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# Zewail City of Science and Technology–Fall 2016

PEU 430: Solution to Quantum Mechanics 3–Midterm 1

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c1 (0) = 1. ∀j 6= 1.(1) [20 points] (a) A particle of mass m is initially in the ground state (E1 ) of an infinite square well of width L. Hint: Don’t evaluate the spatial integrals. l = 3. Starting at time t = 0. where we ignore the spin. i=1 Hence. (ii) Calculate the probability in the limit T → ∞. 2 V0 dt = h2|x2 |1i i~ Z T e−t/τ ei(E2 −E1 )t/~ dt 0 (1) . (b) A hydrogen atom starts in the state n = 4. (i) Find the probability that the energy after time T is measured to be E2 . where 1 c2 (T ) = i~ Z T 0 h2|H (t)|1ie i(E2 −E1 )t/~ 0  iω21 t−t/τ T V0 e 2 = h2|x |1i i~ iω21 − 1/τ 0  iω21 T −T /τ  V0 e −1 2 = h2|x |1i . where |ψ(t)i = X ci (t)e−Ei t/~ |ii. Solution (a)(i) For a particle initially in the state |1i at t = 0. the probability of being found in the state |2i at t = T (transition probability) is: P1→2 (T ) = |h2|ψ(T )i|2 . P1→2 (T ) = |c2 (T )|2 . What possible states will the atom go through as it decays spontaneously to the ground state. the system is subject to the perturbation H 0 (t) = V0 x2 e−t/τ . where V0 and τ are constants. i~ iω21 − 1/τ where we defined ω21 = (E2 − E1 )/~. cj (0) = 0. m = 3.

we have P1→2 (∞) = |V0 |2 |h2|x2 |1i|2 2 + 1/τ 2 ~2 ω21 (ii) The spontaneous transitions will occur subject to the selction rules ∆l = ±1. A where A is the spontaneous emission rate A= 3 ω03 |P|2 . (2) [20 points] Calculate the life time of the first excited state of the hydrogen atom |210i when it undergoes a spontaneous transition (electric dipole transition) to the ground state. 3π0 ~c3 . 35 2 Solution The life time of an excited state is given by τ= 1 . the sequence of transitions is |433i −→ |322i −→ |211i −→ |100i in all the above transitions we have ∆l = −1. ∆m = 0 or ± 1.The transition probability now reads P1→2 (T ) = |c2 (T )|2 =  |V0 |2 |h2|x2 |1i|2  −2T /τ −T /τ 1 + e − 2e cos ω T 21 2 + 1/τ 2 ~2 ω21 (ii) In the limit T → ∞. ∆m = −1. Hint: You may use h100|z|210i = 28 a √ . Since the initial state is |433i.

λ > 0. and (b) the first excited state.060 λ1/3 . 4 .Here P is the matrix element of the electric dipole moment between the two relevant states ˆ = h100|z|210ik. respectively  2 2/3 ~ E0 = 1. |P|2 = q 2 215 a2 . 2m  2 2/3 ~ E1 = 3.800 λ1/3 2m use the variational method to find approximate values (within 2% of the numerical values) of the energies of (a) the ground state. Numerical integration gives the following values for the ground state and first excited state energies. Hence. ˆ P = qh100|r|210i = q(h100|x|210iˆi + h100|y|210iˆj + h100|z|210ik) where the vanishing of h100|x|210i and h100|y|210i is due to the m selection rule explained in the textbook. 310 τ= 3π0 ~c3 310 q 2 ω03 215 a2 (3) [20 points] Consider a particle in the potential V (x) = λx4 . Hint: You may need the integral Z ∞ (2n − 1)(2n − 3)(2n − 5) · · · 5 × 3 × 1 √ 2 x2n e−x dx = π. 2n+1 0 Solution (a) For the ground state we chose the following trial wavefunction (ground state of the SHO) 2 2 ψ0 (x) = Ae−α x /2 .

We have ∞ i ~2 d2 4 −α2 x2 /2 e − + λx e dx 2m dx2 −∞ Z ∞ i 2 2 h ~2 4 2 α 2 2 (α x − α2 ) + λx4 e−α x dx =√ e−α x /2 − 2m π −∞ α hHi0 = hψ0 |H|ψ0 i = √ π = Z −α2 x2 /2 h (2) ~2 α2 3 λ + . 2m 2 4 α4 We know that hHi ≥ E0 . Since the ground state wavefunction is even. In particular the first excited state of the SHO ψ1 (x) = Bxe−α  1/4 6 where normalizability gives B = 4απ . 2m 2 2 α4 The best value of α satisfies = dhHi1 = 0 =⇒ α = dα 5  10mλ ~2 1/6 .082 2m This is already within 2% of the value obtained using numerical integration. E0 ≈ 1. i. . then any odd function will be orthogonal to it.e. ∞ 2 x2 /2 . where normalizability will lead to A = α2 π 1/4 .. We will chose α which minimizes hHi0  1/6 6mλ d hHi = 0 =⇒ α = . where E0 is the smallest eigenvalue of H or the ground state energy. i ~2 d2 2 2 4 + λx xe−α x /2 dx 2 2m dx −∞ Z i 2 2 2α3 ∞ −α2 x2 /2 h ~2 4 4 = √ e − (α x − 3α2 x2 ) + λx6 e−α x dx (3) 2m π −∞ 2α3 hHi1 = hψ1 |H|ψ1 i = √ π Z xe−α 2 x2 /2 h − ~2 3α2 15 λ + . (b) To find a trial wavefunction for the first excited state we pick a trial function orthogonal to the ground state wavefunction we used before. hHi0 is bounded from below by E0 . dα ~2 Substituting this value for α in the expression for hHi0 we get  2 2/3 ~ λ1/3 .

For V (x) = −f (x) and using ψb as a trial wavefunction we know that hψ|H|ψi ≤ E0 where H = p2 2m (5) − V0 and E0 is the ground state energy of H.e. (4) [20 points] For a particle in a constant potential well  −V |x| < a 0 Vc (x) = 0 |x| > a. a state with Eb < 0 hψ|H0 |ψi = Eb . where H0 = p2 2m (4) − V0 . Subtracting equations (4) and (5). Solution For V = −V0 .5% of the value obtained using numerical integration. Use this result and the variational principle to prove that there is at least one bound state for a well with arbitrary potential  −f (x) |x| < a V (x) = V0 < f (x). hψ|(V0 − f (x))|ψi ≤ E0 − Eb . we know the system has a bound state ψb . Since Eb < 0 then E0 < 0 and the system will always have at least one bound state.Substituting this value for α in the expression for hHi1 we get  2 2/3 ~ E1 ≈ 3. 6 . i. 0 |x| > a..847 λ1/3 . 2m This is already within 1. V0 > 0 the system will always have at least one bound state ψb . The left-hand side of this inequality is always negative since f (x) > V0 .