You are on page 1of 23

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted in the selected municipalities of the first


district of Cagayan Province through on-farm interview from September to
December 2013 to determine the existing management practices of
backyard raisers in ruminant production.
There were 212 respondents/raisers from the first District of Cagayan.
Most of the respondents age ranges from 41 to 50 years old. Most them
were High school graduate level and have an income of Php. 10, 000 to Php.
15, 000 (18.75%) together with Php. 25, 000 to 30, 000 both 6 raisers
responded for carabao and for cattle Php. 15, 000 to Php. 20, 000 (27.77%).
Goat raisers is at average of five family members (25.47%). Among the
respondents, 93.18% tilled their own land.
Most of the backyard raisers, only own 1 hectare to till with 31.25%.
Carabao is the most numbered animals raised in the province particularly in
the first District with 66.20%. in terms of feeding combination, 33.93% native
grass + crop residues + weeds, are practicing as source of feeds of their
animals through tethering with 57.85% among the respondents. The
cropping pattern in the first district is sole cropping of rice that garnered
76.16% which is rice after rice among the respondents.
The ruminant animals raised in backyard were acquired through
purchased (55.19%) and there no health management practices were
adopted by the raisers (35.71%)

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Importance of the study
Human population in the country widens the gap between supply and
demand for animal products. The local beef supply has been outstripped by
demand, inspite of the annual imports of meat and meat products. Cagayan
province has a low average per capita consumption per year at 2.548 kg.
beef/carabeef and 0.052 kg. chevon. These figures are just like the Philippine
situation on consumption of meat and meat products. Some of the source of
livelihood in the province of Cagayan is carabao and chevon. In the year
2010, the province has 24, 087 heads of cattle, 118, 404 heads of carabao,
37,

349

heads

of

goat

and

577

heads

of

sheep

(DA-R02).

(http://cagayano.tripod.com/demography.html). There are places in the


province where production of beef and carabeef as well as milk products are
generally low. The productivity is attributed to a number of interacting
constraints namely; poor stock, poor nutrition, unavailability of water in
marginal and sub-marginal pasture areas, poor management practices,
unavailability of develop pasture, established forage garden and feed
preservatives and pest and diseases prevention and control.
Despite of the low production, the demand of ever increasing
population is still high. With these challenges on hand, study on ruminant

nutrition through improved practices and pasture development forage and


other feed resources and prevention of ruminant pests and diseases are
imperative.
There has been much published on problems of feeds and livestock
management. Feeds in particular have always been the primary concern of
livestock raisers, such problem is aggravated especially during drought.
Since the landholdings of the average Filipino farmer is small, prospect of
extensive or ranch type of production system in this part of the country is
practically nil. Most farmers are then confined to raise a few heads of
livestock mainly to support their draft power requirements. Thus, there is a
need to encourage farmers to maximize the utilization of the farm and the
industrial products, utilize the non-arable lands/marginal areas for forage
production and adopt ruminant and forage/pasture production technologies.
To these management practices the need to identify the feed resources and
feeding management of livestock in the province is imperative, the conduct
of this research survey henceforth will provide benchmark information in the
availability

and

extent

of

forage/pasture

and

ruminant

production

technologies and problems encountered by farmers in livestock production.


Objectives of the study
General objectives
The survey aims to determine the current trends of systems and
management practices of ruminants raising by the farmers in the first district

of Cagayan covering the town of Lal-lo, Gattaran, Baggao, Sta. Ana,


Gonzaga, Sta. Teresita, Alcala, and Camalaniugan.
Specific objectives
To established a benchmark information on the different systems and
management practices of ruminant raising in the district as a basis of
improving the ruminant industry in the district.
Statement of the problem
The study assessed the management practices in ruminant production
in the First District of Cagayan.
Specifically, it sought to answer the following variables;
1. What is the profile of the backyard ruminant raisers in terms of the
following:
a. Age
b. Household size
c. Educational attainment
d. Annual income
e. Tenurial status
2. What ruminant animals are mostly raised in the backyard and what
management practices are mostly used?
3. What pattern management practices are mostly used by farmers to
utilize their farm?
4. What mode of acquisition of animals by farmer respondents?
5. What health practices are mostly used in their animals?
6. What method of feeding is mostly used in their animals?
Significance of the study
The study is hoping to be significant to all raisers in the first
district of the province and its neighboring provinces. Moreover, it

serves as a benchmark and a basis for all who are planning to raise
ruminants for draft, breeding and meat as well.
Furthermore, the practices is likewise observed of which the best
usually used by the big farms in the province. Feed combination given
to animals might also a foundation to establish a pasture for grazing
inorder to increase the production.

Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
Locale of the study
Cagayan province lies on the Northern-eastern most part of
Luzon occupying the lower basin of the Cagayan River with about 9,
003 km. square which constitute three percent of the total land area of
the country and is the second largest province in the region and
occupying the coastal plan in the Northeast corner of Luzon. It is
bounded in the east by Sierra Madre Mountain, on the west by
Cordillera, on the south by the province of Isabela and in the north the
Babuyan channel. It is well transverse by many rivers, with Abulug and

Cagayan River as the largest. Cagayan has a total population of 1, 124,


773 (http://cagayano.tripod.com/geography.html) with Tuguegarao City
as the capital town.
Agriculture is the major industry, many people especially those
who live in the rural places are engaged in crop production. Livestock
and poultry production are minor activities of people to augment their
income from crop production.
There are 29 towns of the province; however this study covers
only those towns in the first district of Cagayan which includes Lal-lo,
Gattaran, Alcala, Baggao, Sta. Ana, Sta. Teresita, Gonzaga and Aparri.
Sampling Procedure
The purposive sampling technique was used in the determination
of respondents. The selected towns in the district served as the
sources of respondents. The existing raisers were requested from the
provincial office of Department of Agriculture in Cagayan to facilitate
the identification of the respondents.
Research Instrument
An interview questionnaire was used as tool in gathering the
needed information from the respondents. Gathering of primary data
was by personal interview with the use of interview questionnaires
which was prepared in English; however, these was translated in the
vernacular

during

the

actual

interview

inorder

to

understanding between the interviewer and the interviewee.


Data Collection

facilitate

Demographic and socio-economic characteristics which includes


the ages, household size, farm size, years in ruminant raising, species
of ruminant raised and number, tenurial status, training participated
related to ruminant production, source of information about ruminant
raising, occupation/income and average gross annual income.
Feed resources and feeding management practices includes
sources and kinds of feeds, area planted and other related information
Farming systems this includes the cropping pattern, planting and
harvesting calendar volume of crop residues.
Problem/s encountered includes the economic and technical
problems encountered in ruminant raising.
Data Analysis and Statistical Tool
Descriptive analysis using frequencies, means, rank and percentages
were used in general interpretation of the data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, farming systems, ruminant raise and tenurial
status, exposure of training attended and training needs of the respondents,
types of ruminant raised, mode of acquisition, sources of feeds and methods
of feeding.

Chapter 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Observation
The researched focuses on the different towns of Cagayan particularly
in the first District using questionnaire as a tool.
It was observed that the respondents have different response in the
instrument like, incomplete information about their animals with regards to
management practices in raising animals. It was likewise observed that, the
respondents were using different traditional management practices.
The animals are just tethered besides their houses, like carabao and
cattle while some were housed in semi-intensive housing with light materials
such as cogon as roofing and bamboo as sidings. The untethered animals
were fence in a small pasture area. Some of the animals are unhealthy
because of lack of grasses to eat in.
Some of the animals are just grazing in the field even its raining like
goats and sheep. Most of the respondents are at mid-age which they based
their practices on their experience of raising.

Results
There were eight municipalities selected in the province with 212
backyard raisers interviewed, most of them are at the age of 41-50 years old
who attained High school graduate level.
The number of respondent interviewed in the first District of Cagayan
was shown in table 1. The town selected where the researchers have
undergone

interview

were

Alcala,

Baggao,

Camalaniugan,

Gattaran,

Gonzaga, Lal-lo, Sta. Ana, and Sta. Teresita.


Table 1. Number of farmer respondents in first District of Cagayan
Valley 2013.
TOWN

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

ALCALA
BAGGAO
CAMALANIUGAN
GATTARAN
GONZAGA
LAL-LO
STA. ANA
STA. TERESITA

17
49
19
66
16
21
9
15

TOTAL

212

Table

represents

the

Demographic

and

Socio-economic

characteristics of the respondents.


Ruminant raisers in the first District of Cagayan have an age ranging
from 21-80 years old. There 29.22% of the respondents with the age of 41-50
years old, followed by 51-60 years old (21.29%, 36-40 years old (14.15%),
and 0.47% with 76-80 years of age.

Most of them were High School graduate (39.62%), followed by


Elementary graduate which garnered 33.96% and 9.91% were elementary
level. This shows that, ruminant raising can be carried on whether a raiser
has not gone to school or a graduate with a degree.
The average household size of ruminant raisers was five members in a
family (25.47%) and one member as the lowest equivalent to 0.47%.
However, data gathered, ruminant raisers have common family member of
3-6 members (12.46% and 24%) respectively. Mostly, the number of years of
ruminant raising by the respondents was 1-5 years (33.96%), while the least
number of percentage was raising ruminant animals at 41-45 years (0.94%).
This shows that, ruminant raising is a part of their farming activities.
The average farm size of the respondents is one hectare (25.94%) with
the least farm size of less than one hectare (23.11%).

Item
Age/s (years old)

21-25
26-30
31-35
36-40
41-50
51-60
61-65
66-70
71-75
76-80
Educational attainment
Elementary
Elementary graduate
High School level
High School graduate
College level
College graduate
Household size/s
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Years in ruminant raising
1-5
6-10
11-15
16-20
21-30
31-40
41-45
Farm size/s (ha.)

Frequencies

Percentage

12
13
23
30
62
40
18
4
3
1

5.66
6.53
10.85
14.15
29.22
21.69
8.49
1.88
1.42
0.47

21
72
9
84
10
16

9.91
33.96
4.25
39.62
4.72
7.55

5
12
26
52
54
26
17
10
5
2
2
1

2.35
5.66
12.26
24.53
25.47
12.26
8.02
4.72
2.36
0.94
0.94
0.47

72
58
29
20
26
5
2

33.96
27.35
13.68
9.43
12.26
2.36
0.94

TOTAL

0
Less than 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

36
49
55
40
12
4
6
2
2
1
0
2
0
3
212

16.98
23.11
25.94
18.86
5.66
1.88
2.83
0.94
0.94
0.47
0.94
1.41

Table 2. Demographic and Socio-economic Characteristics of the


respondents

Table 3 shows the number of ruminant raised in the District. Most of


the respondents raised carabao which garnered 67.61%, followed by cattle
(21.70%), goat (9.60%) and for sheep 1.06%.
Table 3. Number of ruminant raised in the First District of Cagayan,
2013
Animal
Carabao
Cattle
Goat
Sheep
TOTAL

Frequency
190
61
27
3
281*

Rank
1
2
3
4

*Multiple responses
Table 4 presents the income that can be derived in raising ruminant
animals. It shows the difference between incomes from the ruminant animals
raised by farmers. In carabao 18.57% with 6 respondents over 32
respondents derived an income of Php 10, 001 to 15, 000 and Php 25, 001 to

30, 000. In cattle raising the average of 27.77% with 5 respondents can
derived an income of Php 15, 000 20, 000. 36.71% with 6 respondents can
derived an income of 2,000- 5,000 as well as 80% with 4 respondents in
sheep raising.
Table 14. Income derived from ruminant animals in the 1 st District of
Cagayan 2013
Amount

Carabao
Cattle
Goat
NR
%
N
%
NR
%
2,000-5,000
(1) 3.12 (1) 5.55
(6)
35.7
R
5,000-10,000
(5) 15.6 (2)
11.1
10,000-15,000
(6) 18.7
6
1
15,000-20,000
(4) 12.5
(5) 27.7
5
20,000-25,000
(4) 12.5
(2) 11.1
7
25,000-30,000
(6) 18.7 (2) 11.1
1
30,000-35,000
(5) 15.6 (2) 11.1
5
1
35,000-40,000
(1) 3.12
2
1
40,000-45,000
(3) 16.6
(1)
14.2
45,000-50,000
(1) 5.55
6
8
TOTAL
32
18
7
Almost 78.77% of the respondents are full time owner of

Sheep
NR
%
(4)
80
(1)
20
5
the land they

tilled, 16.50% are part owner and for shared tenants 4.71% (Table 5). The
result indicates that most of the farmers own a parcel of land from 0.5 to 1.0
ha. Farm size.
Table 5. Tenurial Status of farmers in the first District of Cagayan
2013
Status
Full Owner
Part Owner (leased)
Shared tenants
TOTAL

Frequency
167
35
10
212

Percentage
78.77
16.50
4.71

Table 6 presents the respondents sources of information on ruminant


animal raising. Majority of the farmers have not been exposed nor have no
access to any kind of information 66.78% on ruminant raising. These farmers
relied based on their experience. Only 28 (10%) relied on technician or
veterinarian for managing their animals. Other farmers rely on pamphlets 26
(9.28%), 18 for radio (6.42%), few for television with 13 respondents (4.64%)
and 8 respondents having seminars or trainings for ruminant raising (2.64%)
Table 6. Sources of information in ruminant production in the 1 st
District of Cagayan, 2013
SOURCES

Frequency
18
187
26
28
8
13
280*

Radio
Self-Experience
Pamphlets
Vet./Technician
Seminars/training
Television
TOTAL
*Multiple Responses

RANK
4
1
3
2
6
5

The farm and non-farm sources of income in the First District of


Cagayan are shown in Table 7. There are only 198 raisers which have a land
to

be

tilled

(93.29%)

and

14

are

engaged

in

carpentry,

driving,

entrepreneurial activities and employment in the government (6.60%).


Table 7. Occupation/source of income of the farmers in the 1 st
District of Cagayan, 2013
SOURCE
Frequency
PERCENTAGE
Farming
198
93.39
Non-Farming
14
6.60
TOTAL
212

Table 8 shows the different cropping pattern practice by the farmers in


Cagayan particularly in the first District. Most of the farmers engage in sole
cropping followed the rice-rice pattern that garnered 83.01%. some are also
following rice-other crops (tomato, eggplant, pechay and sitao) with 25.94%.
the 8.01% follow the rice-vegetable-corn cropping pattern and few for ricemungo (5.18%), rice-corn-peanut (0.94%) and rice-corn-tobacco (0.74%).
CROPPING PATTERNS
Rice-rice
Rice-mungo
Rice-corn-peanut
Rice-corn-tobacco
Rice-vegetable-corn
Rice-other crops
TOTAL

Frequency
176
11
2
1
17
55
212

PERCENTAGE
83.01
5.18
0.94
0.47
8.01
25.94

The types of ruminant that was raised by farmers in the first District of
Cagayan was shown in Table 9. Most of the farmers only raised Carabao
(58.01%), both carabao and cattle is at 17.45% and 5.66% raised only cattle.
6.13% was raising only both carabao and goat and 4.51% inly raised goat.
Few are raising, three animals nor four ruminants, 4.24% carabao, cattle and
goat, 1.89% both cattle and goat, 0.47% raised the four ruminant animals
and non-of the farmers raised both cattle and goat.
Table 9. Types of ruminants raised by farmers in the 1 st District of
Cagayan, 2013
Carabao
Cattle
Goat
Sheep

TYPES

Frequency
123
12
10
2

PERCENTAGE
58.01
5.66
4.71
0.94

Carabao and cattle


Carabao and goat
Carabao and sheep
Cattle and goat
Carabao, cattle and goat
Carabao, cattle, goat and

37
13
0
4
9
1

TOTAL
sheep

17.45
6.13
1.89
4,24
0.47

212

The purposes of which the ruminant animals were raised by farmers in


the 1st District are shown in Table 10. Most of the backyard raisers (49.63%)
raised carabao for draft/breeding, 44.56% for draft work, 5.07% for breeding
purposes while only 0.94% raised carabao for fattening.
Regarding on cattle, 46.82% raises their animal for draft/breeding
purposes. Some of them, (32.53%) used the cattle for draft, 14.28% were
also raised for breeding purposes and 6.34% for fattening as beef.
Goats were raised for fattening (63.42%) and 34.42% for breeding and
2.44% for other purposes. Sheep is likewise raised for either fatteners or
used for breeding equivalent to 50%.

Table 10. Purpose of ruminant raising in the 1 st District of Cagayan


2013

PURPOSE
Draft
Breeding
Fattening
Draft/Breedin
g
Others
TOTAL

Carabao
No.
%
123
44.56
14
5.07
2
0.94
137
49.63

TYPES OF ANIMALS
Cattle
Goat
No.
%
No.
%
41
32.53
18
14.28
28
34.14
8
6.34
52
63.42
59
46.82
-

276

126

2
82

2.43

Sheep
No.
%
2
50
2
50
4

Table 11 represents the mode of acquisition of the animals raised by


the farmers in the 1st District of Cagayan. Majority, (41.96%) of the farmers
acquired their animals through inherited or received as a gift the carabao
that they are raising. This was followed by purchasing (32.39%) their carabao
and 19.64% who said that their carabao was their share from pataraken.
In cattle, 55.84% purchased their animal, followed by inherited
(25.97%) and 18.18% as share from pataraken. It is likewise, 55.10%
purchased goat that they were raising, 26.53% was also acquired as a gift
and 18.36% were also acquired from pataraken. The raisers of sheep were
acquired their animals through a purchased (100%).
Table 11. Mode of acquisition of the farmers in the 1 st District of
Cagayan 2013
TYPES OF ANIMALS
MODE
Carabao
Cattle
Goat
Sheep
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
No.
%
Purchased
43
38.3
43
55.8
27
55.1
4
100
9
4
0
Inherited/Gift
47
41.9
20
25.9
13
26.5
6
7
3
Share from
22
19.6
14
18.1
9
18.3
pataraken
4
8
6
TOTAL
112
77
49
4
Table 12 shows the health practices used by the farmers inorder to
cure a disease for their animals. Almost 35.71% do not have any health
practices that were used for their ruminant animals. Deworming (24.81%) is
used by the backyard raisers inorder to remove internal. Medicating
(22.25%) sick animals were practiced by the farmers by giving anti-biotic and
vitamins for the ruminant animals. Some used traditional practices 16.16%

and 0.75% used herbal medicines such as makabuhay for deworming,


kawkawate as deticking and pods of ipil-ipil.
Table 12. Health practices for ruminants in the 1 st District of
Cagayan 2013
PRACTICE
Frequency
RANK
Vaccination
60
3
Deworming
66
2
Herbal medicine
2
5
Traditional
43
4
None
95
1
Others
0
TOTAL
266*
*Multiple Response
Table 13 presents the methods of selling their ruminant animals. The
most common marketing methods is per head basis (25%) and 2.38% is at
liveweight basis and few followed slaughtering (1.98%), pairikan/mais
(0.94%) and 0.47% is barter to others ruminant animals.
Table 13. Marketing Methods
METHODS
Frequency
Per
head
basis
53
(bultohan)
Liveweight
6
Slaughtered
4
Barter
1
Pairikan/ Mais
2
None (No definite)
145
TOTAL
212

PERCENTAGE
25
2.38
1.88
0.47
0.94
68.39

All the respondents gave a combination of different types of feeds to


their animals (Table 14). Majority prefer a combination of native grass + crop
residues + weeds (33.93%) to be given to their animals, Native grass alone
(30.36%) utilizes as feed for their animals. Some utilizes the feeding
combination native grass + crop residues (24.11%). Few of the farmers

utilizes the combination native grass + concentrates (2.68%) and 0.45%


utilizes native grass + concentrates.
Table 14. Feed combination given to animals in the 1st District of
Cagayan 2013.
COMBINATION
Frequenc
RANK
y
Native grass alone
68
2
Native grass + Crop residues
54
3
Native grass + Crop residues + Muromor + Tree
13
4
legumes
Native grass + Crop residues + Weeds
76
1
Native grass + Crop residues +Weeds +
6
5
Concentrates
Native grass + Concentrate Feeds
1
6
TOTAL
224*
*Multiple response
*muromor- term in the dialect for corn seeded at high density
Table 15 revealed the methods of grazing or feeding given to backyard
ruminant animals. Majority of the raisers prefer to tether alone their animals
(57.85%) followed by tethering + cut and carry (21.48%) and Grazing alone
(11.57%). Few preferred the combination of grazing + cut and carry +
concentrates (1.57%).
Table 15. Methods of feeding/grazing in the 1stDistrict of Cagayan
2013.
METHODS
Frequency
RANK
Tethering + Cut and Carry
52
2
Grazing + Cut and Carry
18
4
Grazing + Cut and Carry +
4
5
Concentrates
Grazing alone
28
3
Tethering alone
140
1
TOTAL
242*
*Multiple response

There are problems met by the backyard ruminant production which is


presented by Table 16. Diseases and parasites is the number one problem of
the raisers (33.59%). Followed by scarcity of feeds (17.58%), limited pasture
area (15.23%), and inadequate capital to buy stock (11.33%). The least were
low production during dry season (9.76%, climate change (7.81%), others (no
grass during planting season) (2.73%) and theft (1.95%).
Table 16. Problems met in ruminant raising in the 1 st District of
Cagayan, 2013.
PROBLEMS
Frequency
RANK
Inadequate capital
29
4
Scarcity of feeds
45
2
Limited pasture area
39
3
Diseases and parasites
86
1
Low production
25
5
Climate change
20
6
Theft
5
8
Others
7
7
TOTAL
256*
*Multiple response
Among the training needs (Table 17, breeding ranked the first with 107
respondents (28.53%). It was followed by animal nutrition with 94
respondents (25.07%) and health management with 87 respondents
(23.20%) while forage production have 49 respondents (13.73%) and
marketing have 38 respondents (10.14%).
Table 17. Training needs/assessment in the 1 st District of Cagayan
2013.
TRAINING
Frequency
RANK
Animal nutrition
94
2
Forage production
49
4
Breeding
107
1
Health management
87
3
Marketing
38
5

TOTAL
*Multiple response

375*
Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION


Summary
The study was conducted in the selected municipalities of the first
district of Cagayan Province through on-farm interview from September to
December 2013 to determine the existing management practices of
backyard raisers in ruminant production.
There were 212 respondents/raisers from the first District of Cagayan.
Most of the respondents age ranges from 41 to 50 years old. Most them
were High school graduate level and have an income of Php. 10, 000 to Php.
15, 000 (18.75%) together with Php. 25, 000 to 30, 000 both 6 raisers
responded for carabao and for cattle Php. 15, 000 to Php. 20, 000 (27.77%).
Goat raisers is at average of five family members (25.47%). Among the
respondents, 93.18% tilled their own land.
Most of the backyard raisers, only own 1 hectare to till with 31.25%.
Carabao is the most numbered animals raised in the province particularly in
the first District with 66.20%. in terms of feeding combination, 33.93% native
grass + crop residues + weeds, are practicing as source of feeds of their
animals through tethering with 57.85% among the respondents. The

cropping pattern in the first district is sole cropping of rice that garnered
76.16% which is rice after rice among the respondents.
The ruminant animals raised in backyard were acquired through
purchased (55.19%) and there no health management practices were
adopted by the raisers (35.71%)

Conclusion
Based on the result of the study, rice farming cannot satisfy the
income needed by an ordinary farmer family but instead the raising of
ruminants suited in their backyard gives additional income.
It was further concluded that, the inclusion or establishment of feed
source that give the continuous supply of roughage throughout the
production

period

and

feed

preservation

is

necessary

for

ruminant

production to improve nutrition of animals.


Recommendation
Further study is recommended covering all the municipalities of
Cagayan to determine what other factors could sustain the economic status
of backyard ruminant raisers and make it as enterprise that can improve
family income.

LITERATURE CITED
BATTAD, Z. M., et al, 1990. Survey on Ruminant Feed Resources and
Management in Ilocos Norte, Unpublished Graduate Thesis.
Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos Norte
CASTILLO, L. S. 1982. Current Development and trends on feeds and
feeding management of ruminant on tropics. Animal Husbandry
and Agriculture Journal. 16 pp.
GUZMAN, A. T. de. 1986. Utilizing farm by-products for backyard goat
production. Greenfields. Planters Product Incorporated Manila. 19
(5): 20-29. The Livestock
MOOG, F. A. 1990. Available crop residues and Agro-industrial by-products.
PCARRD State of the Art Abstract Bibliography of Processing and
Utilization of Crop Residues, Fibrous Agro-industrial by-products
and Food waste materials for Livestock and poultry feeding. 8:1
PCARRD. 1979. Livestock forage pasture and grasslands. 64 pp.
(http://cagayano.tripod.com/demmmography.html)
(http://cagayano.tripod.com/geography.html)