas time-cost-resource optimization using 2008 Afshar genetic algorithm [11] Journal of Construction Engineering and Management International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application Workshops Washington. we show our selection between different combinations. 4. In this table. El-Anwar Omar Optimization study on resource Qingfu Li. 4.3 Choice In Table 4.H. Case Study IDAM (installation of desalination seawater) of Granadilla de Abona is developed by the Consortium Ferrovial-Agromán Corporation and Cadagua. cover water tanks running with Minimize time and project cost Minimize time and project cost precast concrete prestressed material.2 Available Resources and Combinations We show the available resources and combinations in Table 3. Ugwu. The symbol A in table 3 (A) reference is coefficient relating on linear meters and square meters and the value is 4 per linear meter have 4 square meters. Activity B: ML of placement of alveolar plate. El-Rayes Khaled. Jixian equilibrium with fixed time limit for a Guo. we show 13 different plans works what .O.M.

62A B2 1.00 95.61A 205.25A 479.00 95.30A 224.00 Day ud A1 1. Activity Sub-activity A B Table 4 Available resources Production Autoderrick crane (ud) Lift (ud) Workers (ud) Ml (linear meters) 2.93A 163. Total activity B = 1.00 0.00 95.00 75.95A 214.00 3.48A 194.48A 194.30A 224.97A 228.64A 233.00 2.00 95.00 2.95A 79.28A 210.93A 200.61A 135.00 1.00 75.00 2.63A 219.29A Table 6 Restrictions of work.97A 228.68A ML placement of alveolar plate.63A 219.76A 8 228.28A 210.93A 200.28A 107.32A 238.00 6.63A 51.97A 11 242.63A 219.20A B1 1.97A 228.00 3.93A 200.48A 194.00 2.85 A5 2.30A 224.30A 224.68 ML placement of prefabricated girder.00 95.00 2.32A 238.00 43.48A 8.00 3.48A 194.95A 214.00 3.00 3.00 5.25A 379.48A 194.00 48.85 .61A 205.63A 219.00 0. Available resources Available resources Available resources Production Crane Lift Workers ML/day 2.62A B3 1.13A B4 2.97A 228. Number plan Index of production Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 1 194.48A 194.99A 136.64A 233.28A 210.85 B B4 2.00 2.85 A4 1.95A 214.76A Choice.85A Total activity A = 1.80A 7 224.00 6.30A 23. Activity Sub-activity Table 5 Plans of work.00 2.64A 201.00 2.00 48.80A 378.00 2.95A 214.00 2.95A 214.80A 215.00 6. ID ML girder ML plate LT (days) 1.00 Distances LD (ML) 95.99A 242.99A 242.48A 13 479.94A 4 210.64A 233.87A 5 214.32A 177.00 2.00 6.20 A3 2.61A 205.00 0.80A 378.00 95.00 A A1 1.30A 224.61A 205.00 6.349.00 2.64A 233.00 0.93A 200.61A 205.99A 242.94A 12 378.33A 10 238.70A 9 233.32A 238.00 43.85A B5 2.85 days A2 1.28A 210.00 2.13A 2 200.32A 238.63A 219.00 27.97A 224.00 5.28A 210.349.76A B6 2.99A 242.93A 200.Optimization of Resource in the Industry of Construction 1148 Table 3 Available resources and combinations.84A 6 219.95A 3 205.

500 1500 . 1 Durattion of the prooject accordingg to planning in n work.urce in the Industry of Con nstruction Optimizattion of Resou 11499 35 A Actual p lanningg of activvities in n 31 dayys 30 25 20 T Time Actividad d A 15 Actividad d B 10 5 0 -500 ‐500 0 0 500 00 500 1.000 1000 1.000 1000 1.500 1500 Distance Fig. 1. 2 Optim mum of the prooject. 30 Activity plann ning in 2 24 days 25 20 t time 15 Actividad A Actividad B 10 5 0 -500 ‐500 0 0 500 500 0 Distan nce Fig.

2008. Y. Feb.F. Luo. Development and application of a hybrid genetic algorithm for resource optimization and management.A. 2006.M. Research on the unlimited resource leveling optimization with PSO (particle swarm optimization).O. K. Tsimhoni. 2008.R. [6] [7] [8] 5.X. N. developing two consecutive activities at the same time. Ching. Wang. We concluded that while the company tried to complete the work. G.html (accessed Jan. Thesis. J. E. S. . Genetic algorithms for optimization of resource allocation in large scale construction project. Optimizing construction planning schedules by virtual prototyping enabled resource analysis.G.6 Duration of the Project According to Planning in Work Fig.org/DB_HTML/2004/06/ 884.A. http://www.P.7 Optimum of the Project Fig. C. W. J. University of Illinois. the problem of combinatorial optimization prepared would develop it in only 24 days.optimization-online. [3] 4. Z. Ioannou. 1. I. Srisuwanrat. Chen. Skitmore. it is proposed a model of linear programming to solve the problems of the current work of Granadilla and compared it to the actual work done by the company. Automation in Construction 14 (2005) 85-98. L.D. Yi. Ugwu. Guo. minimum one day (LT) with daily performance of 95. [4] [5] 4.Y. Q. Comparing the actual execution time of the work with the time provided by the mathematical formulation. Z. USA. 1 shows the planning of work that the construction company pretended run. Chan. He. G. A. 2014). DC. during 31 days.X. Leu. We show a mathematical model of mixed integer linear programming. Kandil.5 Restrictions of Work In Table 6. Construction Project Scheduling Problem with Uncertain Resource Constraints. Huang. Zhou. we show the restriction appointed of resource. Resource leveling in construction by genetic algorithm-based optimization and its decision support system application. Gunnar.M. F. Chang. Moselhi.Optimization of Resource in the Industry of Construction 1150 we can have with our resources.D.C. Optimization [Online]. Chen. Omar. Feng. T. Automation in Construction 10 (1) (2000) 27-41. J. N. the aim is to reduce the project time.C. X. in: Proceedings of the 2008 Winter Simulation Conference. Cheng. H. Optimization research: Enhancing the robustness of large-scale multi-objective optimization in construction. 2008. Li. Tah. Chen. Automation in Construction 18 (7) (2009) 912-918. Du. Tang. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 13 (1) (2010) 17-25. Engineering. Li. El-Rayes. M. Huang.L. Fathi. L. 2001. H.H. Washington. O. Khaled. O. 4-5. J. H. Optimizing resource utilization for repetitive construction projects.C. [15] [16] C. H. Lu. A hybrid mechanism for optimizing construction simulation models. K. Construction and Architectural Management 9 (4) (2002) 304-317. Yang. C. We have to put girders. A. R. Z. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 137 (1) (2011) 45-55. Journal of Tianjin University (Science and Technology). Conclusions A study of a real problem is located in limited resources point. Amr. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] References [1] [2] J. Li. Simulation and optimization for construction repetitive projects using promodel and simrunner. Automation in Construction 18 (7) (2009) 942-949..H. Karachi. Zhang. J. H.Y. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 127 (1) (2001) 18-27. in: First International Conference on Construction in Developing Countries. Pakistan.W. They finish Activity A and after start Activity B.S. USA. Genetic algorithms in resource optimization of construction project. M.85 linear meters (LD) for after position plates. O. E. Huang. China Civil Engineering Journal 40 (2) (2007) 93-96.X. Ph. Multi-objective optimization for large-scale highway construction projects. which would suppose a reduction of the term of execution in one week. C. Multiple resource constraint time-cost-resource optimization using genetic algorithm. Aug. And we can observe that in the majority of mono-objective consulted works.L. Guo. Afshar. Optimization study on resource equilibrium with fixed time limit for a project based on SPSO algorithm. Yang. Integrating efficient resource optimization and linear schedule analysis with singularity functions. Washington D. in: International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application Workshops. Journal of Computers 5 (12) (2010) 1924-1926. Resource-constrained scheduling for continuous repetitive projects withsteels—Based production units. 4. 2 shows the optimal plan using our model of linear programming. Wan.W.