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Running Head: MUMPS OUTBREAK

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MUMPS IN DALLAS
Mumps is a transmittable disease that is caused by a virus transmitted from one
individual to another individual through personal contact, saliva as well as nasal secretions.
Mumps condition primarily influences the parotid glands which are also known as the salivary
glands. The disease is a very acute virus that can only affect both adults as well as children
(Markowitz, et.al 1998). The past historical records show that mumps was a frequent cause of
illness among the young children especially during the late winters. However, the incidence of
the spread of the disease has been reported to decline to very low levels in the United States. In
addition to that, the mumps cases continues to occur sporadically especially on individuals who
recently travelled to mumps- endemic regions outside the United States imported most cases of
mumps. Though vaccination is the best strategy for preventing the infection of mumps, the
vaccine applied cannot be said to be 100% effective.
Mumps outbreak in Dallas has filled most of the news headlines in the state. The Dallas
news record that apart from Dallas other countries such as Johnson, Denton, Collin as well as
Tarrant have been reported to have more than 50 cases of the disease (Rubin, & Beeler, 2013). As
some of the news bulletins explains that mumps symptoms starts 17 days after being exposed to
the saliva that has been infected. The news also state that at least 20% of the people show no
signs and the symptoms, hence making it easy for the virus to spread. In the past recent years,
Texas has seen about 20 mumps cases within the state (Markowitz, et.al 1998). But the current
outbreak situation in Dallas is at least more than twice most of the Johnson County alone. The
Dallas county department of health first reported that mumps outbreak was first reported during a
Halloween party in October 29th, 2016 other cases were reported between 16 th and 17th of

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November. However, the worst mumps outbreak in the years may have been reported to have
originated in north Texas during the cheerleading competitions in last month November as well
as this month. The department of health and human service in Dallas reported that 48 cases of the
mumps outbreak had been diagnosed in Johnson County around the past 2 weeks.
Symptoms
The symptoms usually appear after 2 weeks of being exposed to the virus, the individual
experiences flues, body fatigue, severe headaches, appetite loss, fever as well as body aches. The
individual experiences a higher level of fever followed by the inflammation of the parotid
glands, in the next days(Markowitz, et.al 1998). The glands may not swell all at once but the
swelling starts the pain becomes periodic. The patient is most likely going to pass the mumps
virus to another individual from the time of contact with the virus to the time of the swelling of
the glands (Rubin, & Beeler, 2013). Technically, most of the people who contact mumps tend to
show the symptoms of the virus, however some people don’t show any symptoms. Apart from
causing the swelling of the parotid glands
Treatment
Mumps does not respond to any antibiotics as well as other medications because it’s a virus,
treatment can however involve treating the symptoms in order to make the individual fell a little
bit more comfortable while he is sick.
For example:
The sick individual can take a rest whenever he or she feels tired, the patient can also buy over
the counter drugs such as ibuprofen to act as pain relievers, and another kind of treatment is by
drinking plenty of water to avoid dehydration that comes as a result of the fever (Rubin, &

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Beeler, 2013). Eating soft diets such as soap and yogurts, that are not hard enough to chew. The
patient should also avoid acidic foods that may lead to the patient experiencing more pain in his
parotid glands. The patient can always return to school or work a week later after being
diagnosed with mumps (Rubin, & Beeler, 2013). At this point, the patient is no longer
contagious, because mumps usually run a couple of weeks before the patient feels better. Most
of the individuals infected with mumps cannot transmit the virus for the second period, because
the disease has the virus that protects the body from being infected again.
Complications associated with mumps
Mumps is a very rare disease whose complications tend to be rare at times. However, if
untreated the complications maybe serious (Watson, et.al 1998). In most cases, mumps tend to
affect the salivary glands, yet mumps can cause swelling of other areas such as the brain as well
as the reproductive organs. Orchitis is an example of testicle inflammation formed as a result of
mumps infection. The pain caused by the inflammation can be eased by inserting several packs
of cold ice on the testicles different times a day. The doctor may recommend certain prescriptions
to the patients such as pain killers, Orchitis can also cause sterility of the male (Markowitz, et.al
1998). Females who get infected with the mumps virus may experience inflammation of the
ovaries. Inflammation may be painful but may not be harmful to the woman’s ovaries. A woman
may have a higher chance of suffering from a miscarriage if she gets infected with mumps during
pregnancy. Mumps may also lead to meningitis.
Vaccination
The best way to prevent the spread of mumps, is through vaccination. The vaccine may include
combining the MMR, mumps – measles- and rubella vaccines (Watson, et.al 1998). Two doses of

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mumps vaccine represents 88% of the vaccine which is effective to prevent the disease while one
dose of the vaccine represents 78% of the drug which is also effective. The first mumps vaccine
was licensed in 1967 by the US and by 2005 childhood vaccination had reduced the disease by a
rate of 99%.
Period of mumps infection
Even though the isolation period of mumps virus is seven days, the eleven to fourteen
days after the parotitis onset, show that the highest spread of the virus occurs very close to
parotitis inset and decreases very rapidly afterward. This period shows that mumps is most
infectious in the days before and after the parotitis onset. The transition period is most likely
going to occur five days before and after the period of parotitis onset. It’s also likely to occur
from persons with asymptomatic and prodromal symptoms.
Route of transmission of the mumps disease
Mumps virus is an infectious disease transmitted through coughing, touch and sneezing.
The transmission of the mumps virus occurs five days prior to parotitis onset up to nine days
after the onset. Since the virus resides inside the mucus in both the throat as well as the nose of
the infected person, when the person sneezes or coughs the virus spreads in the air (Rubin, &
Beeler, 2013). The mucus that has been infected may land into other individual’s throats or noses
when they breathe or they rub their eyes, nose and mouth after handling a surface that has been
infected. A person does not immediately become sick after being infected by the virus. The virus
travels to the throat, the nose and the lymph glands where the virus begins to multiply (Watson,
et.al 1998). The virus also enters the bloodstream in such a way that it travels to other body parts.
Risk factor involved

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Analysis from the research conducted on mumps outbreak in Dallas show that case individuals
were more likely than control individual to be children and teenagers, reports also show that they
were likely to have been exposed to someone who had been infected with mumps (Rubin, &
Beeler, 2013).

Controlling mumps in a community setting
School setting
In schools, small children from kindergarten all through the twelveth grade should have
taken at least two doses of the MMR vaccine, except those students with religious exemptions. In
addition to that, the immune status of the teachers as well as the staff should be verified.
Education should be offered to all stuff about how to prevent the spread of mumps, they should
also be taught on how the signs and symptoms of the disease looks like (Watson, et.al 1998).
Healthcare settings
While the transmission of mumps in healthcare settings is not common, its spread has
occurred in the past outbreaks, involving hospital facilities and long term care facilities. The
healthcare setting section also provides information about what measures are supposed to be
taken to prevent as well as control the spread of mumps, in the community.

The reporting protocol if an outbreak were to occur in your community in the future.
Mumps outbreaks can occur anywhere, at any time, if a mumps outbreak were to happen
in future, here is what the reporting protocol would be. If the children in your community

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haven’t yet undergone through the MMR vaccination then don’t delay (Markowitz, et.al 1998).
The 2016 mumps outbreak was very large in Dallas, and there still could be similar mumps
outbreak in the future, so it’s very important for everyone to be vaccinated against mumps.
Mumps isn’t a trivial virus, it’s a very nasty, infectious very rare disease in such a way that it can
be fatal when it happens.

About one out of every five children with mumps experience

complications such as meningitis, diarrhea, vomiting, as well as pneumonia. At least 1 out of 10
children infected with mumps end up in the hospital. Mumps virus has no treatment but the only
way to prevent the disease is through vaccination. The reporting protocol would be for everyone
in the community to be vaccinated against the virus.
The strategies that you would recommend to prevent an outbreak in your
community.
Patient education strategy
Teaching patients is a very important aspect of care in nursing. Whether you are teaching
a mom how to wash a new born baby or a certain adult who is living with a particular chronic
disease. Here are some of the tips that will help you assist the community to cope with a certain
disease outbreak. Educators should provide the patient education material as well as guidelines
through technology making it more accessible. Determine the learning style of the patient, this
determines how well the patients are able to read as well as comprehend the content.
Community education strategy
Communities that are wishing to develop a community education program follow a
certain choice of procedure, the steps include requesting information or assistance from certain
existing centers about the community education development. In addition to that a meeting

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should be scheduled involving a cross section of interconnected schools, representing the
community. These procedures enable them to know what to do during an outbreak.

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Reference

Markowitz, L. E., Preblud, S. R., Orenstein, W. A., Rovira, E. Z., Adams, N. C., Hawkins, C. E.,
& Hinman, A. R. (1989). Patterns of transmission in measles outbreaks in the United
States, 1985–1986. New England journal of medicine, 320(2), 75-81.
Rubin, S., & Beeler, J. (2013). Mumps vaccines: do we need a new one?. The Pediatric
infectious disease journal, 32(10), 1156-1157.
Watson, J. C., Hadler, S. C., Dykewicz, C. A., Reef, S., & Phillips, L. (1998). Measles, Mumps,
and Rubella-Vaccine Use and Strategies for Elimination of Measles, Rubella, and
Congenital Rubella Syndrome and Control of Mumps: Recommendations of the Advisory
Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Vol. 47/No. RR-8. CENTERS FOR
DISEASE CONTROL ATLANTA GA.