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.i-P.l)emrlltle . l-a lovitlire

','oluiive

l'J90, Vol.,'\, AttBrles Igt)4"!9-t)()


din sud-estul Rorrlniei (Bucureqtr 1983)
[ineoliticul
Dr.ll:,rnrir Itlll l.T Dragcn',i ,
changes Lll srlil level F'hysics anrJ Chelnistry of the Earth
Eu;t:rric
f:airb-rc1il,:.
F:lirrbriilg,: l95i it.W.
lir:1r.re

lnrer.nlrrional. Licr

Yuiit

.l1 -22a"ril

4'

1961' (NeVr

9')'ll:iS

Ci.rili,,!)t),:]''|.J['illlis.Fl':siits,c,1.Lecc:nt
VolA. lAthdnes li)9-l)"i7-60'
du ('Olk-rqr: lntr:illrrtionrLi. i-ion. ll'-ll aYIii 1990,
Potrtica XVII i984' 25-36
llalt,tti l9!i4: P. llagotti. \oi -lat,: pt'i','ini1 clifuzipnea c'rltulii HamanSlia
199t7)
anla
r.Cons
l.la50ttr .llltll: Ir. lhgotti. 1111, r:u neolrtirii in Dtlb|t.lgea
Ir'lltttlvl1),),ll.S'1r,ilno.",.lt|.'r1r-tesrirlirde|lrlociLl]saticlnetdes6tud.3Sdessi1esstrbn-rerg6sdarrsleslacsde
clr )..ri.\'t. lrr)!)'j. i9-26'
}..rr.trltt:L1l2'){)'}l,.l.lilrrr-:].,1.Il,r.es.'\1l.'()zclr$an.

Pniii:rp ''r:rtt Z-itbctrr i \4ir inz am i{'r':in ltl03)'


settlerrrents oithe Neolrthic-Eneolithic Period 'rt Melitopol'
ii.ro\u.'[.Lrbr: llst,:r, 1996:lr.s. Kc,rov.. rJ.V. Trrboitser,, Ner,

Ilur:rsir 'r\lril(l"ln 2. jq9( 19-58


l(orf.utt l1)):i: \,1 b,r.rrktrir ii rolithikrillr

Lrrrd

Chalkolitrikurr in Albanierr (h4airrz arn l?'hein 1995)'

j.-ltzarcr'j1)9.]:lr4.I-ltz.ilr..,l'.L,cSSil'cjstlLr|ndrg6slelollgcluPont()ttcstdansleconteXtedel'histoirepontiqueet
ntdtl t,;rt rtleienne. Polrtir t trif,\rl, 1993' 7- 18'
.['x21i1.(rrici1!,r!](,:Ch.L,;t';i;tf'l'ici,ThcF,tclctll;SofNeolithi.saiclnan

tlte[]ltlci.Lns'')(IltCISl,.(()orrgrisIntr:r.naticlnaldesSr:iencesFl.6histclric1tieSetPl.otoiStor"iqLres).Sec.9.Colloc1itlln
(.F:orli l')96). :l I - : ii.
Precucttteni pe teritoiiril Rorrrliniei (Bucure$ti 1974).
]\4arrn.:sc:tr.[}i1,.:l'r -i.)7.i: S. ]\1 Lrinescu'I}ilcLi, Cuiturl
(Beogfad
1 )E5)'
\'{rr i.lirlri l!);:i:!: i, Nlirrkc " ri Neolit Clne Ciore
din preistoiilr sucJ-estului Romiiniei Pontica
geografice
cOndiliilor

,r:\ril

l,{r.r

rrtelnrr

Ivltrnte rnu, Asulxa


i-1996, 2'17 2:j l.

xxvllI-

1t;r,r1,: 1v,1.

)iX1l\1. l1)1)
Ozdo!,lrrr ct ll,lii!)
l',,,1r,,,p,,,,

l: tvl 0zdrrgrrn' V \'Iii'ake' N'

n Llitsterrn l-hr tcc' Anatillir:t

at Yarimbut-gaz and
ozL)agaraI Dede,,An inlct"im feporr ol-l excavations

)(\'II' t99t,59-t22.

)'olt,rnul

l. N;'

33

tin srte clu N6olithique ilncien err f'hlace. I)ossters


'f
c,'Arr.:heolosie 28]L, i.C'C'.1 , orrr,qtrie. 116-29.
Kupf'er- und FriihbronzezeitzwtI)ar.zing:er. l9!l:i: l:l piu.zirrger. Sruclrit:r zur Chr()nologie uncl KuLturgerchichte der Jungstein'f
'f
Bd.
52 (Mainz am Rhein 1993) '
Forschungen.
nische
lLom
isch-Germa
i
I
2.
sihel K,rrpl i,:,n, un,l Vlittler err i,urus. ei
und ihre Be(Ttilkisch-Thfakien)
in
Kirkareli
Die
Ausgrarungen
ozdo$an,
Par;zrr,qer, M,
I)ar;ri nger., Ozcogirn l!)g16:

()z,dc,i.n 2il0l: lvl Oz:,Jogan. I{oca (ilgrrre.

Il

cieuitr.rng liir.cli,: B.ullurbezit:hrrigen zrvischen Anatolierr und Jem Balkan v,rm l{eolithikum bis zur Fri.ihblonzezeit.
tlRcK 16. .',)t)5.:i 29.

l)iiur,:scu l!)87:

rr\..FILuueSCLr.

l'lld:roasiatrul din l)obrogea' iSCIV

38,

l,

l9E7' l-22'

l)iLune:'cu, l-euu:lenoisiendeL'.EstetduSiud-El tde laRomanie.DaciaN.S.XXXI'1987, ll-t9'


l!l{,),7:l[:, Pe r-nic]ia. Ii. Begemann. S. lSchmitt-Streckrr, H. Todorclva, L.Kuleff, Prehistolic copper in Bulga-

l)iiunr:scrrl98'/a

z\..

l)ernicku er ll,
ria. IlLirrsia.'rtnli;:lun l, 1997.1' 'i80.
J1tltid'er:,bel.getil|.l!,!)i':.[.Rtlcc1e:nb:r.g,L.T.hissen,Il.BuitenhuiS,l990.Pr.llimirrar.vfep0l.tonthearchaecl|
gatiirns ilt )lipinaI in NW Anat]lia. Anlrt:,lica'K\/1. I98!)-199(l'61-|44'
lllaVi:er,2002: \/,SlriYi:ev.DieIlci:i :,hungen::rvisc:henDurankulirk clemBeleich<lerl)riicttcuteni-TIipcll'e-Kultr-rrundder
[irr1ppeBr,lplaJ.r\lc1eni.]rr: Il Toclorovt,Durankitlak. 13and I.Teil l(Sofia2002),29'1 -308.
XIX' 1993,269iSre.jp,,,ii i,iq-., p. Srerj6,,,ii:, De1 Ili,l <an und Anatolien in der mittle ren und.jiingeren Steinzeit. Anatolica

Iti:l.

'feli:1rrr et.rl.2C03: )).'Y'a. Teleirin, Nf. Lilli:, I.D. Potekhina, \{M. Kovaliukh. Settlernent and econtlmy in Neolithic
I-Jkr.irirre .l Ilr\! i:hlollolo11l'' 71 rticluity 7'l, N 297' 2003'456-410'
'felienl_,ach I )Sj: 1r,l 'l'ellenbrch. .,lateriahen zi.im Pftlkeramisch:n Neolithikum in Si,id-()st-Europa. Sonderdruc:k aus
llsricrht ,Jei l:ii.ti risch-Gerniani ;;hen Ktrtnmission 64 (M.ainz I m Rheirr 1983).
ft6r-rtor"a 19!)5:

(Sofia 1995)' 79-98'


11 r'chaeo|r5tv N :22. Ed. by D.W. 3aile1' and I. Panal'otov
zur
bil;
vonL
Neolithikum
Kulturber:ich
l)r:r
Ilalkano-A.rratoliische
I.,.j,rio'a l9!)8: tli.'frtrJ,tlova,
pr.rifrbr,nzezeit 1!itap,:l cier F6rsc,Iur!l). In mernoriam James l{arve.r GaLrl (Siofia t998),27--54.
fo1,,.c'a l9()8;r: FI 'l-6dgr6viL, l?i,:iileme der Urnrvelt der pruihist,rrischen Kulturen ilwischen 7000 und 100 v Chr' Das
(MUnchen 1998t' 65-70'
KlrpatenbeckerL u1d clie rtsrr:.-r'.t1t:iische liteppe. Herausg. vrrr B. Hiins;el un,l J l4achnik
ga1ia. Monoi:r lp l-,s in Wc,rkl

fod,llc,,,,a l0()2: I':t.'fo,l .rrova, Dr.rrl.rkr-Llirk. Blnd II (Sofia 2C02)

irl, [-rrsu]escu.. rlr rrtribulir p'rivind neoliticul gi eneoliticul din teg,iunile Est-Carpatice ale RomAniei
(la;il.l0t)0)
Vol. I
,l'rl:ar, Cultural Irt
South,aast liurclpre: an Archaeological Appraisal ln
Yakirr l9!)8; J.
':tllction Eletil'een Antrtolia ard
rnentr,ri rm "[lnt,,:s F{itrvel' [iaul (Sofia 199i])' l3- 26.

Ur:;ulescu

2C,OC):

B rLt

1,..,.

e u

tn tt u

t\ e p,: au e c,

A"[o.tdoca'
LItrcr,,ttrnn,m Apreotttetru t 3muo:1ta(turt, Axadeytr,a Hayx Pecn)'6.tt'rxu
lv'lo:tdrteu
Pec'n1,6tttxa
Krurtru:ty,
l4ttniporio..,r,,r:, Er,,y.rurxy.6odortu 35, MD-2()12

Re r,'islc

3'oxrr

Arhcolos|:a. Seric

rrorrd

pAHHt=tl EpoH3bt Ipt4qepHoMop,cK''x


crEnEH

CeernaHa llleaHoaa, Ogecca


J.atnluLja, itt periooda
J

nrrtrutjtt.

sttttttto;eIentetttlttt:ttltttt.iitt:ttet'in!ailtndferite
,reritotiLt ittt<:tts to<:trttti itt

ritul iittternr.

[|41r1,p.,11.1;719aL:rtlitftu.1|l|tjt||cqe|ltte(''().'t?O?O
|io'|r(|L:tttt|106Ht;.ltt.t1l'.''diltt'..vcet|1||
l tttpt:.rttttSi

60.1tli! n()

lr,f

, fUVSj

true^:()l|1rjt7t|tl'|<GUc|l1i)|l,,tut1tottp,''r)ttHht\n|ep'renlc6anCocl|,1()'tl11e'b
tl.S,'.1:ttd Ut

tkBd GltlIb
Ill!ti0tt, ptlCtl(
(;rltptt.Pte!1t

1ttl

tue:trteiat
,l

)/ ci tt

tt

a rc lr eo lo,q

tttayn

l,ttqe

G 11o,-pe(,ia.rL,||o.r|

c' t t

lltt

icu

( .')px(.te.

.;c i.etrc t,

re

tt'rrtitt ttttl tttirtoi'eil i)t ,{tt'teral rit(.

noc,re,lHrre fo;1rsr BCo rrflrl{ 3Byrrul npelno,rroxieune o ro\,f, rl'ro rNtlrat KynLT}'pa KaK irrprpoKoe
rBJre:Hl]e' Nror.[a 6rrrr u:rrrrqairbHo pe3ynETaToM TpaHcoopN{arlrrr{ IOKa-rrb}{brx KynBT)/p 3}rec).[rrTprqecKor'o repHo,la (Pa,;clll,ra}ias, EniloxunroB 200]1,85). Ee c.ilex),er pacrcN,rarpHBarb Kar( r\4o3ar{Lirrbrri
fi,rox, r.ie Kaxitai{ r'F),rrrrir Ha 4)oH:e rHrroirorrrq3cKr.rx (epelreuHrl( H 3rHor(ynbr,vprrbrx) pa-:.rauuii
r,.[\re-']ii cBOH Tpa.q]rqr{H il c},Ab6,)i. I}npou,:u, u I'LA. MepnepT. Er,r:Aeil'q q\{Fr\,'rc q/jrr,1'yFrrrol1CTOlpl'IrlsCrK)'IO O6lilC'rb, ()l'N,{eqaeI, qTO )'n{e caN{lt pa3N{epbl ee Teppl'tlOpl4pl HcKxloqaloTBo3N{oX{Froc'l-ib crilo,'rbtio-HH6.v-,ns rr()JrH0ro KynbTypHofo enr.{HcTBa. Ec- rrcr-ol)Hr() oH flpellcTalijlqe'r KaK LJrItreJrbubrii, cnoxl{brii u Nrri()roo6parHbrit 3Tan pa3Br'rrns, Lr B3anrv'to,Aeiicf'B.aq p.s.na IIreN{eHFIbIK I'p}'iln,
13

o npofic):o)K.4eHHu KaxAori I;on:.r(eH pemarbcs oco6o (lvlepnepr 1974, 125 128).


Ilo l,tueutrl) I{c:c.rrA,)ti&Te.Iei{, c rIotBJre)Hr.Ir3N{ B flpHrIepHOI\nollcKlix crelr.sx HocI4Te.IIei.i t\{Hofi
KV-rHryFrbr cllrr3brliaeTcr ].l.pHO.q B:)rnbrypHoii urrrerpaqur4 3rloxr.r F,ausr:Lt 6pori:rt, Ha]I6oree ripo!,rljl)r1:rrTelr,Hbrfr H CTa6tU.[,l]brii. OcnoE,ofr ee SopuupoBaHuq 5ut:tu l3Hl'r'peHHHe IIpI4LIuHbI, KO',IOllbIe
npr.rirerlr K olilpeneneHHOij yHrior{KaurJfi o6uteucropuqecKoii KaprlrHbI (PaccarnlaxiH 199J,308). Ha
Nrecr,3 Il03.4H,l'3lrerlJlr{'r'firti.):Koii pa:4po6,TeHHoc'r.a norBrtercfl i\IOuIHaJI 3THOKy.lbrypHat ()6u-lHC'crb
(.xrrH;ar t(l'lO) c o',-reHb )/nrr$lrilup,oBarrHbrMr.i: qellraNlli plaTyana. o6ulHocrr. paccenllBtxatct Ha orriilrr4qEtrt r:rorrpoc

Volitrrurl 1. 1,1r.

or [ipaypa,rrn ]{zr Boc'roKe Ic.} l). Tprcbr r{a 3anaAe. 3Ta o(5rqnocr6 orMeqeHa
pacilBeriil\I Kyp,faFlllofLr crpor{TeJlbcl'Ba, pacfipocrpa]:IoHHeM Ko,TecHOr0 TpaHCITOpT.a, CTpoHTeJrbcr-

pc)I,'rHofi 'reppilr'ol,rrlrpr --

Bol'r t'r fl,ariluenpclril:, VKpenJe

ro 0FraBHeHHIo c SHeoill'r'rtlqecfifiNI ll3'peM,3FI0M xtlpitKrepH3\'etct c)/ulec,rBeHHofi llerpa/Iarlr4efi (Paccar,rarciH 1991, 295).


[O.J]l. Paccit\'IitKHFI o'rllaer.Tpe,qnorrrcnrre 3KOJroro->:os.f,iicrBer{Hofi },{oAejrrr, cor;racHo xoropofi
HI\Ielltlo :)I((ljlc)IaqecKaq cu't1''i]Ul{s IIOETIIeKIa sa cOSOIi IIe TO.IbKO Xo3rriir]TBeHHytO, llo H K]'nbTyllHy]O
rpalc$c,1lit{illllrtm. IIplt r:lrc,;rt itB'rop He rrcKJrroqaer BJrrlrrHr{e BHerrr1r.rx (briari:TopoB, r<ax c Bocro6a, TaK
t't c -Jauil,reL. C)ctttltlttsle qeplbl t:t\'Iltoii Kv:rbrypbr. rIC lfo NrHeHuro, He Aaror Bo3r\,rolr(Hocrrz y1Bepil(llAll) II0CjleilOBa'IeJIbHOCllb II nOCTeiIel{HOCrb nepexolta oT 3HeOJII4Tat K paFtHeN{y 6poH3OBo}.{y BeKy.
?rol rte;:,exsg ,:pltxcltp)'erct r.rccne.qo.BirreJreNr KaK ucroprrqecxrrii cKaqoFt, rcoropuii Tpy/lHo o6lgcHIIl'b' 'lncro apxeoJlorlt.{ecl(li\{lI IaHIIbtxtI.I. B cn:iy olpele-[eHrrbrx rrp.r.rqlrrr reppr.IT.opuanbHo orpaHHt'Ii:Hub,Ie x.o:l;aitcTneHr{ble cptcrei\{bI IlpeBpari.rJrr{cb B cneqaa-rlH3[IpoBa]rHble ilacl.yuecKLIe cHc.feNfbl
5pot:oer:,to ue.Ka. B .qaHrroi:i curyaUllt4 o6rusoc.rl xo:r{ficr.BeHHofo )/KtaAa MorJa orrpeAejrrrrbcs
r6tq,:r:i na,;reolr(o,ilc11-14qEs(rlrit ct{Tyarltr,:ii ('Paccal,,raxun t995, 48-49).
.l"lcc:te;IoEta're,'II{ o'nileqaK)T cyuecrBonilHi4e qMFrh,rx rrlreNreH Ha
{)oue cy66opea,rbHoro nepr.{o/xa
:onoueHi.l. ll)t-t xap,itxlepH3'/eIc.f, trioxo.ro.[aHrreM., )Mer-{r>ueHrieM KOruLrecrBa ocaAKoB, apunu:aquei.t
(jrl.lluLlra. l[ol;Lretro-r, rlto B't';txori't cr.rlyailuu 6ru:axosoNrepHrrM rrepe]{ol nepeofi;nHbtx cKoroBo,1oFi li 6c,.ttee ro!IJI,tx(FIblN{ r:l5o :,NraNr xo:rriiclea, Jllruoe Ke Hacererrne 3aH.rrlo npaK'taqecKr.r Bce cBor5o.dttste'ixo.tlc-lt'llt{3(lKlre Hlr:lrn He rorIE,Ko crerrlr, Ho t4.qecocrenn (Paccatwrtniu I9t)7,322,324).
lilo t',tclrxuc) itill cLII4:r'arb ifor rlporrecc cKar{KOM, yqI4TbII}atr, qro MOeiurbHble [tleMeHa, xcl3riirlrBo Kotc,llr,r)i H.\{erTo \')i:e cIIeUua_rrLi3uponaurrtrri (:KoroBo!,rtecxuir ]{apaKTep, IIorBJItrcTcq B
llpIltlepll O.lt(lllcKIIX O'IelIJIl( B Har{aiIe :rHeO.rtUTItqeCXOit :[OXU'? Firt:rO IlI pea,{trHbrM nepeABI4X(elllic H&C,ilJlietIIlit? I,:[ B KaKoi{ creIIeFII{ xynblypHbre u3MeHeHr4r MorJTr4 Ssrrr gerepr\{rrHr.rpoBaHbr
l(.1 I t.\1 Tl I I -'c K } f \t I I r cI o B H J{ I t I t']
Ll-re;tye'r )"qI{lLIBarb, rrro relpprn'opriq, c KOroport coorHocr.rlcr flNrHirr{ KI4O 6u:ra rparicnaHAtla$'rttoii, cne,{orBereirbrlo a i{,rruN.{anrqecKri:e H3MeHeHu.s s ueii 6r,r:rx Frat-lrrrqHbr. llpH coxpaHeH}ru
o6rqt:ti rllHixeHulur npoqeccbr a1)unrl:,a"uuu lS.;'nu lreojrrroBpe\.{eHHbrN{u. lloerolrl' Ha pa3rrbrx leppu'topnrIX tlloltltttponaFllie f,N{Hbrx IIaN{tIHLIKOB rrp,or.rcxrtiluT B pa3Hbrx K.Ir14Marxr{ecFir{x ycJroBr.isx. K
to\{\'xe r pa,luoil feofparifi.'qecxoii cl)eAe, KarK aTIat{rH.recxuii onrr.l:\{'yM, raK pr cy66opealrHar
ilpHl[ l'l 3a{fi tl ilpOt Eij]s]tt66 1116,-p?3 l{O}{ y.
l-lir nrcrpvtrc) TIOJIOBIII{)/ ar,'IaHrlirl,ecKofo nerp14oAa (6000-4500 JI.II., IiJI}i oKoIIo 49I014805 3340,t'.)10,() ner,4() Ir.3. rro !(zurIl6]loB0FrrbrN.r AaHubrN{) rpuxoAuTcr{ KrHr{arr4rrecKuri onruNryN{. ApH;IId3ar-(rtt K-IHN,i:rrir B crerrFlou :roHe clnpeneirflercj{ r.{ex(J,y 4500 u 3500,r:.rr, (334013100 - 1880/1770
flCl) c xrilxcr{\,r)/\rc)r\,{ apxApr3rr(ur.l Nrer:!y 4200 v.3700 "'r.u. (2880/2110 --:2135/2035 BC). Maxcur,ra.] rr'Har,ep,il,:t.r3atlr{;r a [Ipua:loBbe r] Ha Yrcpauue .4al'upyercr BpeMeFrelv{ oKoJr0.3700.u.s. (2135.103,5 IlCt..B fiacceiiuer fioutr ir.prrAu3,aur.{rr K,'rr{Mara cftrra ouyutarbc{ ilc'oJr 4200 l.u. l:.288012710
IJC), naurjcJrbrile 'r'cr.ireHHe r(oFrrHHeHriurr,Hoc:rr{ npo[Br4nocb B nepuon. ]\{exn}' ,[200 u 3700 ,r.n
(28,30,2710 -- :::1 3:;120:15 BC l 1i1pvs*eHeqKr{!"r 1.99'1 , 4:\-44). Srra Aarr,r He coBoaAarcrr c HarrulrbHbrMn
l{a'f al\,tl{ I liOl[BJIe I ll{fl H M]{bIX llillvl.f, THH KO B B pef I4OrlaX.
II.il Iiapr,rlrolr rroraraeri, rjfro rrrrla'ruBHbrr3 u3MeHenuq B npupo4Hofi o6crar{oexe B TeqeHHe
rreKoropofo BlieA,{erru N,rof\/]' cMJIfqarb0$ 3a orl,3T KynbTypHo-xosglicTBeHI:lbIX pecypcoB, r{etloBerrecKll.rx r,:o,q.[eFirl.rBon (a r'rN,rcrFrHo,6o;reel clon<Hoit.Bl{yrpeHHefi z sHeil]ueii xorr.ttuyHurcaqlteti n
rrcnorb3()BzrHI{eM 6io.nee u,r:prtr)oKr:rx leppr.rropruii). flp.a KparKOBpeMeriHbLK H3MeHeHrIsx 3lo ilo':BO.ll.',reT ril0,4rxep)Kr.rlraT'b cili,olt:Hst-utritc.f,
)'KtIaL .H0 npv II[rTeJrbHLIX MttclllTa6nr,t>l nepeMerlax He(ilarouplrrrHoro l(itllaK'repa r)To Brex:lro cJroM \o3rrlicrseuHoro Mexar:tu3r\{a, qro NIoxHo Ha3Barb
r:aracrpcr(boi.r. 'Llel,r 6o;ree c:rox<qoi.r IrHy:l'peHr{eti u eH:ullteti xotvttrlyuuxaqlreli KynbrypHofo Mac()HBa OC)'rrtecT'trJrjd.nircb rrojl!llx(Ka xo3qiic'fBeHrrr,rx cr}q3efr, Te\{ 6onee 3HarIl4Moi.i 6rtla r.ly6uua
(jour,rrlirbt:ro-t(l-irbr"yp}{brx rei)rlNleH. B nepB.v}o oqepeill' Hap}'IxeHue 3TI{x cBt3efi I}bI3bIBaro flonyJrrufioHHr,Ie r{:}tvte'Frerlr4t, qTo EieJIo K 3rlMelTFibrN{ nepe}v{(lHaM B I(y-[bT)/pFIOM N{aCC[4tlt-'(yVeHSUICHI{e
:taHnr\{aevror.i nnorqal}r, cerN{eHf'ar-(Hr ,qeN{orpad)Hr{ecr(ofo Maccuea ra r'.n.). Percoricrpyr4pyet\,Ir,te
r:o:qiicrnr:Htto-6r,rroebrer yl(.rl:AbI KaK rrpor.r3go.qHbre ()T JIaIIAIxafrrro-repplrropfiaJlbHl;Ix rlpHBt30K lr;yjlhTr/pr{brX r{0.Mrrrextl()3r rrrl3BoJItrIII4 r4ccfleiloBa'fe,'Irc cAenaTb naxurtti BbIIlox. Bce xogqi{{"1

TTIHLIX

ncrce.rleHltii. \z{nlgrpHaJibHag )Ke K}inbryp'a

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ri.

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tll
M

-1490

;10

BC 68

4tSCr+(j0
4lSCt + 60
,1l3Ct + 65

19il9

,t

BO

70

Jlv -2416

2890- 245Cl

1(r0

50

lin-2394

,Cyfi6ornH, 1000

i5;;-,',

10./ [rl

OCl

ti70- 2_510

3500-3 I 20

4530

I ,:

9epuurx il rp., 2000

Jlv-2472
Iirr- I I l9

l0/

2890-

3510,-1r00

llsltqr.rigrit t9t]

p,t rt

+ 50

.16C0 + 90

126

I 3

lil

t{eDusrx
ln.. 2000
9epHurx n 1p..2000
Llepusrx u lo.. 2000
Lleoustx r ln.. 2000
r{eDusrx r't rp.. 200(l

E70- 260(.1

Iiu-2

llerpeulrr,r

lr

28\)0-26211
2

"tp..

LieP'11511 rr

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

L-arrare'rrsr

9eprrlrx u ap.. 2000

35:10-3:,'70

4-580

/o

3040-292C1

14cto.r uuxn
LIeP's511 rr
-rP.. 2000

JIr:-2128

ra

9epusrx H np.. 2000


tlepHrrx u no.. 2000
Llepuux u
2000

Ap.,2000

3700-3:;'70

,t)

(.lerr e Hou

9epHr,rx u.ap.. 2000

11

Ii u-660
Iirr-1713

l-;

00-292t)
3040-2890
3030-266r)
3020-210(l
3I

BP
:1770 + 120
;1750 + 80

Ne

Manr.:u-82.

.llrt,uz'H t/)

9epnsrx

+ 50
+ 50
+ 50
160

14croq uuxri

3360-3 100

BEPO-3ANANH OE NPhL]EPHOIVIOPE,t:

,qa5
'V

BC 687c

BP

Ng

GrN-1991j
B n-2504
B n-2219
B n-609
B n- 1t5A2l.
B n-3302
B n-25C) I
B n-3303

r-7078

i<.rr

t2

iialoxa I/i4

F.rr-68 1

392C + 15

2410-23?,0

liar rrxa ii i 3

F-rr-68 6

3865 +

,50

2430-225{)

!iaroxa l/17
lloso;e;ruua t9/)

k.rr-(r8

384C + 65

2410-2200

ilzmyt, i999
lizmyt, l999

F.rr- 1220

311C + 60

2310-2130

r{epur,rx u np.. 2000

f t:-l-l?2

2290-2140
23 i0-2 i00

Cv66oruu.2000
Iizmvr, 1999

K.rr-682 i

379C + 40
3ll5 + (t0

[]rr Lurreeoc' l" /36

Krr- I424

375tJ + 60

2290-204(\

r{epHbrx u

l/l

K.rr-6820

376t) + 45

2260-2090

('-r,

llarc,puoe
3iator<a

liarora

t0

ll22
I

lp.. 2000

I OOO

\tolnrul /. \r. /

39
iL'I: Krl(

N,l

N
1

3a'roxa l/17
Ja t()ha I /_/l

Peaoga. xvDn. 3. rrorn.

Peursa, xl/pr. 3, rrorp. l5

,5

Peurua. xypr.

(r
-l
E

l.

norp. l6

<..IIro6arua>, rlei.ll. E
_
,,.IlnrdaLua>. nollt. I 9t

n.Ilrcr6iauar,

norl.

I9'

JIrl6.

BP

l(u-68

19

I(ir-61322

3865 + 60
3810 + -55

2370-2t70

Iizrnvt. 1999
Iizrnyt. 1999

I 058

39rCt50

2461-2'.105

I'[nrlHrtsa n ap.. 2005

K
K

i 060

3780r70

2327

-204r

IalsirHoaa H aD.. 2005

I 059

4i35t50

2863-2599

I4naHona H !p., 2005

Ki

t77

IrlailHrtsa n .up., 2005

tii.

204

39901 70
30901 50

25E 1-2,155

1425-t263

l'lleaHosa n

Ki. I 1249

4030+,50

265'/ -2467

l4silHrtea u

BC 68t2.
2430-2240

I,[cro,-r

H r.rx

lp.. 2005
lp.. 2005

ME:)I(AYPE9bE E;YTI\ 11 l/H[YnA

Mart:
IIa6i.M:
,)iorrr:

rl)11xL.rL-rslii
.,llprrr;'l

l/l

.l6l!)__

odlopoBii:il

-ll7t)+ I70

Ku-:;78
Mo-ti7

r'

l:lg1u Olecca

8C.68%,

1,1

.l

42.2Ct

Krr-478
Ku-5;49

+ 50

Kn- l0l/.1
Krr-131

Kn-4lt)

2500-220i)
2470-2306

105

Krr-70159

Kn-45l

011urirr,rii l/21 __
(..)rp;;rrr

r,r

ii

2470-2t30

3ti3Ct+ 120

Ku-707i)

Ku-48l

..6/-f

3Cr6C,

rn

2001)

usrx rr ao.. 2000


LIeDsur: n np.. 2000
nulr: u ap.. 2000
Llepuux n np.. 2000
LIepuurx. u .qD.. 2000
Ha3a[,on. ]{osar$x. 1999
L{epHux. rr ap.. 2000

2900-2200
2580-2210
2570-2200

+ 200
392Cr + I l0

387Ct

Hrr

2920-2700
2900-2350

(lrner;rurtii i/llr
(lrrrr,l ur,r i'r il4l l

roq

r{epuux n ap..

3050-2450

3!t8Ct

tilrna;rHr,rii l/2ll

0rp;.lrruril I/2

[4c

Kovllyrrklr. Nazlrov, I 999

2467 -2286
22r0- 1880

120

9epuurx u ln.. 2000

ME){<ilyfrELtbE t,lHTyItA tl IHEnPA

Pgrylpeltttqg t5!t,l

T3unrrrpatHoe I5/:5

lSrr r-ror pa

+^

13rrrr,rlpatuoe.l/4

lrroe

l -5/15

l:dJl

ts()

l(rr'7097

BP
4220 + 70

BC 68%
2891 -2699

I(r

4200 + 60

2884-2619

Jta6.Nc

.\'r

r-

709-5

Iirr 7 tl9

/1

l( rr-7093

.4

I{ rt-7091

2876-2-58

-55

80+65
50+55
00 + i30

-)

Brrurrrpa,:tr roe J/6

L{elrnonurri

I(tr- 143(-

13cp:lrrertpacoRra I. -'()/ I :l?


lSepxHeriipacoera 9r' I ll
Crprcrcrru xa lCr5i 20

I{ rr-9:i7

4090 + 95

I(rt-602
li I- 8!t7

4010

120
4035 + 60

.dnrrrprouxa l0,rl2
Ilep.xHerapac onx4 2 t1 ! !

JI,:- 82 4

]rvlrrlrc'er<a J/5

JI,3- $r

I'/t.l
Ilcur:Hemrracouna I Lr ll

Krr-5ill

3920
3860
3850
38?0
3740
3680

9
I

r:)

II
l,l
l:l
t,l
l:i

flp I/10

Ilepr: Heraftac on na
rrrrrc,nxa i/16

')
3

zl

9 xa'roeo

HexoppexrHa,r Jtala

iirr

-sltl

M
lla6i.l,{b
9xa,'roeo
Lxa,roso

()

Ih-]014

JI,:- 8? 3

.Yl

it

riloeo

9 rzuroso
tl xa,qr:eo

ll
,'l I

ll
iI
'()

't)

Kr+('572

\ir

-('572a

l.u-6829
klr -6829a
tltr-6571a
kir: -6 828a

+ 50
+ 70
+ 90

Harapon. Koaanrox. 1999


Ko,ralvukh. Nazarov. 1999

2881-2624

Ha:lalron, Koea,'rrox, 1999

2878-25

Ha:rapou. Konaarox, 1999

83

2880-2500

2870-25rc

.hcroq Hnxr.r
F{a:laDon. Kosanrcx. 1999

He;rHsrx rr 1p.,2000
tlenusrx n nn.. 2000

2810-2494
2860-2494
2500-2340

Llepusrx

r.r

ap., 2000

9errHsrx

r.r

aD.. 2000

2462-2202

Ha:rapos. Kosaalox, 1999


t{eprHux rr ap., 2000

2460-2200

LIetrHsrr rr ap., 2000

+ 190
+ i50

2600- l 950
2100-1911)

LIeprHsrx rr lp., 2000


r-ler[rHl,tx r,r ,rp.. 2000

+ 60

2t90-t910

Lle'oHurx H

ila,q:

ap.. 2000

BC 68Vo

iHctc'.tHltrtt

BP
,1060 + 55
4005 + 55

28-50-2483

2580-2460

Nil<olova

+ 55

2460-2296

.1990 + 50
4035 + 50
4010 + 50

257-1-t-t-56

N kolo';a, 999
N l<olo'rr 999

2608-2411)

Nil<olova,

2514-2454

N l<olova

.1900

999

999
999

+0

_-_,__
A

.l.Iir

Reui1&,ArhglgC@-Seru:1toua

BP

BCr 689r

Ll

xa.r lBo

U9

Krr-6-';71

198.5 + 45

2540-24:i6

l\ikolova.

li

L{

xtt-:r

)80

Lt9

Krr-6Er28

2562-2:i:i4

(.)

I\,hkrrlova, 1999

f'or,o rxosxa .l t/5

Kn-6123

3960 + 50
.1030 + 60

l6 t-l-}.9-l

Itlikolova, 1999a

.lCr

l-or'r,:r

rxoexa 5/,i
l-o,'r,l rioexa 7/.1

Kir-6731

.1005 +

2610-24.'70

It{ikolova. 1999a

Ku-6122

IIIaI

il 22. 2t9

a2?.,219
roexa 5/.1

Krr-6834
Krr-6834a

3980 + 60
3970 + -50
39-10 + -50
3960 + 60
392-5 + 5-5
.1950 + 50
:]9.15 t 50
-1925 + 5-5

25'71-23,60

Itlikolova, 1999a
Itlikolova, 1999
I.iikolova, 1999
l{ikolova,1999a
fizmvt, 1999
I'likolova. 1999a
l,iikolova, 1999a

L-Ia6.

JYg

-l

IUa>;

.+

[-oitr--,

l-o,r<t <onxa 51.]

Ku-6730
Ku-6730a

i-o,r<l r<oeKit 12l.1

Krv6l21

fI

tb;

ft

Ku-6733
Ku-6134

19

f'o.lor rroexir 3/

20

i'o.nor rioextr 14,'!)

2l
,L.1

oextr lJ'-l
L{ ra--l
tlo I r/8
I-o.rc' t r:oexit 14,"1'

?4

lllax

)o1

['o,r

)')

l/2
noncsKa l/3
norIC,BKa

Ky

or

11

Kn-68.13

25

l-orcr

oe(a l4r3

Ktr-61'.>-5

/t,

[1por

tont)axa I /4

Ktr-61|\2

2-,i

I-'o.no

oeKer 6/9t

Krr-67110

') ('

6/l i

OJIOB roBKaL

Kvr-67i).1

2i)

]---; .onxa I4l4

Ku-611).6

3{)

l--orroir oexir 6/8

Ku-61l9

25(vl-232t8

24tt0-23:i0
25-s(i-234.8
2-5

-j910 + -15
3905 + -55
3900 + 5-5
389-5 + -55
3890 + 55
3880 + 55
3850 + 55
3840 + 50
3790 + 55

Ku-67ilE

)16

24';0-23:\2

-1920 + ,50
19 i0 + .5-5

67'.11

Ku-68i17

2-5(iE-23 60

1920 + (r0

Krr-67 18
Krr-6719

-55

14cro,rn uxrr

El0-236,0

1999

llikolova,1999r

?5C,0-2340
rrc E-1296
2.5 80-20 i 0

]\.likolova

2461-23t6

flikolova

999a
999a

246{t-2334
250C)-23l0

I'{ikolova

oqo

Ittrikolova

999

246Ct-22')6

ftrikoiova. 999a
Irlikolova 999a
Irlikolova 999a
Ir[ikolova 999a

lJikolova.1999a

245E-22')4
2.1

10-23 I 0

l-+56-ttB.l
2460-2296
2398-2 t98
2563-23:t 5

N[rkolova,

999a

Irlikolova
N rkolova

999a

999a

IIECOCTENb
M

Eaulc,tlrrr

JIa6. l'lr
Kn- 1720

.1/.-l

r)ltait

BO

BCI (,89i

BP

Kr-3139
Ku-2122

+ 70
44iiO + 50
43,t0 + 60

Krr-7092

4Ct.t0

Krr-l llzl
Bln-4602

4.1.1i0

+ 55
4200 + 10

I,lcto.rHxru

3i20-:r9 30

![epnrrx

3,3_10--i010

C)r,rso,'lan. 200.1

3090-2t910
2621-2:412

tlepusrr u
^rp., 2000
Fla:apoe. Koearrox,
9epnrrx u lp., 2000
Cursoran.200l
Cllrso,tan,200l

l9 r0-:(il0

lp.. 2000

1999

Ku-.1044

4lfi2 + 46
40(i0 + 60

oe -l/2

Ku-7 i01

399t0

+ 55

2511-2164

Ku-l107

2580-2460

i{u-7100
l{rr-7090

39ti0 + 45
39i0 + 50
396,0 + 60

Ha:apoe, Kosanrcx. 199!)


Llepurrx n .cp., 2000

2563-2461

2563-2353
2584-2160

li{rr-7099

11950

Harapon. Koea-rror. I 99()


rlepnrrx n ap., 2000
llarapoe, Kosa,rrox. 199!)
Ha:lapoe, Kosariox, 1999

oe -ll

2880-2670
2840-2410

'lin-2129 i3960+5-5

oe 3,i i

l{u-7091

+ 6,5
3920 + 60

2560-2_249

2470-2306

larapon. Koner,qrox, i99v

[HEnPOB 0KOl= IIEBOFEPEXbE


M r cpiliul
Ia6.Ne
NIuuoexa 2/l:i
I\,1

rl

l\,1o

Tt

t,t r'

e,

frH-rI

Ku-8.58
Cr

a.r a lVIc

rrua /5

rure:e. lipHuoe;r rr Nlonrrla /5

Krr-5.12

,[r-'?

cro.r

lr x

ti

+ 110
+ t30
+ 120

3500-:u 900

9epHux u ap., 2000


tlepusrx u lp.. 2000

2410-?_r30

r{epHsrx

8-5

LLIHpoxrlr 6a.nra .l/(j

Kn-1'711

fle'prr:tqttnnn,l I /l 3

Ku-6.59

4105

floAri,uulHoara 5,/5
,rlro,i rrnr oeh:a I 7/9 ?

Ku-1,141

B:urr^:u I/5-,i

Ku-606

Mo-]2

BC 6tiVo

BP

4590
4530
3830
4450

35 10-3 100

np.. 2000

330-:t930

9epnsrx u np.. 2000

120

3320-|,),')10

4400 + 150
4390 + 60
4370 + 120

3 340-:11)00

3100-",_,)20

tlepHsrx rr ao.. 1000


tlepuurx n ,rn.. 2000
Llepusrx rr lp.. 2000

3310-i1890

tlepHrrx n np.,2000

41

ivlolrr,ren.6

ara lvloru,ra /6

lr4olli.;ren. Errto,'rosiilir lvlolula


li4 ot'

i6

trlcti_ 5;rl,ll.'rositl ii lv,lolil,la /6

Ilo.rti.;a-rr

393,1

+ 60

2488-23t:.

Ha:apon. lioearrnx, 1999

KH-7tl7ll

4361 + 70

308 3-2879

Llepuurr

Ku-603

4llll+

\t s-'?

4215+65

9eoHrrr u .qp.. 2000


9epHux n ap.,2Ct00

Ku- 100/4

42.9I + 90

Klt-4,)7

4?1) + 120

Kn-4113
Jie:-

4Ct2l+ 80
4Ct0l + 100

3 100-2700
2920-266(\
3090-2700
30()0-2620
2860-246('

1670-t 36t)

9epusrr n;tp.,2000

2E90-262C1

LleDrrsrr u

lp.. 2000

Iin-8t13

418,1 + 60
-11 81 + 120

t9_10-160t)

9epsslr

r'r

ap..2000

I0

9epHurr

Ap., 200t1

vs-l
lllrrD0uaq 6a"'rxa

Iiti

[]a-r rr

l3-

lv4orrr,reer.

t-l

lr4rttt,leFiit

ii3

prrl"rosa

[]o-;r',raHcL l,i I
Itu4or-lrrer,

.1.

(:,

lVlrlpcucnra -3li
Ta:rurr r i.r l/1
Tlrqsrrxr.r l/2
l'a.usrp r rr l/3
I\lrrpoHcura 7il

rr

2Ct0tJ

;tp.,2000

9epusrr r ap., 2000

9epurrr

rr

ep.. 1000

Harapon. Koeturxlx, 1999

.+08i)

+ 90

I E70-150i)

tlepsur

Krr--5137

399t1

+ I l0

2900-2 30t!)

Ktr-4'94

28,rtl-2

Krr-219t

408r1+ 100
397r) + 80
38611 + 50

9enHsrr u lp.. 2C,00


9epusrx rr ap.,200{l

Krr-4')7

384(l + i20

2411J-2131:l

t6lt

M
,,1a6. Nr
tiu-6741
Iir--5 82il
[irr-6,/ 1.+

AIflec
lllrrporrcura [/8

9epssrx

lp..

2E(t0-250.1,

Krr-.1.2 I

lirr-(lli

50rl)

2610-2 i5r:)
2461)-2291:l

rr

ap., 2C,00

tlepslrr li ap., 2000


9c;ruurr rr lp., 2000
tleDurrr u lp.. 2000

taJt : tic cTb

13I'

:123:' - 60
4010-- 60

i990-- 50

l9l5

-'i

-50

BC C.87r
2900 21 I0
2630-'/460
2510 2450

390ii 60
l89.ij 60

nn,crHr:sxa 2/3

tin-,5 82(r

387.i' 60

2440.2225

illrrncrucsxa l/4

Ih-5825

3810

2370-2t10

55

I,IcroqH uxr.r

Szmvl
Szrnvl
S z rnyl
Szmvt
Szmvt
Szmyt
Szmyt
Szmvt

t530.t.160
2470 2290

Iirr-6,r I 0
ilu-5 ti2:i

IVI

/ 12

L/t3

.Nlr

ra llolu,ra

r.r

1,1(;0-2 I

JIe-

l.,i4t,)

105

3l9il + 105
410i + 55

Krr-7t18'/

[]a-r xr.r L/:lt.)

i4croq Huxr.r

6870

Krr-7(17.1

I t6 ,/
Kti-1'7lli

r,rtrtnxa (r/I ll

B[]

BP

,rla6.i\"sr

Iia-rxrr h/5,:

24-i0 2280

999
999
999
L)99

')99
999
()99

999

Ir)/f'AHC KO-IOH EUr(|42 PEtt/OH


MareDtra,'r: te re
JIa6;

liu- i.i

lfs

,{800

+ 110
..17:i0 + 140
.:t5:i0 + lCtO

lKrr-8.5 3

liu-

l'ltll
tlii

liv-]0'7i

+ 55
,:lll'0 + 6Cl

)iu-7

..l3ll5 +

..136-5

lir.r-7

L7t,

Cna'roe0

l/l ---

Gffi*:Yl

CBa'roso 1lll

6Ct

3780-3370
3700-3370
3380-30.10

30E0-2900

2816-2518
3020-2E80

2816-26t1

l(u-87j

,:11-j0- 70
.:t300 + lCtO

lir t- I

..12:i0

lin-70'7(

Cnaroso.l/1

BCI 687o

BP

ll

-/tli

100-2700

14cto.ttlr xr.r
Llepnutx n ap., 20t10

9ePnntx ir lP.. ?0iJ0


9ePuutr rr 'lP ' 'loillo
Koval yukh, Nazlrov, 1999
Halaoos. I{oeaJrrc,x, I 99!)
Kor itlr'r.rxh, Nuzlrov. I9()1)
Ha:apoe, Kona-rrrc,x, 1 99!)
9eDnurx u ,rp., 20t)0

6Ct

2930-2104

9epnurx n;rp.,.l0tl)0

(_roAl-l-.013

,:tl:i0 +

3Ct

9enrrlrx n eo.. 20i)0

KH-5i35

,.1000

l{u-5

4010 + 180

2880-2660
2900-2300
2900-2300

i3,5

(IOAH-:044
liu- l'l I f
l{rr-70'l5
Kn-

lll I4

19,0

9epnsrx rr lp., 20i)0

.:18:;0

+ 3Ct
'i9fl0 + 60

2460-2290

9epuslx rr rp., 20t10


9epnux u ap., 20t30

26t0-2400

9epuux

l9:;0 + 6-5
i7l'0 + lCtO

2462-2202

2400-2040

n ao..20tJ0
Ha:aooe, Koezutrc'x. 199!)
9epusrx rr lp.. l0lJ0

l,lc to,l Huxu

li.neuHn.l, n.2
li.neuHn.l, n.2

4120 + 60

Ku-7ti48
Kn-7Ei49

4 170 +. 60

:zi 6I-2581
'.zt,1l -2669

Mauuro. Ten uNeHxo. 2003

?_t,33-2411

Maurro.

Manrxo, Telaxesxo, 2003


Ten

nxeHxo. 2003

"t_z

R_eui

st

a Arh

ol

si

t!,

Se

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M

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trJJ14ilJt: NOCTb

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r:
t,t

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ii 2/,r0

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BC 68ti,
2860-2410

![epnux n ap., 2000

24',10-20'.\0

Llepnurx

EtP

23117

4020 + 60

fle-23116

1790

160

ll4,croqHl.rxH

ap.. 2000

ncrloHbE
M |ep lliul:
Jla6.Nq
BP
I

BC

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AOH

IUKLA.i27I

1i

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:t890-:26

l0

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j8/4

r4

f-,AH-?

4580 + 90

r{r:F t-tstx lr Afr., 2000

9epurrx u .qn.. 2000

:1500-3100

r{AJtl\/brKt4F

llrl
la6
Ivlat+,r:;,rr

r.r

I\lau,r.il*r xeu;
Vlau:r>rilixen r,
Uaur,r

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40ti0

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36,1)0

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50

39tll0 + 50
39til0 + 110
39t',10 + 10

e-'/

fl-A f t- 18-50

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r6

36,10

+ t20
+ 260

Mare

ilaS ,\s
Hf.AH- 1,528
rLfAH-2402

3.rru,ta-To,tla

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14cro,rHxxrr

2:.835-,t475
2:580-2460

LUHu,ruHa rr np.,200 I
Vepusrr u -qp.. 2000

2"100-?.100

[luur,runa,

2550-2.295
229A-1920

1999
LLInLu,rrrsa rr -qp.. 2001
r{grpHux rr ,rp., 2000

2393- r (i35

LLIrru,ruHa rr lp.. 2001

ocTb

BC cll
3500-3 tOcl

Ei,?

I,i[cro.rHHr.iLr

1!;86 + 11
12:.40 + 10

291I-2100

trfAH-2058
nfAH-2056

4Ct70 + ,10

2835 -2.195

l.llrrrl.quHa

4Ct50 + 50

2830-2475

lljrruunsa u;ry..200)

I.ti-r\H- 1634
ITAH.2492

395-5 +

i-55

Lllrrurruna u ap.,2001

xeult

3930 + 70

7489-2313

LUr.rur,ruua n ap., 2003

l\'lauil:,1;:ri xesur

l.'lf/\H- l89l

3910 + 50
3850 + 40
3760 + 40
3:510 + 90
3:i00 + 150

:2830-2 3

qp., 2003
L[ir.ruliruHa H ap., 200-l

I\1ari,l;l,lrrreH
IV1

ar

r,r

,t a:r rxe u i,r

IVlarirx,tuxeHr,i
HJra-

fo.qfa

IVIauJl:rt,:lt

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Maur;+rrrreHu

lI

I l/4

KIlLl.:t(5 8/7
KIILI-ii,li l3r'9

1006

HfAH-2057
ktfAH-1005
trlfAH- I004

BO.rI TO.YF AJI

\CKItN

Ma

t5-5

5 -2

Lllnur,ruua

.t105-2205
?-215-2065
,2

35- 1780

:2030- 1625

Ap..

Llluulllrua u ap., 2001


Lllrriu,ruHa rr -ap.. l00l
LLIr ut,rnna rr lp., l00l

PET'1 O H

BP

')

,)

,)

3;1380

+ 90

IIC cal

14oro,rHtrxt.t

2:.810-:t190
2:,870-?.490

MopryHona, l"vpeuxnil, 2003


MopryHoea, l-vpeuxuir, 2003

2:500-2200

t{epuurx u

lp., 2000

,la6 lrg
i1

+t

;
,

'

\A-

12573

BC cal

tr{croq ur.rxn

452C +

l5

335i1-3100

7-5

335r1-3 100

tl3pHbrx u tp.,2000
tlrlDuurx h np., 1000
tlBpHbrx u ap., 2000

BP

()xA-"1254

4-51i3

4tI

().xA--1306

440tJ + 70

1/l

,\A- 12570

437tJ + 15

LL:pHurx u ap., 2000

Ilv-*r 157

42011+ 60

2910-2660

Llepuurt

I{.u-7166

401(l + 90

283:t-235

t/.i

,14

l'l . il aa.rcrF r:a 2l-\

l00l

lltr IJc BL)

IIa6.Jt:
,tt"t n,Dra n/2

4l

9epnurx r.r Ap..2000


Uluur,rnua u .1p.. 2003

3110-2920
r00-29 l 0

H ap.. 2000
l.,trrHr:(oe, 2000

4g.!l9l9i

V'olurnttl ;'. l\il'. /

1)

Srgn rorpnc,uR
EapltHxtln200]:|]'i.BapsInxt,tn.Iiyllrrprro-x.l3;lt'"tctgeHnalTpaIllql{fIJ3KoJIofltqecXt'IenpoueccbIcTenHofo[lonoxulg
neprojl 10-jj -n,rc.,;rer Ha3ar. Elonpocur apxeoJrofnr.r lloso.qxlr 2,2002,50-58.
I,Ie;rtl0l]a.l99,l:CB.]4}]aHclea.H''E'I]erqrruHttrioaa.oj].a'Tl{poBKe,IepeuHuotinoBo3K}JnrF{u;rueroI1otytianu,r'TencslIoxrlilitc'E: t{r)Hq)epeHu.irl "14r-'rt'tp,urr ti apxeoJiofuq Ilrrxrrerc,ilOlyuaesr" (PeuH l99rl). 20-2J.
l,lsatlcrsa'l001:t-..E}.[,{BaHoea,C.c,l.It,ta,tlHstt:ir:.rpoiiHacl3I|]Hl,lflllrltloitxy,rur!,pbICeBl3p()-3ana]Horoflplvepuovopsl
((Jar:r:ca 2001

).

HuiritotlarlJpr.][)(.)'j.(].]i]'l,{eaHoBa.JJ;.r..fIer.pr:r-rr.o.}I.E.e-lqllnullx.)n
l.ii ra rr TdHec'rpa tOlecca 20[)5).

Kpclteueultlt:i1!,,!)'-7:I...,t}'f.pentetietll:Hi"t.fIprll.ll.nal
f, ae brrr3 {. ri}

Kp1

b-ry'pH.bt e rpi:Ltt,t]riu it )

Moc xeai

199',,

_1,0-11

u i99,;' tJ.l. [(pyu, r\nr'potto,tclri.rilrfi cxral Hac,3ileHHr.,]anHr ic'opin Vxpaiuu. T.


K\'.rbtVpHorl IrllF,e, [] c6" Illni'ta ic-ropir ta K],'itbrpa uace-rer+if cren]
Hc cerpe,Iur-osiu,l:r) (,{rrinpone't})oBcbK 1999) I 2.5 126.

.t. (l(r:rin 1997),374-383.

raricocrenl'enpa:ii(nia xav'rHotl

eir1.'rro paH-

l{t'.lH.':tl.oe.](D0:]IQl'].i1ljHgu6lg.C)llpoHo,rorrr
cNue r larr

rT u r:irir.t ( -)peH6r'pNi,g

... 20fi), 9ii-9!).

tlt:.turi [] c6: lvlarr:prrta,rbl lt ttcc.'tlAOBaHUfl nO Al]lXeO.TOrr4rr []0C1O.ruor:i YrparrHsr. (Ilyn;aricr:1003),.1 1-t:i5


l1)'1.1, 11.t'. 1\1t:1rrepr.
ciio'roEro:br Elorno-Ypir-nocKoro r\,reiK,q)?eurn riMocxaa 1974).

l\'lerrepr

"4'preeueriruue

ll.Jl N4oprl,Hotir^ i\4.A. Tt'peuxlrr:r Hoaure Ha\o,rKu noB03oK rvuoii xyrsr\,pbl ri roxHo,\pil,'ltcko\1 pefltoHe B c6: L{fet{Ht, noctstuleHHbre l[]0-,qerilK) Ae'reJ.lblrocru l:].,,\. foporrUoea e fHN4 (lVlocxsa

Moptruont. l'\'l;'i:utgtii

l00l

1100.\:

), 8.+-E i.

lvl;.r-rrlplt.l.e-rerttn.i994A'i\4:'lr.noiri./{.-..|clllel-ill:.
ci.i:[[p,l6"rterrtl:l-l.Pt)t{0.'ICr|l,llrIi)'"1bT.yp3HeO-|il[att6pc'H:oeot.oeexaBocroqHoi;iyh:pal'lHt,lttnr.etBocro
; [rierrporrelpoec <,

l']94;.

30.-31.

lla:apoe, l,.oga.rrul.'i, t9t)9 C.El. Halrrpon,


L:).\:op o

rJa

lcrof)

lJrrrcrri:rea !)!)ll:

rj

Hrl - K\,.i1

M.M Krea[rcx. Kuiectxi't

b'ryrplrrti c na.qulnr{t.t

lla,tiosyr-rreuera xa,ri6pauiiiua nporpaMa. Apxeonretpin ra

:i, I 999 70-8 l.

rA,

,\nrc1:reQ. rfr(1. K .r.rJ. (i(lree 19!)l).


Pac,titrtilrittu l!)95: Hlt f[. PitccaHtaxus.

fo:lu;rii 3r-reo.uni

paHHui 6poHroaurr"r sex Crenuoro flpr.rue'pHovopr,R: npo6,rerra

lcKali(ilDBpet3BtITl,l|l,.tp|eBHI1}::K01.OBon()B.Bc6:KoHnepfeHiiIt|'intlBepfeHttH,fBpa3B}lT'|t'ly'1b,lyp
lpe.tr r:ii n Bocrorrr roli Enponur ( CaHrir-l1ereJrfi.'pr t995 ).
-l'.
Pac,rirrraxirr 19t!)7: tO.-tl. [)r'rccarraxiu. t-]eir cxorapirr. Tdanur lcropin ]'xlraiuH.
1

(Kufe I99l').273-317.

Pac.]itrtiiKittt.]3ejir]l:ttrto82tX]t:}O.f.[)accal,tartlu,|....,rl.Eeqotirtllg'Hogslf
tt1to6ltertaB]rljteJr]l|I'1'..(t.IocTc.|():oBcxttx>noipcfterruii.I]c6:f]orreuxrriiapxeojto|qe(]
[)bl.iKr.-ru l9!)Cl: I-l r.\. P6 .rK,JB,
.

urc. llr.H (lirren l',)9i)),

3r,65rlr.ttH,iC[D:-ll.B't-].'(j6orrin,CcI'epo.3ana.Ijj(lefIpI1qepHo]\,1opbeB3noX}paHHeirlrcpe:,1tlel
150-:iti;r

toBbliiBe}iEicrr:.rcl.lrr0|1Eoportll:)(apaKTepl'll]Tllh:ah'},JIbT)'p'XpolJC:.Io[tlf.

LIepHt,rrlr,'lp'2(X)0:|l,:{.ltieprrurx,Jl.,l.Agror;ir,J1,5.op.nonc
.rolrur ( j\,{r:ci.:sa

2.(ltX.l).

'{epur,rrtr,:p.1}fit,-l:[:''il.Lltlpusrx,-lI.li,l'Aettclua
iiclori.n hvpfi:rltHbix h:)'J.rbl\/p. PrlrlcltticKat i:tpxecrofltr 1,2004, 81-98.

IIltut'tttnarr.rtp'll|001:l].l,l.L|]rrrlr,rtttta'A'JI.r\.cxl:an'lpcln
|1t]''I1IIl]l't|i:\r,III,T}'|)L'It3enepn-3a'nagHoroI1p'trriacnuq.I]c6:6pcrH:oeutireexIJocroqHoi:r[]sponsr::apamep|cTI{
-r'),

p. x lx)1111-r r.)rn.'r, nepHoiiu3eLitt1, . (Caltapa :lC0 l ). t 17-ilpoec,ii20.iC:E't]l'fIpouclr:i.C|xor-,ltlc,.1qecxoelIi1ce,.leH|'le

:13.

lle(r. .rrtcc. jt.il rr. (N4()cl(Ba 20iC0).


.{or'al;'Lrkh.
l

odro( iub,on chlonoli:'91,

It{ikolova l'9'99t: A, l\rkolova, tr{adior:i.rbon dating fir:,m the graves oi't'amnay,a culture at ttre Ingulets rivtr'(the Kirovograd region). Tfre tirunrlatron of lacliocrrbon chnrnclo,uy of cultures tretween the Vistula ancl I)nreper: 315i0-1850 llaltic-Pontic
litudit,'s 7, i999, 7.2-S0.

lizml't 1999: N4. Szrnyl, ]letrveen INest and East, I)errple of


Itrntit Studies 8. Ic)99.

the globullr amphora culture in eastern Eulopre: 2950-2350. Ilaltic-

Caent.taua lIGnttoea.

()nd et Apxet.tt oanr'()

I o.v opbl,
l',|uctnun 'm Apxeotoeuu Hatpu'tucnauou Axade"vuu Hayx Vxpatuur,
1,.t. lTlnunrncxan 37, 6.J01 1-Odecca, !'xStauua.

e,'tel.to- 3unctd n oeo l7pLHept

+.1.

_,_._-,_

CrcrusTnucTl 9l oBtc;EtuRt

FLINEITRARE

Reuista Arheoloqit:ri. Sene nortc-t

pRAclcA'r'E DE coMUNtrAllle

HII,LLSTI\TTIENH TANZII IDIN PLATOUL MOLEIOVEI DE NORD


(IN BA;:A TVECFIOPOLET TRINCA "DRUMUL F'ET'E:9T|LOR")

Olt;g l-evitki, Tatiara Demcenco, Chi,gindu

!ertt0tii rrtull t)iai

l)t (,,9n(tnl, eleirit;tttc'le


,1r,1'1t.tttr,'tt

c' r.

rtt

i,

tfI t'x o?

,o

oon:lert, litttittttit.

ti

riolte

.l llt:t, tllrlK U
0 t: i,t c t t

tcltite ui',i,td

0,t

rt

r-, n p

7-l'e !;ut

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r.t

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ial

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t,

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('|,|'|.)iI(et||I||'i|?'|b,c,)o|rltc'|;.'ts|

rll0t'C i'(tllt)te

't|tc[ttr':]]uil',;rnnttet:r'c'poli,it:v'e|!as.lft|it'
Itrttc

rt1'tlte

flollstott

cttt'ribute.s rriul a.

!inti't,d,sltare

ctf

tlte

5ic.r,tltiott elenrcrrs.

lurncloucrRr
F{ecrcpola turnulard'Irinca "I)rumul Fetegtilor" a fost descopr:ritiL in anul 1990 gi investigatd
,1994,199:;, 1999).
Conrplexcle q;i nratenir r:le <lepisrtate pe parcul'sul explorirji sitului, cLr exceplia ceior cercetate ?n
ciiillpillliit anului 1!)919. sunt deja cunoscute specialigtilor prin intermediul ritpoafiele de sapdturii editate
tlJlcrelittxiiii, Cansa. Il.o6aH i992.95-107; Levilkr 1t995.241-278; l-evi;ki, Haheu 1997, 167-212). Vesri1giile clin necropollf, ar.l const tuit rle asemenea qi subiectele unor colrunicdn la diferite intrunirj qtiintifice,
in plezent publicate: (.ll-,:villi 1996, l6-5-193; Idem 1991,149-180; Idem 2Cr00,38-39; Idem 2004, j6-82:
llclem 20[),1a,369-39-\: JIenHrlxrrir 2C,Q4, 152-1-57) in care s-a abordat c]-r pri3cddere aspecte ce tin de conctelizatelL incadriLrii r:ronolos;ice ;i de terminarea ilpaltenenlei culturale ir sitului. Examinarea complexd a
indjcrior:tonc'lo;qici ltrpiesr:: tlr dc inr'entar a permis datarea necropolei lfrinca "Drumul Fetegtrlor" in peliriida ,:up)linsii il'irtt'r: miJlocr i secolr.rlui al VII-lea qi primul sfeft al secolului al Vl-lea i.e.n. (Levilki 2011,+,
lli) A,nalizlrinciiciloretno-cLtltulali,ce{inatAtdecondigiiledehabitat,c0tgrdesferasprritLralaaciem,cstrrl ca ne:ropr:,la in caruzd ai rind cele mrLi multe similitudini cu complexele funerare din bazinul Nistrului
(r(rrnplot pe parcLu'sir.rl a patru carnpanii de sapiLtura ('1991

VolttnttLl 1. !'l ,".

,+)

.l

Mi.jlociu pr Depresir.rnea Rd.r1iir-rti. zoni. pcpulatai d.e comunitatile grupului podr:lia de 'vest sau podolianmoltlavin aceliLqt tirrp atestii un aspect hullstattian rrrult nlai pregnant?n comparafie cu acesta, elementele
scit,rcc ai,'r)ind c) porrclefe limit.atrj (Levifl,ri llCt04, 339t1.
Subier:tul acetilui studirLtr -- Jinind cc'nt de iaprlui cii. necropola de la

Trinca reprezintd unLrl din pufinele nronurnente funet'are dirt perioada hullstatticLnf, tlrzie din spa{iul est-carpatic cercetatd complet gi
ciire ibn:rtzteazii iniotmalii ,cle'osebite refr:ritor la: tipul drl monument funr::rar, condilirle topografice de
amp'rl13ii1i3. cn"sanir:i,Lrc:r lui nti:rnd, dinrertsiur-rile q,i irstmc:tura tumuliJor, tipuLrile de construcji i sepulcrale. rittrl ;i prlrciicile flnerale - constd in primul rlnclin pfezentarea detaliatd a acest()rparamentri, iarin
al-tltulea. in ex.uminrrea lorin,:ontextui realitdlilor hallsrattiene tArzir gi s::itic,: timpurii sud-est eLlropene. (.om1:,irL;'[in<Ju-lc ll <lcose,bi, cu cele,i]les;tate'in zona nr:mijlocit innitrofii Platoului lvloldovei de Nord
- (Lrazinul ,\drstrLrlui de Mrlloc rli Superior, Depresrunea Rddduti), precum qi r:u ceie crlacter-istice grupLlrilc'r c:ultunrle l-rnllr;tattrene [1i;:ii din v,:sl (spaliul calpntc,-dunirean, bazinr"il Tisei superioare) 9i, scitice
timpLrrii r:lc la r:st cler Nistrur, cr-r precide,re, din bazinul Niplului de Mi_jloc.
,i

Asprclul

NEcRoPoLEI

Situi.tti la c;i:rc1 0,7-0,ii l:m spre sr,d de margineir satului, pe un pl'omontoriu inconjurat de un
tneanclru a riuletulLli Dlaghrii,3. necrc)llolii se intindea fre panta linii de sud-,;est a inallimii (fig. l/1).
Celc:etziriIc nrla.r;trt: lu er,'idr:nrlat Lln nurniir cle I j2 tumu.i de dimensruni mici, dintre care cinci puternic afcct;t1i de lr:ct'itri ag,ricole . Cer mai line con:iervati et'au patru l-umuli cu inillirnea de crrca 0,-5 m.
Cele L2 r'nciviLle, riispiinciite pe o supral'a1ir de cca. ? ha, r:rau iiliniate in trei grluli, pe drrec{ia sud-r,est
- noltl-e:.;t (lic. I .-l '

inct-rnlestatril c:d necropola r':orsta drntr-un numdr mult mai mare de tuinulr. Asupra acesjn,licii:
:Lri firpt
distanta mare dintre tirrnrrli in cadrul rindurilor (,|25--70 m);i intle rAnduri (30--75
m),, cit i;r tuniuiri rrivirqi{i co-nplet de lucrdrile agric,rle (nr. IIIa, IXa). $i mai concludentd in acerstri ordln,e, cle: iclcr apare s;itrLalia evid:ntiatii sub mantaua de pdrn0nt a tumulului lII, in care au
['os[ cl3z\,,e]iteclouir esllrlmr:r"rrtii de F,ietre: A - care c,)respunde nrantalei de piatra proprru-zisd a
:unrulr:ii gi,I3 -- cle prollortrr rnui mic'; rrrnplasatd la 3i rn spre sucl de prima. Toate acesteu permit.r
,loristilta r:il nercrollrlla a {'os;t,'ormatd nu numai din tr-rn-r'.rli cLl mantaua de piatrd gi pdmiimt vrzibili
a rnr)rrerllul cercr:larilor clar-:;i din nroirninte ar:operite de platl'orme cle pietre de dimensiunr mult
rai mrcr (:,1-1,:i rn) asupm r-:lrora mantale dc llamAnt nu se ridicau, sau ini!ial erau de o inalftme
nai micti q;l nu sau prt"tstrat.
l\,lcr',tpola turnulard frin<:a "DrurrLl Fretegtilor". tlLrpi astfel de: pararrretri, precrJm: condrliile to:og1rrl1ict: de arrrpJlsare, nunrirul turnulrlor; modul de dispunet'e a ior in perrmetrul suprafeler ocupa1e: cilractclul c'i nnonocr.rltural -- aiesti o s,lrie de similituclini cu monumentele funerare de acelaqi tip
Erste

tiLlzii-scitrce tin-ipr-ir-ii din Europa de Sud-Est.


Llcle rniri iiltrr:,1liate asenriinf,ri nerjr-oprola cle 1a Trjnca le are cu otrier,ltivr3le funerilre ale grupului
'iecin. podoltan de v'est clin zona Nistnrlur de N4i.jloc: r;i din l)epresiunea Fiddauli din Bucovina de
llucl. In rr:giiunr:a ]r{lstr:ulLri r:[e lv{i.jloc, in concli{ii topogritfice simtlare c:elor de IaTrinca, pt'omontorii
lnaltc, sunl arnl:rlaiiitc necl rlpolele tumulare de la Lenkovcy (Me:lrorc,na I95i8, 6Cl), Kruglik
lCrrr.rpnc,nri 19r5E, I,l). Dolinrany (Cvrmp'nosa 1917,21)), IMyskovcy (N4arees 1991, 123), PerebyItorc\,(ClHmpuona lt)7t),3',t);.a. De c,tri:ci constall dintr-un numdr relativ redus de tumr-rli. Necropolele complr:t invesiigate. cle, lr Dolinjanl i'ngloba 4 tumrrli, cea de la Per,::byk.ovcy'- 6 tumufi. Necropol,:le cercetatc parl.ial (citr:, un singur tumul) cle la Lenl:ovcy qi I\4y5kovcy constau <lin 4 qi, respectiv
.! mol'ile. Ln necrc,pola cle la l<,rugfil<. lilrmatd din 11 tumuli, de tip poclolian de vest sa dovedit a fr
rloar unul l{u este ceft numd'rrrl tumulilor de tipul podolian de vest'in necropola de la Ivanovcy', alcdtuiti clin t28 rje nrovile. Prin:re cei l/ t.rrnuli investig;afi, acestui tip se atlibuie cloar 4 (nr. 3,4,5,6)
(L[[yxr.rn .t!)8!), t0'/). La Sut:riivcy, dirr grupr-rl lormat clin 7 tumuli, patru daIe,azd, clin perioada sciticf,
timptrrie (I'1'ua:, I-'1'qa.n, MeI'e'[ 1998. 7'+)
r:arr,rcterir:;tice 1:rr:rioi.Lclei hallrstattrene

Rezr-:ltatel,: comprJere l ,:rercetdrilor obiectivrrlui I'unerar de la Trinca,


eclitura Institulr"ri Ronrin de Trilcol,rcie. Bur:r-rrestr.

lr

in fbrmi monoglaf icii, deja tirnp de trei ani

se af'ld

t0

--

ll

tt

f|l

Re.q;lU4rhSplpgtt4.

ll
/l

.,S'erie noucT

rru

!11

@vt)

A,\

@)t

^atub(:).

l=1----

-"!'",ir,.uu,,

\
ra,,
rc,"

lxu'

\l^.

A,,,

rflv

---3==\:\::: 'v

O,u

Ilrl

U',',,

f ,(),'"

rdf'

*":'"
Jx

___.1\
., \\

o,,,

O"e,OlD

'4- \.

Ia,ltr

tr.C)

oo

spt,
:=:_\-'e$,

r ^.

t)>

L?,,1

1?" \'o.

,.-r
'"-v0f SsrS
---;

tJl , d.

, Oo O,P'r)r
)c y e (-])r

?'.

?',

illa

Or urr

.'t ,a5'
:'?|

?',

*;;
g5"oo r"
?"J,

:ilo

tr,

Fig. l,tJecnlpr:lalrinca Drumul Fr:1.egtilo/': 1-condtiiletopograficedeamplasare; 2-organizareainterna,

*.rnrnta de piatrd 9i pdmint; b - movili{d de pdmint suprilpursdr de mantaua de piatra 9i


tunluli Ceterir: ati); 3 - constructii funerare (a - suprafala orizontului antic; b - construclii de lemn 9i
pial16 cler suprrala{ii; c - grc,pi; d - tumuli deteriora(i); 4 - tipruri de morminle (a-- resturi cinerare depuse pe orizo,rtul antic; b -. incinerdr depruse irr urne; c - in<:iner?iri in construclii de suprafald; d - incinerdri incomplete;
e -- inhurndri; f - r:renolair:; g --t.rmuli deteriora{i); 5 - erlenrente complimentarer de ritual (a - coloranli naturali;
b -- dep;nerea inventari-r r-ri sub meLrrtaua de piatr6; c - depunerea inventanrlui in afara mantalei de piatrd;
d -- ofrarrdd der c,:lrne; e - rug pe rnanta, depunerea ofrandelor ulterior inmormintiirii; f - tumuli deteriorafi;
6 --arrpliasarea rnorminle or in :lunctie de sex (a - ferninin; b - masculin; c- felinir/rnasculin; d - tumuli detestructu,'r tumulilor (a

pdnrint;

,:r

rio.ati; e

cenota:f (rnascu lin).

Ltt

Vt'|.u,'uLI J. 1\'r. I

penlnfg.rma{ii ceirte rel'eritor La clispune)rea tumulilor ir perimetrul necropolelor cunoagtem doar


tru necrr[)ola cle la Dolinja.nl, unde tre rnovile situate la distanle nesernnil'jcative unul de altele sunt
grupate j'ir lilje axatA nor,[l-vest - surl-est, iar iLl patulea, ampl;tsat spre sud-vest de ele (CuizpHona
lq'i1,2,)), qi cle la pererbyl<o.,,cy, in care cei ;;ase tumLuli erau dispuqi aprroxirnativ lntr-un Err orienttrt
au
sucl-est r,(':uupnonii 19,/9,.1'i). Planul necropolei, ?nsii. in opinia noastri-1, de,monstreazd cA tunrLrlii
fost riclicali in clguir ginrri, axtte sud-est -- nold-vest, d:stan{a dintre ele fiinrJ de cirr;a 60 m, iar dtntre
turruli. in cacli'ul ri1dull3r clr: circa 35,5-110 r':n rlCvupHoBa 1979, pu<:. l). Referitor la distanta dintre tumtrli in i:acllri necropolr:krr (grupurilor tumularg,) miii menliondm;;i sit.ualia fi:tatd la N1yKkovcy,
norcuncie tuprulll nr. 2 este sitr-rirr la t5 nr spl'e nord de tunurlul nr. I, iar turnulul nr. 3, la 50 m spre
vest de turnLrlul nr I (lr4a:re:er l99l ,123). Din rindult irecropolelot'(grupunlortumulare) men!ionate.
aspcctlll monocu{tural (ap,:,u'tcnenta la grupul podoliirLn de vest; cste cel't nltmai pentru cele cel-cetilte
conrplet. Drlin-jarnv qi perebvkovcy I\Jur este exclr-rs, cd iiceiagi atriburlie culturalr,i sa fie proprie 9i
grupil.il,rr tlrrnulare cie la I-clkovcy gi lvlyikovcy, prrr(:um gi scrticd timpr-rrie a celcir trei tumull nein-

vestigati

rJe

lrl Sr.ttttli'c1'.

sucl-trgcou,inean:l a glupului podolii:Ln cle vr:st, (cteplesiunea Radauli), necropola turnulari


ntai inalte ale crestelor dea6[9 lx \/]lo,r,et esl.3 ampiasatii cLipreclile'ctie pe p,latounie din locur"ile cele
lu'i6r r.l;znat lg7g, i07-lr.ri;, fig. l). Cartarea eI'ectuatd oclatd cu desfit;urarea sipdturilor in anii
lt'71-Ii)l/3. a str:,b,rlit cd tr,ululri au fost amplar;al.i nutnai pe platourile pe :are.le ftice din loc in loc
A (Dealul
crc.sta, separ.ind necropolrr. prin dis;tan1e cic:i00-1510 nt in cinci sectoare. in siectorul
j'n
sectorul D I qi in sectorul
Br-rrlci) evltJentiindu-se l:i nrovile. in, sectorul Il -3. in sectclrul C - 3,
(lgnat 2000a'
E -- .1, in t<ttitl .1,r5. in rreL:'sp6lx Cla:;vana -- rloclru au fost evidenliali 5ll de turnuli

ln

lri'

sudclin sectoru..l 1,, Dealui Ilurlei, dc la Volovdi sunt ampla:;a!i in $ir a.x.at nord-est in
sectosapa]i
9
tLrrrruli
vcsr, iilr in sector.r-lI E, sucl-i:r;t - nord-v,:st (Ignal ]978, 109, f ig. i,2). Drn cei
(nr. 2 9i 7) (ibidem, 112)' La Ca$ru.l Deir.lu,l Burlei, l"r perigar-l.;, hlllstiittianI tArzie se atribuie doar 2
crc'|nologic - grupului
Vilna - Cc,dru, toti cer i I tr,rrnr-rli inv;sliga{ii aparlin aceluia;i oriz;ont cr-rltulal l)()\lolii,l) de i c:st (l$nar 2111111. .l3l)'
nectopola tumularit
ln ricest i.'1ext es,te nerc,:sal cle rn,lnlionat,:f,in regiunea Nistrului de ldijloc,
pe o inal!ime neinsemcljn fazu rrirzie u cr-rlturii cle rn11 Les der la l-uca Vruhrk:veckaia, era amplasltI
sudnltii a prrrncr ter.nse a rirulr.ri NistrLr, c,ei 8 tumu[i ,Je o r:onstituiar-t erau clispr-rEi in d(rua linii axlte
tet'asii
Pllma
pr'rc'
l)'
[9'51]' 89'
e:jt - n()rl-\'cst (l-l[oBKorI"]tc t9-52, -5. irrrc. 1; Illonrcrn:r-ac' MaKcur'loe
ttlmulare Dnestrovka-Luka,
necropo}r:i
ii
a rtralului drept a rtr,rlui l{ir;tru este $i locul cie amytlasare
1982' 30)' Necropola de la
(Crlnpuor;a
folrrratr,i,cin 5 rncrvile situiar-:, la clistiLn{e miili una do la aita
rir-rlui N{urafa, cei 8 tumuli firnd
Brrr6yii;,:vka est(:r sritLrarl pr un pronrortorir,r inalt a rnalulr.ri drept a
ciispuqi in tinie itxlltA nord-', lSt -- sud-e st (Cx'rprrii I{)t'9,19)'
piuarnetrilor e;tamtnafi, manifest[
Nec,tprolrr Tr-lrcr.i "Dlu:tr1 lrete:iliror". drn puncru de vedere al
din regiunela Transcarpaticd a
anrrrnite faralel,., ;i cu nt:cr:rpolele tumulare, aie culturii Ku5tunovice
platourl mai pu{in supra'inhllate-LIcrain,ri. Cornunrlirlile acesiei cr:lturi amplas;au n(l(:ropolele pe
pe
cAmPuri drepte' pulin relevanteK.crloclnoe Il (CrrapHoBit. E,i3pHrrKoBtrlr 1965, l(i7), ;au ciriar
;10). De reguld, cirritirile sttnt 1'orm|te ciin mici grupuri de tumuli'
C)e r'y,j F,ot,li (C'rrrrprroslr 1!)79r,
otdin':, la distanle considerabtle una
in.l;l0br:tnci de la 4,-(; prind. l,r l0-16 lric'\'|ile, dispuse I'd:a oarecare
flonoell'i 1990, l-59)' Supraf'a!a
de altii (Clrripnont','E.pnouor:nq 1965,101', Ortupttoaa 1979a,40;
in perirnr:trul c6rera r:rau anlplasaii' fdr6
nec:ropoler l(.cllgclnoe tI,,ce .:xernplu constitr-ua ciria I km.p.
107). R,:fi:r'itol la necropolele de la
car.e'A siste,ri 29 cle tLr.llLLli (Cuupuona. )ieprixxornq 1965,
mari erau amenajali in rAncl,
Bluitar,r'ice qi dc la lr{erricl<e se nten'.ioneazd cd tumulii de dimensirtni
1990, 158)' La cernyl
i' jurul r:i.ror.a. excentnc, r;c situau rnovile cie dirnensiuni mai mici (florrosnq
clistzrnlate intre t,:le, ?n cadrul cdrora
F,ot.k, cei I I tuLmuli carti,rti 'in anul ll!r7i, formau llci grupe mult
gruprd 9i nold-vest - sud-est' grLlpa
rn,r,ilc,Le elau dis;tuse in riinduri axater nol'd-est - s;ud-vest, prima
in'cadrul necropolelor
a douir rlr[]irfirpnosa 1919a.39-40, ptlc. ll.). Ctxlpl,:xele funerale cercetate
rncntionate, l'5ri1. cxceplle, apa(in cr-rlturii Kustanovic':'
din regiunea Carpalilor rneNr:cropr:le1: tumulare L erupului hallstattian trlrz Lr Ferigile-B0rseqti,
la Ferigile. pe vechiul con de degeciie
riciioniil si cle cr.rrburd era.u amplasate ?n felul urmdtor: cea de
tipica a lunr:,ii unui rAu de munte' in partea
a,l confluientei ,.;e,lor clouii pirae, intr-o zond cu'inf5ligare
2lL9).

T*r'ulii

4U

Relisla Arheoloqicci. Serie noua

cle sL'Lci a dep're51unir Coste r)ti Bistrila (Vulpe ',t967,


9); necropolel(: Tigveni ..Babe,', Tigveni .,Fret:rousLi" qi ccpari "'I'Oplitlt pe mitrginea tentsei
mijlocii a malLllui stan.q al raului Topolog (Vulpe,
F'crpesru l9u'.2.,'71: J?opescu,
\/ulpe
1982,
"
JJ,99, fig. 1,2); cea cle la llZirsegti ocupa un plerrou care
doinind salr"ll situal in valc la locul numit <LiLcul Dumbravii, (N4orinLtz
Ig57,219;. xecropolele de Ia
Eialta'Verde ;i Ciogogu --ir lun<:a inudabita a Dunani (Berciu, Comqa. l9t5;6,265.fig.
1).
In necroprola cle h trer r3ile, au 1'bst investigafi 149 de tumulr rncliviclr-rali, alaturali.
grupati

in pCIcuti alrropiate, f5.rii ir'osprectafea une:i anumite orclinr in dispunerea lr:r ri\/ulpe Ig6j.15, vezi pl:inul
general rtl necropolei). Retcritor la necropola Ti;u,veni "Babe", inilialL formaiA
din 40 de turnuli, deas(lmenea nLl s;e meltlionelt.li cI in Proceslll inalldrii lor s-ar fi respr:ctat anumite
norme. in acelagr
tirrlr, pllLnul sir:uational al lumuhlor. in cadrul suprraielei necropolei, inclicd cd in amplasarea celor l7
tuntttli identifir:ati 9i cerce :rl!i (fdcr)ncl abstraclre de cei distrugi) poate ifi urmdritd o oarecare
orcline
(.'v'ulp'5" Popesctt l9',rll. fi,u.2). Tu:lulii cu cljmensruni
relativ ntiri marj (nr. 17,15,9,t0,1(1.3,5) erau
,cispugr intr'-un;;ir ar:at sur-nor.J. siilre nord-est de tumulul nr. !),
car.e ocupd Iocul central in incinta
Itl(lcl'opole i, aLl fost armenal rfi lumttltii nr. I t gi l2l; de Ia tumulul nr. J0,
spre norci-est, tumulii nr.X gr
.2' ta| spre su(:l-v(:st. lumult I nr. 14 Mai mLrlt ca atAt, in jurul tumulilor n,,. 5 gi nr. 3
se situi.r turLulr
r:lr-'ciimensiuni rnai ntici. n'.6,7, i3. q;i respectiv, nr" 4. La Tigveni "Pir:troasa", cei 5 tumLrli
cartati
coltstituir: (lollr: flrupi] distruttate intre ele cu c:irca 100 m. Tumulii nr. 1,4.,-5, care formeazd grupa de
:;Ltc[-r'r]st sunt amplrisrrJt intr-un rAnrl onentat est-\,r3st, tumulii nr. 2 gi 3 di1 grupa de nord-est.
untr-un
;;ir itx;'it sud-norcl, cu abute'r(: spre vest (Popescu, \,/ulpe 1982, fig1. 21). in crdrirl suprafe{ei accesibile
pontlLl cet'cet;.rre a ne)crop(-) r:i Cepari "Toplita", r:ei 9 tumuli investiS;ati l;unt amplasati inh.un grup
c:ot'.'O'r,-, , dtstanla dinlre e:i nedcpapind 4-8 rn (tumulii nr. I gi 2,4 gi f ijncl chiar apropia{i nemrllo-5
cit) Cloniirrt:n planr-rlru sittu lionirl, tumulii nr. l,2.,ti gi tumulii nr. 11,7,[i ,I'orrneaz[ doub rdnd,ri orientilter sLtd-','es;t -'nord-cst, cc;Jal1i, nr. ,4,,5,9, un alt riind axat est-vest (I,r:pescu, Vulpe 1982, j7. fig. 2).
!l'rrmtrlii evirlenlir:r!i 'in nect'rrpola de la BArseqti, in numdr cle 40, r3rau amplasali pe o intindere de mai
rnttlte s;utc ,:[e rnetrr (l\,forir,lz 1957.219). Informa(ii suplimentare re,l'eritor la rnodul de amplasare a
turnulllor, pt'ecum r;i pianu.l gencral al necropolei, in publicafiile ulterioare nu existi (Mopunq l9-57;
llorintz t9.59; 19-59a, l9(rl). I{ccropola tumularii cle la Balta Vercle., forrnati din24 de movile. erste
clit'rzatii in patru gl'ui)e. dis:rln!ate dif-erit intre ele (Berciu, Comqa 1956, 320 3ZI). Lrpsa planulur
p:cne ral al necropoleri cdt gi :el itl grupelor, nu permite atestarea existr:nfei unei organizdri rnterne. in
acelagi tirrp, rrrlanul srir.ualr< nal irl nr,l,ilelor nr. )lXIi, XXIII $i -XXIr,r (tLridem, fig. 123) indicd, cel
Irrutrn, cd in ciL,cruLl llrimului grup els erau amplasate ln linii axate nof,c-esl - sud-vest, distanta dintre
ele f iin'l r"le ctrca l0 rn. L,a i-iogo$u, r:ele 55 de movile au fost ridicate fdrir respectarea anumitei orrjrne ([btdern,

i11.

84).

In zona de silr,os;tepa c rn Dreapta Niprului, necropolele tunrularr: sr:itice arhaice, fard excepfie,
sunt amplasate pe plittouri iralte, inilfimi separate prin ripi sau cumpr3ne:k: apelor (tr4lruucxas I9'15,
73: Kcrrnanenrto 198.1,60; toelaHer{Ko I,r Ap. 19ti9,27). Sunt reprezentate prin grupuri compacte, in
morilelor valiazh intre.l gi ll-30. Cele patru grupuri de tumuli de la N{edvin,
Ciordal<ovs;kij J-es;, cle e xernplr-I, sunt situate una rle alta la distanta cil: 2C|0 m 2 km (l{oenaHeHKo
198t, 60, prc.45i). Dre regt ld, itt cttdrul grupurrilor, tumulii sunt situ:Lti f ilra respectarea unor reguli.
T'c'todatd, in unele din ele pot f i unndrite anumrte elemente de organizane: lntemd. in aceastd ordine
de idei, sernnificatir,'iLeste n:cropola. de laMedvin, unde tumulir din g;rupul II sunt plasali in linie onien latd notd-v,::st - s;ud-esl, iar ir. grupul IiI, unii formeazd un gir axat sud-vest
- nord-est
(l{onnarreuxc, ,11)81. puc.45). Majoritatea grup,uril,cr includ tumuli din djfr:rite epoci. in acelagi tinrp
stult cunos;cLtte gi necropolt' (grr:puri) formate e>lclusiv din tumuli d.in perioada sciticd timpurie Kcrnstantinovkl,'fenetinka ll4rruHcl(ar{ I975,14), Berestnjagi, Bobrica, Medvin, Kurilovl<a, Kazarovka (l(onnilrresxo I l)81, tlil ).
caCrul cdtora r:rLlntArul

Srucruna

'ruMULrLoR

Structura lr,rntulilor cle ia Trinca, in linii marj, este aceiagi pentlu toatd necropola. Sunt de tipuI celor c:u ntantalele drn prietle ql pamdnt. j.n c,ezul tumulilor cornplet in{elenifi (nr. IV - IX) a

49

\/olunutl.L,!r-l--

inmormhntirrit se
posibrl stabilir.ea morjr-rlui de construcl.ie a mantalelor. in jurr'rl locului
rupt rle dinrensiuni mari, diametrul
rrm,en*.1a un ring cle, l'ormd cui:ular6/ovlld, din pietre cie calcar
(tumr:lul nr' VIII)' iar
,:xter.ior al c[rura vririazd d.e ta 5.-5,2: nr (tumulirl nr. I.K) piina ia l0-i0,:5 m
ce urmcu se efectuau conform
ldtinrea * cle l;t 1,0-1.2 pZina la 2,2 rn Procedrlele cle constl'uclre
Irrrlrl out'e lol \ ill-i a ll te:
antlc din
I. locul c-lepuneni rest1rrilor cinerare gi a inventarllui, corespunzf,tor nivelului solului
dispusein mai mulinter.iorul r.ingslui, se ircop,;:r'cacu pietre cle calca,rde cli:nensiuni mici 9i mijlocii,
(tLrmulii
nr'-IV'V'VIII);
te rirndul1, :htrcaga c6ns;ttur:ti,: acopel'indu-se cu un strat de p[mAnt
din
lL l3cr.rt rlepunerii resturilor cinerai:e qi a inventarului, corespunzator nil'elului solului antic'
de un strat de pi:tre de dimensiunr
int,:rioru.l r:rngLrlu] s,e ac,Jpet'ea cu o molilija de pdrnAnt. suprapusd
pietre de dimensiuni mari
mijlocii ;;i mici clisltuse in nrai multe niveie (tuinulii nr. VI 9i VII), sau cu
de pdmAnt (fig' 1'2)'
(tun:ululi rrt. lX ), intreag;a c)cq(,truct e acoperindu-se ctt l'ncd un strat sublire
''" i,ruf
variazd de la 0,'l plrrrd let 0,6 m, treptat micAorAntr,rrea rnanralei de pit:tre in prLrrea centrrrlii
cu un strat de pdmAnt vegeta]' Mandu-se spre poale. N{untalelc c.: piatrA, la rlndul lor se acopereau
au diarnetrele de la 7-8' pdnd la l2tirlole cle piimiint, in caz;urile ,:dnd a fo'st constatatii ?n itttregime,

t,os,r

prirnul 6e6i rJr: constr,u{t.le a manralelor a tost prrrcticat gi in cazul turnulilor parlial deteriora{i,
antir:, pr:rimetrul mantalei de pianr. I, II, III, care <lcasernenea saU amenajat de la nivelul orizontului
din pietrer rnari, iar partea de mijloc'
tra, clupli c'lr Se prezintd scr;toarele mar pulin afectiLtt:, consta
vegetal'
chn pieiri: mai rnici, acoperite de o manta de panidnt
nr'' I 9i nr' III' de rlnd cu
l'urrmlii erar:, predestinafr pentru tl sinlurii inntr:l]mAntare' Tumulii
cdte un mormitrt-r:enotaf'
mrtrman,:ul cie sub nlanriaua Ce piatrd rnai conlinr:au 9i
tumulilor pentru o sing'urd ?nmotmintare'
predestinalia
partLc*laril.d!ile colstructrve, drrnensiunile,
14 rn, inirlJintile

0.4-5-0,'/

trL

similituLdini cu obiectivele funerare ale


in necroprll'rnnca "l)rumul Fiete$tilor" ilenotli o serie de
inmormantz-rile sub tumuh (fig' 2)' construccomunitiililor clin pcri.ada hallstattian6 tirzie care, praclic:au
este marcat de un
cu mantaua din pietre cie calcar fupt' conturttl cdrora
tunlulilrlr,
lrl,rutl
cle
tirnerrare
lrile
pamlnt arabil rePrezinta una din caracteristicile
ring forrna.t din pietr.e rnasl\e ,, acoperite, cu un s.irat de
ranazdintre 10 gi 30 m, inal{imile - 1'0-l'5 m'
de,finiro'ii a grLrp'rui podclri;.ir de vest. Diametrere ror
o singur6 tnmonmintiu'e (Menroxosa 1958' 39li;irnea rinLgr-rlui d.e circa 1,2 In, fiind trrreclestinatr: pentrtt
d'er la Satu Mare din depresiunea
40) ,A,c:,lagi nrocl <le arneniajare a tumr-rlilof este atestat ii in necroprola
red'candu-se la dimensideos;e'bire
grup cl,ltural. uniia
Ricrau{i i' Buco'in. cle Suri, racordatd ra aceragr
0,35-1,0 m (Ignat 1976' 106)' Stl'uctur[ 9i diunile relafiv rnar nlici' rjiarnr:,rul - 3,,5-5,0 rn, inilli*r:a qi necropolelor tumulare din faza evoluatd a
mensiu'i anal,crgir:c rumulilor de la'frrnca sunt carilcterir;tice
p"ttdt grupului podolian de vest' in pafticular'
culturir r3ierrlj)r L,r:s;, care irrr bazinul Nistrului cle M4loc
j;
5-6, puc' 11loe:Kon,'f,c' Ivlaxcu*ton 1952' 89)
pcntfu r:ea de la l.*ka-vrr,rbleveckaja (lJlonxourur" tg:;2,
lg82,3l-32,puc' 1)' Deosebirea constdnd doar in aceia
gi tLrmulului de la. x)nestrovk.zrluka (crrrlpuora
calcar nlpt acoperea nu utl motmint, dar mai multe'
cii 1n otriectivele nlrmite, mantalele rJin pieile de
prevrii:u{i cLl o manta din pietre de calcar rupt erau
Mr:nLumentel,:: funereLre de tipul tumulilor
din regiuneaT'anscarpatlcri a ucrainei' o astpri-lctic,t,3;;i cie cdtre comrr'Ltdlile crrlturii Kustanovict:
g
21 de tumuli investiE;a!i in necropola Kolodnoe
fel de s,r;r.uctLrrd a mantalerc)l este atosratd in rlin cei
EepnRrcoeu'r 1965' 90-91)'Tumulii
Il, clt:;i in nect"opolele de Ia Zonrin'l $i Lesovica (r]r'lupnoea'
III' aveau la
Potok, ?n rtumar de 13, cu r:rxcep{ia tumulului
cst.cetali jin n,lcropola turnult'd de la cernyl
gi parlial acoperea suprafala ocupatl de rugul
ba;ri o mante, din pietre <1.e,:alcar r,rpt c,ii. inc:o'jurar
in tumulii
lPietre in stiuctura tumulilor sunt atestate 9i
fr;nerar .,x rn\/entarul (.Cuu1,nosa l\)79tr,-51)'
nr'
turnulii
tr. 4,8,9 cln necropola de 1a Belki Ei
nr.VI -'\,'ll chn n3r:ropola ce la KuleLnovice, tumulul
1965' 91)' La rllenrYj Potok' diametrele tumul-3 clin necfopola cle la Os,oi (Cut'rpuona, BepurxonrEq
,intre 7,5--l l nr inarlimire, O,ti-1,21 m. prt:destinalia tumulir.r'din necropolele menlronate
riLx r,:rraz6
fiinci pentru <l slngurd ?nnro'mintutt'
i gi pentru gmpul Fengi,o.ru rnrnt;rrra .rn oir
Tunrulrinsl-t.t'tcturaciircraesteprcZentimantauadrnpietreSuntcaractenstlc
antic unde era depus
q;i cle cu:'bura' La Ferigile' peste solul
le--Bifs;e;;tr cltn r.,:liiunela clarratilor nrericliona[
singur strat'
ile rau dispugiin cere mai murtecazurr intr-un
rn.rmrintur se ci:,nstruia o g:r-iimaclf, de bolor,anr
manta dc pdntant vegetal (vulpe 1967'
pe cloui sau chiar trei, acoperite la rdndul r:i cu o
'l.ureorr
atcstiLte

:'

{-l

Rcuislg Ahs=.lSgar!&-ie nottit

',t)
))_.

l\

.l

lFig.2. Grupuri 0ulturale s;itlcrrlnt necr,)polei examinale, in obiectivele funeran-. ale cerora au paralele parametrii atestati

'l-tinca.

la

l-igrupu'l podoliand{)v}st.(1 -Novosell,,a-Grimajlovskaja,2-lvarrbvlta, 3-Ladycin,4-lr,4ySkoricy,

7- iv,ino'/oy,8-Rakr:vflut,9-Sidlovcy 10-Kupi,r.
12-Beiemjany.
* Btlce ,Zo!ll:r)e, 14 - )l"avar.l rrcy, '5- 13orodnica (n,'g.lvian [:ranco), 16 - Duplisk, 1,2'11-Braty6ev,
- Gorociok, jB - perebykovcy,
!) - D,rinjan'7, I20-Sulirivcy,21 -Lertkovcy,22-Loe,rcy, 113-.Gorodnica(reg.Tr:rno;:ol),24-Kruglik,25-Novosell<a,1,

i5-f(.ar;ano',rka,6-St:nrralrncy,
1ll
'1

Srupul p,o,:lolian-mo|J,:iv (1 * r'icovude 13us,2-Satu Ma,re,3-Volova!,4-CeL{;vana,5-Vornicenii Mici); lll -cullura


l(uglanovicer(1 -Nle'ricke, 12-lvlirlyeGeev:y,3-Zornrno,z[-Lesovica,5-Ku5tarrovice6-Cernyj
Potok,T-Dunkovrce.
{l - flolcdnoe 9 -Osoj,'l Ct -Berk:i); lV -grr"rpul sciticdinTr,ansrlvania(1- Marigelu.2-F:intdnele,3-Gadaliu,4-Baita,

ll

ii- $olrterru 6-CanrpiaTt'tei,7- 3ipdu,8--l-Argu Mureg, g -CinrbrurJ, 10-Ozcj, ll -Teiug. 12-Bla1,


':i -'Blirndana. 14 - {:iinreria) 'y'-,;rupurl tsirsegti-Ferigila (1 -Cepari,2*Tirlveni "Pietroasa",3-Tigveni "Babe",
4 - Ielegti Dr-igoergti 5 -'r/,aideerrr,6*Ferigile. T-Titegti,,8-tlArsegti); Vl -qlrupul Balt;lVerdegi Gogogull
-Gogc,gu,

ll

-'EJalt;a\/r:rda); Vll -,:;r.rlturaVe'kerzL.rg(1

-Monaj,2-l\4dtraszele,3-Tapioszentrnafton,4-Tapioszele,5-H6ves,

Ozanyelel:.,7 - Senl.es-\/ek:rzug 8 -- Gyoma, 9 -- O.oshiiza, 10 - Bdkescsaba "F:enyes", 11 - Zoldhalornpuszta);


Vfll - grupr.rl sc:tic lirnpr.iriu dir drerapta l''liprului Mijlcciu (1 - Glevacha, .2 - l\rlaleLjeL Ofirna, 3 - Novaja Kotel,nea,
rl - Zorrtneve ,5'- Perepjaticha, ; - Lazurcy, T-Steblev. {J-Kazarovcy, g--Trachtermir, 1O- Medvin, 11- Kurilovka,
12 - Berrestnjagti, '1"3 -'l]obrica 14 --Berrkozovka, 1]i - ly2anovka, 16 - Garrarnja, 17 - Jasnozor'e, 'l B Tai;lyk
(Kovaliolta), l:l .- Spc)l\/, 20 - l'(onslantinovka, 21 - Cve'tkovo, 22 - Tenetinka, 2j
Zabolin, 24 - Gullaj Gorod,
215 -- Mial<ee'yka, !16 - Repiech,c\,'. taja lilogi a:,,2'7 - Zurovka,ll8 - OsitnjaZka,2,J ., Turija,).
Sernrne c;orrven(icnale: a -- tumuli r;u nr,anla rJe piatrd gi pdmint; b --tumuli prer,,dzut cu o rnovilitd de pdmint suprapusd oe
nnantraua de p atrii gi piimint, c -. umuli cu txantaua de pramlnt; d - necropole F,lane

l-<i)'ILrrnuli cu isl.rtlclLlrt.l aserriindtoare cu ui celoru de'a Ferigile : in\/entarul nrormAntulLri ciepus pe sol, acopenl trtl o movxlitai cle bolclr'ini clepLr;r pe mal multe stratuli, sLrnt caractsxstiice $i pentni necropolele de la

\,/aidecrri (\'urlpe 196''t, lt));r de la lfelegti-Driigoeritl (BerciLr, Comga 1956. fig. 193; Vulpe 196i,28:
Cliiliitoiu, Moci,Ji, Mariinoiu 19E7,88). in necrop,tlele,Tlgveni "Babe", Tilgyeni "Pietroas1", Cepari "Toprlr!r,r" ,sr .l r!e;ti se evidentiutzd c\<nd tipurr de tumLrli. Pdnrul. de dinrensiuni nrici, prietrele mantalei fiincldepurse
inlr'-ttn singLu'sirtrat pe s'olul ar tic. lll doilea, de dimens;iunr mai mad, manlaua de piattd cu grosimea de circa
Ct,5 m rslprapune o ntanta de: Erdntiint irmenajatd asupra inventarului funerar depus pe solul antic. Mantalele
de piatn,i ale arnLrelor tipr-rri la rAndLrl lrrerau acotrreritr: cu un strat de pdmrint vegetal (Vulpe, Popescu 1972,
88: Popescu. Vr.rlpe t!)8:1, l0ti i0?, I t(,)-l ll, fi-s. 13). in necropola de la.EiArs;eEti innrorminrarea clepusa pe
so lul arntlc el a rcopen [ii cu o rant::. din plmlnt rogcat, sLtprapusA de un str,at cle pietre de riu, mai sublire pe
crtftetlrl movilei ;i rna.i grors Ia p()ale, acoperit la llrrdul sau de un strat rJe pilmAnt arabil (Modntz 195J,

)l

Verde

asemenea 9i inr necropola <le la Balta


fig. 1) Maritalele din bolo,;:ini cle fAu. rnai ljind atesta'te de
vana'ziiintre 7 5i 20 m' indltimile'
(ller:iu. C,orn;a 19513, .\22,fig. tlZ3). Diarnctrele tunrulilor ca la Balsegti
qi alte mormlnte

219,

0,25- 1.5 rn, ini!ral ple,vizute pentru

singura inmon'nintale, in care ulterior au {bst depr'rse


aveau qi tumulii din
1) Dinrensiuni simrlare qi predestinalie a'na'logicd

s,:cunclrre,ilvlori'tz lr)57,221,1ig.
(Berci'' comEa 195t5' 453)'
necro'.lelie cle la Fer.rgile (vulpe f9{'t7, t91 9i de la cogoqtr
cd movilele indllate din p[Refe't.r l* zon,i <le silvostepa drn Dieapta Nipiului menlionim doar,
(Koenauesr<o l98l' 63; XoenaHeHKo lI Ap'
ntant efau predestirrate numai lx)mtru o ,,,,ngura inmormintare
198q,

l8)
ColtsrnucTll

FUNERARE

"Drumul Feteqtilor" sunt rare Atet


C'ns;r:rucliile frlnerare in turnulii din necr,rpola'frinca
di:puneau sub manl.aua tumulului' direct ia suresturile clnerill'e, ciit 9i inhrr:na!iiie, c*: reguld,se
sepulcrale' in a<;elaqi timp' in unri tumuli
orizontului untic, fiiri amena.la'ea corrstruc{iil.r
au li:st al,rJState:
'rafafu

la s:prafala orizontrll an[ic' ulterior arse;


a) vestigir ale c,unstrucr!ii1(I'de lernn, amenajate
(fig' 1'3)'
t)) gropiii6lfinr;:i[e in lutul 1:,albem, viu
nr' IIIb, reprezlitttS' o platf.rrmd de lut ars de
Vestigiile ,:onsr'uctiei cl,o s'pr:rfala, ."pir[t"'in tumulul
(l,tl5 m, odentatd pe axa sud-nord' spec;ial amenajata la suprafafa
:orrnii ov;Lla (0,9 x 0.? m) 9i ;g'.simea de
doud in trei grupe
era lncu.nlulata de 6 gropi clispuse cite
rri;rontul,ui unrir:. I_,a nive,lul cl:pistdrii prlaLforma
un strat rir'f,'it de
platfonnei- Pe suprafala platfomrei s;e gSsea
in partea d(l sud-es,,:, nord-est $i nord-vest a
umplutura
de r:e:ramic6 grosiera qi r;arbuni de lemn'
ti.al1r'ente rnrc:i de oase urTti'ne calcinate, fiagmen're
de lemn Ei pietre arse'
de cerruEi,
grc,prlor,ilcrnstir din pirmirnt ars cu incluzir-rnr
-cirb.uniambele canJri' ele sunt amplasate la peri- nr. I qi III' in
Gropri au l'.s1. clesciiperile in doi l.urnuli
nr.l' de form6
.Je nor,c, t.espect-iv' de sucl.Groapra din tuniulul
t.eria rnantalelclr <le piatrd, itt partea et
sud-est'
cle 1"32 wr' era orientatd in clireclia n.rd-vest
o\,,r1f, alr,.lrrgit.Zr (2,5.4 x 0,9(i r') qi addncimetr
Groapa
fund)'
spre
(pere{ii ro;;ituclinali se ingurist(3az[ Iin
Se,:riunea rr.ansver.sar6 a gr'rii este conicd
consta din
prevdz:uti cu un acoperig din blirne. urnplutura
tost
a
r;irpata,
fost
a
ctre
1,.r
de
nrvelul
la
de lemn
sprt: fund cu o cantitate mare de carbuni
pantint neiglu granulat, pir:t1t:' fragmente de lemn,
i qipeietii , in partea superioard a E;rr;pii atestd evidengi ,cirtev* oase cre anima.le. Birnere acroperi$uf
0'4 m
itt. d,a fornnii ovala (0,84 x 0,3'l rn) qi adancimea de
te ur.me d(J irrdere. Groapa dlx tumulrdt^nr.
in partea de
ser:fiune'a gropii este tron{--o'nir;it' plevizut6
es.e orientat' in <lirec{ia nr:t<l-r,es surJ-est.
din pdmint ct:nuqiu qi pietre de calcar'
nord-vesr cLr o trt]upti. Urnpl-rtur:a consta
orizondire<;t sub mant,aua tuimuiului, pe suprafala
Depunerea resturilot.r]:in::rare 9i a defuncfilcr
umaera frecvent practicaLtir d'e citre comunit'lile
tului anr.rc, fdril a.r'enalal'ea constr*1i", u.fulcrale,
(fig' 3)'
le sunt caracteristice necropolele tumulare
ne clin prer.ioacla Lrallstaitia. d. :it'zte,cdr'ra
predomin[ in
asupra cirora se ridica marLtaua turnurar'
inmorrnrintar.ea de[uncli.cr pe solul antic
Nistt'ului de Mijloc

g'up'uiui 'prldolian de vest riin zona


caclrul t'itualulur tunerar al conrunilztlilor
din sudul Ilucovinei (tumulul nr'VII' din
naUuli
Cep'J'iu''tu
din
pr,:cum
t9511,40),
9i
(l\4er.uror.na
.Vorovar, p,l solur vechi :fiin<1 prevarLir cu o prat{'orrnii cte.pdmant qi prundig) (Ignat
necroprl. de la
moi frecvr:rrt'inmormlntau defunclii dil9?8, l.ll). corr:.unitalile culttrrii Kustano'ice, deasernenea' sau in gfopi mici' itc'operite de mantaua
platforrna de pdmdnt'
rect pe s;upral'a{a orrzorntului rantic, pe o
deCvruprosa 1979t'51)' Nlorrnintele cu in'entarul
1965,9t;
EepnitKoBIIrl
(f)t,tr\prrona,
tunrulului
Carpalilor meridionali
necropole]lor tumularg flin 1r::giunea
pus pe:;olul anttc pre<ionninZt 9i in.cirdrul
l9); Tigveni "Babe" (Vulpe' Popescu 1972'
(ibide,,
Vaiclee'i
Z?-2-l)l
(\i
1961,
dr: la Fer.igile
102 );Ji1e'ti (I'lpe
Vutpe Lg82, il0. tlt); cepari "T.plila"(Ibidem',
7g);Tisrvenr,,P'erroasa"(lPopescu,
88) Ei de curbura'
(Vulpo 1961,28',CdlStoiu' Moii'ri' Marin.iu 1987'
biciem, l l l ); Teleqti-Dra.ilt)3:gti
qi din campiaDun61959,355; r959a,23r;1961,20L'), precum
de laEirirsegti (r,{,:r.intz tii:;'r,22r;
La Tigveni "Babe-',
409)'
(Ibidern'
1956,390-391t 9i Gogoqu
rr:and-la Balra \rercle (Ber,:iu. comga
erau depuse pe un
resturile cin'erare, respectiv' inhurna{iilee
T.eleq;ti gi Balta Verde, in unele, caz,urt
pat/stri,rt srub{ire de pietre d': rdu'

i,1

_,Beeuts$Lr. o.bcLl!..

\(

\\
'.1r)I
,\---

/..

7-'',J

i e 1 q u ci

)\

jL

))
\

I
I

:i

(,
i

)l

\,)

\
i
I

\
I

l' -b

- -?
F:ig.3. Paralee pentru rlonstruc:iile funerare depistate la TrinceL in necropole grupr.rrilor c;ulturale sincrone. Semne convenlionale: a - rt;s;turi ciner,are: deprrs;e pre suprrafata orizontului antic; b - construclii drs lenrn 9i piatra amena1ate la suprpafata
ori;:rrntulu antic r:

groni

PIatfornta de Iul i]r's, arnenirjati la suprafa{a orizontLllui antic, orientata pe axer sud-nord, gi groprlr: t.6 la ltumair) dispuse in jurul ei, s;dpate cle la nivelLrl de depistal'c a platformei, deplstate in tumulul
nr IIlb clin ne,cropolit de ir l"rinca, reprezintd vestrigiile unei c,onsrlr'r.rcfii funerare de lemn (cavou).
ConstrLrclii anal,og,icrl cun(il$tern in aria grupr,rlur podolian de vcst, unde c<lnstructiile de lemn pere!n
ciitora c(lnstlll din stilpi r':r'ticirlr gi bfune dispuse orizontal erau amprlasate atfit la suprafafa orizontului tititic, ciit;;i in Slropi rari rectrngulare (Sulimirski 1936,8l; lUerrcxoBa 1958,40; CrlrzpHona
1977,3E pIIc. 1,2.5.''r; Iclerr l9ir7a. ,3-10; Idern 19,79,61; Idem I99l,5l; lvlarees 1991,124-125,\27,
| . I.r,-.,,,,,.,-.,,,,
r\pJril!.riD'rrt{l(&r 199C), l-512). Printre,:ons;trucliile funeritle cle suprafa]i cunoscute in obiectip,,!. r,
vele ltrupulr-ri pc,dr-rliln de vest, cilr/DUl de la'frinca, dupd a$a pararTl(ltri precum: prezenta platforrnei
in incinta miirr:atd d,e gl'ol:ile de pari; orientiLrea platformei pe axa s;ud-nord: prezenta in umplutura
9r'r,rpilor a prctrelorfolos,ite la intdrn'ea capetelor inferioare a stdlpilor, are similitudrni cu constn-rclirle
din: tLurulLrl "A> clcr la |{)vosclka Grimallovsk:Lja, unde locul pe care il fost etectuatd incinerarea
plczinti o plattforn-rti cle pirtre, lipite, cu un strat cle lLrt galben, fetuit cu o musd de lut alb, perelii fiind
din stilpi drspu;;i \,cltrca.l riSiulirnirsl,.i 1936,81;ltulerroxoBa 1958,4Ct)l turnLrlLrl nr. 2 de la Duplisk, in
cnre locul inrnormantdlii i l'ost ami:nrUat ?n mod sirnilar (Sulinrirslli 19'-\6,7 i); tumulul nr. I de la
Cioro,Jok, pre'v;lz:t"tl oLr o pliitforrnd rJe constructle r;rmilar.l cu suprafaf a presdrata cu un strat sublire de
vur (Ibridem,6B); turrrulr-rl rrr:. I de ll MySkovcy, in care construcfra funerard consta din patrLr gropi de
puri pc coltr.u'ri, care rrarciru cAmela funerard cu suprafala de l4 m.p., rrxatd sud-nord, perelii cdreia
eriiu din blrne dispurse orizontal. ieLr fundul re:prezenta o platfonna ch'eaptd cu suprafala feluitd cu lut
de culoare de,schisii (.N4are:e l9)91 127); tumulul de la Novoselka, in care inmormdntarea a fost depusa pe o lr:spede rotundir de piatlii (Ibidem. 12|13); tumulii din necrop01a de la Perebykovcy, unde
podelele cavourilor erau plvate cu lespezi de piatrd, iar in tumulii nr. l. gi nr, 2 fiind ;i lipite cu lut
(Crurpuoazr l9J\),61); tumulii rle la Sutnivcy, furr<Jurile gropilol cdrora erau a$ternute cu pietre plate
rsulrtrri (I'vrta.n, I-'vr.1a.rr, N{eleii 1998,, 7 4-1 5).

53

lr:rnn amplasate la supjathla


in zor'r de :;rlr.,als,tepa dill ltrleapta Niprului, construclitle funerare de
perrioada presciticii (LInssncxas' 1915' 83-85:
otiz-crntului antic' ulti:t'ior arrse' sunt cunoscute deiia ?n
(secolele VII--VI ?'e'n) ele se intAlnesc
i(oerraHeullo 1(.)u1,68), toto,C;-t,i, ?n perrtlada sciticd arhlica
1989,l'a6:r' 4)' rlai frecvente fiind
il)itrenl de r.ar.(Konrralreilr<o l9)[il. (i8, ]'a6:r. 1;KoenaHeFKo r{ lp.
gropi' pondefea cdrora este de circa
rlirvol.,.ile c1: lernn 6e clivelse ttpuri gi clirnensiuni ameriirjate in
1989, 32)'
.lrl% clin lr:ttr,rl momnintelclr scitir:e timpurii (Konna.ueurrr I{ nP'
de pietre cu forma' dimensiumantalei
periferia
la
Groprle sdprate cle Ia nivr:luli orizontului antic,
cele depistate ?n lumulul n:r' I Et nr' III din
nrle, .rrenli.rea gr caracterul urnplrltuni asemf,ndtoare cu
nu ne sunt cunoscLln:cro',la rie la'l'rrrrr.,ir, in obit:,:tivele funerare hallstattiere tarzii-scitice tirrrpurii m)' pavate cu pletre'
riC,5 x 0'6, acllncirnea 0'6
tr:. E,le sunt net cleosi:bite cle gnlpile de {'orrna circulard
chtbuni' cenur;d' preourn 9i piese de tnIrmpluturii ciirora c:onsta dirr lllimint' piette, bucali de lemn'
consider'iite gropi rituale (Sulimirski
de,,c.perite in tLrnLrulii 1;rupului p,:dolian ,i. u.*,t ^ini{iiil
in nrcropolele de la Dolinlany
'enr.r.
i93rlr.8; lvl3ni()iiolla 1958. rl.i). cercetirile ulte:rioare intreprinse
]19'77a' 3-10) a perrnis sa se
(,lrrrrrpnona lc)"77. 4,[)), P'erebyliovcy (Clrrlliprrosta 1919,63' Crrrapuona
stllpii constr-ucliilor funerate de lemn amenilstabileascii pileclestrnalil reald rt itcestot'it - gropi trentrLl
de cele doud gropt
arriic. Gropile Jin tumulii cle laTlinca se deose'besc ai
1.rte lu suprill.rrla orrzontulr-ri
0,15 rrr) sAllate in suprafa!a rugulur
ce cli'ensirrni nticl, (drame'lrele 0,35, res;pectiv, 0t,25 ,arlincimea
funcr';u'clintumtrlLtlnr.\/II'd':laVolc'r'St,urnpluturac6:oraconstadincerrupd'cdt'buni'lut?nroEitin
drscuta{i'
\Z"ZS. Constr"uc{iile a'lincite dln rumulii
foc, lrr.ecr.rnr gi uni:,le piei;e de inventar rilgnat iOlZ,
circular: de dimensiuni qi aclAmcime mica' depistate
cleasenren,:r nu au nimic cc)ffuln n1cl c:u lropile
culturii Ku5tanovice' predestinate pentru
irr sLLprafr:1::le ruguritror fune:.'iire clin turiulii nec:ropoleior
speclal
pe platforma c'in^lnctnta tumulului' sau de pe locul
<lepunerei,i resturilot cinerare llclunate de
n.p"onouuq 1965' 91: Cunpr:;"otta I9'79a' 51; flonoeH'I
rrmcna.jat in alara tumulului iC--nrrpuoua'

.990. 1.59: lderl 199.3, 265 )'


mantalelor tr-lmulilor sunt atesi, accla,gr tirnp r'e ntion,imr,:ir gropr d: lbrma ovald siluate la penferia

lateinrirnlllliinr.x\i,x'vl,xxldirinecropolacultuniKu5tanovice'KolodnoeII(Cltrlupnona'
[)'55 m' adincimea cle 0'1
1,2.4). Groapa clin turnulul nr' X\',(l'l1i x
t965, 106-109,
liep,uxrior,ul.r

mantalei de pimlnt ' la


cu o micri c"uit'e sp're est a fost sapata la perifer:'a
rI), orienratii pe axl sucl-norij ':.rc.
(Ibipaftea de
$i cle est a rugului funerar
) irrumitii :ristan{zi cr.e .gromer:rfirre de piatr-d ameirajate i'
'esi
'1ern'pt'tc.l):inturnrtrlLilnr')i\/lgroapa(l'7xl''lm'a'dAncimeacle0'4n:r)'oriental.dnord-vest-sud-est
nt)'
(lbidem, pllc. 2); in tumulul nr' XXI' groapa (2'8 x 0'95

:sre siturrli spt.e su<J-vest. de t'r-.lqul fun.:rar


la periferia cle sucl-est a mantalei de piatra'
ldi.n:itir lLr 0.1 rn. clrrentati su:[-r'est-norC-est, e'str: amplisata
lorconsta din cdrb'uni' chrbuni qi b'cali de pifiincl parlral acr,rpe'ita de ea (l.tricielrl, p'c. 4)' Umplutuia
qi XVI carc
r1e:oase calcinate' iin tumulii nr' XV
minr ars,, Iespecti,u'. ci'buni., Lrlnu$a qi mici fragnrente
in apropiesau ndcat tumr-rlii, gr"o'prile stlnt amplasate
con{ineau incineral.rj efec;tuate: in locul Llnde ulteiior
Incertd ritmane semnificalia gropii din
i'unerare ;i erau. preclestrna-,e clepunerii ciLrbunilor.
rea
in irfara tumului. Po';ib'il' ca resturile cinerare uma'ugur-il.r
tumulul nr. XXI, care acoper-era o incineralie ei'ectuatd
ridica
u'de urte rior erall dep'se 1n urne asLlpra cdrora se
ne. cre cr!.r.br.rni ;i de cen*gd sc curileau i'locul
de micise sapa o groapa speciald,-practicaconfirmatd Ei
mi'ntalra rumulului. iar pentrr-. :,irbuni gi cenugd
iangi vase'lt; de olranda (ibidem' l(19)'
le i]5,;lom,eratii de carbunr:;i pirrnlnt ars a1'late
forma sec{iunii
ale gropii din-tunulu nr. I de la Trinca, incleosetri,

particularitdtrlrl constr.rjr-: ive


deadincimea considerabilS' cornponenfa umpluturii'
trans'ersale, pt.e,lenta acopetiqului din bime,
posibir, re:rezinti un morrnint cenotal''' amenajat in acemonstrelLz:ii cri ea avLlt o altrl predestirra{ie.
'
(mornilntul principal ctin tumul) suprapus de mantaia;;i vrerne cu efectua'ea incireraliei incomprete
marlta de p[rndnt comund'
ura cie pilLtrd ' apol ;,Lcoperi1.': ct-t o
o crnstruclie funeralri asr:mdndtoare a fost cercetata
in accrstii or.rjirre de: idei. tinem sd nrenfi,cndm cd
mOrml'tur nr. l0 a fost dcpus intr-. g'oap6 mare ovaliin ca<lru,r necl.op(rrre,i prane r1c ra Fengile. Aici,
alrrngitd(2,2(lx{-r.l35rrr).ad0ncimerrdel,3m'clefonlauntriqan!cudr:schiclereamailargir.Pamantul
ci.bLrri de ceramicd puPe fund s;e afla o mare cantirtate de
grollii c.intinea pig,nenlide at'surd gi c[rbr-r'i.
de nuiele' ciliva bode arsurl cu i.mprente produse dr: capete
temic al.:;e, Lr'caJr de c6rbu:ne bucili mari
(\/ulpi lg6i, 181). rcosultarea planului necropolei
_
lovirrii ri3 riu, g.a., oasole r:alcinate lipsind comlllet
motmintulLui nr. l0 erir axat6 nord-vest
plane cle lii Ferigrle (Ibidern' l.ig.23) c1e:noti fapr:ul ca roapa

1.1

Reuista Arheoloqi-9d.

Seie nouij

sud-est' Fontrll de lanlcu th:schiderca iargd, irr exprresia cercetatorului, eventual, trebuie
atribuita secliunir
[ritnsrret':;ale a gropri. Bucit:lle mari de arsuri cu a]lprente cle nutele, consiCerate
de A.Vulpe ca l1agmente
aic unei vetre, s-ar' ,Frutea sri pl'ovinai de la acoprerig,ul gropir, construit <Jin nuiele pe
care sa aplicat un str-at
Cc lut. Astlel. srmrlitudinei gropii rnorrnAntuli-cen,ctdf din tumulul nr.
-l dr: laTrincaqi ceaamorm6ntului
nt' l0 din ne'crop{rlra plana de Ia Ferigile este er,'iclentii. in ambele lipsesc oiasele umane calcinate.
Deosebtt'ea constiindlin faptul cii lai ll'inca sau gdsit dclar oase de la ofrancla rJe came, pe
clnd la Feri.qile, inventar t\lnerar fonnat dirr rnai rnulte' vasr: de lut arsi gi priese de fier cor,f,clate.

Pnacncl

FUNERARE

Fenlrlt necropola tumttlara Trinca "Dnrmul Iletegtilor" este caracterir;tic bilitualismul, incinerarea pi
inhuntatea, rapcltlttl r:Itntre,:le f itnd, r'espectiv ?:3 (f ig. 1,4).Incineratiile se ef'ectuau in mocl cliferit.
[. in af itra locului inrnormiLntirii, resturile cinerare fiincl adunate gi irnpreund cu inventarul eriiu:
[.a -pJasa.ter irt locul uncle trebuia sa fre ?nm,c,nn0ntarea, ciirect pe n;velul orizontului antic (tumlr-

lii nr V-lK):

.[.b. - c|:puse i'n urne

l'ird crrpa: (tumulul nr. ]II, aglomeratia B).


,[1. nemi.ilocit pe locul rrn<Jc ulterior se ridica tumulul, resturile cinerare rdmdndnd pe loc:
Itl.a, - cremaf ii incc,lr rlete direct pe suprafafa orizontului antic ,(tuntrlul nr. l);
lil.b - crernittii cc'rnple te in c<lnstruc!ii sepu|;rale de suprafala (tr-rmulul nr. IIIb).
Inc;nera{iile de tipul I sunt complete. Mormrntele variantei Ia sunt reprezentate prin resturi ciner':'rr rlr':t('n1''nre nri'-i de ot:;e Lllnano calcinate, ccnu;;d, cdrbunt, pietricele arse pAni la transformare ?n
vrr', bulgari ,Je parrrL:int itrs)car,: inrpreund cu inrrentarul sunt r'[splndite i'n centrul tumulului pe o suprrirfati <le circa 3--.1.n'r.p. ,itumulii rrr. V.VI,I):),6-7 m.p. (tLrmulul nr. VIl) gi circa 13-15 m.p. (tumulLrl nr.

Vlll).

'y'ariantlL Ib e:;tr: l'eprer.entatd ckrar de un singur mormlnt (tumulul nr. III, aglomeralia B). in Luna
ciit'uttt era clepusa o cantilrrte rlicd de oase calcinate curdlite de alte res;tllri de la rug. Pentnr turrrulii

care conlin incinenr'[ii de tipul I este caractensti,;: pietlele ce formea.zd partea interioari a ringulLu ;r
umpluitura lur ate-<tti urrne eviclentr: de ardere , cantl{atea extrerrr cle ledusi a oaselor Llmane adunate.
stttreil lor J'ottrte ft'agr;rnenlild, graduLl pllternic de calcinare, lipsa (cr-r ex:ep1ia unor piese din tumulul
nl VII) urlr(::lor cle ardere secundrri a inventanrlui, precum qi lipsr,r stratului de pamint ars in locul
clcpurrelr i lcsl rrri Iol' t'rnerlrr,.:.
Ir:cinerafiile cie tipul II surt nrai putin numeroase. Variantir IIa a acestei categorii de morminte,
incin,:ratiile incomplete. ri lost ateslatir doarin tumulul nr. L Resturille e:i fiind rdsplnclite pe o suprafata ch c,trca '7,5 m.p, gro:i ntea strltului de prirnint ars neuniform c,rnstituind circa 0,2 m. Gradul de
cre lri:lre a r:lils;elor erste diferit. Foarte puternic suut arse oasele craniului. trratelor gi posibil a prcioalelot', Cbarstele gi fi'agrnente l: coloarLci \lertebraLle sunt arse intr-o rndsurd mai micd. Identificareii apartenent,ii oiiselLor la clif'erite parti a scheletului a fdcLrt posibil cc)nstalare)a cd, inilial defunctul fusese
depus; in po:zitie chirciti Frr o pifie r;u craniul orientat in direc{ia nord-vest. Varranta Ib, deasemenea,
eslc, repl'ejz(:nlaLtiL clo'iLr de rrt singur mormAnt, incinerajie completd e,I'ecluatd impreuna cu collstructia
de lemn anrenali.rtii lii suprrfala orizontulur antic riturnulul nr. IIIb). (liroriimea stratulur de pdrniint ars
din interiorul c:onstrucliei, suprapus de platforrnil este de crrcu (),08 rn. in incinta lugului funerar, pe
platfolma, se gdseii c) cant ate rre?nsentnatd de oas;e cralcinate.
Fractic:ile funera.re rerjl)eclate in cadrul inmo:tmAntarilolconforrn ritr-rlui de incinerare aparin mat
rlrrlte varriilnt:3, ljese,ori en l3matice . Se are in verjere ?n primul rAncl acliunile efectuate in procesul
'inrnormitrtarrlor der tipLrl Ji (tr-rrnuIi nr. V-IX) gi de
tip IIa (tumulul nr. I.t. Faptul ca crema{iile de tipul Ia au fost efeclttate in i.l'ara locului inmormlntdrii este argumentltt pnn aceia cd, in centr-ul tumuItlor, r-rncle erau rdsp;lndite resturile cinerare nu a fost evidenliat stratul rJe pdmiint ars, inevitabil in
(litzul itrcierii nr:nri.;locite a :adavrr-rlui. Presele de inventar (cu exceplrLa unora din tumulul nr. VII) nu
alestd ume de ardet't: secuitdard, atunci cind pretlele din partea interioard a ringului gi cele ce nenljlocit r;upraltun inmotntintiirile s;unl arse puternic. Resturile cinelare;;i in',zentarul in tumulii nr. Vi qi
'VIII erar,r protejate cL:: o mi,;d rn,Jviljfd de pdmAnt, ce ar prezenta
o er.plicalie. in tumulrr nr. V, VIII gt

!1rl,rn 13l

!.-,1'1

r'

1- ,

ardere' PoStnemijlocit rle piet'ele cu uInl.evidente de


l.K ele irnp,r*unli cLl inve'taful ::rau acopofite
piatra 9i' ede
se datoreazi glosim1i mantalelor
bil, neatectilrea inventaruluj clt: foc in aceqtr tumr-rii
a'cestol'reariitiiti ar fi: defuncfii, deposeve.tulr, rrrgrr-rrilor <J,e propor{ii rnai mici. Expiicalia posibilI

drti

erau :remali pe un loc ripecial alenajal, 11t:1,:1]:


de pies,ele ,1. pultouila, de pot't ;;i cie ustenrsile
sparte rltual
ce le-a ct:'!inut ii u.t.to (';aseintregi, sau
rrdLrncte clc la rugirrnpreun[ cu p,iesele

ciner.re
olranda
ringuluri cle piai,i: tot arunc:i depunlndu-se Ei
rr rocul innror.*Lii'tiir.ii) se inipr.[gtiau 1n rnci'ta
de
mantaua
de
l.r cu un strat de p,miint:iLlprapus
cle carne (t*murlul nr. Vt), ap'i ul'ma acoperirea
Lllterior tic[r: pietre (tumulii nr' \/' VIil' IX)'
ritLrrnrrlii nr, \'l qi VIf:), r;au exclusirl.l. ,nuntuua
(tuc;o'comitent cu care avea loc "ospdful funebru"
s,uprii manralei de: pratrd se ar:[ea un rug'tulr,
'ietrc
q;i,
in
.t/I qi \/tII), irtsol'it',1e spargerea val;e]or ce ()|Jn[ineau cltrand't: (nrincaluri, bauturi)
tnu]ul nr.
'inmorntlntdrii din tLtmulul
cle pdmant' in cazul
r;flr;rt - rit,cOpeilfea c'r-rstrur:,ti:'i cle piatrd cu un s;trat
fusaiola att
viise au fost sparte la rug 9i cd irnpreuni cu
nr. \ll, s;e poate l:rresupune crl unele clirrtre

rrimcritpcjaratic,cisunr]ecu:.esturiledeardereaufostrduselaloculriclicdriitunrulului.
Refi':r.itot.llllrncine'rafialckltiplladrntunrululnr.I,remarc6mc[incontestabilrtateaefectuariiei
de os'
in u..trqr tinqr, cu exceplia unor vlirfut-i de sageatl
pe locr,rl rid,icirrirturrrulului e,st.e ivide,nta.
posibil' ci aceasta se datoreaza faptului
dc- ardere secuncrard.

in'e'ta*rl m'rmi)nr.urur nu atr:std urme

lui cornplett:, in rezultat scheletul a lost

roc,inaintea ar:ce:rii
cd acoper.ir.ea rugrriuri cu prie,tre a avut
unele piese de in rentar'
.r.,',',ut in.,lmplel, tocul afr:ctiincl doar
orizontului
sunt cbpuse exclusiv crirect pe s*prafa{a
l'hunra{rrlc r1:pistate in t_rmulii cre ril Trinca,
nr' II' III'
(lumulir
gi
pirmant
amerLaja mijntaua de pietre
antic, ncrrijloc,it pc rocur u'tre ulterr.r se
de
qi
IV)' cf,tt'e decle larna plLrgului (tunrulii nr' II
IV). Mormintele sunt in rnir.. misurir deteriolatr:
t'agmenta(tumulur nr. tII). oasere scheretelor sunt in stare
vastrtori s,a'. probii'ir, de,r leinhumaro
posibil de
fost
n'a
4,5 m.p. poziliir Si.orientarea clefu'ncliror
rd, impr.-L;tlatc pe supral.ar.iL de cir-ca
i'iqial afost depusin pozi-

'

stabirit. in aceita;;i ti*p, ti'drclcont

c. r'*ftut ,ain tuin.rlul nr. i

clefuncr.r'rl

lieclrircltipe0l]'illlecucl't1l.-llorient.atsprenord-vest,^(]onsider[mcir,posibil,aqapozilieefapracticatiiiir'citzulinlruma[lilr:rr.Orienta.r.,,p,..estpoateiipresupusddoartrlentrumormAntuldintumucadrul ritului cle inhua permis ccnstatareei faptului c6 in


lur irr. I\/. striclierca \/estii:iirror scheretr:lor
qi' proba(tu,muni nr. II gi IV), in per:eche sau succesive
ringulu,-e
i'mornilntarir.
prac{icau
sc
mlrie
. y :: -: .- :..]^.,*,Xri
bil r'eiinl'Ltrm[rite itumulul nr" Ili)'
Der.irrrclcttmrtrminteiel;dv0rgiteconrfonnrituluincinerbriiqiainlrunrdriicareocupauopozttle
drn necropola de la
cu aceastar tcazie, tuniulii'r. I gi III
centralr,r sub rnant.,a de piatrir amenajat'
morminte secunclare, ctl nr' 2)' cafacterul
:normiint-cenotaf'(rlesemnate,
un
(lc)ntineau:;i
cit.e
Trinca
anaiiz:ei corrstruc{iil'r sepulcraa f,ost argumentat mai iius, cu ocazia
cie mornr.rnt_r:enotar,al acest:lra
rji'ect pe suprafala orlzontuclJ mormintert: centrale etectuate
r]eosebire
\ilorrnintere-cenota1.sprc
le.
periferia
pe axa nord-r'est - sud-est' amplasate la
arn,ilrlajate lirr gropi o'vale' orientate
l

lui antr,:, el'au


manlalt,:ror cri:

pillr[.

lipsesc.
Fies,tur,re cinerare sa* cie inhumrr'e

cu excr:p[iaa oaselor de animale

de

la.0franda<lerciLrne('tr-rmululnr.l)'altepies;edeinvt:ntar'nuauf"".:l-:,t.f:,ttate'rumpluturagropilor
pletre, fragmente de lemn ptttrezit Ei cafbuni'
constand din prdr:liint negfu silLl cenu$llt,
"Drumul Feteqtiqi inhum':i ) atestat in necropola Tri'cl
Brr:irurlrs;rnuil (practir:ar::a incinerririi
cuiturale
conrtrnitalile nlai mu].tor r:ulturi rii grupuri
l0r,,rep,l,ezin'5 un fenom'ett .n,.o.,"r,,,i. 1,.n,,o
tumulare' clt 9i cetimpurie, atit care pfacticau necxrpolele
scitic[
tri:'zie
h,llstatli'nd
dir
1ter.ic,'da

leplanc(.1.rg'4):urupullltlrJolian!lvestclinzonalristruluideMijlocqiaSubcarpalilorMoldovet
Ignat
1989' 73; Kp'yme'uHulrKaq 1990' 152:

tq:isl+r:i; C,rflr':,Hosa 1980' 236; IIerpeHro


iin lJngana de Nord-Est'9i Slovacia de Sud-Vest
1g78, llll: Iclern 2000, i|-'ill); cultrtra Vekerzug
necfosci-ic iin Transilvani* (Vasiliev 1980' 90)l
('leper,r 1986, 174: Menoor<.ea i989,90); grup-ul
sct(beltiu' Ctlmqa 1956' 405"153"156)' precum 9i cultura
prola d,;: ia (J.g,:rgr.r <lin Cinr:,irt Dunari:ana
l98l'
br"rpro Niprului (tr4nruncnas r915,80; KonnaneHro
tica tirnpur.re din z:ona dr: srlivostepri iiin
practicatd ?n cadrul culturii
r9g9, 34-35). ixclusi' inci'era'ea era
6E_,/0: [..c,eila*errxo rr ,{]r
-[r-lnscalpatica a U;rrineri (.crv'epnona, Iiepurxonuq 1965' 9ll Cunpuosa
I(*itarrcvr:r.: din regirrnea
Carpatilor me1gg3,2(4'\'gr:upului Ferigrle-B'lrseqti din:zona
1979a, 1jl; llorroeu.n t9,;,C,, l-58-159;
a culturii
l'):;t7'201)' piecum ;i in uneie necropole
Morint
r.iclioni.rli 9i rlle cur-bur,i ('t/tt pe 196'7'20;
'
Balta verde din cimpra
.y'eker.Lr1E (lulcrir'xo.ra l9rti9,99), rtr inhurrrarea - in n"ttopola dr: la

(\,1e.nrur<r:rua

.r6

__.___

Rcurs,t Arhao!ogicJ. Scic rtottd

_n

,,
i

-t' \-)
, ./ --^..l--i
\\

,/
,
\

\,
/

l-'---1-.--:-

\
) \\

Fig.4. Parillele perrtru

tipr:rili-o ce,mormintel clepistate la Trinca in necropolele grupurilor cullurale sincrone. Semne c:on_
rr:sturi cinerare cepus'pe cirizontul antic b - rersturi cinerare depuse in urne; c icinerdri complete efectuale in construotii de r;u5rr;afatd; :j .- in,:ineriiri incomplete; e, - inhumari; f cenotaf,-..
-

trrnttonale: a

Dunalerani (Eiercru. L'r:msa 19.50,39t1-392). PoncL:reir incinerarilor';i a inihr-rmarilorin ltLll l'unerar.al


unitAlilor cu,lttu'aie c,ilre prirticau birrtualismul est,: diferitd. Inctnerdrile preclominA in practicile funet"art-: ale r:0rnr:nitdIilrtr grr-1lulr-ri podolian de, vest (MenrcKoBa 1958, zl0; CulrpHor]a 1980,243;
Iipi'ire'-rr,ur.tqrtar 19910. t5.l-l5li; I:nat 2000, 332:"-3:\3). in caclrul cultu:ni Vekerzug, grupului scitic
drn'fl'ansrlvillria. necrt)pole i cle la Gogo$u $i a culturii scitlce tinrpurii din silvostepa din Dreapta 1..liprului mai l'r'ecvernte sunt irrhunrdrilc, care constitue: 35-82Vo in Nold-Ilstul Llngariei (tr4epeu 1986,
l-,tb);94lit, in'ft'ansil',,ania i'v'asiliev 1980,41); circa 66Voin necr:opc'la de la Gogoqu (Berciu. Comga
l9-56. 1t-53) st'.7,tr97o 'in silvos epa din Dreapta Niprului (KonnaueriKo rr,4p. t999, 34).
Sr:mnificrtiv e,ctr, f'aptulcd llmb'ele rituri erau llracricate atltln ceLdrul aceleiaqi necropole, cit qi a
Llllol cofllplexr: apitlt,e. in;ttna Nistrulr-ri de lrlgl<lc, in necropola de la Perebykovcy, civourile clin
tumulr.rl rr'. .3 q;i nr. ji r:ontr I atel resturi cinerare,,:At $i oase ale unor inhumdri in pereche (f'emeie
E;r
copll) (C.rtuptic,nrl 1979,51.57). in necropola de la Sutnivcy, cavoul din tumulul nr. I continea oase
calcintte;i pi.r-ti a unr:i inht rndri, iarin tumulurl nr I\/, sau depistlt trei mgrminte sincronice. cel centrlrl reprezinti" o tnhuntare 'r:l perreche, celelalte ctloui - incinerdri (fyqa-n, fyua,r, Merefi lgg8, j4?-5 ) Vlorrllntul 3i din ttecrcrpola de lrr Cliumbrud din 'fransilvania conr:inea scheletul unei femei adulte 9i re:sttu'ile cinerat't,: ale r-nui r:opil depuse in urnd cu capac (Vasiliev 1980,56). Situatie similara
esle atestilta gi 1'n necropola de la C'roshaza din Llngaria de Norcl-Est, undle in mormdntul 158 a fgst
descopcritd o inhurnerre ins:tit6 de o incinerare iir urna (l,iepeu 19116, l'78, nota, 327). practlcareir
arnt;elrlr ritr"rri in cadrr:l ace:lLriagi cotrplex funerar este inregtstratii gii'n zona de silvostepd drn Dreapta Niprr-rlui. irr tumulii nr. 1;r4;i nr. 177 din p:ruprrrl tumular din bazinul riiului Tenetinka, in acei;rgr
groapd se qiisea scheletul uttut matu.r, intins p) spilte cu craniul ot'ientat spre vest, aldturi de care era
depusiL o incinera{ie t'll,rsrt rcxa;,r 197-5, 81, 8-';). i'n tumulul de la Perepjaticha au fost deprstate at0t
inhumiiri, cZit rli incinr:t'ziri d:pus,s ?n vilse-ume, precum gi in gropi-ume sprecial sdpate in podeua camerii sepulcrale (KonnaHenj(o lr cp. 1989,34; tlropuii 1990, lZ-l:l).

!1r/14;411.-r't1, l-

inmormintirii, rcstu'ile cineratee f iind adr-rnate 9t


crbicsrul ,cremii'i clefuncgilor in aiara locului
de la
practrcat de comunitstea'::are ir ldsat necropoia
depuse cijrect pe sorur antic:, col mai l,recvent
ctz,inpractrcile {'unera.re clin perioada hallstattiana
l.rinc,r. sru rlepuse ?n Lrme, iite stat int, ,'rn singul
efecin aria grupului poclolian derre.st' inctnerarea se
trir.zre-sciticiittnrpu.ie a avut o lmaleraspinclire.
Pela
de
cerui descorr.iit in iumulul nLr. 6 din necropola
t,ra in crernal.oLrr s;pi:cial amenlLjate, de tipur
pe fundul
aclunate, de regulit''erau clepuse direct
rebvkovcl,(cur.rpr'ona 1979, tr0). Restu'ile cinerare
(Ibic':m' 45, 55); tumulii nt' 2-4 de la Dolinianl'
(rar,rrJrrril0,r -- turn.lii nr.lz qi .1 de la Perebvkovc:l
gropii - tumului nr" 3 cle la sutni'r:y (fyua''r' fyqal'
(cvrr.rpuonr r lL)-17, 38); trr6nnri,cofi pe funclul
urCoquunr.-Coclru (Ignat 20C)0' 3331' {ard utilizareit
iv4er.cii l,l9,il, ?:i):; s;,ttt direct pe sol - n"'"opol;
Joar sporarlic - iltr-.un tumul de la KadanovDeltuneTga o,selor calc:rnate in ur.e est" atestiatii
41) qr in tumulul nr' [ 'dr:tedorat' de la Loevcy
'elor.
l<a (Sulinlrrski 1t)36' El4; I\rle:rKrxoea 1958'
de pratra'
cremarea * fost efectuatir in incintii unui'ing
rKFr'rrerr,u!rlr*:a,, 1990, 14.0). in pr-rnrLrl caz
piatt'6'
sru protejiiti gi aco'lelitd cu lespezi <le
r.rncle a gi l'ost rl,3pl]s5 urna, ia l'iinclul
}ncinerareir?nitf'ariLlcrr:l]Lli..n.le,a"..aloclnrrrorntAntareapreclominiilnpracticilefunerareale
(159 de m.t'minte in
clnerare fi.ncl apoi clepuse i'n urne
:orn*'itiitiror,rLlrt,.uril Kusta'.vice, restr-rrire
antic (flo'oeHq 1990'
grdrnajoare, drrect pe suprafatiiorizon't,lur
6-l clc turnuli),:in 1;r'opi rnici . sau in
.nera{iile atestare in cachr.rl culturii Veker159: 199.1 265;Cltrnpnona 19'79a' 5l)'
efe':tuatej ncl:
De roqulii. c<lnftlrm a(lestui obicer elatt
zug,reslulilc,caLot'rtsedep'uri';ituinutrtesituperfunclutgropii(I7{epe-nl9r8(i'176;Me:]}oxoea[989'
restuin practici{e fune:are ile grupului scitic di'T'ransilvantit
90), pret.:urn. ;;i c,:1,: ,1ror.ili,, atestate
56-(r0)'
de notd-uest a gropii (vj:ll*'1 ]l]1]:
rik: ctepuniindu-sc in griimiijOtre in patlea
era prlLcticat de cdtre comunltac;r'em6rii i, afara locului inmormantarii
in e ;iclusr'it.l,:.trl obiceiul
resturile cinera.'racicc,j,r, z,:,nu -a,pa1itc,, meridiolraii qi rie curbutd' in necropoia cle Ialrerigi|:'
lili:
sallin ume neacopecu lirepc'nclerenld pe solul antic' in u'r-ne'
re, impr,3urrir cu inrentilr;ul ef,xu depuse
A-Vulpe (vulpe
tipuLile cle morminte Ia' Ib qi III' dupii
unghiular,:
clrr:''
i'
ampl.rsirte
rit,:
llropi
|9(17.2"].-):3)Srl.rl.rtiisimilirti:aufot;ter,iclenllategiinnecropoleleTlg.''e'ni...Babre,'(Vulpe,Popescu
"r,i:troasa" (popesi:u, \/ulpe 1982, Ll0)' cepart
rglz. itiirl: popescu, V,urper 19g2, 32),'figveni
'felegti-Drdgoe:;ti (calato.,'opli1rr.,(t.ri.ern. 102), lifer;rr (Ibicl,:r','i t ti rtri,t.eri (Vulpe 1961 ,2!'7',t,
obrcer erau depuse
Ot tu []2rseqtr' r'est,rile c;irerare de
ntt''opot''
in
llS).
iq8'1,
\,la'noiu
\tocri.j,
iu,
(Morintz 1959' 3551
antic qi num*t in unele c;lzuri irt ume
?n rnici gt'irmitloare pe ni"'cl'l solu.lui
i9r59a,:131t961.2t)3)'ltnuineraliile<lepistaieinne'cropoladelaGop;oqu'flraexceplre'suntmor410 5i urmt'
nrinte in urne (Berciu, Corn$:l 1956'
qiin complexele funelocr-rlui irirnorminti'ii este *tr:sl'atd
Spr:rac,c, cromaLea defunctilorin afara
Ositn'jazka' unde
D'ttopta Niprului: tumltlul 'r' VI de la
sitl'oste,fu,lin
cie
zontL
din
arlnair:c
rare scitic,o
tiurui 'renetinka, in groapa
arta parte; tumuiur rrr. 174 clin bazirr.r
oasele .,arclnate ar.r fost achr:,,: din
altuia (l'1:rsllucxas 1915'
au fos,t depuse vesti-eiile cinerare ale
marur
rrnLri
scheretur
cu
r:Je
riinrj
qi
ciiruia
Je gasea o grdr,tSoarl de restut'i cinerare
grrpii
fundul
pt
u.'Jt
r5
Berei;tnjagi,
85); tunrulul nr. cle la
l98l' 70)'
inventirl iird ttrrne c1e arderre (Konnaue'uxo
otlicr:iLr]inLr:;inerdt.iinerrijloclt.peloculllrrdeull.ertorseamenajarnanl.auadinpietregipamdnta
suprafafd atestat in tuantrc, sau ir. constructil seplcri-rrer cre
orizonturui
s*pra.fr;a
crlrer:1
turnulu.rui,
1le
deasein pericada hallstattiand tiirz,ie-scrticd timpurie'
mrLlii n.r. I qi tIIb clin necr<>1:,ola de la Trinca,

in cadrul grupulut poclolian cle


mai multe
r subcarprlilor Moldovei' lDupi ardr:re' in cele
ves,r. al:li i' z:orr,r Nistrului <le Mijloc;r;;;t
(Menoxoaa
intr-o g'iim6joarl
rr-rgului funeLar,^mai rar, zrrJunatc
c.;uuri,, c,irsere e:rau rirsate pe suprafala
cel mai autentic
1gg0, |52.153). Arnbeie variante
1958, I|tr; C-ttltlliiona 19!30, 236; Kpyrrr.-,0n"0.n*"
au fost
ir'-cavoul tumulului nr' 6 Oasele calcinate
Perebykovcy:
la
de
necrop,rlla
in
a,u fost crlltstatate
ldsateJresuprala|aruguluil'unerar;?nceleclintumul''lnr'lqinr'3'separatederesturileruguluigtse
l6sa oasile umane calcina(Curtpuona 1979, 58' 'll' 52)"Obiceiul ii: a
inrprdqfrau p;1'r-tnclul ,]av,r,:tui
(Ma-rleen 1991' 125) 5i
f.si atestat i:n tumulul nr' I de la My.*ovcy
te pe locul arde:rii, dease)*r(,rneu ^
tumulul nr' 7
1989, 107)' iarde a le adunaini'r-o grdmirj<lardin
(Il{1'x:nrt
laIvan.v,:}',
c{er
3i
nr.
tumnlrLl
l2l)'
din necropola cle la Volovi: (Ignat 1978'

''"8;liJTlT,]iJli1il:[l''ry:?:;rL,a

rnarea majoritrte a incinerf,ritc,r

t!

Rer-,isla,4rheol

osic

ti Ser:e rrorrri

Ivlult rrili I'ar, obic,3it I crerrndrii pe locul unde ulterior se ridica turnulul este atestat in ca6rul
cultLu'ii I(uir.irnovit:r)-- 1l din 9-5 Ce nrormtnte investigate (Ilonotru.r 1990, 158-159; Ictem 1993.
ii(r4). descol)erite rlLllrai ir d,rua neclopole: Koloclnoe Ii, in care cgnfbrm acestui obicei au fost efei:tuate o tr,:rime din 2l rtorntintr: cercetate (CuHpHona, EepHtron;H.r li965,9l) gi Cernyj potok
4 ilin i3 (rllrtrrpuoir,t lc)J(.a,5rL). in tumulul nr. IV de la Ceiny; Potol<, cremdrile succesit,e au fost
eft--':tulttt: pe o plat{'trnnd t[: lul ars de formd circulrard (2,L x2,2 nt) s]lecial amenajata la suprafala
c'rizontulLli antic (Cl:wlrpH(Ila 1919u,44). De regluld, oasele calcinate se lisau pe loc doar o canttAi
trlle ncittrsemnrltI se: clcputcr ilt utne, gropi de climensiuni micl sApilte in suprafafa rugului funerar.
sar.r s,3 adurrau ?n grdLmd.lol

le.
Siporarjrc. crefilirea [,e locul inmormAntdrii e,ra practicata qi cle catre comunitdlile culturir
\/t,:lierzug din Norct-E,stul tJngiu'iei. in aceastA categofie cle nrorminte A.I. Meliukova include c.mple xrrl fttnet'iLt de ll ,!lonlq. uncle intr-o groapd cr,r adiincimea de 1,7 rn, sub un strrrt de bdme de lemn
putt'eziter. ervcntltal, Pl'o\/er-rte de la acoperi$ul grrrpii, au fost giisite oase Llmane calcinate, cenuqii qi
citrbLrni. Ptintr,: resl.tttile cinerat'e, se aflau 20 de vdrl'uri de sdgeati cle bronz, arse intens gi lragmente
dinlr-r-in \/as ('N{:nrcr}lc}Ba [ )89. 90).
intr-un sin-qur ci12: pri.t( ttcitrea lcestui obir:ei este atestata ;i 1n zorna Carpafilor mericlionali. la Ferlg,rle, in t:unrulul nr 150, srluat in prelgma ne,ll'olpole,i plane din partea de nord a satului (Vulpe 1967,
15,7i3). M,lrr:nlntul r:ste re prezcntat de un rug de lormd ovald (.2,2 x 1,16 m), suprafata ciruia a f'ost
i,lrnplet cul'Atitta, riirnan0nl doar r'utra de pd.mlnt ars. Oasele calcinate au fost depuse in doua vase
irnrpla:;ate lt rrrargint,:a de rrorcl a rtr,qului, alaturi de r:are se mai gdseau fl-agmente cle vase arse, oase
,:rlcintLte. ciirtruni. plecutr pr cloui buca[r informe de f ier (Vulpe I96i', 190). Aici insistam sd men]ionrirn cti conforn-i plarrului t;mulului nr, 1,50 (Ibiderri, fig.26), trei vas;e er,au amplasate la peril'erra de
rsurl-r'est a rugului firnerar';i doerr ulul (nr.3) l;pre nord-vest.
In zona de s;ilvosler;rii .1in Dreapta Niprului arde:rea defunctilor de obicei se efectua pe loc, imllreuni cLt corLs,trLlc:tnrr l'unc'1r5" amenaiat6 atat pe suprafa{a solului antic, cAt gi in gropi (V:nuucrcax
l!17"5, 84-85; [<.oenaLuenxo t98.1, 7t]). in tumuluI nr,419 de la LazuLrcy, oasele umane calcinate au
l'ost liLs'ate:pe suprafata rusirlui f une:r'ar (KonnaLHeuxo 1981,70; KoenaHeHtKo tr np. 1989,34),
In,:ittetdrilr: inc,omplett: de tipul celei descoperite in tumulul nr. I din necropola de la Trinca, ne
sllflt cun()scute nulhsLi in c:0rntpl)xele funerare ale unit6lilor culturale cdrc,ra le este caracteristic bin_
tualismul. in t:lrdrul glrupulrti porlolran cle vest din' zona Nistrului de lv{ijloc, ele sunt atestate in tumulul de [a (],:lrt:,clntca, turrruirl nr' I de la Bilder Zolotoe gi tumr,rlut nr. iV de la Braty5ev (Me"lroxona
It)513,4l). lncineratiilc irtc,rmpl:te au fost evidenLl.iatr: gi in necropolil culturir Vekerzug de la Csanytelek rJin norcl-r:stul Ilngari:i (lvle.nn:xona 1989, 139). Relativ mai frec,venl rrtualul arderii rncomplete
a defuLnctilor;;i a construct ilor de iemn este atestat i'n cadrul monurnentelor funerare scitice arhalce
clin zotta,Je -silvostepii din Drerrpta Niprului: turn.ulii nr.3-5 qi nr. 86 (mormintul 2) de la Bobrica;
tutttltlul nr-. .lti2 cle la Ilerkr,rovl..a; tumulul nr. I de la Gamarnja (KonnaneHxo 1981, 70.); tumulul nr.
l:i cle Irr Stetrlev; turnLrlii de la l\4[alajl Ofirna, ]t{ovaja Kotel'nja, (ilevacha, Lazurcy g.a. (KonnaHeHKo
rl ,rp. 1989. -]4). in lumul,r ne<:ropoler de la Mr:dvin, partial arse srau doar constructiile de lernn
(F.onnaucurro 19,3 l, ;'Cl).
Caracteristicrle ritualul:i funerar practicat in cadrul ritului inhLrnr[rii, dat flind starea insufucientii cle conset'\/lir3 o molrnirrt:,lor din necropola de la f'rinca, pot fi doar reconstitLrite. Defunc{ii se clepllneaLl direct pre suprlfaltL orizrlntrrllui antic, sub rnarntaua tumulului firE. amenajarea construc$iilor
sepLrlcrale, in p,czligic chircirii pe o Frarte cu capul orientat in dilectia r:sticd sau nord-vestic5. Se priLcticrlttl ittntoturirntlrile s;rngultre, in perec:he sau suc,ces,ive gi probabil rr:inhumdrile.
Palarnetdi constatali pentru mormintele de inhumalie de la Trinca au ce:le mai apropiate paralele in
prlcticile fitnerare, ale cclnturtitdtilor l3rupului pcdolian de vest din zona. Nistrr-rlui de Mijloc (l\4enrcxoea
1958,40: Cl"vnpnona. 1980,236: Kpyuenruurtxzur 19190, 152-1511). Depunerea defunclilor direcr sub
nlanlaua tuntulului fiitd corrstruct i frmerare este atestatd in turnulul nr. (i de la Ivanovcy (.ll{yxuu 1989,
107) in tumulul nr. I rde la Lano'vka, defunctul in prozilie intinsa era depus pr: o platfbrmd de pietre plate
antenajute la Lrii:za tuniululLri (Sulimirski 1936,88; Me:,rrcKoea l9lj8,4tll Kpyue;rtuzUKarr 1990, 152).
N4rclul predominant rl,e depurrere a defuncfilor r:ste poz)lia chircitd, de rind cu care, intrun numdr rrrai
nlrc, srr intrilne sc qi nrcrrntinl,r cir sche lr:tele in pozilie in;tinsd (Me,rrcu<ona 1958, 40). Depunerca scheletu-

59

I ol u,1,

Ll,1

. !\:-'-l--.----. --

nr' 2
tipul c:onstrucl;iilorfunerare' este cunoscutd?'complexul
lui i'n pozifie chlfcll,r. fic;iinclatrlstractie cle
puc'
g0. tig'lg; \,{sffoKrlB& 1958,40; Kpyure.nlulrunar 1990' 153'
rle la Ralr:,cv lKurrt rlljr"rlimirski 1136,
pzc. 1), tumulul n1. f' de la Ivanovcy (llJynliH
L a. t,, Kni;llik (cvupiroea 1968, 14,
:j6,.1). turn*lul
'r.
(f1'ual, I'yqa:r, lvlerefi 1998, 75)' C)rir3ntarea inhumaiilor in calg';g, l0?), tunriuh.rl nr. 4 de lr Sutnivcy
mdsurd preclominri rJi|eclia nord 9i nord-vest
Jrul tces;tui grup r:s;te instabilr1, totodrta, intr-o c'arecare
Kut (]vlelronona 1958' 40;'
I'iind atcstat[?n cornplexu nr.2 deiaRakclv
(lr4e-*oicrx' 1gr58,4.0),
'ltinia
Merefi 1998 75)' posibil mormlntul semon'iintirl I din l.urnglul nr. l.de la Sr-rtnivcy (fyriaa, I-yua,l,
1968, 146, pnc' i) 9i tumulul nr' I de la Dolin'1any
cunc,ar din turrrulul nr. I de Ir Kruglik lcltnprioi,a
qi
lare.predominA' erau practicate' deasemenea'
(Cr,iltJriloaa 1968, 23). Dre riintl cu inhumaliile sinl3ulare'
ofientate diSei-.ratin,:1" scheletele in pozitie chircitii erau
inrnormiinriiirile in pereche: tu.rnulul nr I de la
nr' 4 de la
(MejlroKoera 1958' 40)' morrniintul I din lr-rmulul
amet.ral. unul spre sucl-est, alttrl - norcl-ve'st
pe pafiea dreaptd cu
fe:mei enru depuse in pozitie chircitd
Sutni'c),, jn ,:iir.e .,^heletele r,ur-ri bf,rbat gi a unei
o-:::.1'
1998, 75), eventual tumulr-rl nr' 3 9i nr' 5 de'1
crl.niiie spre norcl-lest (fyqa;r, I-yua,r, lvler-eri
antenol
asociate molmlnte rJe ilrcinera{ie depuse
kovcy, uncle cacli:-r.vreklr dr: l,:mei Si cclpii au t'cst
(CvtirpHr:net lt)'79, 52.57 ).
Inhurrrafit]le s;uccesrve

prin morminte cu scheletein aceiaqi constructieii funeritrd, sunt ilustfate 9i


poziraRakov Kut, in care scheictr-rl unur a. fost a$ezatin
le intinse,,inmor.nrlrnt'r.ea dir cista nr.. 2 cre
clepuse
clasele a[tc,r dou[ morminte,
dreaptd cu craniul orrentat spre ttoi.cl-vest,
!re chrrc.tZi' pe pai.tea
1936' 80' fig' l9;
adunat,: la picioarele ultimulut (liulimirski
ante,rio.. lrir.ir correr.iune allatrmicd, s,u1t
1990' l5i3' puc 53'Z)'
Me-rK-rx,.nrt l95ti. 40; f-pvule :rrut{lrKat
de la'frinca qi ce')e cafacteflstlce grllsiniitirtLctini se oLrser'd intre rnhtrmaliile
VIr.rLIt mai
in necropolele pliane' in cadrul culturir Vekerclrn Vr:st. cire pfactlcittt btritu;rlismtrl
pr-r.lor.,:ultr.u.[rle
'utine
adiinctmea
35 Si 82Vo, cle oticei ereLu depuse i' gropi'
zurg. inlrurnir{iilc, poncl,J'ea:;Lrora vartztzdintr-e
de rAnd
stinga'
pe
rar
mai
p,rlponderent in pozilie chirclta pe partea drea''pti'
CdLrol-Lr rru ciep'igr:r5te I nl,
,int.alnesc qr ntc,rrrninte cr.r scheletele intinsc ,a ,poi". orienta'lrea rscheletelor nu este stabila'
(1ill.e
se
cu
spre nord satt sru<l (ileperu 1986' 116-178
preclornr'ind. dtLrcr:fiile vest 9i est cu,Jevieri
totociati:i.

Vle.noli,rea I 989, 89)'


in poztlte
este ctepunerea rJlefunc{ilor in gropi '
Penrru grupul rsciric din'rransilvania cafacteristic
se aflau in poa motminlelor' Cele in cal': sche'letele
marealnaj.riiato
cuptin:le
ca'e
spa.ie,
irrtinszi l)c
clireclia
caz*ri iz.lrrte. in orie'tarea schr:letelorpredomina
zitre chrircirti r.edrrr,:iindu-sc t,r numai .at*r,o
cu altd orientare (VaL2'Va,restul de l-l!/c constitt-tind m.rrnintele
nor.cl-r,,r;:st - 50'1i,, vsst - 2:i.l,,eslsilrev I980, 42--49)'
groclepugi in pc'zilie intinsa pe spate' in
tuntular.i cl,s 1a Baltl vercle, clel'unc! i erau
in
sol acoperite
'eci..pola
pat strtrlire de pietr:e de riiu fie clirr::ct pe
pi simpl:, l:r su,X''af'a1rL ot''zcrntului antic pe un
este foarte variatd' atlt
r,n-,1irur. cu pierro. orieniarea schrr:letelor
de o pr'tf .r.rrr' d.e piatr[ sau in glopi.
1956,31)0-392)'
ciit gi in crirei;1ii intermeclia'e (JEle'ciu, c.m$a
cdrr.e rr:rate cere parru r)un,c1, cardinrle,
adancite cu 0'03' 0'3
pozi{ie intinsd llo spate' de reg^ulil' 1.n qrWi
L,a (io1i.ol)iL. defunclii erau clepugi irl
scheletelorpredomlp(3ste care se'riclrcii nlovila' in orientarea
nr in s,llLll Vechr lli n.,,ti Lrairlri solul viil
tumulul nr' XXX'
in
mai ]:ar splo.nord (lbictem
rrir clireciia estlca, cu de','ir:'i spt'e sucl Ei
"l'09-452)'
deasupla cdrr"rta sa ridicat
est'- nor<j-:st'
depus direr:t pe sclLul ve'chi cu clanitrl spre
clefunc,r:ul

tos;t

(1bi<l:m.'129).

rnovili.t
. ,:-_ -^-.. r^.ir.,r,oron:j rlirr Dreapta
s-r'T)rernta Niprului
Ninrului este svup*:ntru c'rnplexele flnr:rare scitrce tirnpurii din zona de silvostepr:Lclirr
cu craniul spre

orientate' r:u preciidere'


inhuma]rrlor in pozr{ie'nlrnsd po spate'
vest 9i mai
irr pcizilie chircitir orientate cu craniul spre
,,,e st. de rincl cu 0are se intirlnesc 9i inhr.rmalii
sepulcrale de tipuri diverse' in cazuri sporadice
pi[in, rsp,r.e esit. predorninii <jepunere,a lorin construc[ii
Inantaua tumuluiu' (LI-rrwrHcras' 1975' 79-88;
:;unt irtesl,r,e i;l rnhumar.iile depuse rlirect sub
itr tumr-rli
1989, 34-35). Inhuma{iiL: in pozi(re chircita'
u
.KosnaseHro l!)[j[, 6g-?r], I{oenaHeHKo Ap.
laositnjazka'
nr'2,'7'41lde
irLrntn:Lor'lrntepr.incipa*:-tumulul nr. ll30ielaGugajGoro<l'tumulii
Gamarnja' tumurr-rl nr' 7 de
la
gig),
t
ae
t'mulur nr,
rg75,
tumulur nr. ri dr: rn RyZirn,rvka (r,r''rHscxaq
qi s,:r'unclire - tumulul nr.2 r.e' la Konstantinovka
la Bereri;tnlagr (Konnarreurc. lggt,;;t, cat
apar2 r;au 3 defuncfi, schelerrele in pozi!ie chircitd
([,I:*rurcx.ar' 197;, ;;;-in ,norn.inr.t...r..oniin

cilic

pre,c01.f,,1rLlr1'cl

tjnde,l'uurc:tilor:areinso{elumol'mantulprincipal,fl6:pusinpozitieintinszr-turnululnr'40delaGul-

_* Lra;|s,Afijebcg!. $ltia

60

naud

jai Gorod, tumulul nr'.4[,l c]e Ia Zurovka, tumulul nr.211 din bazinul iriului Tenetinka (l4.ltrlucrax
It)75,88) gi rnormiiritul rr'. I l;i 2 din RepjahovatajaMogila (KonnaueHr(o H Ap. 1989,35). In perioadil scitici nrillocie, lr dclua jurn[tale a secolului VI-V i.e.n., depunerea defunctilor?n pozilie chircita
mai praclica ilbidcrrr. 39r).
r]biceii.rl amr:ni,r-idrii rrr<lrrnintelor-cenotaf (nrorrninte simbolice'in me,moria unet persoane decedate
in alta parte ), aterslat in ne cropola c1e la Trinca, in pi:rioada hallstattian[ tiirzielscitic[ timpurie era practic;at de cdtre cornuLrritir!il: mai multor grupun culturale. In cadrul necropolelor grupului podolian de
rest din zona Nistlulur d: Nlijloc:, tumulii cenortaf contineau construclii lunerate, resturi de rugr"ui gr
inventetr sinrilar turnulil.:rr in c,rre erau efectuLate inmormAntdri, hpsind,complet resturile umane incinerirte liau inhLrrnate rilVlelrr:r"'oea l9ii8,4l; Kp1'lreJrbHHIIKa.s 1990, 15:t). In aceastd categorie se ?ncadreaza tumLrlul nr'. [I c]le la Beremjrlny rlSulimirski 1!)36, 63), tumulul nr. lI de la Ladydin (Ibidem. 84), tr-rmulul nr. I{ cle la. Servatirrcy (tbidem,95), turnulul nr. I de la Kupin (Ibidem.99), turnuh-rl nr. II de la
Zavadincy tlbidem, 99), tumu)ul de ia Lenkovc,y (lV{e.rtoxona l')53, 60), tumulul nr. IV de la Ivanovcy
([tr]'','o"n 198!), 107). 'Iurrruli -.cenotaf sunt alestali qi in cadr"ul necropolei de la Caqvana-Codru, atrilruitd ace]uLra;;i grupr r:ultu tl <In depresiuneaRdc[iu1i (Ignat 2000,3.-?;2). In tumulul nr.6, care con{inea
inventar c:u'a,cteristic: gi 1-''e:ntluL alli tumuli, r:sturi osteologice ltLl au. fost atestate. Tumulul nr. 5. ntai
rnult ca atril nu con{inea rrici inventar funerrn gi nici material (lsteologic. AutorLrl sdpdturilor, reegind
din faptul cii situal.ii sirni are celei din tumulul nr. ii au fost identific:ate in 40Vo dil numdrul tumulrlor
inves,ttgali ,ronsiderd cir lr rsa vestigiilor ?n aceqti turnuli este cauzatd" de palticulantafile solului si strltcl.ura rnantulcLtr ctrc: rtu lr- asigurl! Conservarea materialului osteologic.
.\menlr.laLri:a tu.nrutrrjr,r'- c:enotaf reprezinta o tfAsAturA frecventld qr in cadrul ritualului funerar a
cLrlturii Krrrltlrnoviic'e, din legiunea Transcaqraticd a Ucratnei (l(pyruerir,nllubKa 1974. 266). Tumuli,
sLrb rnantalrll,o cirrlrl iLu lost depistate ruguri, resturi de la ospr[lul funet'ar gi piese de inventar', dar
care nLl confin restun cle rtase urT)ane inctnerate au fost descoJreri!i in necropolele de la KuStanovice
(trrnrulul nr'. IV'), Dunkovice (tumulul nr. I), Kolodnoe (tumulii nr. \/, XIII), Bill<e (tumulii nr. 1.2,1)
(Cuupnoira, l5epu:rrcoen,t It)(i:5,91) gi posib:Ll. Cernyj Potok (Cnrupnona 1979a,51).
.inmornrintarilr: simb,t iice, calr3 ccrnltneau nurnai inventar, de obicei, vase, erau practicatee qi de catre
comunitdlitrr:: culturii \*/ekcr z:ug cfin norcl-estul tlngarier - necropola Szentes-\v'ekerzug (l'lepeu 1986, 171).
-\4onunre:nteler funetlle cu caracter de cr:notal', fdrd nicr un inventar, f?ri oase sau cArbuni, in necfopefl de la Ferigile din regiunea Subcarpalilor meridionali sunt r3P1'elzentate atat de tumuli (nt.22,
li.2-5, I ll, .144a, l,I4b, 146,14?'), precum si de mormrnte secundare constituite din mici gram[.joare
cle bglgvanj cu diametrul rje c;rca I rn, depuse pe solLrl antic llnga manlaua morm0ntului principal ?n
partea cle vr,:s;t (monr0nt rl V din turnulul nr.2: mormAntul VI din tumr"ilul nr.26; mormlntul II din
tLrntuLlul nr 67), in parteiL rJe sud-'vest, vest (m,c,rmAntul II din tumulul nr.64), de est (mormlntul II
clin tunrutLrl nr. ll6,), sau norcl-est (mormlntul ll. din tumulul nr.2i''.1(Vulpe 1967,23,35-36, vez)catalogul gi prlanuiler tumul ior). M<lvile fdra urme arheologice, r'idicate in cinstea unor luptitori c[zu]i
cleparte sr: 'intdlnesr.: qi 'in recropolole hallstattiene tiilzii de la Balta'y'erde ;i de la Gogoqu din Cdmpia
nu

s,e

Durriirii ([]crr:iu, C,:n1to 956. 408, 445).


'fumult care nu con!ln ntorminte sunt cunoscul;i $i in cadrul culturii scrtice arhaice - secolele VII, \,II-\'I i.e.n. di1 zona (e silvostepa din Dleapta l,{iprului.In mantaua tumulului nr.334 de la Guljal
Gorgcl au frrst de,scoperit: nurn:ri r-loud cupe onnarnentate cu motive geclmetrice incizate (l'l:rluucxas
197,5, 18.'la(51. I-ll/18.-l!); sr-rbmitntauaturnulr:h-u nr.343 delaKovalilha(Ta5lyk)-cincigropi (ttna rcltunde, diametrlu[ 2,2:i nr, adrincimea de: 0,t5 m. gi patru ovale,:u lungimea de l-2 m)' umplutura
cd.rola consta clin r:rirbuni, cenuqd, bucali de parndnt ars, ft'agmente r1e vilse, oase de animale, pietre' o
piesrir cle sile;r. pat,r'uL fusirolo, cinr:i strdpungatr:are, de os qi o cupd. neagrd lustruitd' ornamentatd cu
inotive gegmetrice inciza.te (Ibir1em, 40, l a6n. XXIV/4-10); sub mantaua tumululut nr. 2 de la
Z-,rutn.u.. o strachlnd cLl gura in 1os gr o piesiicle fier (KonnaueuKo Ii 4p.1989, 140). Aceqti tumuli in
6pinia unor c)erceti1tcri u,;rain,eni. nu sunt rnonumente funerare. ci t'epre,zintd locuil de cult, varietSli
cle iLltare (IbirJem, 1:i(i).

Arlplasarea tumulilor cercerlali in necropola Trinca "Drumul Feteqtilor" in funclie de parttc Lrlarit[1ile cons;tructirle a nlan].alelor; anrenaLjarea construcf iil,rr sepuicrale; practicarea biritualisnrului; tipurilor cle nLorntinte evidenliate, atestd prezenla ?n r:adru.1 ei a doud grupari separate,

I"olr,rrrrrl

/. .\r.

61
,l

Petru pl'irna este caractel'istic lmenaadarrcite, placttcarea


.rcLr co'str'c!iilor.sepLrlc,rale de suprafalii, ulterior rrse $i a construc!iilor
incornplete la supfafala
ri..tualir,;ntulg, divcrsiiatea t pulilor cler morntinte - irhumalri, incineralii
lelnn, mormrntelerri.zontului afl1.1c., tncineraLfii tomple,te in consl.ructi:r 1e suprafaia de piatrir 9i
qi
a inventarnlui se
;eno,taf. p,errtru a,:lolr.t - tu:nuli in care loc,u1 depurLerii resturilor c'inerare
la rAndul sau
ilcollerelr initiaLt c:r.r g movilitai de pamiLnt, suprlpusir <le un sttat de pir:tre. acoperite
locului inin
afara
e].ectuate
cLr Lllt alt strlf do piinriint 1,r'"r.n1, in exclusi,ritate a incinera{iilor
amenajarea conmcrmintdr"ii, r.es;turile ciner.lrre fiinct clepuse pe suprafaln olizontului antjc, fdra
structiilr:r funerat'er ( fig.. 4).

()Lr LrnLlmite

tr-iis6tr:ri Specil'i,r:r

- de norcl-vest $i cle suJ-est.

Eleuerure coMPL-EMENI'ARE

DE

RlruAL

se rnclr"rd
relerin[d la necroprc,lu tumularii Trinca "Drunrul Feteqtilor" itt ilceastd c;Ltegorle
funebre, prelum : depunerea in morpr-ac:trcilr: cle cull" cilre s,e indr:plineau pe parcrJl'sul cert:monlei
gi
de c;rr:tli; a olrandei de came, pe
minte a gr.anulelsr cle minerrl de culoare roEie r1schisd (oclu) de
dtspunere a inventalului; depunerea ofrandelor
ca1.e o constal.iim;rnn oasr:le de anirnale; rnodul de
(fig" 1,5).
ulter.ior i'nrnorrniLntirrir in a1'ara mantalei cie piat|ii
granulelor de c'cru a fost atestata
Colr:rranti nlLttu|ali. in.ciclrul necropolei de la Tdnc:a depunerea
6cupatc rje resturilie cinerare depuse
nunrai irn trjmulLl.ll nr. VL ].n tunrulri nr. VI. VII, IX, sr-pt'afe]ele
plnd la trans;fc'rmare in var), fapt ce evr3nclit.ect pt] s;olul anl.ic el-all priglrnentate cu alb (piet.ricele llrse
cu var sau cretd'
tr-rll inclicii practir:,area obicei'Llui pres;irdrii locului inrn'rt-mdntdrir
de Nor'c --bazinul Nrslruin rirrrulLrl fur,erur a comunitifilor din zonele lirnitrol'e Platoului Moldol'ei
C.r-r

zona Carpa{ilor merid,onal qi de curburd


lLri de N,lijloc $r isLtperior. fej{tunea'ft'anscarpaticd a Ucl'ainei,
Depunerea ritr-rald a coloran{ilor natul'ali
din perir:rl,tla halllrstlttiana tiir;te acest obicel nu este cunoscut.
perioada l-rallstattianii tirzie - motmintttl
(o,:r*) e stc atslat,r s;poradic dc,al in unelc cornple:r.e trar:rce clin
in care dr:: rlnd cu alte piese de podoaba
nr. i cli' rlecroporn prlani de lrr Giurgii-rlegti c1e la lgurile F1'utului,
pe una din f.1., (Levi{ki, FIaher-r lt'99' 122-123)'
se gdsear gi o lespede de gler;ie uqol. olb,iu,,d

larg de cdtre cornunitl1rler scitir:e timpurli din z'cna


(l'l,rsr'rrtcxast 1915. 154-15ii; Kosnaseuro l98I' 12;
cle, silv.srep-r ,crn bazinul l.,liprLrlui de MiJloc
care practictru 9i lllesiiraKorrra'crxo 14 jrll, 19g9, ji6). comunitiilrle grupuiui :'crtic drn Transilvrlnia,
1989' 87)' prercum ril a celui scitoid din
rer ntorrrinte,lor cu cret[ (\,i:.slliev f 980' 8t-9']; Me'nloxona
qi in tum,lul
13!)). Deseorl, granulele de ocru' ca
C;lmpilr 'Lisei (I,a'clucz: 1955. l3; N4elroroea 1989,
rjt: gresie' sau cu ()lespede dreptunghlularl ugol'
nr. \,1 de lu'frirLc;,r, Se gdi;e;lr ?n asoctet'e Cu o tava
albjatd pe una din fele (fig. "5)'
carne, att fost a1'esitate ?n loate categorlile de
Ofr,rnda de,i;arner. Oa.llt:le de animal de la ofranda de
de carne eltr clepusa intr-o strachina; de
mofrninte: ie inr:iner^fie - tumulul nr. \/I, in care ofranda
carne era clepusd cl:irect pe pi'imlnt; qi, morrnininhumii,li,: - 1.1.1111r-rlri u.. IIli ) nr. I\/, uncle ofranda de
pe fgldul grclprLi' Determindrile paleozgologrte-cenctal'-. trinr,JlLtl nr. I, <ll':rancla de carne gdsindu-st:
tlin tumr-rlr-rl nr. III:iunt de ovicaprine; piciorul ctt
cr: dem0nstr.errzirc:i rei;turile osteologice anirnaliere
o palte din oasele de lrnimane din tunlulul nr' I\/
tgt cu r.:,rpitd,clirr tumulul n; VI apal'tine unui rniel;
de Coarne fiinil de ovtcaprine; cele din tumusgrit de: rniiglirr-r;; don'tersti,::, lltele, inclr-rsiv fragmentel:
Iul nr. ll cle bovilte;;i oi'ic:'rp'tine'
un obicei l:unerar larg practicitt in epoca
Depuner.ea rtl:ranclei ,j., .r,*. in mormintr: reprezintd
halk;tattianirtirzie- srlitica trmprurie' in zona NIT:'brcrnzulr-ri --fier.'lui tirnpr-rrir-r. inclusiv perioada
poclotian.de.vest (Me:rrcxoea 1958'
lui de il/r1loc el e:ste ater;ttrt in mai tutt. necropolc a grupului
II de ia t-aciyein ('sulirnirs]li 1936' 88)' turrrulul
Or,. g15e,*: cle *nrmale sut]. prezente in tumuluinr.
la Bratysev (lbicler:n, 59)' turnulul nr' 2 cle la Donr. I d.:1a Duptisk (Ibide:n1,70), turnr-:lul nr. I\y' de
nr' I
la F'erebykovcy (Crnuapnona l9l9' 44)' tumulul
linjany, ((-'r,plprrontr 1911,.33), tumulul nr' 2 de
indicd r:a la
c,r1.; Idr:rn 1990, 140)' Resturile osteologice
cle la l,cevcy (Jr.pymenbr{HL.bKa 1985,l22u
ovicaprine rli de iepure' impreunS cu un
Dolinjrr,y a forsl- depusd r:ar-ne cle cal, la Perebykovc/ - de
cu;ita! Ce tie,r, ,pre funclul uttr-Li vas spart, la Lrrcvcy - de porc'

in

uce,lagr tirn,p. aLcest ol, 1cei era p''acticat pre

Reuisto Arheolosicci. Sene norra

(tZ

'

r/-''

"1

\r)

i'

?-,-.--,

j-l',/'

-v"

(J

I
I

,l

\\

{(
\

\T

/-^t

L.

Fig. S. prlralele pentrr,r eleffentele complemetorii ale ritului funerar atestate

lra

Trinr:a

in necropolele grupurilor culturale

piatr6: c depunerea
sincron{?. Sermne corven1ionale: a c,rloranti naturali; b - depunerea inventarului sub mantaua de
piatrd,
de ofrandd ulterior
depuneri
pe
de
r:arne;
mantaua
rug
e
inventaruiui in afara rnaniale cle piatrir; d - ofrandii de

innr,rrmintArii.

in grrupul scitrc clin llransilrania, ofranda de carne a fost atestirtdinT3o/r, ditt numdrul de mormin11,
te cunoscute. Dese ori e ra cle pus;rl ?n strdchini (mormintele nr. l,.l din necropola de ta Blaj;nr' 3,
Mar
la
Teiuq).
qi
de
l/1970
1l[)69
17, cle lr L-iumbru(l, n1...t, 8, ll. de la Ozdl nr. 2 cle la Simeria; m.
la Ozd,
il-ecvenr. ofrandii se <lerlruneiL ciirect pe parniint, liLngd vase. in mormintele nr. 6, 8, ll, 14 de
cle cate
insolita
era
came
de
nr, l, 2l'1969 gi LiJg7ti) cle lii Teiug, nr. 5, 9 cle, la Tirgul MuIe;; ofranda
un cufitag cur-b ctrr,: fierr F{esturile osteologice clepistate in molmirtte atest[ ci cel mat frecvent se depu'ea carn.: ,Je ,ovin?i - in nrroririntele de ferrrei gi, de bovicleu -- in cele de bdrbati. Oase de la alte
ipecii cle, animalc: -- ci.l . pot'c, :iine (lup ?), iepure, pasdre sunl: semnalate intr-un numdr redus de
mr)rminte ('Vasil ir::',' 19E0, -5Cf-53 ).
din
Oa:iele cle animalc upar. de asemenea qi ?n complexele f uner"are a cultLrrii Szentes-Vekerzug
Linsaria
*ir, cle Nolcl-Fist (i;cperu 19t36, 180).
gi
,reer.opc,lclc dc ,rcinerat,c a grupr-lui Ferigile - Birseqti drn zona Carpa{ilor meridionali
practicdili oblde, cur-bulri gr;,r{ie anirlizei oaselor calcinate. rJeasemenea rl fost posibil sesizarea
in 10
analizate.
morminte
70
de
<]e
num[rul
ceiLrlui clepr-rirerir cfr.ardei cle carne. La Irerigile, din
1'
tumulul
nt.26'.
tumulul
iru, fost i6entificatrl oas3 de pasiire (mormintele nr. 1, tumulul rtr. l9; 1,
106; l, tumulul nr' 120),
nr.
l,
turmulul
79;
tumulul
l,
nt.42; l, tumulul nr.il\',2, tumulul nr.'77;
mai mare (mornlintele
talie
'in,Joud rlintre crirre se rnai ;{dseau oase de oruicllprin" qi de anirnal de
\ilolski 1915,31-43',t' Fragmente de oase de la o12 gi .3 . r:umulul nr. 2(rt (Nlcolaescu-Plopqor,
plana din partea de nord a
fr;,rnda anirnalierii au first alestate gi in morrn.dntul nr. ll clin necropola
?n 9 din cele 21 de
s. l:erigi r-, (lbident.43). Resturile osteologice d.e la ofranga de carne depistate
mare preferinfi a
mai
o
ni.rminl.e rlnali;zate <Jir ne,:ropola Tigveni "Babe", deasemenea indicd
(l(-)ln*nitiiti16r,Jrn aceastir zona pentru cirrne;I de pasdre (mormintele 4 9i 12, tumulul nr.3), care

bouideu (mormlntul
(n-rormintul 6, tumulul
iipilrs in asociefe cru cea de ovicaprine
lt
]!
nr' 3)' in doLrd ntorminte au 1'ost atesI tr-rmulull nr. 3.t Ei caprior clr Inunte (mo'mintuli 9, tuntulul
nr'. 10), iar tttmulul nr' l5 - de cal (Nicoti.te n*rniri .trse cle: tr.vi'e (1. rtLrmulul nr. 5; I, tumulul
\/ulpe 1982,1)2)' in mot'ntintele I ii 3 din tumulul
liLesr-.Lr-plOp,i;or. $/olski t975.,1,1-48t Popescu,
.,1)ietroasa" sunt atestate olse de pasiit'e yi |espectir'. cle cal (Popescu'
nr.. li dln necroprolrL Iigvenl
yul'c lgti:l. 100-it)t'i ia. iirr tumululi nr. I din necropola de la Cepuri "Toplilii'' - oase calcinate
un caz de.sebit pre;rinta mormintul l0 din
cle animal clr: tlLlier nrare (lbide m,79). Irr acest context,
'l'- rr .l ci.rn necr.p'ia T'igver i "Baber" clre conltnea cou[ vilse cu oasi3 ci]lcinale in exclusivitate
ovicaplinele' porcul' boul qi cade a.njrnale : pilmul - 42 frag;mente, piltttt'e care se icentificd aparlinirnd polcului (Nicolaespr.at ;rl dcrile,a -.peste 420 flr,.girnente,ie porc. bou. cal, majorltatea
T' nr' XIX continea oase de cal sau
cu-p1o1rgor, Wolsl.i 1915,41i). in neclt4rola r1e la BlseEti,
(lclerrr t959' 358-360)'
bo' (N,lor.intz. t9:i9'. 233), turnulul nr'. i, ,,or. de arrl nale necleterminat.enecropola de la Gogo;Lt
gase cle unrrn,le au I'ost idr:ri:i{'icate gi in tumulul nr}.VIl qi nr. l-Iil <J,in
c,in CArnpi:t Dr.tnriLrii (Berciu. Conlga 1956, 417' '150)'
pentru complexele tumulare scrtice
Ofl.anc,a de canre reprezinti un element ritual carecteristic
oste'clogice aratri ci in morminte
timpLrrii din zorla ,1e, silVostepii clin Dreapta Nipi'ului. Dt:termindt'ile
ovicaprine, po,'c. in tr'rmulr'rinr' 447 de la Zurovka Yt
e:raLr clepuse fi-a,qn:rante de le,quri de cal, bovine,
de fier (I(onnaHeuxo n ap' 1989'
rrr....l0l,dc la'l.urrr:r ot'randa ce carne era insolitd de ciitc un cu{ita$
jr-rmdtate a sect-rlului al \/I-lea - secolirl V i"e'n''
:i-5) ln tu:ruluI nr. r1i de la ]Merdvin, datiit in a cioua
(Ibidem' 40)'
de cail erau r1t-:1lusr: intr-cr strachinir lucratd cu miina

Lulecrl'l

0asr:le

colr

rpo

Ll
rueruTA gt DTSPUNEREA lN'/ENTARULUI iN TUnilU

cleoseb'e$te de ce]i atestat in rnhulnvenlaruI nrorutintelc,r,:ie incirreralte. in gener,l, pu!in se


vase intregibin,!i .'frti tr-irnlui, fiira exceplie, confi:reau agl,cmeraliid. ttogttt"nte de ceramicii'
sttnt
de
i.t.egi f;xceplie prezintiitumulr-rl nr' 3b, unde fragmentele ceramicd
e. Ei, mri rar
'ilr;e
tip.iri celte de VaSe' l\urndrul de vase' inclustv
:r-i tutul rir.tiplce $l nu permit ltribuileri lor la unele
tehnologic, este: de 2 in tr:rnulttl nr' III;3 in
:e le ide'tif ica1e <Jupri pirrlile sttperioare, siill aspectui
qi vr; (r in tumulul nr'. IV gi vII; 15 in tumu[unrulul nr.. I: .{ 1n ti.rniurLir nr-. V: 5 in :urnulLrl nr. II
in cari: a' f'cst depistat un fragment
lul nr. \lll ;i l6'in tumulul lr. IX. (lu exceplia tumutul nr' v,
trrmulul nr' VIII' Ia periferia mantalei de placle Lr,rzd dt: t'as; cjie, 'lLtlonre centtqie lttcrat 1a i'rat5' 9i
ronrani tlrzie, ceratri ir cdruiu a r,o:;1 g[sita o a1;romer.afre, de fragmentc ce amt'orii clin perioada
cu rnAna' fepl'ezentiind ambele catenti,:rt din iecrc,pc,lu'f,',,na* "DrumulL F'etegtilor'" este lucratd
irr tr-rrnuli sunt reprezentate prin: cu{ite
got.ri : fina gi clc itz comun Piesele cle: r-rz comun ilteltate
puternic (lol'oclat'3 -- tumulii nr' III' VI' \/II
cle irer -- tumulul rrL. I gi \/; ptese clc fier fragmentat'e'
tloar sporltdic; 5 varfuri de sageata de
gi iusairilr: de lur rrs - tumulul nr"'VI gi VIi.,\rmele apar r/III'
in tumulul nr' l sunt atestate pietumulLrl nr'
os i' f- nr. I qi un vfu'l'r cle siigeata tle bronz in
pr"prlonrap-ctttgot'". FrecVente itl inventarul funerar sunt
sele cie 1rl[;1 --"lbe[igor-incht:i".torra" ;i
('?), atestate trLi exceptia ll' nr' IIIb' in toli tllmlresi:ie de p'clo,bii, ircleosebi, margeleie cle sricld
I''viII' IX; 4 - tumulr"rl 'r' Il:
lii : citc I exerrpltr'.- tum,lul nr, IV, V. V]II; clte ll - tumulul nt'

l5..turrrrrlr-rlnrI].Ilclelirtars-tunrululnr'IIgidetlronz-tumululrrr'.y'lll.lntreiturnuli,nr.I,
unul din c;irpete ?n fofmd de mdciulie
Iil, vIi sau clescoperit cAte un cercel de trron;t in spirala cu
cui r:u gzirrLf,lia conicd sau concavf, sunt

fornri de
\'II ( un exemplar ), o buc;pra/pandantiv de os
nr.
r;i
errcstate in turnulul nr. III ('rlou6.*.,r,plare )
de gresie;i graLnule de ocru' exclusiv in tupr0.,,ite ciln turnulLrl nr. \'I: piesele drltoaleta - tava
mulr-rl nr. \i I.
in a{ara locului inmorpiesele de inl,entar-in turnulii cer con!ineau incinefa!ii complete efecl.uate
miLrrtart i el'au lrnl'P lasate:
cin,:tare aduse cle la rug;(t'umulul nr' v - IX);
a) in centrul turnululu:i, irnpreunf cu restttrile
cinerare, de obicei in partea de sudb) i.n nern,ijl.cita apropit:re a sr-rprafelei ocLlpate dt: restutile
'VIII, sau de vest turnulul nr' VI' acoperite cle mantaua de piatra;
-- tumuiu] nr. VII,

conrci

su.c[-est

r,;ltr,

pirildriolllra rotunca: acele de bronz'in

--

64

ReuitlsAAYebsrA;ae lettll

al mantalei de pdmint - tumulul


c) in al.ara lxrilmert'lrlui rnantalei de piatr:i, in sectorul de sud-est
nr. 'VI qi \rlll (ligr. 1,5).
afmele' piese de podoai''partea.r,rirr,ota a tumulul.ri de regulri su'nt gdsite piesele de uz crlmun,
amplasate cu precf,clere in part,i;,LAe toaleta varsele $r aglomeraliile d-e ftag"ienie de ieramica f.iind
vase sunt situate pe
tumurlul nr. IX, aglomelatiile de fragmen'[e de la diferite
teir de sud. [ntr--ur,
"ot"
apropiere a suprafelei in care se
perimeh-ul siupraf,llei 0(uprtg d,: resturilJde la rrug. in nemiilocita
uneler aglrlmeratii d^e fragmente de Cerasaseaui restu'le,r1rrefarlr era,r.l.,pt,se atlt rrase inflegi, clt 9i
perimetrulut
il.;.'i,.'';,r;;.';;,il'.,'. t,t inpr.eunI cu doui strd.chini a fost depusii qi o fusaiolS. in afara finS' preii: de uz comun 9r
rnantillei cle piatrri'i. sau tlescopelit flagmente cL: vase din ambele c:ategof
din punct de vedere a
c:eramicd,
la
Refelitor
vI.
cur: qri o priesa dt.: fier prrl:efilc corodatd, - tumttlui nr.
de obicei se depuneau vase
tipurilor morfoloSlice,'irr incrnta suprafe{ei ocupate de resturile cinerare,
tip borcan, vase cll corpul bitronconic'
intlegi sau lf ilgmr,:nte cL: StfAchini, cupe, ciini, patrare, vase de
nu se poate afirma ci se respecta obiceiul
Ciit prr'er;te repel"t,Jriul lorntelor de vase atestiite in tumttli,
Comun pentill tumulii dtn necropola de la Trinca
<lepunerri obligal.Ot'ri a r.llof t,ipul"i croncrete cle vase.
comun' in tr'rmulul nr' V sunt atestate fl'agestc prezen!a va:;,;lot clil arrbele categoril : flld rli de uz
tumulul nr"v'Il - cupi' pahar: in turnulul nr' Vltrl,3nte de strachirr.l, cupe,, cand' l'as lucrat Ia rc'atd;in
din tumulul nr' IX unde aiI -- strachina, vas de, i,' borca'n. Semnrfi.ati' in acest sens este situafia
cinerare'
clisptrse pe perimetrul suprafelei ocupate de restudle
lglomeraliile de fragmen,te ceramice
propol-fit;
de
vas bitronconic
prezintii:i' trcr,:oir,ri traqtnerrte de la urr stngur vas - strachini', cupii,
doua vase bitroncobitronconicl
vtts
*
'hr rlte: lt'ei, de lu rjou5.
vas de' tip borcan; cupf,'
'',.ls.. strachind'
t'as de tip borca:n' cani; cLrp6' vas de tip borciln' vas
nice; in ,Couii cazuri, rji la ttei ','lse - strar:frin6,
gase r,ase clin ambe]ie categorii' irtestate qi irr unele
necleternlinat. 1.-]ltima, (]()ntillancl fragnrenl'e de 1a'
in incinta surprafe{ei de rispandire a resturilor de la
ag1)orrrar.atirls 6ls:,jrl enurriirate. Inventarul <lepistat
LII<ie ceramir:h din tumulul nr' VII' nu atesta
rlrg. cLl cxceplit *'usaio r:r q;i aglomera{iei de ,i'agmente
erau
a suprafelei rle-rispdndire a resturilor de la rug'
nle de lu.clere ,.,,,,rnJrru in rrelntiltocita apropi,:r!
dtn
conpuse
nt" VI, \'III' precum 9i aglomeralii
dcpuse'/ase int.:tl{i, c1t re91116, rtra.hini - iumulul
nr' VII' VIIL in tumulul nr' VI' de rAnd cu dofragment,: de stri,ichinr 1i vase de tip borcan -- turnulul
se identtperinretrului mantaleii de piatr[ a tumulul nr' vI
uri strachi*i rse 11i,i:;ea ;;i o fusaiold. In afara
gi de la o piesii de fler puternic corodatd' iar a tumulul
frca fragrnente dr: stracl'rni. vits de tip borcln
nr VtIi- pirrfil:: unlti chiup 9i it unui vas r1e tip borcan'
de in'enl'ar se giseau in nemijlocita aproptere
in incineratiir incorrpleta cltn tumulul rrr. i, piesele
uz couase lucrate cu mAna ( cand' chiup' vas de
gi printre Oariele, slheletului, Drn componr3nti] lui cercel
cle os, piese cle tolbd' mdrgeie de sticla'
nIJn crJ truza evilz;atli f ctrtit cle: fier, vlrfuri de siigeatd
doar unele vilfuri de sdge{i'
cle bronz, ul.lne (1e, ardere securrclard poartri
de
,tunruliIr.rr in cat"e a fost practil]at ritul inhumar.ii _ nr. II, III, IV, de rand cu vasele
lni',enl'arul
mdrgele de sticld
cte lrer (tumulut nr. III); de podoabd rrrt ars, inc:rude - piesi de'zcomun - s'te
lut ars (tumulul nr' II)' cercei de bronz in spi(tumulul nr. ll - zi; nr. ill - 15; nr. IV - l), rndrgele de
(tiimulul nr' III); ace cle bronz in formi de cui c* gimarald cu unul dirr ,rp.r. in f'.rmd de pallri,rarii
pieselor <le in\lentat., cu exceplia vaselor, este
l:iit conic6 Sau 1;|)ncavli (tulnulr-rl rrr. III). Arrrplasarea
de lut ars in tumulul nr' II
itpr.piere a oaseloi scheletelor ravaqite' Vasele
printre,. s;au in
- sud-vest
'r:nri.i1.:ita
spre sud - sucl'-est Ei respectiv ' spre sud
gi III su.'t c|:puse in se ctoa'ele iumatalilor dr: sud,
n'' tv - spre nord-'vest de.locul depunerii scheletucli: s'alrtrl de r-iis;piin<1i r: a.aselor, iarin tumulul
vas;r: din ambere catego'ii tehnoiogice:
Iui. simiiar t*lr,uLril.r \le conlinellu incineriri, erau depuse
mlrfologic'3 SUilt evrdenliate :in tumulul nr' II
fina qi de uz comun. I)in punc:t O. u.a.r,- a tipuLrilor
nr' III vase de tip lDofcan' vas.b.itronconic in Tnedetr:rminat'
fina
categ.tja
clin
r,as
cup6,
s;trachinii.
de la alte
strachind, vas de trip b.rcan' chiup' f.agmente
s;trachinii, I,as triLtr-oncr,r'ric, in tumr-rlul nr. IV -

d""'ilil]:,.1|.-lit,.i,ltli]i

variat, clin
in tumulii necropotei de la Trrnca, relariv s6rac ai pLrlin funerare
complexelor
c,,,:goiiilor compone,nte, in rinii generale este caracteristic cu mina' mai rar la
r)unct dc vedcre ar
lucrate
timp*rii.var"r9 o. tipuri dil'erite,
aie per.ioaclei harll,stit6crie tiirzil - r.iti..
os qi de
fusaiolele), ainrr:le (virfurile de sigeatd de
r,ata .lar.ului, pieselt: de uz comun f...,1lt*]i.,
de sticl[' lut
), piesele de podoaba (mdrgelele
depistirr

rDronz'). presele cle

la rolba ( incheietoare,le,,:ri,loarele

YolLur; Ll

L lVr, I

6i

i:r r;pirala cu capui conic), piesele vestimentare (acele de bronz in formd


rle cui), pir;ele rje tc,aletii (tavt:le, cle gre:rie, granulele dr: ocru) $.4., in cantitiili gi cclmbinalii diferite
sLlnt prezente itt inve:nt-arul [Ltnerar al mormintelor grul)ului podoJian de vest din zona Nistrului de
llijl,:c;;i Eiuc:r.r,,'ina de Sud (lvle"rrcrona 1958, 4l-42;ClrrrapHoea 1968, 14-19; Idem l979,62; Idem
i980' 23tlll X.pyxlg'1t',"rrlrxalr 1990, l-51-t55; Igna.t 1976 106; Idem l97Ei,I2l-122; Idem 2000,333);
<:ultr-r:ii i<.uitanovice (Cuprpsonai, EepH-sKoerlq l!)65,96; Crvrrapnoea 1979a, 1i2; llonowr.r 1990, 161;
lderl 19!).1,266r); cultLrrii Ve ke:rzug (iiepen 198(r, 178-180, nota, ll4l;ltlenroxoea 1989,89); grupului :;citic din'fransilvania ('y'asiliev 1980,53-56)l grupului Ferigile-BArselri (Vutrpe 1967, -\7-74;
P,:t,escu l!)72: Popesr"',r, Vulpe 1982: Morinrz l')57,222;kLem 1.959,356; Idem 1959a,231"/ttlp,r:.
,132); cultrLrir scrtice arhaice clin zona de silvostcpd cin Dreapta Niprului (tr4rruucxax 191.5. L)6;
[(oerrasen.r:o l!]r8 [.'/.i; I..oerra]reHKo re .lp. 1989, .]5).
l\{odiilile <ie clis;punr:re a ir:n,entarului in tumulii din necropola de la Trinca, care ilustreaz/a o actiunr: rituaila efi:ctuati in mc,nr:rntul cerernoniei funebre, deasemeneil au'paralele in ritualurile funerare p,,racticlir{e dc c,:rrrrunit5lile I allstattiene tirzii -.sciticr: timpurii. ln cornplexele funerare a grurpulur
podo ran cle
ciu'e c'rn!ineirrr Incinelatii complote pe locul unde u,lterior se amenaja tumulul piese"'est
le de inr''r:ntal se sdseau : pe Iundirl cavcurilor - tumulul nr'. l, 3, (i in necropola de la Perebykovcl,
(Cvrrpuorrzt 1c)'79,611): in incinta linritrtd de rnantaua de piatra"- turnulul nr. 1 de la Lenkovcy
(Merrrcrco.aa 1953, (i0) slu in tr;trtea central6 a construcfier de lemn rimenajatir la suprafala orizontulur
Lntlc - turlulul nr'. I de la 14yiil:ovcy (N{aneen 199t, 1:l-5). In incir:rta supraf,:tei rugr-rlui funerar erau
ron;rntrate pieselr:, ,:le inventar q;i in trrmuiul nr.'7 de la Volov5t (Ig,nat 1978 121). (Jeramica ('r,asele
intrr',.'i qi ii:rr:rrrentr''e) in tumrrlul nr. 3 cle la Percbykovly Se gdsea la pcrifelia de Sud-vest a p,rdelei
(av,:)ului (Clrr.rprHo,ai,L LL)7tt,51)l in tr-rrnulul nr. I de la Lenl<ovcy era dispus[ la periferia de sucl-est a
supiraf-etel ocllp,i.lte de resturilc r:inerare (Nfe:rioxoeii 1953, puc.21',t'., in tr-rmu ul nr. 7 de la Volovdf in ser-tonrl de s;ud.-est a supril'etei rugului funerar (Igrat 1978, fili-t. t2), iar in tumulul nr. I de la
l,{1,rikovc1,_- cr-r prcc:aclere in lraltea cle sud a construclie i funerare (.Ma.neen 1991, pllc. l). in ttrmulul
nr. i,l de la Pereltyl<c,1'g,7, c&fe ,llntinea o incineralie efectuatd in afara locului inmorrnintdrii nemijlocite.','asLll Je tip chiup;i l'unrlul unui irlt r''as lucrat cu mAna pe care se gliseau oasele de la ofrancla de
(ar-ne. era,u dispus,r:, j'n coltul clt: rLord-vest: etl cavoului (C:'rupuova 1979,44).
lin turriulir cr'rltr'rrii Kuit;rnc'vice' care conlineau ircinerdri el'r:ctuate P': locul unde ulterior se
ridica tunrulul inventiinrl fun,:rrtr era dispus: in incintiL rugului fttnerar - tumulii nr. I 9i II din nel'ofl,:)la cle la []ernr,j Potok r,(-lnrlrpHoea 19J9a,40, prl:.2,3): in incinta gi la sr-rd-vest de periferia
sLrprrfelei lugulLr,:i iunerar - lumulul nr. VI din necr,rpola de ll Cernyj Potok t.lbidem, 4'7" 50,
puc. l1): 1'n incintir nrsului truner':.rr, in nemijloc,ita aproprere a suprafelci rugutrui funerar, spre
suci-r'est. ciit gi la periferra d,l sud a mrntaler tumulului - tumulul X\/ gi XVI din necropola Kolodn,oe Il (CuupHcna, Iiepu:ar:c,Btriq 19(i5, 107-108, plc. l,2). Dr:mn de rr:marcat in acest contex
r:ste r;ituuria aiesl.;ltir in tumulul nr. IV de la Cernyj Potok, unde resturile cinerare ale cremiirlt efectrLlate pre lo,::ul arnenajdrii tumulului au fost adunat: de pe suprafal.a rLrgului funerar qi clepuse
in cloui urne gi inr:r-o groapti rricd amplasate in sectolul de sud-',,est a mantalei, impreund cu va:ele ce lc insol.i:au (CrrlrpHona l979a, tl3-14).
It-a Ferigile, in unicul nrr;rmAnt turnular cu cremirre pe loc, nr. 150,'vasele-urne cu res;turile
c:inerare acluna.le <,ie pe supri;f a!a rugr.rlui, au fost depur;e li marginea de suC-vest a rugulLli. in afara ini:intr:i rusulu, funerar. l;r norcl-ver;t frrnd ttmplasrt un alt vas (.nr. 3) (Vulpe 1967, fi1.,.26).
I{eleritor 1,, ns1;1spr)la turnulurii de lii F'errgile, se remrrrcd cd incinerdr:ile rie efectuau in alta parte
;i cii la rni'Ljontati:a mornrinterlor sau putut deos,ebi doud grupe de inv,entar:cel acoperil de mantaua de LrDls1,il61 $l cel situat 1in marginea acesteia, fiind ?n parte acoperit, in parte in afara bolovanil.or', ul:ir:rlr I'irril alcdturti jn special de fragn-rentele vaselor mari (vase mar"i pOntecoase . cini
\/as,l de trp borc'rn) in opinrri lui A. Vulpe. cerarnicit din marginea gi din jurul mantalei de bolo,,ani repr',3zinth sir:tu o palte ,r inventarului sau cr ofrlLndd depus;li ult,oriot' inmormAntdrii ('Vulpe
961', 2:l. in ne,:,roprola Tigl,,eni "Babe" sunt menlionate trei grupe de c,frande : resturile cle la
lggu) fun,erar, jnr:lr-rsiv irainlentele cie ceramicii, depuse in gropi de dimensitlnr mici sapate de 1a
nivr::lul olizontul,ui antic; fraglrrrente cle la mai nrulte v:tse cu urmt: de arder:e secundard sr-rnt depus,e lr ntargineii milnta,lei de trolovani; irirgntenle de ceramicd amplasate la periferia mantalei de
.rrs, hron;2, cefceij cle bronz

()t)

---,--rReuisln

lgl2'

Arly.oL2gJc

l1'59!l!

ou

it

79-80)' La Cepari' in unii

prirrrdnt, prrrfial NC:c,pel'ric cle mtrntaua cle piatrd (Vulpe, Popescu


fag,.r-rentard creru amplasate
[Lln]Llll. r.es,trlrile clnerarj i'preunr cu cer^amrLca rin stare

in partea cen-

de resturile cinerare
turrrulului;in allir - vasele si armele erau situate ia o anr'miti distanti
piatrd tiPoprescu' Vuipe 1982' 102)' La B0rdepr;se in grclpi ntici saLr urne in centrul lnantalei de
qi de podoabd) este amplasat in centt'ul mansr:qti, in uni:i tumrulr rnr,:ntarul tpiesele vestimentare
in grurp a cite 4 spre sud-vest' ?n allii'
tah:r cle pimant l','rlcirt, la niveliri solului vechi , vasele l96l,20l)'
va:;cle
-- sunt gr"upa,[e: spir, sucl de oase (Morinl"z ]9t57,221,fig.1;ldem
planI de ]a Ciumbt'ucr'
in.rar..ii gi:u1,r',t* s:iric din "fransilvania, mormintr,rl nr. 13 din necropola
dejn'cntarul ccrnpur; din doLrd'vasr: qi oase clc la ofr,ancla de carne, se afla la sucl cle resturile umane
glopir moftuare ('v'asiliev 1980' 56-57)'
pr-ls': intr-g griinra(|i ?n j rrniLtatetr de nord-vest a
in cazurile incinerdrrlor efectuaRcfe rit.r Ia ni.clrrI rle clispunere a lnventarr-riu,i funelar respectat

flalir

practiclLt cie comunrtatile scitice arhaice din z'ona de silvostepii


Mertliotirim cloat'cd in cavoul ars drn tumuclin Dreapla Nipr.irlui inlorn-ratiile sLrnt extrern rje scunde.
calctnate a doi defunc!t se gaseau
lul nr. 3 <J;n nec:rcrpola ce la csitrljazka, vasel: irrpreunh cu Oasele
(l{nlllncxag t9'l5' 84)'
prc I'und, lirngii prcre tele tle su'J-est
de la Trinca in care a fost practicata tnhLrmarea dup5

re pe 1'cr.rl

inmor*lntirrinernijlocite,

Inventanil

ctrrn

turulii din necropola

ocupata cre oasele scheletelor'dvdq;ite


conrponerntii gi rrr.dLrr ie drspLrrrere vls-a-vis crer supral'ala
examinate rnai sus' Categol'rlle obiectelor de port
esr.c iclentic cLl ce:l clin rttorntinlcle de incinerare
s;au in nemijlocita apropriere a
(piescle cle uz ctrlriluo., cle poclotbii, vestinrentare) se gdseu prir:ltt'e
cie frilsmerrte Cle ceramicd et'au depuse spre
oaselr:,r schelel.elo' si i ui,.'el.l". Sau aglonrr:raliile
modr"rlui
de supriifala,Ce i'aspirnclire i oaselor Llmane' Comparirrea
s;r-iii-est. qLrd.r,,e:st sr,,
'-r,rc[-,,,esl
in mornintele cle inhumare depuse direct pe supla<ie ditipunere a lrryer,ta ,.rlui funerar eviclerntia.t
aceTrinca cu cele practicate in obiectivele funera'e de
r.aIa oriz_onturur antic cin n*cr.pora cre la
cu celo mai apropiate atit terjto'ial'
la;i tip rl0 unit{i]:ilor r:.rlturale sincrone erste.dificila, chiar;;i
ordine de idei men{ion[m doar ci
r:lt;;t ?n ilspect ctiltut'i,r[ - de lip podolil,n cl'o vest' tn acea];ta la
tnventar
,rnhurna{ia'n pril;,,111. r: rcit5L de s'b mantaua tumulul nr. 6 cle Ivanovcy cra lipsitii de
I de la
nr'
tumulul
in r'rnele complexe:
(lt[r,xHr,r l9ti9, 107). litocltrl cle clispunele ar in"'entarulur
Kp5'ueIbHI4qKaq 1990' 152)l complexul nr'
IrrLnovlta (Sr,rlinrirsk.i ')36 E8:Me:rrcrcosa i958,40;
1958' 40; Kp1'ure:rlHIIUKa'r 1990' l5'3' puc
2 cte Ia R,.}ior, l:(ut (St ilrr,'rsl<r 1936, 801 N4e-nr'rxosa
nr' 4 de Ia
(Me.;rt<lxoea 1958,'10); rnorrniintul I chn tumulul
5tr,2'); lurnulul nr. l cle la Sielraty'nce
I
]5) rru este specificat' iar p'ivrtol'la altele - tumulttl nr'
Sr-rtnivc.y ([-t,ua'r, I-.,,t1t.,t, N{ererl 1998,
qi
5
3
nr'
tumulul
turmunur nr. l de laDorinjany (lbidem,23),
cre ra Krrrgrir< (Lrr.rpr,)B3 r963, r4)
ulterioadevastirilor
nu a putut ri stabLrit cri' cLruzLr
clc la perebykov,:y (t.r'rpHionir r9i9,52,5-,t)
construclie funerard' Totodat[ ' in conre salr a erl-ectuii' irirrorrrrintiLri lor suc<;ersi've in aceiagi
ln sectorul gr.pii cac.l'o la Kruglilt vasele s'e gdseau
ter)it*l r:irscu1,t, !;elnni.r lim cd in tttrnulul nr. I
1968'
cle vesl a camerei funerare (Crrlltpttonzr
re n-a 1'csl clerrln.lat <1,: de.,'aslittori; lirnS;a peretele
de
partea
din tumulul nr' 3' sau in
l4). iar l,r Pereb,1,l<o\(.y -- la trrarginea cle sttcl-vest it ctlvoLrlui
(Cl,rltpuona 1979,51'57' puc' l4)'
sucl, r;ucl-est lca,r,ouLui ciin turrrulul nr.5
de inhurnalie: cu scheletele?n pozitie chircitd
Rcfer.itor la rnver,r.irul l,unr:raf atestatin rnoimintele
funerar a culturii vekerzug' informaliile se refepe partea cirr:a1tti, prep,nclerente i1 cadrul 'itr'ralului
modul de ciispunere a pieselor vis-a-vis de defunct
rii mai rnurt la c{)r-rlporcn{a lui gi croar rforo,ti. ra
de la Szentes-Vekerzug' de exemplLl' se
(iZte'en l9|86, ll'78 , N1.,nio,,oua 1989, &9). Pentru necropola
(l-3 vase)
conlin rnhumalii irr poz;i{ie intinsd' ceramica
rnen!ioneazir ciL in mar multe rnorminte care
gropii funerare (Mr::uoxoBa 1989' 89)' In acest context'
se gdsea deasuprit sch:letului, in umplutura
pieselor
complexe futterA'e' in care se indica qi locul
rnai men(ion6r' cir c.rrsultirreir planurilor urix
poVest'
spre
cu scheletele chir-cite, orientate cu c|aniul
clc rnventar prtenl co.stata ci in morminteler
gasindu-se la
locului de purtare' vasele' impreund cu fusatolele
z,i1ia pter;elor dr: po<,lol,iri corer;punde
20 de la N6grddkdvesd (citate
esrt ) - n-rormlntur t9 de ra Heves; rnorrnintLrl
clefu'clilor
.ra
Jricioarele
pe spate,podoabele' arrne46); in cele cu scheletele in poz:i1ie i'ntins6
cir.rpd ch.r:hot..r,vskr t )gs, euu.
sunt deiar-vasele' indif':renft de <lrientarea acestora'
le, etc, sLlnt afe:'late c(,llfc)l'm locului de purtin'e,
30 qi mormamtul 76 din necropola de la szentespuse spr.e sud cle oascle plcioarelor - morrnantul
i/.k.tiug (Chot.:horov'skr '[985, Abb' 47)'

67

de categorit
comunitii{ile grupului scitic din Trarrsilvaria, o serie
iourt. pre cis itt morrninte' la lEezafea lof respectan.lr: picse (.procl'abe. i'fme, etc.) iEi au l,lcll lo,
de carne erau depr:Lse la sud de defunct' indicl.r-se pozilra cle purtare. Vits,:le cle lr.rl ars ;i o:firaLntJa
singurra excepfrt: a fost evidentiat[ in
fr:rent de c,rlentat'l)i-r acestofrr (Vasiltev tggO,:;:-S6)'O
schelet (tbidem' nola213)' Aceste
nrornrlntul 5 cle li:. c)zd, carr: avea vascle dePuse la nord cle
in insd pe spate, Precklminante in cadful neccrns;rirldrj ef'ectuir.l.e in hraziL i.lhumaliilol in poz:i1ie
?n pozifie <;hircit[' care din punct
croprolelor, piir a t'r r,,alabile, ;i pentru rr,orrnintele cu sr:heletele
besc ctt nimic de m'xmintele cu scheletele
cle ve,dere: al inv'entafului 9i it altor aspecte nu se cleose
irrtitt:;e ([ ric\crri. 4 *- i6 t.
cle sil'rostepa din Dreapta Ntin ccrnple.r.elr: funr:rare al:: comunitiilrlor scittce artiaice clin zona
Vesela (1-'1' mai
i.'ntormtnte deasem,:nea i;i aveau locul lo'foarte precis'
1:rLrlu pie,:;ele cle rnventaL',
lit
picioare mai rar' lingd mAtlir' umdr' in colful sau
Iirr 1i-.7 vas:) de obtcci era clepusd llnE5a c|aniu, la
in apropierea cranl,]azLu-i vasele ce riingd.r,,,niu erru insolite si de i'usaiole.
[reretore gr;;.opii, in ilnere
?n morminte se er:r-r culitul.cie fier' A;;ezarell atrlelor
Lrlui se dt,:p.rnea gr ofi'anr-lir cle, c;arne ir-'-tpre.t,ia
in
siigeti - in crreapta bazinr-rlui defunctr-rlui; ldncile fectui.r conr..rn.r r.r:uLlui ror cle purtare: ic,rtra cu
de
akirakes-uiire - in srtfinlSa bazi'ului' Piesele
crreapta sa. stii:ng;;r. defuncturL:1, paraiel .,-,.o.puli
jos
de
mai
se depuneau in dreapta clefunctnlui'
trarn;rganlc't - ps,l;ile, zf,bal.le, aplii:il:, cle oticei
(farfuriile) de piatrd gi vctpselelo se gbsesc lingd crantu'
triizin. otliecte le cle toale tii -- lgllinzile. v,lsele
de
ile aur se gasesc pe crarriu' cetceii 9i lnele de bucla
rie rcgulir in cireap,:r,L lur. Po,J,labele - aplicile
craacele de bronz' mat rar rle fier - in regiunea
llron:t, u1.r,331"i cle ,.r.r - de o ptfte $i alta a craniului;
calcedon'
perle rle topaz-, agat, cristitl de r;tanca. chihlimbar'
nrr.rlur. sir.r-l iil cu,tiei toracice; salirele din
7 l-73)'
r;ticlr. - irr jLlrr-rl gi,tLrlui (l(onuaueurco I !)8 l'

ir ritualul l.unc,rir.ol'iciat,i.e

DEp'utt eReA oFRANDELc)R uLTI:RloR iNMoRMAltrAnll

irr doi tumuli - nr' VI qi vI['


la Trinc r aceasti r)ractica rituarii a fost atestata
j'n afarrr rnantalei <1e piatrf,, in sectclrul de sud-est a
in arnbere caz,ur.jr vestig;iile r.r.sunt ,rnrprasate
de fragmr:nte de strachind' vas cle tip
mant'lel'r,r. pa'nlni.'in t.urnul,-,1 nr.VI ea elite repfe':entatd
p[rfi1e unui chiup 9t a
dc fier corocrat'. in tumulul nr'. V'II' - <le
bor.cln ;;i de r_rn fr.aqrrent cle
(trizna) organiofrancle reprezintii ves:igiile <banchetul"l l.Yl"bt'>
'resd
cle tip t,.,,.1,u,",.,,\cesie
Lu.r,,ri
ame-ljalat
rugului
'as
de piatri, concomitent cu ilrdet'ea
zat odatra, cu termtnarea arn:najdrii rnantalelor
qt acopenrea
''tlanch':tului funebru" ul'ma spargerea ritualri a vaselor
cie lsuprir. DupaL tclmi:narett
mantaler de Piatlii cu Primitrrt'
piatra amenajater asupla locului depunerii restuobiceiul lircl.:'i ruiSului 'unerar pe ntantalel.e cle
g a.organiz[rii tr''izriei.- "banchetului funebru"
ril,rr cinerare .d.rse de la iocul crem6rir propr:iu-zise
turnulul nr' 2
de^vesr din iona Nistrului r1e Mijhrc gr-upurLri
1r,,.tofi,,n
comunitl1irr:
<Je
practi(rar
eril
(KpyurenbHI'IuKas
rg77,,3g),tumurur nr. \'I cle ra Bratysev
clin necropc.rrn rrer ra Dorinjan.r (currpuc,na
mari ;;i de un set
reprezentltte cle vestigii alr: unor rugut'i
lgg,r). l ir3,). t.trr*,1 ale "batrclretului funebru"
la Lenkovcy
ati:state r;i in tumuiul-cen.taf nr' I de
co.rsiderabil cle picse cle irventa, ou for,
din
tnt"'#l:::::.l,ni;.r13'l
pracricile funerare al, unor comunitili tracice
esre aresratr Ei
"0,r,,
ofrantlele cle ti'ul celor de la Trinca au
z.na Crrpatilor nreridiontili in n.,,r.fot,'ttt lt f:t:gile
124' PI XXXI;
105, 142(Vulpe I'967' lt7-118' I',i' xxx','
ll
rrr.
,:16,
tr,rnrulii
in
ev1rj:n1ia.te
fos1
pr.incipal' la nivelul ortclepuse conco:nitent cu mormr)'ntut
l,lt-r, Pl. ]{XX:V]LII; 183,I,1, ,KL)' El.iitr
est sau
marrtalei de piatri lin,partea de sud-est,
m,Jistantii-,i.-pr,-ir.,,ia
0,2_l
t*
antir:,
zo*tulri
de l]-5 vase mari in tumulul nr'
nor..d. Fiiepr.ezintii aglomerr"ii de flag,nr.n,.."ru-lce.proveniie
a considerat aceste
arclere secunclard' Autorul siipiturilor
lCr5 gi r.rn cu{it <ie f iel, unel:' cu urrne"de
calcinate
Faptul cZ" nici intr-un catl nu sau giisit oase
ve,stigii r:a nroLminte secur,J,,r" ipot,:iice,
ofrande
r'eprezi'td
calificarei. Aceste fragmente de, ceramic6
sau cdr.r:une nu perrnLte o r.stfel cre
lucru acceptat gi de
f'canct parte din in"ventarur tumurului'
principal
mormiintur
,.,u
c'ntemp.ron.
es(P'lpescu' \/ulpe 1982' 80)' AcL:i.aEi practici funerard
A.. \/ulpc ir.r una rlin lucliirile urmatda'e
1972' 109'
"Babe'i - tr'rmlrlii nf' 9, t0' 1:i (Vulpe' Popescu
te rrestiitd 5i in
in ne,c,r.op'ra

cre

i'

'ecr.polel:''fig'eni

6ti

Rcri"la .l,rheolopic it. S,rric rtori,i

l1; lll, f ilr;. 14; l)operscu, Vulpe 1982. 95, fig. 16) r;i Cepari "Topli1a" - tumulii nr.'/, 8,9,
(P,rpescu, Vulpe 1981, 90, fig. 5,9).
Obiceiul depunerir oflandei ulterior inmc,nnAntarii gi amenaijirii mantalelor tumulilor era practical de r:ornunitalile scr rce timpurii din zonu de:;ilvostepd din Drreapta Niprului, unde vestigiile triznei se gi:;esc in rniintat.i,r turnulilor- tumulul nr. 6 de la Jasnozor-'e (K.onnaneHKo rr Ap, 1989,.36) sau
in ganturile ce incor4rl,rrd rnantaua - tumulul nr. I din grupul II, Gorcjakovskij Les t1e la Medvin
(I(onnarreuxo [(,)181,7:]);i trrmulul nr. l5 rJe la Steblev (KoeraueHr(o rj ap.1989,36).
fig..

DrreRrrurreREA DEFt,Nc'!-tLoR ill rurucrre DE sEX

(rtc. 1,6)

c)biectivul ll'r.rnca "DrrLlmul lletegtilor" reprezrntd o necropol6 tumr-rlard in care sa practicat


biritualisrnul, incineritr:a;;i inhumarea, rrLpofiul dintre ele fiind, respectiv 7:3. Argumentul definitortu pentrlt s;tabrlilea apirrtenenle:r la unul dintre Se:Xs o mormintelr:r de inhumalre este prezentat de cdtr{t e.\perl.l2la atttropoiolcii. De:terrninareiL se>iulur pe oasele incinerate este mult mai dificila qi din
crttze c'Lriective ni,:i nu a fbst et-ectuatA. In ace,ste condilii, indicii pentru determinarea sexului incinera!rilor sunt fut'nrizati de invcntarul funerar, degi cliagnozele de sex rea]izate numai ?n baza acestui clitet'Lu sunt a.desea conte ;tabile (NicolaescuL-Flopq,rr, Wolski t975. 5-5). De obicei, in componenja invetttarului 1'unerar a [ut.llor mormintelor indrf,erent de sex sunt prezente vasele de ceramica. Specific
nutnar l)r'ntru ce lrr'de birbali su,nt armele ;i pieserle de harnapamr:nt, i:rr pentru cele de femei, piesele
dc podoabd. qi de toaleti, ustens,ilele caracteristicr: activitAlii lor cl: munci, in primul rAnd, fusaiolele.
ln ace'liti;i tinrp. rtrcirnrr rtele de trdrbali nll sLlnt Iipsite qi de r.rnele piese de pocloabd (margele, cercei.
brtrtiri. cttl,et'e). l:..t"11r rttc r-'elc'de t'emei surrt cunoscute;i lrornrinle care conlin al'me. Morrnintele
inrenl.arul clrorit cstr: constitiul exclusiv din c:eramicd nu pot furniza nici un indicru in determinarea
rse.xului, lrlorrninr:ele-cenotal', amenajate in mr:m,oria unor luptitori ciizr-rfi departe de comunitate, in
,3prnia speciirli:1t.ilr:rr, rrrlul,rr Lrnol persoiLne adulte de sex mas,culin (Nicolaescu-Plop;ior, Wolski
i9'/5,55,75.1(,: I'l.lrrlttrcxas l')7-5,89; Kr)BraHeHKo i981,7.1; \rasilir:v 1980,38--39; Kosnarieuro u
,rp. l98t), :]5).
l-ln alt parirrrnetru, care in condiliile neefectuarii analizie antropologice a oaselor calcinate.
poate avea r,'aloule dc ctitr:rir, pentru defirrtrea sexului celor incinera{i este specia de anrmale,
paLrfrle ci.rora au fclst ccpLlse in mormint: in calitate de ofrandaL de carne. Tot odatd, diagnosticarea sexului in bazr oas lor cie la oli'anda,Je (larne, dat fiincl faptul cri in anumite zone preferrn{ele
erar-r clil'er-ite. clcarsemc;rea,'intr-o oarecare mdsurd poate fi contestallila. In general pentru perioarJr lrall:;ta.ttianii * sciti :d tirnpurie este cilracteristic depunerea ofrandei de carne cu precdclere in
mornrintele de rnaturi ;i mai rar?n cele cle copii. In cele de bdrba{i, determinate arheologic in ba;ra inventaruluri. din zona l\istr"ului de lv,lijl,cc sunt atestate atAt oase de animale de talie mare
t.cal). ciit 5i de o',,icapl rle, porclne, lepuro (CrlupHona 1977,3!]; Idem lL)79.44; KpyrueJIbHL{IIKat
l9r!)0, 140). Mormrntelc de birbali, determinate atAt antroPologsic ciit gi arheologic, din zona Nrprului de lvlijloc conl'onri erpertizei pal:ozoologice confineau oase de cal gi de bovideu
('14[:rsnHcr..as 19,/5, 8!).'vezr rellertonul ltt p. 17.,27,32,31,41,47; KonnaHeHKo 1981,7), in cele de
l'enrei - cie clvrca.prin,e (l4rr,uHcxas 1975, lt5,2E;,43,45). Tolodat:i irr mormAntul de barbat din tumrrlul ll1rlr 61s la "Kc,nstantinovl<a erau depuse oase de ovicapline insolite de un cLrfrtag cie frer
(Ul:rrnHcr,:as l9'l/5. 30), iar ?n cel din turnulul ji19 de la Guljaj Golod, de rind cu oasele cle cal,
sunt atestate gi oase de ol'i,;aprine gi porcine (Ibidem, 17), cel l'eminin din tumulul 330 din aceiagr loc;:rlitate, cr:,n!inei oas,) dc bclvidee rgi de cal (Ibidem, l7). Situalie aproximativ similard este
atcr;tal,d:;i in necrr:rpole le plane a grupulur sc,itic din Transilvania, urnde in mormintele cle bdrbali
se depune,a carne: rJe bc''lidee, iar in cele,le fr:mei de ovicaprinr: (Vasiliev 1980, 50-53). In necropolele turnulare rl,: incinerurlre tracice tArzii din zona Carpalilc'r mr:,ndionali, atit in mormintele
de barbali clt qi r:I: fenLei, cu preferin{d se depunea carne de pasdre. In acelagi timp, in mormintele cleternrinate arxtropo ogic, de barbali, de riind cu oasele de paLsdre se gdseau;i oase de animale
de talie rnirre gr dc ovi :aprine, iar cele d,: fe.mei - oase de ovir:aprine qi de bovidee (NicolaescuPl,f,p$or, Wolski 1975, l-ab. nr. 8,16,17).

69

\l-olulyr[I. '\tt

-/------_--

--

tumulii necropoleri de la Trinca la paramettii relevanli in detefminaIl,acorclareii rerlrtatilor


nr' III ctln{ine
r3a s,::xulLli perrnit urmdr.oarel,: consta.tdri; conform expertizei antropologice tumulul
de ani' inl8-21
de 1.2, respectiv
L.n m,lrmr11t cJe inhurnalie a Ll.ri indivizi de se:x. l'eminir in v0rstir
de ovicasolit de r,'3se Cle cet'amice, nriirgele cle r;ticld' cercel ;;i ace cle bronz, p'l:ecum qi de oase
de ceravase
de
i'n vi'std de 40-'15 cle ani, insofit
tr,rin.,;turnulul nr. l,y' - un rnxtur de sex masculin
nr' II, expertiza aninicii, rn5rplic[ <le siticlii pi, oa:;e cle miigiiruq clorrLestic q. de ovicaprine; turnrr]ul
de ceramicd' mdrl'r'ase
troprologrcir a restLrnlor schr:le tului ne fiincl efectuat[, in baza inventarului
r1in

rSrcii rtc st

cli, rnarqica

poate
de lut itrs;) care nu conlinea afmc) sau piese cle harnarqament,

fi conside-

traza inventarului care de


rat l',::nrintn; tumu,lul nr. I, ciLl'e reprezintd o incineralie incompletd, in
de sdgeatii de os qi
linr] cu c,3ramica, c:iter,'a pie'se de podcab[ 9i un cullti.; de fier conlrnr: vilfuri
din acest tumul' insotit
de tolbi" esl.: cle b,irlbat: aceiagi allartenenta are;t mormdnturl cenotaf
cd reprezinta un morrle.;lLse
'ie:;c c.[,: lbovic|:,u, precum 9i cel din tT rnulu]tnr. iII, clcar din cclnsiderentele
rnint sirnbolic i:l ullLlj lurptdtol ciizut in depdrtare
tl din tumulul nr. 'y'-.'LK' in lipsa datelor experDete rrninar.ea ,,c^.,ii-,i pentnr incineraiiile cle tipul
iisp':crtlorcleanimalepargile
lizerantr,.rprrlogirce,poatefi rzttljzatdctoarinbazapieselrrdeinventarqi
rnomtZintul din tumulul nr' VI
rlirrlra a1 fsst crlepr.rs;c in calitlrte de ofranda de carne. Ce rt feminin este
,'ns.!it cl* \,ase, fusarola, pie,se d,: pocllabl (rnarg:le cie srticld, pandantiv <le os), obiecte de t0aletd (taovicaprind depus;intr-o strachina)' Eventuva,J0 grc,rjr(:, gran*le cle ocru) ofianciri." .o.n.1picior 1e
cu Vasele de ceramtcf, c;onttne
rl, dr: se:t ferniLnin oste ;;i nlorrniniui clin tumulul nr' VII' care de riind
rrstensile de fier:'
I fusaioliL, ptese rJ,,: pocloabii (miirgele dc:;ticld, cercel qr ac de bron;z) 9r alte deoarece in inventerrul
VIII este dif iciliL,
Dial,inoza cle s,,:x a mornrintelor din tumului nr. \'gi
dr: sticla, res;pectiv' vlrful de
lor p,redrlrnini cer.a.rniclr, iar cu!itul ije fier inr asocierer cu mafgelele
ciit
,ce sticl[, sLnt atestate atat ilr mlrmintele de bilbali'
sdg;eatd,Je trr.onz in asociere cu margelele
gi in celt,: d,3 ft:mr3'1"
cr't preciderr; clill vase cle ceramicf, 9i doN{orrrLlintul dln turriulul rr'. IX, irlventarul ciirula constd
cu clrtituclirre la unul din sexe, in acelagi
ar crrlud rnargere r1e strcli,clers,smenea nll poate fi atlrlluit
timp, apart,:nen1a lr.rr la sexul i'eminin este mai vr:rosimtli'

Anrp,lasitreal.umulilorittce,drulnec:ltlpolei.frinca..DrumulFeteqtilor'',infuncliedesexatestao
necfopolei' Fartea ei de norcl-'rest constd atAt din mormtnte
ozil-ccal-er g,ft.tplu'e I mormintelor in incinta
rncineralli, paqil]rlo sau cOmplete' cenotafe'
de birrbilqr, cdt qr: cie f'emei, rel]rezentate prin inhumalii.
efectuate cOnf0Lrn incrneraliei in afara locului
cea de s;ur1-est, cu prrecideLc dtn morn,irtte d,: lernei
depuse pe o'izo.tul solului antic' situalia
amcnajd.ii tur'ururui, resturire ciner.re gi inventarLrl fiincl
permite sa presupunem ex.i:;tenla obiceiului aplicarii
eviden{irrta. in par.tea d,: surr.r:st a necr.opolei.
separat de ?nmormantare'
nnuj ritull <leoselrit Ia f,emei l;i depunerea lorint,r-un l':<;
It'tcnrteRe
cu
1a Trinca pre:zinrir si'ilitudini pronunlate
Anriiliira el,ectr.ratii crernrlnstreazd cdt, necropora de
dinmulte
mai
ce]e
ci'itireie [umularre halLstattit:ne tirzir/sr:itice tinrpurii de laDundrep?n6lalr'lipru'
Mijlociu qi DeNistrului
bairinul
funerare clin
trc clenrr:ntere cirracter.rstice rru paralere rn comprexere
grupurui podolian rje vesr ricrrrlrpuona 1990"24-31;
presiLinea R*rd'ti. zond popr-rlat[ de cc,munitiiliie
(Ignat 2000' 3l'-\-34'+).
i(p.;,,,'e.rsrrn,r,,,,u' 1990, i5i-rsz) sau podolian-molclav
Trinca "D'rijmui Feteqtilor"' compaCoi:Lstl.Llcliile;r practicile funerale ateslate in ntrcropola
de tip pod'clian de vest' atesta 5i unele
ratil cu,lsle caf i'r'cteristice cbiectivelor funerare tumulare
in care L,::stu'ile cinerare 9i in'entarul
trir;ituri cleosebrte. -Sprecific ul consti in prezenia turnulilor
cre piatr[ $i pdmint; utilizarea
iniIral cu o nrrviri]a de parnint, ruprap's6 de mantaua
se
rJe piatr[ pentru efectuarea
'copr0i.e.Lr
o'ale r:le, cltnrensitrnr mart, arnplasale la p:riferia mantalei
gropilor
d.f :nc!ilor in afara' l.cului inmormintarii qi demorrnintr:lrrr-..,0,r,t"1; pred.nrinarea incinet"aliei
,li.a.t p'e solul antic; pl:ezerl[a in tumuli a doul grupLtilerei.t restLiriirtr cinela,re, 9i a inlentirrului
jar altul in afara ei; obiceiul depunerii opr.rri de rnventar, unul acrc,lrei'it de manlaua cle pittitd,
rnr:nlionate sunt de tradilie
fi.andelor ultcnr.rr. efer:tuiiri inmormint.irii et,:. Toate caracteristicile

Rclisln Arheok'picu. Scrie rror,i

Itlr

hallstaltianS, cu trrarale le directe in necr,rpo)ele grupului l-rallstattian t?r'ziLr Ferigile-BArse$ti. Caracteristici estc gi llorrderea limitata a elernentelor proprii grupului pdolian de vest, de origine
scrittcd (amenajri:ca construc!iilol de lemn gi piatla la nivelul orrzontului antic, ulterror arse; incjnerarea. ciefunct.ilor pe solril antic sau in in construclii de supirafatf,, pe locul ndicarii vrirorului
[urnul, incinera{iile incrrmprleto; numdrul mrc de morminte care conr!in arme gi piese de toaleta in
inr entar't Iipsa pieselor executate in stil anirrralier).
-[ipu1
de nl()t'lJ]nert, condilrile topografice de amplasare, modul de dispunere a tumuhlor, structura nrantalelor, lipurile constru.ctirlor sepr.rlclale, practicarea biritualismului, elementeie complementar,: de rituiLl, inventiLrrrl l.compronenla, nod de amplasare) demonstreazd. ci Plator.rl Moldovei de
Ncrd era p,opulat 1ri pc'loada hallstattiandlirzte rJe aceleiaqi conrunitiili ce locuiau zona Nistrr-rlut de
Mijloc gi D)epre,;iuneii Fl6dduli. Inovaliile inte,rvenite in ritul gi practi,:ile funerare, oficierea (preluarel) unor noi obrir;r:iun rituaLe, depunerea in nrorminte in calitate de inventar funerar a unot seturt de
piese de rtrigine dive:t'rsi sint ur indiciu privind caracterul mixt erl acestei populafii. De asemenea. se
ertdenlia;za astl'r::l ,loi.ltictele conrunit5lilor locale cu gmpr-u'i de populalie din diferite zone ale spaltului carpatcr-duni.rean pe de c, parte, gi cu cele,C,in silvostepa nold-pclnticd, pe de alta.

Btettocnane
(ir.lrrr;;a 19-(i(r: D..Elt:crru,, E. ('omqa, Sdpdluril,o ar'freologice de
195(i, 2:'i 489,

Bi:rciu

lt

Balta Vetde gi Gogoqu (1949-1950). l'{CA Il.

Cirlitoiu, N{lrcior. N,{i.uirroiu l! ll,/:. Cih. C'alatoiu,I. Mocic.ri, !'. \4arinoiu, MdrlLlii arheologice in Goli (Tirgu-Jiu i987).
Chtrchc,t.tlvy:;ki/I98:ii:i'Chc,chcrrori,ski,DieVeker.zug,-Kul-tul..,Charakteristikder.Ftrnde(\\/irr.szalva.K
lgnlt 1!)7(r: \{. Ilrnut. Decul'cr t,:s CLr Hallstalt thrace dr.nr; le depofiement de Suceava. Thraco-Dacica I, 1976, 99-108
Ignrrt 11)78: \{. Illnat. l\ecr,rpt lir tunular'fr hallstattiand O. ,. y6lov51-Dealul llurlei. Sucertva V, 1978. 107-140.
Igrr;rt 20(,X): ],4. Ignilt. Un rLuve;ru gl1)lrpe culturel ci.u halh;tatt taldif sur le rcl-ritoire de la Roumanie. Stuclia Antiqtra et
ir\rchrtrrlogica \ril, 2fiX r. -i3 l -344

lgnirt1000l:N{.IgniLt,I.unet.ll.1'r.ileandrjtualin
I:r:r dans le Sucl-Est oe I l:etuope. ,\ctes du IJ-e (lollo,lue Internationirl cl ,\rcheologi,que Funeraire. Tulcea, 18-24 septembrie
l!)95 ( l'ulcea lrl,Dll), :21!

Lelitkrl,.)9:jlo'Levl1t:r,]rrt.t::;tigatileiithetllogicede,l;t.flinca,
(Bucu r:Sti l'i)95), 241-218.
Levilkr,
Le,ritki li)!)(r:
bi-I.krn-rp,lex in N,,littel-rurd Sticiosteufopa. Kolloquiun.r in Dlobeta-Turnu,severin (7-9-Novernbel 1996) (Bucarest 1996)' 165ar"ia

nctd-tlacI

r:.i)

()

193.

[-e,r.itki 11)9]' O.

cllns

Ler'itki

Lo\

tumulailes d'epoque ]{allstattienne en Moldavie. Prernier age du fer aux bouches du Danube et
lir N4el Noire. Actes du Colk4ue lnternational (Septernbre 1993, Tulcea) (Tulcea 1997)' 149-i80.

i1ki, Ens,enrbles

le,s ie11ion5

alrt'ru1

r,l

2f0: O LeVi1f.i,

fc,r'nrs :rf

criltullii identitl. (Blilnze

evllii. Ornagiu F\rlesorr


Ler,itki 200-l-r:

XXIII.

Cr. [-e,r,

a.rrd

lron Ages).,Atrs;tracts (Tulcea 2000t,

38-.19.

iur Gheorghe Postic6. (Chigindu:2004), 76-82.

jtki, Ap ulenenla culturalh a necropo|:i tumulare hallstatriene de la Trincr, Jud. Edinef. Memciria Antiqvitatis

2t104, :l()')--192.

Leritki..I.IaheuL99ii:(),I-errtki.\..Haheu,$antier.ular.heoltlgicTrinca(Republjc:aN{crldova)
arhtt,lrrgice in lriiL norcl- ilac:ir (tI) (Bucure$ti 1997), l(,1-212.
(Chi$iI_eiitki,, llefLeu 1999 O, Leyi ki V. Hah:lr. Necropola halls,tattiand tirzie de la Giur,giulegti . Studia in honorem Ion NicLrlila
niiu l9!)!)). l2 1." I -''4.
Morinrz 19,5i: S lvtor-.intz, Siil 'ritutilede

lrr

BirseEti

(r"e;1.

Galali, r. Vrancea), N'I(lA

III,

195'1"219-225.

de lir B?rsegti-Vrancea (r. \/rancea, reg. Galafi), 1\4CA V, 1959.355-361.


\/I, 1959'231-235.
Si
Ij.
N4oriiru,
lvlorinrz l9-5!)a:
lrirturile de: la Birsegti ( r. Vrancea, reg. Gata{i),

fvlorinr:r l9-59:S Mplinlz, Slpinrrile

tg4

IUorinrr19Cl:S Morintz,Siil 'ritulilcdelaBirsegti (t'.'y'rancea,reg.Gaia{i),MCAVII, 196,l,20l'-206.

vechi
Nicolaescu-.plop;or., lr/glski | )75: D. Nicolaescu-Plopgor, W. Wolski, Elemente de clemografie qi ritual funerar la popLrlafiile
din Ilcrninia (i:lr.rcureqtr I 975),
panlucz I9-5-5: NI. PaLrijucz, l.e ,:rmeliere hallstattien de, Szentes-Vekerzug IIL /\cta r\rhaeologica VI, I-4, 1955, 1-22.
pc,pescu, \,ulpe 191312:: Ii. Pope scu, .A,. Vulpe, Nouvelles ,lecouvefies du type Ferigile. Dacia N.S. XXVI, I-2' 1982'11-114.
SuLlrmirsk.i 193,6: T, Iirlrniirsk . Scyt,rlwe na zachodnieln Po'JoltL (Lwow 1936)'

\'. \'irs,iliev, ,Si ilii agrrtirgi pe ter"itoriul l(ominiei (Cluj-Napoca 1980).


yr.rlpe l9(r'7; y'.. Vulpe, Neclrrll,rla hlrllstattiand de la Ferigib. Monografie arhe<llogicii (Bucure$ti 1967)'
yrrlpe, p6pe:sc:u l9i'). A. \/u pe, E. Popescu, Contritrutiorr a la connaissance des Cebuts de la culture ceto-dacique dans la zone
Subcarpatique Vilcearr\ 'geg (l,a nec:ropole tumulaire ,Je f igveni), Dacia N.S. X:VI, 1912' 7-5-i I l.

Vas;iliev l!)ii0:

i .lrirr" - 1-l'::
'I'U&rl. I-\ua.j

l-

ltacy y cepeaHbol'ly
Nlereir' Ai)c-rllta)Ke'Htl x'vpnluie cNi'fcrroro
. vier:ii i1)!)8: r\.o. r'ytti,-,t, B.A. I'yu,ar, B.tl.

l]D.lHiC'lp0B,l.I}cti:,,\p,rcrl,tofnt|IllB.,r.h.phrrra}.tpairil997.l998pp.(ltlriel998),7.1-75.
(vll-Vi BEr' ito

rrtfln".,6;,tcceitHal'
[,irsrrn,:xas ]!)75 Il.,\. l.l.:ri,uH*:arr, Partlecrtr$cru.

l-"*un

rt (lirres i975)'

t,:Ieper,rl()86:1-r'I,1eperl'Cxttd,cril'tiiIl(|tllC..I*no,'n.,u,iiBeurtlttIt.I}rtt:ApxeolorllBenrp,lll
I lbtcq't,i.;le'rtIe H.:r. I (\4ocHea i913{r)' 169-187
(i(rLee 198 I )'
Bper4e rtt e Saccet-tue p' Pocs'
(r.rBilaHHKo, f :\'FrfaHbl palttteuxrtdlcrol'0
KosnaFteHK0 198 1 : t'.'l .

Iiognartettxtlr,rlp'l.9ti):t-..|.Koglatregxo.C.C.E:cc0rt0szL.(]A'(]xopurir,fIaltltuti'xucxt,rtpcrioirrnoxllnenp
peruon) (KHee 1989)
.il(lcocl,nr{oro I\raeo6epe;xur (}irrerro-9epl:acr:xttit
B:aevto:sq:xt{ Hace,leHHt [Iprrxapnarrlr

lipvucnunurlrxa l.9t:,: ":t.t.'X:pyu,annHliubKa,


l J,e
H

Hrpa,,rsnoi [:epr:'tltt

? nreMeHar{l'l
nrp\reHa*,r.r CxrrHoi
cxrnHoi
fJ.rnr*ri 3

(pviiiN enox 6pou:tl.r-sa-nira) (Krrie 1985)

p\'ru,:.rrrttrrlr.eLq 990:
(rHeo:rrrr'
s,i; {pr::e cuor-rrr ) lplrxapnaTuR, {:}O:rstult u ilaxapnarr,r
1

(pou:a tI patlHee xeJle3o ) (Krree 1990)

-'[egt.l.t.iItf:]:(X).+:O.I-.'tellLtuxtlii,
c5:Mirrt:pil,urtIK'crrrpcpettuii'.[l1lo(i-rrelrrrt:xr(lo-caprtll
l{puvrl'}lI 1l}anopiNx:r 200'1)' 152- t57'
crapoxrrrHoc'ri c'erro'o'o flpruopHolvop'n i
,rHfl Hlr{lo)*reHLrrrr tj, rvr. l-pax.nii).
Jlesttttl'ittti.

]]ie,qe3FlC|I.0Be]ia\,c,.l.pnrlxa',An-rirr.ttlMuzeuluiNer{ionaldelstt.rril:aMoldtlr,eiI'1992,95.1()7.
HaqiIJIe xeJle3Hofo
u llpnxapnarlf B KoHlre 6por-r:onoro tglijl n.Fl . lilzurees. li4croplin u.teNreH 3ana:uoir ''cao,,tuH
nayx (Kucn l98l)'
r,rexou. ,a.nrr'l1te(ti:1lar rltc,:. Karlil lt(:1"
Kc]l4l4MK 5l' 1953' (r0-73'
.nru1,*oro ,p.r,.", HiL Cpe.tueu [r-re:crpe
fl.r,rrrsrrx'
lfle.q,oKoBa l!r5.rr ,A.14. \/le,rmxosa,
ll0ruecrpoars Ml4A cccP 64'
.nri1,.no.,i Brle[{er,r] r..o.t.n"o.o cpe,rH':ro

l,.lajei:s

rr4e;rr.xona r!)5S:

l95E'

,A,

H. Nle'rr'r(oB', Illlrsrulrxr.r

:;-102

{ --'^'-'\no t'"
rr'lrnn6n:rr nal'lflrHI{KII B cponHei-n Enpone B lln:
(-lrlr']too6palHt'le
lv,le.r.Htxoea t()39: .ar.tr"t lr'Ie:lnKoea'

cr':rtl

eaponei-'tcxol:t 'tacfl't

ccCP

*',,:;l|,i;J"ilT,l;;::i:[].]11[l;]j-'i],i];,ill].-rt|poo6pa:Hrlti,K)i,1brpblj]ecocTent1I]or:r.oquoitl1nponrr.
(Mocrna 1989), (17.80apeltn
|)Bpo|]l]iil]Kol'i .tac,rtl rl--CC.P s cxIr.|lo-caplltlTcl(O(]

[lort.0t;lI.li990:I,l.!]tIlonontrq'IIlttlt:arHirnuKVuragoglru'll:,i1{:]'3l".Bc6:Apx'ec,.not.unflptlrapnarsr.Bo'nutrrlll
(KHe s l990)' 157-162'
ct'$ll'(Krree
Saxap:rli-run {')Heo-rllt'l . iifroH3il llpaHHee;xcJle3o)
y c. Bo6oeoe r 3u.upnor,o.. B c6: Kl',pr-aHst c'ensoii
sB.,rloH.3
IV-in
pr.arr
F.1
flo'.arr.r li!)!)l: t.l. l,l. [[Drroerrq,
,'",'.,],;1l'io,!19i.'lo,'o,','.Kyiura:cltlut1bKarp.\/fIarIav,f,l.ox.Bc(i:[laNlq'rKtlf?bLUTi1Tl
rpr i Ilprrrr'r'rr (Kr'rie l9'9'l)' 250-2E6
(lirrie i99tJ)
C'.,i1 Clroptlt"'r. I(1 prarrllcpen'xrttxa
tqr)O
Cropirr'i
(';t'ttp"iiu''
n
ly'rilariHcxoii
(l,t;;;;;i'
i')99: C.,^,.
J1,Hic

1999)'

",:t"t]:i]l.lTtlee

Cnopt,tir

Cur.rpHonal)68:t'.il.criurpulaa.P,tr:ronxttK-\pmHoB-vce;rl(pyutrxrt!'o.littuRHr'tnaEyxrlattHeAcr3l0'1968't4-27'
Crrtrt1rHouaD1,1:|'|1.Cvt,tprucea.K1prlruHrti-tuol.,,"-,,nu*poHHecr..".|.cno,oup.,,.nuyie,ra'l1o.rrll
no6lury
xapaKTeI|y paHHr,ocxi$cr*tlx 'lai\,''flToK
CltltpHoeil ,.977a1 I-.1- ()lttrpuoira. lJiolo^nr1c,ni]Jlb}IoI..o
Ff

os,rc,"-lett.

ljr-loycierrt Aps:eorot'iR 23'

1971

cir

[o;tttunutt.

'3-I0'

Crtt't1lrtoeaI979:l-.l,1'Clrttrprtooa,I{.11lrausrr.,.n..IIepe6bIK|JB)lbI_l]cBbtittutorl,I,tsHtx

.-,,,l.l}.i1,,,!.j,,i.I.'i'l]l,,i'n-.1J',,.,.',,,,,.un
Crrtt1:lttonal!)80:li,1(-r,,rllpuoaa.Ijrce:,reutteCp.:lHeioI1oAHec'rp<rebgeVI-VBB.,lO|[.
Ii-iet.]orrgreslntetrrationalcl,:f|rraccllogie,:l.L{]Septgmlrrie,Ructrest,BucureEtilgS0,2.]5-:25i'

Ctltttpnonlrl982:t..t'1.Cut,tpnc,na.3txpuIruterrp;acttrtscrtHeK0I\,lt1IeKcblyceJ1af|Hecr.prolxa-II1-xa',{peaHtle|!N1fTHI1Kl1
("leHnHrpa:i 1982)' 30-52
K)'Ibn,rpbl flil rerllllloFrlll't CC(il)

6rceeiiue Cnenuer.c, Jlne,


Cirlllpnoeal()90:I..|1..i]vttpHoea,'K1uurypno-uC;11'lpt1qecKueipuec(ble6acceliHeCpe.l'ttec,
crenetlll aoK'I' ncr' Hayx ;Kuea 1990)'
yuenuoii
Brll.r13 1brcflrr,-,.[e.uri,r .[o rr.l. f{r,rcc:epraunr "o.,,,r,.nrunri
H xporo,roFr4r naMrrHt'tKoB KyutraHostlucn,npnoru,'r<.s. B.p"'*o'rv, IlpoucxoxAeHrie
cui.rpHor,eL. [ie'rr:rxoruu r965: I-.Lr.

"

*lll;;,lli;il1:f"l;::,tfi];].t-,i3Lt;,1,?;1j;';,",",,-

nel,eacxi lcr,xoro qacy r{a cpe,rur,ovy

lloc"rirNeuHq
-l^ Y:YT"''
89-109'
]952'
vtI'
Ha rl-eperlHr,o*'r1' l.[rricqri. Ap;ii:'uorin

rr,, ,^u"l;;rl,lX;,lL];,;,];ttl;rt: r F. Iloexonqr'

E^

rr:icrpi Apxeorori

naNl'nrK'l

qacv
Klpr-&HHCfc ril('|f''lbHllK^ nepeacxi(rcr'xoro

rp:,,,rr.rf,{

Ir cd: }4r'r,

apxeorornqecKr'rx 3Kcflerr

lIlr'rrrHl989:!l.6'l-[-[r,rurt,Cr:ltt,celoHoBc.1aBfHo-capl'larcxoir3KcIe']1,tul,lrl.IJc5:}4rurrlapXeoIornqecKl,IX3KcIleJtuHl4
(IletlturP;r.r 1989)' l0:l- t l'1'
Oleg, Levilki'
lttstirrrrurtreArlteorogiesiEnngrrLJie,Act,rrernia:le$tiinpe,Rapublica'Moltlova'

Clisitritrt' Reptblit:t Moldot'cL


'tr. 14irt'oltolltL,t Bri,r,',""8o'toitti"'t''" 3:i' l'ID-2()t2'
Totiana Derrrcettc:o,
Republica
,ltihrle,
de
'r4oldot'a'
rtcatretrtiu
!ttstitrrtu! rrt,Ar.rrcorogie,si Etuograftt:,
j.s, ll4D'n]2, Chisinau, Reprtblica Moldov'a

s*. NIitropolitul

Ba,,ulescri'B;ois111\1r,"

"i

------liqlgq

;/.

-Arhteb

ic17. Scrie

Cor{"nreuTu Nor LA cRoNOLocrA ptESELoR METALIcE


C

ARAC'IERIST'IC E

RONZU LU I TARZIU CARPATO.NISTREAN

Eugen Ug;urralu, Chiginiiu

t,ttrisuttt('0,,IStit||ile.:l,.ttc1it,''

(|c|'|',0('].0|t0'lr.l;qtcit.'t,ttt,u|

:\:/)olt:).to,atlu,.\rt?)x:(.)\.'

I:l{'--r.',

,no l)'.:iut's:e) u.tu

lvlDll--S'llll (no.Yeutc.:rxt).

'l-ltt'ttrtrt:l'c

Il

ta :

t'ttL:lt t t.ut(,t

us nrelal

r:,.-llrronolopt lte,rtt,eut

]l('-Il,l

':r.fier Rei,reke) ot AIDll"-SDll lufte r Hattscl).

Drntle elaboriirile c()nsacratrl cronologiei cornplexelor' gi pieselor rnetalice apar{inAnd bronzuiui


tii.u:ir-r chn s;patiLrl (:arpat( -nistrean. cele mai irLportiinte sllnt c,]ntribu{iile lLri M. Petrescu-D?mbovi1a,
ciurl alLL ca s;ubi,:,lt des.)lperirile est-carpalrce (Pr:trescu-Dimbovita l9-53; Idem 1960; ldem 1964:
Iclenr l9'7'7), Si contlibut,le lui \/. Delgacev (,L(epra.res 197-5: Idern 1986; Idem 2002), care cuprind
c|:scoperirile, clin iitlerflr.r i iul,\jstlu-Prut.
Conlor"m acest.c)t'a, clt,scolrcdrile est-calratice aparlinind bronz.ul tdl'ziu, au fost incadrate

in

seda

I{ii;e5tr-Eiiileni (Pctr,:sclr-[)inttrov:l'a l9JJ,2l), iar:omplexele gi piesele izolate drn brcnzul tirziu din
irrtcrfluviul f{istlr-rL-Prul, :unt rlelinritate ?n grupa cronologic5 l.ozol'a-Miindregti (leprauen 1915,75).
,,\mtreler s;clreme, iu.l ca sr.tp,olt cronologic schr:rna orizonturilor de depozite din Transilvirnia (Rusr-r 1963),
ir:r prinlul ciul, soriil ltiiqc;ti-Bileni este sinc::crnr:ratii cu seria Uriu-Domdne$ti $i este datatd in perioadzi
l3rD (sec XIII a.Chr'. ) ([),:tre sc'u-Dtnrbovifa )977 ,2q), iar grupa cronologicd Lozova-Mindregti este sincronizard cu seriile est-ciul)atice Llmi-Liteni-lligeni gi seriile Ufiu-Domdn,r$ti $i Cincu-Susenl, fiind inciiclr'ariir perrrcradelor IlrD-Ha,'t 1 (sr:c. XIII-X[, piirjial XI a.Chr.) (,{epra'lee 1975,7]).
in plan cLrltLrral, arii: seria Fl[;egti-Balr:ni ,(Petrescu-DAmLrov'il:a 19tJ7,30) ciit 9r grupa Lozor,'a1\llnclrcgtr ,lu f'os;t r,;incrorrizato cr. cLrltura Noua, evidentirndlt-se in cadrul ambelor serii douir grupe de
dr:p,ozite. lJlmi-Lite,ni-[-,)z,ov,il (l]rD sau sec.,'(III a.Chr.) qi Iligeni-Nliindregti (HaAi sau sec. XII
ir.Chr.') (,i{epraueu 1986. 1.70).
De nren{ioni,rt cA sci cmele tlacli{ionale consracrate pteselor metillice din bronzul tdrziu din spaliul
r,:irr1r.rt<r-C,unf,re1n rllLr-rsLr r<)Sl; Petrescu-Dimbovt\a 1977) gi prin intermer1ittl acestora qi cele din norclul
lvlairii Negrc (l{ep,ur,rx \t]6, 152 I53: Bodkarev', L,eskov 1980,68-135; lleprauee 1975,76-71) au fost
t.ilpr:)ufa{s la sr:herna cfon() {lgicii al iui Mtiller-Karpe ,iMi.illef-Kaqle 1959), elaboratd pentru zona alpind.
Adoptirii I'Aliltezer',3 i-l clotlologiei absolute a schemei lui H. MLiller-Karpe pentru realitdlile arheologice din spafiut carprato-dunf,rean i s-a oLrjectat?n mai multe r"lndLn'i, argumentul princrpal consten(J in 1'aptul cir legiturite clintr,: Egeea gi Carpali sunt mai scurte dec2Lt acelea avute in vedere de H.
lVIUlter'-Kar-pe cu EiElrptu,. Sicilia r;i Italia piinil'n sudul Germanrei (Hlinsel 1976,45). Rezultate conclu,Cente ir acest ij,ens 1ll fost. oferite de anafiira pieselor metalice din bronzul tdrzlu de pe teritoriul
13ulgariei (Llr3pHrnrll 1978,254-261). Analogiile egeice drn unele complexe din acest teritorirr gi anali-

aa

't'oltnr ul

L A'r. I

fc,carului metalurglc Dideza r:il)olollico-cornbinatc)rie au s,los in evidenla necesita ea datdrii apafiliei


i,. rii u f.rrmclr:,r rnetalice spct:if ice bronzului tlrzir.r la I)LrnArea cle Jos incepiind cu secolul al XV-lea
259)'
a fost
Evidenlierea sincronisme l,or focaruhri metalui"gic l)idevo cu flociu'ttl Ingul-Krasnoma.iack
Negre
Mirii
nordr-rl
in
urrnirtd r:le o coLr,31fire cronologica srnrilarli a. clebutulrri bronzulLrr titritiu 5i
(Llepuuri. t98l , 2'5 ).
analogiilor din arla ege.,Dilr:r:!r1 egctca" es;te cle,;:r,rtltata gi Ce, V. Klodko, cit urmal'e a eviclenttLeni
(Kloiko 1995'
ica in cilclru[ (]omplcxelor lilr:alului Dir:evo, c;At ;i in r:adrul focarului Krasnomajack
este efcctt-tati in concordan{A ct-i
l.+,;).150). lJ;Ltarel. ;r sincrorriz:itrea c()txplcxelor acestol dor-id fociite
plasatiin secolele )ivl-XV a'Chr'
par-iLlele cr6nglclglic,: eviclentiate, aparilia acestora frind
lc,r metllrce din bronzurl tiirzlu de
Acer:;tc rerrciiltl cle colrc,Ltire a cr()n,llLrgiei alrsolute al complexe
trltimii ani' carc au relii Dunrir:ea cle Jc,:i :ii cirn ngrciul Mdril Negre sunt susltrtute 9i de dr.tele 'utl clin
ourolLsiatice (Tputfouos 1996:
zllltilt o c.obt.x.iffer radicalir rr rj.onologrei a[tsolute a unei serii de culturi
1996; PalincaS 19961 Idem
(Popa,
Boroffkii
Ider.n l9r!)r5a:, Irjenr l99,rlIdc)rn 2001) qi carpato-dundrene
l0Cl2)'
20Lr{)t
- Golliltan 19991 Siava
semnif icatil'
racliocart;onice au scos in eviclen{a;;i decalitjrrl cronologic
claterlc
lccilsta,
ct,:
in aiiu.ii
aie Eurasiei
regitrni
alte
de
I'a{i
cie .l-,1 :recolc. irrtr.e apari{irr cclturilor ir mecliul SejnLino-Turbino,
teritot'ial-crorrologice de celtuli
(liourapen ,10(12, 115). i\c,er:;tii prernrz:d clt 9i amplasilrea grr.rpelor
timp ce in Er-u'opa (lentrirld 9i de Nord lipsesc
pcr;t Selrnin,r-.furbino in Europa cle Est gi cle sud-Esi, ir
V'S'Bodkareysarnfrrme
protottpurile:lociileinpellcaijelecep.ege,lapaliliaceltlrilor--i-aupermislr-r
Conform modelului l)ropus' rispAndlrei'r grupel
con,.:eptel: cir-igrrrrr .onr,r,r[a,,,,,e a celtul-illrl in Europa.
Niprului lvlijlociu 5i Inferior in rr:giunile
rer.ilodal-cr.'r:l.gice cic ceitr,.ri cie tip Lollojkcivka clin t,azinul
constituirca connprle:tului Sarbtitinovka-Noua' a
calpirtc,-Ilalcanice irr sccolelt: )(v-xlv a.chr., oclatd crr

11.flirr'. (L{epnsrx 1.978,

cle',tlrnrinlLl"saltulciLlitaljll;lii;rrrtitatir,all:rodr-tceriiceltrrilor.inacesteregiurriinsecolulalXilIa'Chr.,
secolLri al ,KIl-lea a'chr'' la Dunarea Mi1cclnstituird ir*c,:rllrli timp inrpulsur unui fenom,:n sinrilarin
118).
locie gi perl'eria csricii a EurrrJrci Centr^lc: (Eouxapen 2002,
norcl-pont cir a apari{iei celtur"ilor in
originea
obse,rvalril: facurtr: cle l,.S;. Boik1rr:v cu privire la
indirecte'
ba;:iriul calpa1ic t;tutt cr-)tlfirnia1e cle lntrltiple dii1e directc Ai
rlsziriteanir - c:eltltt-i de tip L'obcr.ikovka'
factur'5
ln p,ri*ul rii'd trebuie nrcnfionat ca, artel'ac'tele cle
excltisiv la est de
cte tractilie Se.mlno-Turbino q'a'' arplasate
SOs3f i clc ti' ,,sLublraja", r''rirlfuri rje litnc;e
i989' fig' 6'6; 7'6; E'6; Chirica' Tanacar.pali (Dereaecv zooz, r'at. :il,B1:4C,C; 68,11+11;$aclurschi
(Mc,rintz I',)l8,fig. 53), ?n norchlBulgariei (qepHr'rx 1978'
sachi 1gEi,l, lll2, tig:. g.g:10.-: ), in Mtrnreilia
culttn'ii Noua qi grr:pul Coslogenl' iar pe de alta' au
rai:.,r. 40.8.10). coreleaza pc ,Jc o parte cu aicalul
tiLrziu clin nc,r'clul lvlalii Negre, din etapa timputle
a'rlogii,ir.r com'lexele cele nu trmpulii clln bronzul
gcr-i0l )'
1980, 65-85; Leskov 198 1'
a ,::llturit Sab;itinovka i.Bcldi<lLrr:v' Leskou'
id,:i, constrture cazul cultrttii Noua' Epicenn'Lrl inilial
ce,l nra.i concluclent exenrplu in acelsta orclir,e de
Basrrabiei ;;i Podiqurl vloljovei, unde sunt concentrate
dc fonnare l lLceritci cultu-i e:ste plasat in norcl-r,es,tui

inclusiv c:ele mai mari necropole a culturir Noua


miu rnullr: it,qeztiti ;;i ma,orilatea conrplexelor funerare,
de
rlunosctrti qi ce. mai numeroas[ 9i mai compacta grupa
(liilLr,'a ll0rl2, 226,t. i\nurne in it,leastd regiu,re es1,e
6'6;
fig'
Tal'. 3i, B1; 4i)C; 6i], 44l l, $adurschi 1989'
picse metiilice, clc facruri risl-itcan6 Q)ergadev 2002,
in
cescoPerite r:zolat cit qi in depozite' cu arraiogri

crlL3

7,0; 8,r:1; Chirici.i.'farrasachi 1984, 122,i'ig.9,S;t0,3),


(Leskc'v l9til' 98)'
cotnplc.trlle tirrnpr-u'ii ale: cultu-ii Sabatinovka
reprezinta: sincroniz:rnele culturii Noua cu faAlr"e ar5;urnente in srus..in,erea celor men!:tonate
rvvietenberg c-D. Montec'-r Ia-IIl' cu etapele trmpurli ale
zeie f,i'rle rle cultut'tlor l(.marow,
j'nceputu[:i culturli Noua piina
au tr'ermis plasarea
c,Lrltgrii Sabltirrovka gi cu Sirubna.Ja lit'zie,care
(Sala tggg,l7; Idem 2002:"'227); rectificdrile cronologtla inci:putr"ri ser:c,luluial Xr/ -lea a.Cfrr'.
(Gerskovid 1999; Sava 2002); datarea actuald' in
e,i abs.rute il c:omplexuriu,i sabatrnovrra-Noua
cljn nordul Mtarii Negre 9i de la Dundre'a de Jos
traza analogrilo[ egerce, al f,:rcare]oI rnetalurgice
sabatinovrt<a,-\ioua; apartenen!a fondului
(Firoir<o t995, 151.1, sincr.:nizarecu c:ompleiul curtural
comurritiliL:r arhirice ponto-caspice'
culturlLl cle baz:i iir comprt:xului curtural sabatinovka-Noua
cum ar fi habitatul' ritul funerar (Sava 1998;
ccnfirrnatf q;i cle analiza ^ltor categ.rii de materialt:,
ldem 2]002: 2004).

-na!;g

i1

4y1p]og1c,i. Setie t;touti

rlriginerr rzisdr-iteanii iL orizon{ulLu timpuriu de piese metalice din cadrul culturii Noua, este conde tip Gherf,ir.math;i cle evoluL{ia tipclogic:i al unor tipuri, cumr ar fi de exemplu selerele cll carlig
Der1997,32;
([epraues
rnrinr:ytr, clre au,:r,,:lur,t rh,n sccerele cu cirlig arhatce de tip Borodaevl':a
celor menJional.e vine qi faptul c6 formele drirg1*rcer 2002, l5-l). in a1'ari cle aceasta, in sustine,rear
(tipul Ruginostjce al brrnzulur tir:riri clin spirliul carpato-dundrean, celturile d,e,,ti1t tlansilvinean"
cLr clrlig.
nolrsa), ,,r,arianta r'Sslritei nd I tipulur transilvdn,:an"(tipurile Rii$e;rti 9i Negreqti), secerele
rhspanNoua,
al
culturii
r;r,:ccr.,:le cu ,:loud orilicii ll ntiner etc., apar mai ?ntdi in mediul est-cal"patlc
rJi'du-se ulterior;i i1 T'ralsiivanir" odatd cu perrtetrarea in aceasti rr:giunea a purtdtorilor acestei culI.s1i ri,{epra.{ee 199)',ir,24-,:-};l)erg;rdev 2002,1313, 1,40-141,145-146, l52l-153).
(tipul Ruginoasa). ,,vaI.-lne,lc clrntre tilludle ,]nLlnierate, cum ar fr celtunle de ,,tlp transilvbnean"
mai probabil au avut ca
riilnli,L risiniteand 1lipulr.i transilvdnean"(tipurile.RAqeqti qi Negrr:9ti)' cel
de la NIalye Koceltr-rriXe clle tip l\ralyer Kopani, cLrnoscute dupd lorma cle tutnat rjin atelierr-rl
(Boi1klrer,, I..,::skov 1980, lhf.4,39a) Ei descopenrile finite de la est de Carpali (Petresclrnani
'rot,rtipr
ceea ce pni.rin-,bouilr i9r53. l'iig. 14,1 ;BuzduLgan 1970, fig. 2,:t; Iconomu, Chigcd 1994, fig. l'3)' In
o fonnf, intermediard
.,r,ari1nt,a r;rsirriteali a tipului transilvi,nean"(tipurile Riiqesti 9i NegLeqti),
'cgte
(Dergadev 2002,
reliefat
bogat
decc'r
cu
prrrlr'bili.u fgst r:elturil: cu fafetrele arcoi<lale., Prevdzute
-ttf .l l,B; Ilonornur llOt-)ll fig. 3,10).
metalurgiei cultunt
Ilste concluclerrtri in (cea ce Jrriveqte iegatura celor doui etarpe in dezvoltarea
(Dergadev 2002, Taf' 3l'81-7)'
Noua gi csrlponenl.a depro.zrtului rle la Hristrcr, clin noldul Basarabiei
mlner, care reprezlnin cadiirl acestuia, rpr: lr)niri cetturile <ie tip Riiqegti 9i secerele cu do'ud oriflcii la
se afla un celt cle
tii tipuri clLagn6stri::,,: pent::,.r sefiiler tractilionale IldEeqti-Bdleni 9i Loilova-N1andregti,
Vorona Nou6' la est cte
tip l-obo.jl<6ukr,. ,r,,u.ieste aproape iclentic cu celturile similare desr:operite la
40 10), in bazinLrl Niprului Mi1Carpalr ($"rC'rschr 19E9, f ig. lB,6). ?n Bulgaria rigepnsrx 1978, ra6n'
l'-rciu (-[e;leHOilKKI]rl t96 l" prlc' 8:i'1'2)'^
qnfrr:rr rre
cercetare necesltatea unei ine'rtabi le reac'foate cele nrent.ionii d cleierrninh in ot.,,.lirrr
de c
staJiull actual
apartiniin,cl bronzului tarzlu din spatiLrl
rlrali:1ir-1 schemelr;r croirolog1ice consacrate pieselor metalice
'
atiet a datelor absolute, cit qi a
cur'rrto-du.niirean-nordpor,Ltic raporlate la schema lui H. Mi.jller-Karpe,
cglOt

relatiirre'

1- --:^.-..^^.^ +r,.A*-l ^,--r de


rr,- datele
rior+rc prezentate mal sus' tre5ule (Je
^rezr.nf,
in,:eea ce pri',,'cqte, spaltul calpato-nistreanL. linAnd cont
tlrzir"r, sunt de origine risdribronzului
epocii
apa(inand
rnetalicc
pie
se
tirnprurii
cr.nsiat,t ca. cerle rn;ri
purtitorilor tradlliilor culturale
r::a'ii $i i;i fac apr'ri!ia j'n acesrjeritoriLr odatri cu penetrarea gi stabilirea
cultural sabatinovka-Nouaclin .nord,-rl N4iirrr l\egr.c carc au stat la ba:za constituirii compl:xului
ac:este piese sunt reprezentate de celCoslogeni (liouxapen1Of,.Z,l.l5-., i8). in spallul catpato-nistreatl
(Dergadev 2002'Tal' 40'
trrrilc de tip LoLrcrlkovkl clescoperite izolat la BriLiuqenii Noi, Chiperceni
7,6; 8,ti),incomplexeledelaDelent'
B.Cl),lba1eEti.Srt,;nujeni. \/ortlnaNoua([iadurschi 1989,fig'6,6;
2002,]'af' !]l'l;Taf' 68' A4l1), de secera
IL[cicni, Ilrist.ici t.Olni'ica,'fa'lLsachi 1984, fi13.9'8;Dergadev
(Chirica, Tanasachi 1984, fig. 10,3); dirllile tubude rip Bor.ocl'evk:a tlin ca,irul depozirr-rlur de ia Deleni
A415' A419)' Acester
lrre gi platr: din ca.clrul ccpozitulr-ri cle la Riiclen,i (Dergadev 2002, Taf.68-69,
sunt localizate exclucare
Kopani,
grupe cle artefacte- probaLif tlebui: atribuite rpi c,:lturile de tip Malye:
fi rrr-imitri Radeni-Deleni' din punct de
siv la est de carpalr. cir.rrpa r-r:spr:;tiv6 de artefiLcte, care poate
qt l-ozova-Mlndreqti 9i reprezinta
,,,r34ere cror.rol'grc, e ste .rrierr6ara seriilor tradili,cniile Riqegti-Baleni
din punct 'Je vedere tipologic' are ttn capfirria faz:atetapr3i trntptrni a metalurgier culturii l'Ioua, care
depozitlll OdAile Podari din Muntenra (Morintz 1978'
l.ac.[or rdsa'tr:an. ,,\ceasii grutrra este sincroni, ctt
1978.ra6r 40,8'10), cu grupul de
fig.53), qi descgp,::r.idle iiolate de pe teritoriul Bu.lgariei(QepI{bIX
I-obcrjkovl<a, Kabakovo' Trechizbenoje'
clepr0zire staro-Ilykovo., lJorisovka, ulianovka, Kryms\oj9,
de fbrme de tuntat Golourov
Elis,:jeviii. J3laglor,'i:5denk.a (Lesl<orr|t9"St,96) 9i grupul de compliexe
aceste grupe de artefacte
(Bo,:karev. l,erkc,,, l9g0 g0) din etapa timpurie a,iutturii sabatinovka"lloate
t.impuni al complexului cultural Sabatifbrnieazii Lrr-, or-i;zorr,: tipoLrrgico-cronologic caracteristic fazelor
Negre avAnd prrioril.ate cronologrcd fala de cele de
no'ka-Nor-ra, Lrnele din c.r,mplexele ciiniordul lr4arii
li.r

c'atllttic'
1t,-'literia estic;i lr bazittttlut

timpuriu aparfin 9i depoziteXe BaDintre comp1,:xele ttin spa{iul carpato-nisl.r'ean, acestui orizorrl.
culturii Noua' in
leni.lllrni.L,rteni li Hilstici" r;at'e rel'lectd a doua f'azdaetapei timpurii a metalurgiei

lpltl

ty-|.

.ltr.

r'6sdl'iteiini a tlpul,ing[ tipr-ir.ile riisdritene apar gi irrovalii specifire acestei c]Lllturi,,,vrlrianti-l


la mirner' secerele de tip
rui rrans;.Lr'ane.a.,,(ilipyr.ile Flrigegti gi Iriegle;iiy, iecereie cu doud orificii
Chcrntf,nerqti, garc vor ti tiptrrrl: diagnostice in etapa urnldtoare'

car.0 pe

a metalulgiel cuitr'rrii Noua' suint


I)ep,rzit::lc chn sp;,rtir-Ll ci|-pato-nlstrc)a'1, care aJiarlin etapei clasi':e
(]ot'ani, tliiveqti, DoljeEti, llluda, Ghermdnegti' Heleqteni' Mlnurr-ndto:u.ele: l' est cte C:arpa';i .- Bori,,,
Nistn-r-Prut - Alexiindreni'
d.;t:a, l/[oqrra, Ncgleqri. Raqi::pl.i, Ruginoas,a. Titns;a, figanegti; clin interlluviul
SAneqti, Moleqti' Aceastri grupa
Chi:;inarr, l)r:rn,:u [[. Lo;zol'i:r Il, Vdrvdreut.:a, Novotrojany, Hecrul Nou,
seriei lJriu-DomineEti din Transilvania'
car.c poa1e,fi nunriti Rl:;egt:i-L,r:r;:ova. cst,3 sincrond cu clepozitele
()rehtlvo, Becilovo, Rajgolodka, Ingul, Knjaz'grigor'evka' Jrlravlinclep,ozrteler Drenteqlgvka, Dob;lanka,
de tumat Krasnyi Majak' dtn
ka. r\r,rlarnovl<1, Nili6pol',I(ur'1ad'i l.oz;y, cu grupttl de,:omplexe defornle
clepozitele seriilor Drtrinr cle Josetlpa tiLzie a cglturii baba.tir,,:r,ika (Boi:kaleul Leskot' t980, 74). cu
gi Nicc,liu: I]Slcescu-(iula Dobrogei Cin Dobrogera'
Or,lac
- din \4untcrLtailce,stei
Koelipe a mt,:talurgiei c,.rltuiii \oua, celtr-Lrile' <J'e tip Lobojkovka' Ma]ye
1n-C,rlr.rzitelc
intilnesc. tn schimb sunt caracp'nr. celttLr.ile cu fatetele ur,.;oi,Jale cu.leclr Lrogat relir:filt, nll se ntai
gi virfurile de' lance din etapa tinpr'rrie' care
terliticer ?rLcr:rntrnurre delt:ilr plate 5i tubulare, purnnale,le
etape:]unt r:elturile de tip,,transilrif,nean"
suifcrd rnodific[ri neinsemnate Tipuril,: ciagnostice acestei
RAgeSti Ei Negreqti), secerele
(trpr-rl R:r,reinorsr-r),.,varianta r.isiriteanii l tifului trans lvdnean"(tipurilt:
ctitioLrii ciri{'ir--ii ll mAner', ris(:,31'ele ctr cirlig de tip Ghe'mdneqti.
apa(inind sfir;rtulr-u epocil btonz;ulut esUltirnrul gl*rp 6e cgmpiexer clin spa{irl*.orpri,r-nislt'ean
componenla acestor cornplexe afe un calacte constrtr,ril <1e ciepozit,ele ll,qe ni, Tomei;ti 9i MAndreg'i'
culturii Noua cu c:ele halter.mrxt, clep.zitrrl cle la Iligt:nL gi r<xne:,;ti irlbinii elernenteleiaracteristice
rloud.elemente menJionate' con{ine 9i elemente
lslirttiene tinrpu'r. cel de liL fVti'dreqtr 1;e lhnga ':eie
tirnpurie'
caracteril;trcer etapci sab:rtiilrl vl< a titzic: -- Belozerka
grr-rpr:le de depozite din spaliul 'saryatoqi
absolute
Di' pu.nct cie 'ecirr.e al ;r.onologiei relative
orizonturi cronologice'
nisrtrean r:r,rclcn{tate rnai sut; pt'rt fi deiimttate in doud
Rddeni-Deleni 9i FII'istici-Baleni' Acesta este
clepozit':,
de
Pri;'r:l orrz:,irnt i'clude,-riouil sttbg'upe
sincronc:ucelrr}a|tlmpul'ir'rgrupciemorrLrmenteacultur.iiNoua,locirlizatinnord-vestulBasarabierSi
de depozite, Rdqegtipcri,gur r\4olcro,v,:i" c.ei cie-ui-ctoilea orizont incrude crr:asemenea clor-li subS;rr-rpe

L,,rzovi.ir;illi;eni-Miir,dreqli.;;idinpLrn:ltcleveclerec'ronologicproatefisincroniz'atcur''ariantasub(Sava 20b2, i!'27)'!tn1\tdu-se cont de cr6nologia


carpaticii gi 'vaLian1r t'ansilriineand a:tiltu'i fioua
sincrone. di''ordril Mdrii Negre gr de la DLractLrarir r,Lcurtu'ji Noua gi c1;.r-area focareror.metarurgice
c|:pozite clin spa(iul carpato-tttstrean me)ntronate
niirea,ce Jo:; ()rit.reko i99.5,149-15l), grupele cle
.up.ins inrie sfirgitul secorului xvl - inceputul secolului
nr:Li sus, se incrcrr.eazd in irte:rvarur de iifif
se plirseazd'intre BC-FIA (dupa
XII i. (lhr.. iLir,J:,n pttnct rJ:' 'vedere ' t''onologlei central europe)ne'
Fleinecke) 5i intre' MDrII-lilllil (dupA Ftrinsel)'
BlBtloGR,tFlE

I}rldkat.cr,.Les|:r.lvl9$0:V.I}o3l';r'e.,,,A.Lesk0l''Jtttig.-uLndSp.itb|0nZeZeiilicher3trfifilrmenirnnijrdlic

PilFXX, t (lr{iinchen

1980t

487-490'
desc.periri tbr-tuite. Mernoriit '\ntic1 vitatis II' t970'
(Iali
(I)
1984)
judefr:lui
Iali
.f
Repertc,ritrl :*he,logic iil
Cthirica. rr.r,s*chi l9tj,+: f Clhir-i::;r, l,{. Tanaiachi.
)(x' 9 (Sttlttgan 2002)'
b'onzezeitlicht,n Metalifundl aus Moldavien PBF
rrnd
lLne.lithischen
Die
I).rgadt,.u lcol: V. I)crgaie,r,.
untelen Dnepr und an der westkiiste des
(.;:raftovid, Str.rcien zur splitbr.,'zezeitli:hr:n Sabatinovka Kultur am
G,:rsko,,,ri lgrg().J
riurasien- Abteilung' \/erlag Mal're
Band l', Deutch:s Archiiologis':hes Institut

Il.rzdug'n t970: c. [3,;rduga., ci.r,:va celturi pr.v,:nite

cnin

A:2.r,.s,;hen .\iteeres. ,\rchli.l.gie in Eurasrer,


Lr;iCort Cinrb,l:I-lllhden4V'estt 1999'

in Birnaul romAnesc
r-i.giikan lggg: F. G,,giltan, Brc,nz:ur timpuriu gi mijrociu

;i

pe cuu'sur infe'ior al Mu'eqului' Cronologia

9r

dericcpetil'ilecenteta].]]ibl]:iist.et.Ach.Biinatica23(Timi$.laral999).
liliinsel

lg1116:

Donau'
Gliederung de| rlteren Flallstattz'eit an der unteren
u. Fllursel. Beitr.iige z,u.regionalen unJ.nronotngischen

Beitr. Zur un_u. tntt]g,rr.h.-ir.,r:h. d.-Mitrelrnerer-Kulturrarumes

(1. Iccirontu,
lc:.rnomu, Llhi;1cd l9!)4:
1994, :19 l-21li6
20()-.i: rlr.

Icon.mu

?003, 27:l-2:ii
I( .dkc, lr)95: \/.

ic.n.mu,

i6eko.

r\.i

6/17 (Bonn 1976)

judelul Ia;i AM XVII'


Cf,iita' Descopeliri irheologice in comrrna \iirndtori'

drrte arheroi.gice dr:spre jurle{ul

vaslui rezultate di'tr-o dorratie ANl x)(III-xxIV'

Eurasia 'A'ntiqura l ' 1995' 8l-163'


Zlul brc,ze,zeitlicSen Se',i"rlfTnung in der U[ raine'

--- - --eg;U-AlgJPsts

a..

eie

nou d

PBF XX' -5 (Miinchen


L.ei;ko' I98 l:.{. l-eskc,r,,, Jung- und spitbrrrnzezettliche Depotfunde im ndrcllichen ll';hwarzrneergebiet'
r 98l ).
(l) lBucureqti 197E).
Nlgri11rz l!)78: lj. Nlopnrt, Contg butii arhec,Llgice la istoria trar:ilor timpurii
der Alpen' RonischlvlLiller-Karye l()59: [{. ir4uller-li.arpe. Beitrige zur Chrrnolcrgie deL Ument'eldeziet nordlich und si.idlich
(iermlrnis,ctre Fors;chungen

(Berlin 1959).

"12

Pllin,:ltSl996:N.Paltn.ca5.\'llcri1.icareaar1reoJogicdttp,t.clbtor
(iiurgiu) StllVr\ '41 l9c)r't 239'):"91.
palincrs 20ff-r: N. t,ullncrr;;, Arc:tli.c-rlogrschr:,Auswertung von 'aC-Proben aus der s;pritbronze:leitliche bet'estigten Siedlung von Popegtr (lt uniin ren )./\rc h, I'orlbl, -'r 0, 2 C00, 209 -226.
in M.oldola. SCI\'' 3-4, t9:::i,44:i-48 tPctres.:r't.I)irlrtlor,itli9(i.l:M.I\trescr.r.Dirnbor'r!a.Datenr:ir,alativladescoperirilederrbiecte
2rnlui qr inceprrttrl Flallst.rtt - .rlui din Moldova' AN'I Il-III' 1961,251-212'

(Buc:r:refti t977)'
Iretfes,.lu-l)imbovifrL l!) / /: M Fttrescu,Dirrbovita. Depozitele de bronzuri din Rornlnra
p.pa. Borollku 1996: ,:r. Pop,l1, li. Boroflkl. Consideratii privind cultut'a Noua. .Aqezalea de la Jichindeal, jud' Sibiu" SCIVA 47'
l9!)(i.

5l

r:)

t.

Il'ursul9(jJ:M,IlrrsLr,t]rieVerl:..:itungciel.BIonzeh(n.teinl|ranssilvanienvomErrde,derBlrnzezeit
l)acia N,S.

Sava l99g: E.

\'lI,

l0'
I)ie llol r: der ,,o:irlichen" und ,,westlichen" Elementr: bei der

l9r5.l. 177-l

Sr,LVu.

Cienese des l(ultur"komplexes Noua-

ljatratiil.lvklt.1n:D'll;Karl:-itenl-relckerruncldieoSteufop.iiScheSteppe.Norrrac1enbervegullgenutrdKultlraus
Machnik) (Mijrrchen-Rahden/\\'estf' 1998), 261-312'
chLisrlic,herr lr,Ie1all:zcit t+doo stxr v.chr.) t.Hrsg. B..Hainsel und J.
iculitir (Chi;;i r- ziu 1!)119), .5."1-8'{'
Erlbrschur,ll spatbronzezeitlicher Bestattungsnten zwlSrva 100.2: .8, Sava, Di,: Ilestrrrrungen de:'Noua-Kultur" Ein Beitrag zur
19 (Kiel 2002)
schc:n l)ner;tr und Westkar'ritten (Hrsi-:, B Hinsel) P'A'S Bd
In:
a epocii blonz.r.rlui t.com;rlexul cultural Noua-Sabatinovka)'
lirzie
pelioarla
din
ecllntllnice
aslricte
Srrr 100{: [r. Savl. L]rre,e
t38-7:i'
Strrclilr in likrrlot enr (..ihtnr i.he f'tlstici ( t]hiiiniu 20(X),
r.rre'nL Ict.t N

$lldLrrsc|rr1989:P$ai1ur.scIli,iiesentetalir':ec1inepica
1939, 158 -1E2.
[:icl.ttiltpee;200]|:B6o.'llittltee,\,1er-a.tt-tt'tqe'cr!IeTonopbI.Ken1,.l.blEBponbl?noxI,lno3J1]Het',l
Hocrtl Il cp,eltHeBel(o}|'be ({.artu'[Ierep6l'pr 2002), I i:i I lti
xlll-\/III BB. Ao H rt:l fiHec'rponcxo-flpy'rcKofo N{exn!'peqbt
J{r:pt.ruee 197-5: B. ;!l,rlprauer. fipoHro,lste npe.fMerbl

(KHruurreo

19,7-'i).

(KHLurruea 1986)'

B ,lepmuen. N[0:l!.al]Hfl lt coc:eAHr{e repllr()pllrl B 3floxy 6poH-'rt'l


K}'n'blyp
l9t)l: B. ,Llpprtuer . Me rallrtqecKl{e lt3leilrlia x npo6leue nelte3l'lca

jllr.'prrir.renr 1i)E6:

,lJr:prir.rerr

Floplrro

r'rr rr irc h:o

r() perilr-) r a

Kr'r ur

rr

paHHero raJlburara Kapnaro-

rrly I 997 )'

|-ler.pecx1,-,{utNti5oetlLtal960:NlIi.,p..*..,-4o,Nt6oeHL.a,KcrtieLr5poH:oBofol,lHaq.uopaIlHexeIe3Ho|oBeKaeN4o,'1ogegcgeIV' 1960' 139-i60'


Te nOcJle,{lHllx ap}.e,J-:Ictrli'lec*u,,', put'n'Orl'ltt' Dacia N S''
'[
Ha.[HenpoBcKotrl flpanO6epe;*cr'e (Kriee 1961)'
nt:ptlcrll
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Rclista Arheoloqic

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Seric rlorrri

)' ,:. Flcreo-l{o'roBcK (lepraven 1975,25), ilorpe6eHl{t I KypraHa 4 y c. JIU\rriHcKoe t.l,lsanosa, lJer,rusnroBa 1993, l7(i-183), norpe6eltl4s !) xypraHa 16 y c. Hnxo;rr,cxoe
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A,ry,,tt,HItrcrn. Xaxe), 1939: C Ir,4. Aii,,rr,rlt{xoe, B.fI.
198,{ r. (KtrutrHEn 1989',67-70'
Pacxonrcn Ha noceJtel{trn Kayruanst' AI'iM e 1985
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Crapble
Txaulx. Haro,lriH paHHero x(e.Ile3Horo^BeKa c floceleHrlfl

y'utno'* lv{oitiloast (KuuirlHee ,l990)' 105- 107'


bvr,ll:alrr. ,r\p.r\::o,rorH't( cKtle llcc"le.foBaHllt l\{o'qoro'"
ceeello-3afla'ilHofo [lpuuepHorloplr H l'putrta
lieii.nex,rrr l9i)1!: B.B. Eieilner.tn, KypfaH I )',c. u-l3pr6aHXa ApeBHocrn
IV, I t!)1,6:l-79.
(Knee 1972')'
6pc'n:oeoro aexa u CenepHoii Yxpanrre
Iiep,e:ranr:r.iar l(.)l2t C..ti:.Bei:,t:rancxas,'lpejiHHl:t ne[)rlo!{
MetaJijttt'trcKHe il3AeJlrit 3noxrr 6poll3bl n3 HcropntlluHxaperlKo'
BLrqrapes. lllrrur.:ap,euro ZCit li: B.('. Eo,rxapee.3.C
Ko-KprfeBeA,tecli(!ro Ntl/rl iq t. 6eH.1epu. B c5: Iit|altrml\i2'2001-200llKt'rultlres'2002'592-595'
.tre, llocen,:Hrre KOHUa 6por:r3ouofo BeKa fl,lt1','f -['v e IIlrx(He\r l-io'DyHaBbe B C6: ',{penuoillir',i),rc,e lgg.l : B.ll. Eia'q.,
trr C'errcpo-3anil.!.llorc) [pllrtr']pHo]'lopu (Krre a L9fi l)' 7 l-84'
(Krree 1990)'
e Ceeepo-3analttolrt flptlrepHouopr'e
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Krr':qnc,
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Mexn'rtevel]HbIe rlBfl3tl B 3lloxy no3aHeii 6pourlt ua
6p'utui (,,o N,!arepuirnarr 3arraAoscxori uacrepcxci;i). B c6:
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lacrti l{uecrpoacxo-l[y

Tliepr.auein

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flprivepHoN'ropb'l Il l(purua IV' 1993' I76 183'
p-rra L)jle,:cr.ii c,5nac).,.lj ,l1penHoc'r'tr Cenepo-3anatrrolo
pariHee d{eJre3o B .q(lcoc)renll n.*ay !,Hec'rpon rt Cltperort (xy'rsr1'pa Ko:ur-Caxapua)'
l.arly.Ct,i 11000: ll.l'. KaLrr1,6r,

Sltalrtnr plus 3,' 11000, I lI-I1t'i'


e 1958 r' KCt'lA AH CCCP 8:t' t961' ll3-124'
\4e:rrcx,cgll 1961: t\ ll Merl-rxosa, Pa5orur n floxrter:rpoBue
KCI4A AH CCCP 89' l96l' 30-37'
i\le,rnxcnil l96ll: r\.I{. Merl:trona, Ky;rpaHrr y c. Ct,rori,:urrri'
rlpuuepKypra}rHoro N{orrurbHuKa. B c6: ceeepo-3ananHoe
oiicrpax 199r:,f.r,1. oirc,rprrr., ().rarr.rporr<e cyoo;rc,nc){oro

H01\{t)pbe_K()til.aKTili1,I'i0HaApel]Hl'tXK),'qbTy.](Krresl99l)'82-87,
Mort{JlbHllK de-nolepcxoro BpeMeHII'
orpoulr:Httcl 19'7-5 El'13" Orroule'lxo' Honuti't K)'p'rilHHblil

B xu: Cru$cxui"r uttp

sncxrr llo3rHei;i
Lr.A pagairoeuu, r4.r rr,:purxoa, Kontparcroe iloce,qeHue
u.,ul|i|ll,',lili};li|i ill!?:qTHIrl.,.u
(KileB
53-66
1982)'
flpttuepnorvropbfl
AltxeolrOrr.rurlcuile

nal\4

6pou:ur B c6:

Ceeepro-3arlaaHOr()

14 Bo'rslsH TuluHeqxas Ky"lbr}'Cpeauuir nel]l{o,I 6fouronoro aexa Ilprrxaptlsrr{'fl


BoJI]'tHll t'l 3axapnaru r'Krree t990)' 78-88'
pa. [!o.rrr,tHil r.r.:l;:ir;apna't,1. Apxer:.norrrr ilprrxapnarbq'
npo6'revtt'L1lesc,v66ornrr' i't'TtlepHrxon' B'I4"fl'IItrruyri' Hexoropute

Cseuruuxc,r l9!)0: 14.[(

Cse tuH!Ixos,

cre,6ortlir. t{epHnroa tr.,rt,,n)n 19](t. nB.

B c6: Mareprlalbl no apxeonorurl Ceeepo-3ana'uuoro

ser-lue:ii ltcrollt1lt Cct r:po-3iana"ro.o nf ^t1'"tn'op"


flptrue:puolroprn (8) (().leccrr 1976)' I 8(r-201'
'fepenc,Nxrrtr l!)7(i: ,r\ l:1. Te peHor'txllH' Ktlvrlepltirurt (Krtes 1916)'
o6racru B c6: PauHntj ixele3'forueg l98l:I'.H.'loules. iartlt'suxtt O."ot.prn*o reploaly c. Crpynot': OAeccroi;i
(KHee I 98 I )' 2 L32
r{btii BeK Cleaepo-1}anii. I Hc)Io flplll{epHoMopb'l
19-30'
n flo.ayHaal':. Pocr:t'tficxaq Apreolorur 3' 1992'
[-,crree, I;cJo3(]pcKrli{ nro.,rr"uu* E1,gypNe,,rs
Torues 1992:

f'H.

91

\'1,/r,lrrrl 1. At

(MocxBa
nrlrl \lerajtnootjpa6o'rta tta lOro- lantrAe CCCP
XIV lBLrr:uregtr
lliblioteca'frlcol.gica
la
Cazlclia
de
Belozt:rka
Agul,nr<.v l99r(r: lS. drg.,rlnik.v. l\,::,:r'c,pola cultu;ri
r 996 ).
N'leddelelser (Ser' I l- l )
gfegues, et or.ient iles. Histolisir-Frrologisrle,
i31ini..::rrberl: rgr6: chr. Blinkenb,..s, tiibules

Ll:pnr,t q i9-1,1 El

ll. t'leprlurx,

1976)'

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spitbronz,ezeitli':he Gulsf.rmen im
,.,,,,,*i;lJllt'll.t;ii,lntil],,u \,,. g.r:fr.a.er,, M I-esko'v. Jung-urrd
Sichrr'alzrneer',sebiet. PllF XIX''tUntl.ttn 1!)8U)

niirclliqhen

1'
.lude:tul Ciala!i. Danubius xllli-xtv' 199'l' 5-2
i:r.udir, 1992: lu,i, l,irudru. Desr:operiI rrr-heologice: in
arheologice
Ct:rcetdri
Vaslui'
Jud
ie la Raitl'u Cuzei'
[,uzclrrqa. l()]gt, (:.13r,rz:d,u;1.n, Ce tt:trirtle arhe,lkigice

'.t)'4-211.
[]nic.lh.Lrc

i!)!):i: 'r,'

L.r,?,ichittc, De:r I]r'onzefurtcl von Dliclu,

,:,?;.;,il'..,,,

,,.,,,1i.::'ll'o\?i't,l

1919'

]ir' Ililrmila ln: Ilr(rnzefirnde rus Rumiinien' P'\S Bd' l0

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u,., .ne.ritrrischen und brrnzezeit rchen Metrllri'unde aus

xx

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*,."...,l'ixiil'L'.l!,;]:,,I3e:itriige;ltLl.t'egiiltralerttndc.hl.ott
[)()nar (Ijrsir \,. Ntilolcic)-tt;rU dO. 10,-ierlI
lu1iillt:r'.Kiil.1li,1r;5ir):|.l.N4Lillr:r-Kll|,[,i].l]eitl.lie

tld.

2l

rl-eipr;4.ie

('fext) 'IeilII (Abbl (Bonn l9?6)'

i!r59).

,_

-_r..r..:

L^r-r.rr.

:d incizatd din sudtrl N{ol-

l,l,rs:rltiigf.rl:.\'['ilsz,ti,Gi.uprrl,Iirrt6tlani.l\suprii<lr.izontulr.tihalistattilLntinrplrriuctlcerllnl|(
Arrl. X'll-)lIV' l9116' (r5-91 '
.-er'i1}lil99;1:(-)l-er,,rt|'i.(ir...rprulI'lllircani-Hln:,ca.Asp.recl:u
(Br-rcuregti 1994)'
rnicd incizirtt-1. tn: tLelrrtions'rhrrrr:o-lll;'to-llellenigues
ciover , lv4etr.

2i)-256

irr <nrrirrl cernrro-brlclr'

!1tll.irttzl97E:SVIor'iritz,ContriL,t1iiar.heologlcclais]'orLatr.acilcrtimpurii.E1locabr.onzuluiirrspa1itrlcarplrto-blclnlc

n,.,,,,.l,.'il]i1]',*'.l1.],,l,t.\.rt.Ilttcsipl.'hIcmupr.rrincl
icelcertririle tlc

l:L l:{;,rh'rcLag)

1}lraco-Dac:iclr

YIII'

1-2'

39-7t

,.-^r,-,in,rre rqrrnr...r ;rsezirii enrtnime cle la GLdd


Nel5lLr..Biisl.italr]r]an.'.l!i8r:1:tni.t.le,gu'D'Basl.ab
leJos(II)(CErliragi 1986)'99-141'
tea(ir:;1.;re'r..t -,..i.Catar.qi.r---Lriturag,r-i"irizuliuiL^l)unirea -., a.,: g,.itt.'i:;chen inrel n PBF Bd' l6"x (lr'liinchenDie Fibel
Saprr,-rna-lsuiieiiar.akrs l,,r7g: Il. Srpouna-sakell.riikis,
(B'rcure;ti J'977)'
de. rronz'ri din rri.rnlnir
r-l: rrr. per.ri;cu-Dimrroril.i. ne'ozirele
a fietLrlui de la
,rr.ot..',,g1." in a:lezlrea din p.ima epoc6
petri:scu-Dir.rrbo,,rlu i1)53: Il4. perrt:.scu-Din-rt,.riii.. cercetiri
"l'f,nriLc,anL. S;Ct\,r l'V,3-'1' 195i;' 165-118
r-.i +,r--:,,,1i- cnor "t c:rrn;rtrr-Nistrean (iComple-

..,,,,lJ:llji;;ilr|i],1|.;

(Chilindu 2003)'
Sa.,,l200.]:Il'Slva.]ntcr.-i.erentec'lltur.ll-_:rontrlogic.:i:repocabrclnzuluitir.ziuc1inspa!ulCar.patcl-Nistr
tt'"' Ot clerctor hlbilitat in gtiinle
'Bircit'istolice
xul r:ultulal Nottii - Sabatinovkl) Autt"ttt"tt'j
arheoiogice d'3 sal'are
cerc':tdrile
v;;;;-;.r. v. Si'bu, . Niculila, \'
Sir.bu, ,'iicr.rlitd, Bircd rg9g. v.
tlII) (Br'rcrurelti 1999)'
norci-traci
alia
in
ln, cer-cetiri arheologi'.:,:
tbgs
(Lrxrai,r,r)
-."*p"n,,,
'ani:*g.,u,,
or'r,,,ka-(lar.tal
de lr

u, ,,.',*l;..

11,hb.,rir, rrl()cr: V.

\,iri:ust v. L

sr.rbborin.

c.rlrurr Br:r.zerka in

z.r.

tlintre Nistru gi Drunbre Thraco'Drrcicrt

SiudosteuIlorrfuncl,, ir.n .stlicttett Jug.slarvien' In:


it;rbr.onzez:eitliche unrl rilterhansrtattzeitliche
261 -285'
ropl 21n'isi:inen Itiiit0-1000v' r-lhr' (BetLin 1982)'
(Zadar 1973)'
g. 1'1n5;Ii-{-iitspalinr, llultura polja sa sar'imlt u sieverrlrj Hrvatskoj

u,,,,a'tt!r11]i'.jfl,;l
\/inr;ki-Ciasplrini

197.J:

eP:e[t

A a.l''t

n)' 5: r uKu

clt t nt, .'l x ui etr tt:'t H av x P


o?uu tr
-- ? n t t t tt z p a
O -Z'C t Z [''ttut tt t t :ty' P e c ny 6t ttx o
S
i,,U
r
u
u
S oO
e c x.
),1. I4tr tttlto t o: tt ttt 6e u.yt

]l

u c nt ttrtry nr
t

e c

.1

Px

o'-t

auuxoa'

1\l o" t () o 6 Q'


lt'! ct't d oa

()?

__

Pururlte

E vEDERE

cu

pRrvNrRE LA

S1qEU A,lieorlggqri.

S'err

e rtoud

oRrcrNrLE cuL.TURn cETrcE

Vasile Haheu, Chisindr.r

c' rt

l'

'l

ll t!)llC'tl

t,:.

t I i :.t

t',:

! t t,t I t

i: S

r.i f t t r r t t t I t t t

ft

I r r

(, t. 0

t..

[)('t)t.iiltt-K(.)tlcr! \t'll B. (;o ti. j.

ttttt,lit!|t-cttti oI'trte \t.I|

[i'rl._1

Perioada [-[allstattianE ilrzie, pentru teritorirle cle la est de Carpali, se caracterizeazdprin destramitl'ea mllsiVtilui cultural tt'tcic l;i a;raritia cultr.rrii traco-getice. Este prerioa.cia c1ncl ?ntr-o
zonf, de c'n-

tacL Lr;ine r:On{uratd:it ,lnllt ilt il(cel)latii ({epra.rr:.g 1992,26-31), au loc o serie de imporlante
translol'rniiri cultLu'ale . circ[c,lli"rta EliasaraLri-$oldanegtr i-gr inceteazd exisrienfa. (transfor.manOu- se!) gr are
loc aplritia l)c arena jsfrlricrt lt cclor rnai indepiirta{i stlamogi ai neamului:traco- gelii. Faptul ca tiacoElerlli sunt sticc;esorji <lirecti iLi purtilorilor culturii lBas;arabi- $oldinegti, fiinclpopoare inruclite, in prez,ellt elste ttnanint ac,ceptiit n literalurn de specialitate. Necesitd precizdri serioase cloar specificrir.ile
cAnrl- unde- cunt s-:\ petrecut acest proces.
Nu dentr:li am abordat .tceastd problema, pentru un spaliu geogrrrfic mai restrins- zona cle sud a
bazirrului j\istrulrri die: lr,lijlcc (l{aru.r(5a, Xaxey,Iie'naqrufi 1999,127:Kaguba, Ifaheu, Levitki 2000).
Eiste clrcpt, stlldiLrl in,::iil-t:.ii -r fosl f'a,:ut doarin baita siturilor cle habitar! (foftificafii gi agezdri deschise,
inclLrsit'e elementele irnlernr ce le calacterizeaza). Dar in pdmintr_rrile carpato-nistreano_ pontice nu_
rltiit'ul situl'ilot'cle epocd erstr: de peslc 2l)0, fiind dccurnentate gi 80 cle mopumente funerare (necropole ;i mornrinte izolrte).
['n'prezen':. una {:lir]lre cirecfiile prioritare a cercethrii culturii trar:o-getice o constiluie cea legatd
de c:ronologic 5i Jlcrir:rdizare. PerLtru u cletermina esen[a culturii, cx-igi1ea gi raddcinile sale, cit gi atri_
bittlrreit sa etnicii este ncrce:ii.i-, rnrli irtrii a prect:,.a.,.pe cit se poate cle exact, perioada, spaliul gi rnodalrtatel dc constjlLlire a lcestottt. Proceclitrll nu este delor: simplI nu numai ?n cazul culturii traco-getice.
Estt': destul de dificil a delei"trina se5linentul cronol,rgic de trans{brmar,3 a trdsAturilor gi a contura spaliul clle rnova{ir cioar i'n baza tnateriaiului arheologic. Clhiar gi in cazul datdrii traclitionale a monumgntell>n, in baza unor grLlpuri -itl ctonoindicatori cu leferinte sigure de cronologie absoluta (v6r"ful ,Ce

93

cip[tam un tacle podoibd' ceramrr':f, greceasci etc')


siigeata, s'pade aktrrakes, fibLrle, psalii, accesorii
pilclnii. .io, tr,,;;i implutuira' tle asemenea sunt riscante 9i
blour o're,:um statrc. sr:perflr:ii.l. Obliner.r

ton'pat.timerrt' pe buni dreptate \4'


baza unor analogir disparzrte inciepartate. La u.""
(Tka",:e ?nse arnn6 crcnol0gia culturir getic;e nu qtie nimeni"
Tkar:i.uk c)O.nstata intr.-un Stu,Jirr recent

clati'
ciuk

Ier

in

c)94.. .221',t

care cle lapt se bazeazd pe cronologia


in ultir'ii iini s- a incercrrt aborclarea de nc,i principir,
n:rai ales pliltru complexele'inchir.:latr'i. r:vrdenliere)a corelati,ri dintre diferite tipuri de vestigii, tlutr.q 1915, l2:5-139 Conovici
1976, i26;
sc. (\,/Lrlp(, 1967, g0-gl; lclirr' tg11 , r\lexandres cu

l2'r-l4l).
primul tAnd' este vorba clespre
l)ar i'Lc:estr: schcme nu lot fi utili:late pe larg, clrloarece' in

198(1

cornplexr:inchisr:(A''y'ulp':)"caresr'rnrrnaipuline;ceramica5lreceascd'cumaimr'rltdedoud
(M' Babel)'
i,u,, ,. l>azeztz'a pe prezrln!. monedelor
toarto qtanrprlete tti acelag,i l',:l (N. Cio.ovici),
clasificiirii tipologice a vestigiilol'cu anain m,.,re nirisLU.li c'iltinud sii fie pe larg urilizrLta nretoda
lrzl ;i lnirltlgiile t"e:pectivc'
.. -- siturilOr
^i...-:r-... cefcetat'3
calactel local st^.,,1 ,atai r cu
^r,nLln {.,rr:}ct(r1.
t)intre materilrie le traco-g,r::tice clepistate in rnajoritirtea
cu cafacter advenit;'
lnoclelatd c'r mi'a (in afal'a recip'ienti:lor
llltl'll.ilte ,'t intc.prrctat6 cloar :eramica prin punctur <re vecrere ernis cle c6rre Vasile plrvan (1926),
s

rlar pentru cirre esre unanim. a,rrleptat incd


despre carircterur s5u,
lrter.r. aprol,undat cre citre Ii. Moscar' trqs:1, 5s-61)
tmbelor epoci a f
iungr.ri Llncr pcriolrcle inclelurnE irte ale

it:rului

i'

general amorf'de-a

li-

lnasemenelsitutLlieves-ti1;iileclepistatedeepocIsedatau'cleregula'inhazaunorcl'orlolnC
hlLrnaqa(utior. 11 re1i9ienle.a veselei de lux)' arlne' piese degIe-Ceasca
caro-i sigiurir cerirnricd s,recirrs,ce
majorrtatea stturilor' Dar cle o par-te' ceramica
mel1t, pclrJoal,c ctc. scitice, Irecvente.a
1999' 174sf' se:. vI a'chr' (cepc'ea 1989' '159; Banaru
apa;-e in \{old,rvi} l,ncepind cu, rnijlocr-rt VI ir.Chr.
sec.
l\egr.: de la sf. lsec. \/lI - inceputul
iTii). ierr l)enl-r'Ll l'L.l.itor]ul .J.itt nord-r,esttrl Marii
p'ind nu
De alta parte' vostlgiile r;citrce timpurii'
(canarache i!)5//,8-9; Jleri::yucraa 1981,5)'
1992' 86-107)' In
(
secor rn'i tir;ziu crecit in rearrtate w-leaee,ccxaq
cienrr_rlt, sr: clatau p*rcrtjc c-u Jn
frinatd urn secol, I)entfu perioada sa ini!iaartiiicial
r,esrrgiilor
rqstlce.tirnpu,:ii-eia
aqa r,el, dijtarea
intre culturiie tracice
de,,irventat" n.!innt:a cle hiatus; cronologic
16, r.lin cirre cauilri,. iL,, nei,-,ie
fost
(Tra,ryn r9g9,2:.84). constatareil respectivri a
timpurrie
getrcl
gr
inr.uclite Eiasar.abi- $oldanr;rr
I5)'
fonnula,tE r1e c:dtre I' Nicutil6 (1987'

;i

Ree;lnc[dtncr:lee](pLlscrnaisus,oabordarenouiraprclblemeJorlegatedecronologiaculturtitracl':clsetiili, majoritatea nef iind locali'


p(rsibili ioar i' baza urrol indicatori cronologici
siturilot'tracode piese sp':cialele reprezintd inventarul
Arrr rnai men!tonat faptul 'J't categoriilt:
timpurii)'
(scrtice
cronologice sunt'egetice, cre provinenrastice
in
ge,tice, primorcliare: in recons:.rc1iile
Le:skov'
A'M'
Haher'r' Levi!l'ri 2000)'
(t,'r.i..
su,Ji:,si-g,:J..qti;1Krqiba,
(c:eltcr-ili'i:e);i
usve:s'ic6
tlt h"no$ament' presele d:: podoaba' majoritatea
susline cit nnumite ar[r:]'ar:te - a''melpie"

co-sleticrc este

g)nere

ten:;ilelormetali(::epc'tfiutrli:zliteexcltrsivpenrrusolu'ionareaprcblem'elorlcgatedecronolollieqtnu
Abordlnd
qi jdent:ficari crirt.rale (JIecxon r971,90)'
atlt
""'nu
pefltru urmarrrea sircc:siurr,il.r etnocrliurate
cauzatl
c6 starc'a cle lucruri este
pr.oblerrLe,le pericadei nornLin,rlizat",\.'';;i;;. T.iil::i:d
rtotodatd propunind
dL a re org..niza pe acesrca c'ono.gic",
dc ripsii rrateri'reror..., cirt :re nepurin!e
dcr,rsedr:ziceclelluetrchetzrrilcentic:e,-,*ontto't'''ttlu''propunin<leviclentiereaunoraspecter:ttlturale
182-213)'
sin:ronlce sltJ sil:ccessil'e ('\'ulpe 1970'
rle irrdicator
irr^icator cr.rno]ogic
crrlnolr
-^!:^^ -,, pondere
^.--rlerp de
a sitLtrilor haco-getice,;u
ftg:r7r:ninil lir categoriile clie inven|ar
bi.iuterii, ceramica de
pies,:.,Je hrrnaqament. vestimenta'e,
unelte
cr)
eprr.zentate
nr:rr.)steir s,unt
de contexte'
'rme,
iazut'i ceralnica locald in depenclen{i
inrrort ;,,rr,,rr,,,,,t'i greceasci -) qi in unele
suDesprea'parrlia$iev13llllijculturtigeticel.nregitrnepredomln6d,cui.rpiniidiametralopuse.Ele
,".Tr.r de ani in mai multr: zect de volume' Doar
arhicunoscute, l.irnd ve lriculo," a-rli,.,"g"r
rr

surrt

"..'' [;:,:i:,:',:l':;"J il;:j':1,ffiil'::'JT;,T,T;']; ,*


inrlue'!e

rnr;i:i;;',i;ill'j.],t,fi;i:;3'?;.

al culturir gerlco.in ter.itorriire

prea muite
voruar pe rm fundar ,racic rc,car, f6r6

caracterurl advenit
pro'u,i de.cdtre M. rk^ciuk, care declard
,sttb utJluien{a tribalilof pe spaMoicrovr:i istbric,: |de ra sud de Dtndre

9t1,

___

Reuista Arhgologicd. Seic: nortci

Illle ocupil[e iinterior dr: t'estigiile scitice timpurii gi ulterior cle orizontul scito-trac pirjolteniD[nceni-c)lone9ti. .A'f itrn ttii srmilare au fost e,nurntate
de cdtre E. Redina (2000, 243-250),iarA. Mel-1urko'r'a revizindu-9r opin rt despre gfanila dintre g.;i gi sci!i expusS in tg6g (Meljukova
1g69.61-g0),
af it'md de curind cii aceii:ta nr-i nu.rnai
ca trecea p. llrrt qi Duniire,,lar cii,.se gr survola
deseori
de cdr
tre ultirnir" (21001. .,19_30),
Penttu E' Rr:rJina Drlndre'a cle: Jos (regiunera
cultural-istoricS nistreano-clunirean[) incepind cu
ser:' 'vI a Chr' cons;tituie o parte conlponentd
a sciliei Mari cu o popuJtafie sciticd permanenta. Este
zr:rna di: c:ontact intre cr:rtrLunitdli etnice
cultural-istorice de pr,rpoilii, unde avem reflectate Iegdtun
rnlpL: clintre rstrLr,::tur.i g<t:lrocldreqti cliferite: rlr.es,t&trlri
de vite, agricultori ;i eleni (2000,243). in opi_
nla ilcestlri ;tuLtor' P'ilntru rerioacla de la ince,pulul s,ec.
V a.chr. in,regiuniie de stepl cre$te numarul
r;iturilot'9r I'es;tigirJor sc:ili:e. cr:ierLce nu se poate afilrda
despre cele trac.ice (Ibictem).
In ce ne' prlve:ile, ne-'lm el{pLls cleja opinia cu privire Ia
manrf'estdnle cultr:rale clin epoca hallstattiani:: tirzie in spr;1i111 crl.rDato_pontico_niitrr:iLn (Ka$uba,
Haheu, I_evi!kii 2000. 101_113). Totugi,
Itr''inrju-se in vetler,.: sitrLat rt cleata, creclem crL este
c'rzut sd revenim la ac,;asta mar amplu.
\{arri1'er''tzu'ile r:r't.1ural'' ciin epoctr hallstattiartatirzie?n
norciul z:oner circumpontice reprezintii, cle
t'apt, ultima transl'otntare :ultural-eeneticd pentlrl prima
epoca a fier-ului gi care are clrept rezultat inlocuit'ea culturii hallstatti:ne tirzii Basarabi-$olclSneqti (pentru
Dobrogea- Babadag III) cu cultura
traco-getrca (=.geticii tlnrprrrie).
'l'clt'binci desprt"e' irrpt-ttant':le schrmbdri
in cclrnponenla cr.rltulii matenale ctin spaliul CarpatoI)i'tniLt'ean Al. \'ultrrt,: subrlrrria c5 ele srunt in strinsd legatura
fls, pdtr.undr:rea in zond, aunei anumite
"pc'pulalii cle: caldleli din t,it" Llndel,il la ?nceputr:l
s.:c.ii a.Chr-. (V'ulpe 1970, p.203), Aceasta Ioviturli ;ruternici'r qi destabil;r: atoare a afectat nu numai cimpia Dundri:r gi
cursul superior a Murequlur,
dlr si Molr.j'rva. o s;ituatic ltraclic identicd este se:mnalata ie cdtr.e G Simion pentrll
regiunea Dunirea
de Jos (l)c'blo"e'a'1, irtltdr: I urtatorii orizontului Babaclag III sunt "bulversati'i
cle aceieagi cdlareli nontlt:lt clin est, Llrmel3 criirot'lt s- liu irnorfalizat ?n ruinele orizontului rers;pectiv
de Ia majontatea srturilor
fr>r'tif icate din resiune (EJei.rlaLrcl g.a. 19g9, 2I3i_223).
D:spre gefi dinL punc:ttil de ve(lere iil onomarsticii lor se poate de vot'brt cloar
incepincl cu sfirq,itul
sr:r: \i I a.Chl'., odrtii cru trp rrilia prrrnelor izvoare scrise despre ei (Hr:rodc,r
VI, 93) gi atunci doar p,enttu r;pa!iul de la suc'l r:le f)utldt'e . Dar daca spusele sintvalabile pentri
ilefi (ra unitate etnoistoricd, atuncl perllru culLtura gr:liici sitL.rtia,ester oarecum alta. Este deja unanim rcceptnf ca masivul
cultural getic
s-rr (rclrlstitLrit mult inlinte
'iecit noninalizarea lor in izvoarele scrise gi pentru spalii geografice mult
rLat inlinse (\,'Lrlpe )i,.\,)'70.:lt)0-2(12; Flaxv,rzq:1987. lg-57, harta l).
Niu std|uirn aici prea l:rult vis-tr-vis de aceste necorespund,eri, etnie-ctitttrirele
flincl de curincl pe
larg anall;zerte cle ciilre M.'-caciuc lfxiavyx 19918,60-65). cazul atestf,rii culturii
incd in lipsa etnicului Pi respectitr a pct'si:;tdrii ctnicului dela in Iips;a r:ultuni este unanlnr accr:ptat. "Getica "
lur Iordanes
..rons;tittic o clrr''raclir i'n Jllus . crlrrstat.irii
Arn rnenl.ionat d'::;a cii lz,vorlrele arheologic'e;rcumulate pe parcursul unui secol demonstreazd
a;rariliirL mai Linlpurie it cttl urtr getice qi pe spalii mult mai largi, inclusiv spatiul car.pato-nistrean
(l(.aruvr5a, Xa:<e,y, JIr3B.nrlrfri:i l9!i)9, I2I-127,I(aquba. Haheu. Levilki
2000, tOi_ttS). Din clenumirea
prin'rultti sttrdiu "A pittra Cit:r:rcii sau aceiagi" nrai r:ese pr atrtudinea noastrri despre caracterul
unitar al
rrt,uji vulur crrlr ulll rlc :i,_'.
De5i. cunl (lonlita.tilm tt rli sus, erparilia culturii getice nu are un singur focar de constituire, procesul este, in general, r;jnrilar, "'prc,- Patria" fiind uner. particularitdl:ile deiransfbrmare de asemenea
sinr
practic acelea;;i. Sc'himbtirr i: rer;pecl.ive au fosl. posibile grafie r:nor forle cinetice ce functionau
in
spatiul norninaljizitt cirtre rnijlocul mln. i a.Chr.
Incepl'nd cu izi'oitrele :;crise.,lar mai ales cu aparilia monumentalelor Iucrari ale lui Vasile
Per'"'an (19t26' 196-5' prssim.) avr:m nominalizafr p;lrticipanfii de bazd a grandioaselor nranifestari (rnterl':--rente) c,ulturale, - in rllnnia justii a lui I. .Brujal<o gi M. Tcaciuc -;'diolog,.rrilor c.rosscultttrale,'
(Hp|srrtr, l-x:a'tyx 199'1,27'\l), - care se finali:zea:zd cr,r aparilia pe arena istoriia a "celor mai viteji
gi
mar <1r,:pti dini:re traci'' (Flerrdot IV, 93) - gefii.
Ilste r"orba desp,ls purti.torii culturii Basarabl-$olddnegtt, in caljLtate cle ultimii reprezentanli a
ttunchirrlui {orr1l trarcic; sc;fit nomazi arhaici. ilirii qi grecii din zona. din nord-vestul pontic.

95

!blralr!-/-

lr r;.

,.--_

de speciairtate

componentul local, uile !ocu'1:lli:.]:.]l]f,u'u'u


fepreZirltd
"trlq'
'l'ii'io','n,i-t,-i-"t,,
pltti*'), i:elelalte e:lemente fiind aclvenite'
,n"ri'';i;
ele este' in opinia
enumarerte cit qi a coraportului dintre
a..l.rn.rrt.lor
atrj.
anali;za
[)rezerr{ALeli;;r
qi geneza
cunoscuterer transformdri c'iturale
clrntre ab,rr-ctir.rre cafe a,.e clrept firalitate
'orstr6.,Lnrr
in aceste procese
''"'',.i:;'.:j'li:'r:l;l,H:]vedeni procesul respectiv in relul urmrtor. tin r.l
tr'actor destabilizareuir,e elenrerturui nomaclist'- velqnicului
;orn'rrclirie. cu clu.,(.lrer inte.,ns sau latr:nr:.
ca
transformdrilor'
aL
in acelaqi timp pi un important Ooltlltol
ror ill srtiraliil'r culturale co;r::rr:te, dlr
(prin ana|:rgie ev.cam f'tzica, chimia'
r.est'r ,.:^zurilor ce 1in cie ccre mai iiuersl,Jomenii
c1e frrpt ;;i
culturale sunt' in mare m6'n schirrrbiirlie itt,:adrul r:onlunit6lilor unlane' transibrmdrilie
bic,l0grii etr:.),
cii nu sunten adeptul
cle loviiuri cinetice' Jinem sd pteci-zim
ciillzate
prrr:cesiel{Jf
aL
rczultat
un
s.rri,
prezen{i qi al{t
de tr'lnsformare culiurali' aici iiind
opt'o
nutotti'iin
fac:torului
abr;oluti;rarii lolulu:
de el'olulie acomuntt6tt.a ri-,'i1r,- erte ot'sigu:inclelungatul proces
fac:tor.i. lP,r.i,critar,- gr estr: rroIF'Lal
drepr rezultat, schimbarea facie;i
i,ilr.*,ur,.nte'transforrnaii
r.efrr:ctat
irar.cLr*j
roc;are,
1-,e
care
lor rrmare
cie Iatent' rJin care cauz6' tr[saturrile
eSte pe ciicle natural' pe atlt
sr-r.tri ctt,tttt'al Dar ilce)st pro{l::S
mai drficil ;i niai disparrt'
enutrtd s;cltimbttre it cste sisii:llt
violente) "destitanumite izrrituri cinetice (nu.bligatoriu
Ele:nent*rL rL,J*rclist, in rrcr:st.^.. irrin
la maiclritatea componenteiirrensif ica prorl()sele de scliimbetre
localir'
i
cr:lturrr
.,..,,',.rgti-rtl
proces cirfe are
bili;reazi,'
fr,ner*r, irventarur speciirr gi de mrs6),
rit
[11frirat,
Er'tual
de
(rr'dar,tati
lo';ultr.rrir
elernentul local'
Repr:tirm, baz;a..".tui pioa"r, ir c.nstit.n'ie
culturare.
firraritati:,rrarrsformi.rrlc
clrept
la un alt nirel gi
gi pent'u cuiturile urteri.are, dar tieja
ramrno
continuar,:.
in
confirmd fer.u_rtrhton, care
"rr.t,ii
g,,nar,,l, pent'u cd analirza in' cietalii
Inr;rstdm:
general.
cr-rriural
oirreclrrai crr Lln art- r,acres
fi st;atrcf, 9i amorfa)'
(continuttate ca,re tit'icum nu poate
in cadrul
norrrenul c:ontinr,rrtflii perrnrr-ente
di'ecte sau indirecte (majoritatea
pr.gresur r,:Jrt iiutoht.'ilor de caire greci pr.in r,orme
gi
cultu'alI a origiia baza proceselor cle transfo'mare
nern:ijiocit
sta
a
rru
r)-itut
re rirliil.r c,lmer,cirrc)
la venirea grecilor in re-e'tune'
1'us;ese de':lan;;at incii pinii
nji cultLrrir gelicr:: rirrrpurir,- Ptocesul ,,."'rro
qi consoli.al'ea etnosului local' legdturile
rni:il'e rol i"" p'iutgtu e'clu1i'
rott-ti;i,
un
ilLr
r\ce;teir
llJcllt,
sau trec
greci.lutohtontpiistrindu-sc,przrctic,pinirlat,enifel.IiiT.*'un"afomianilof.
cle la ctriqiltdu' nu fecunosc'
pi'h in pt.ez.eltl., mai rrrtrlli cerc.:t.tori. poate irr plirnuir'ncl
noml'alizaz:oiei in pe'ioada
ciernentllrul scitic ?n ev.l,1i. etnocurturala 'a
cLr r,,ecrr:rea n* nurnai rorur
multiplerc semnal6rr bibliogra,insii;i pr,.7_enla = ilrestarea acestora aici fzua a se line cont <le
si
tri, clur
Iilen:.r:ntul

1-ra.]j.c,

l1!:::'"

t'"

o crat6 ir plus, ci .r:,T:l':11:.:i::f,,::lli::i::ir";:'l,l;i""t


for'1ii cineticd de transfor'gi c6 acegte,r r.p,"rinrir principal.
tarzlie
hairstrtttia'd
perioad'
naftere maincepind. cu
rallstattian tarziu se destramdr' dand
crirtLrial
n'rasivul
chreiea
rnirre cr,rilurrrri.,in r.ezr_rltat.r
cre Mijroc
,,,.o-*erii clin zona de sud a Nistrului
pro.;enite din siturile de
reaiiz,lta mai nLultin'b"," mlterialelor
ftrst
ir
2()00)
t,evitlti
I-lalreL,L.
(KliSLrl:a'.
c. iin" ae coloriturl culturii (etnrcul) cel
probl:mati.,
cii
ac:c.eptat
Lrnanrrx
estr
De arti p*rte,
'rbitat.
maiblLttrleSt|3IC:pfeZ,entiild:|complexelefunelare'careincadruluneiculturisaualta,suntdintr.ecele
[a schimbiir' 9i tr'nsfor-nliri ctrlsunt romt
{'^.i.,t,:'i
onutt,,,
prist'i'd,rn
"ttptive rit'r qi ritualul funerar in perrrui c.tns;ef,,rati'er,
cro.r su,:cint ra situalia ce line de
c,ln'inuare.
in
r.efr:r.i,
l,-o,m
l*.e
turale,
fiind de fapt sublectul
ori,giu.u culturii traco-g,etrce, ace^sta
r,
r.eferrre
r:u
tiil.zie
::ri.raci'. ha'slattrnd

fl:il::.,l'l,l]l];,ii',iJ,T,,il,,i]ii,l],..,"

""l;:,:i:ll:ll,..],llifflil;ili*:i1l;ll;'i':':;ll'i,

uttci llte lurcrdri mu ;tmpl':


- ' spaliul nominalizat avern documentate 80 de
,- -:
stts, pentru epo(:a *,:t":l.:l,
mai
;cva
cum
sau ma1
mult. sau
trup,ir
*rt mult'
ele a'u.fost atestate' mai
in general' :iJ';,,,ffi;;"riri.,
''enfionanr
inaioa^.a,
u.rr.ifrii,
iocLrnle
o'iecli'e tunerarr:. cmrogr.irfi,:u.o
plasarea ror :ste din,r. cere rn'ai cliversd' dar preclomrnd
.i..r.,r-,,.,it.
,reiLrul
inrreg
pe
de asemepulin rmir'mr
aio,i".,r"airrilr: cand lll: 25a/o suntincerlr:)' Tipul .biectivelor
qr izolate'
tumuli
inrlte gr gr.u,,,,,..*,b,,f, (+.+; 5i5
in
secunrla'e
plane, tumuri.re, mixte, rnominte
rit-necroprle
clile
mai
cere
pa(iale'
nea e:rtc dinlr.e
incineralii
t,,nfiur, fiinctsemnalate inhurr'{ti' incineratii 9i
l.lr,rmai pr.rtr' d:i'ers es,r: gi ,'rtul
seriafiilor'
$i nu este
particularit[]ile prevalea'd asupra
in r;fzir.qit, in ce priver;re dtualiul iun".".,
rru nlrmai in interiorul "zonel"'
sau de timp, itcestea fiind ilxatc
Vorbr rloal rlespre deosebiri zonale

Reuisia y'rh eologicti Serie nouit


c)(.:,

---,o
a$a situri de propentrLl
!yo-t:-doal
clar;r a micr.ozonelor $i 1 unor olliective si'gul;lre sincronice,
(Vulpe 19:;3,279-28r'312-313' 399)' tlelic
porrlr c.rcer"are TTrasirv: I)i.'ce1i (l{aheu 2000j, F'oicneEti
Ller,: (Sinrion 199.1' 95-1()5).
sunt mai ttniforme la acest capitol (in,\u f.s1 c.erc(3riirrte qi cbiective cu mai mttlte lrlorminte, care
(5 inhunralii) (Levitki, Haheu 1999' l2l-134)'
clursiv ritLrl f'nerrrLr): CirLrrgiulegti- Sr.ana lui lVlocanu

incrn':ra1ii)(Buzdu-ean 1968'16-94)'.
Isaccea(27inhu*ir,tii)(SLmi.'20(13, 113-1:28),Sl.bozia(ll
lost semnaliite
pentL.. m.rnrlntele rJ., inhumalie, predomini)nd, cele in pozilie clecurbitus dorsal' au
Oientarea craniului este mult mai diversa'
cnzrrri <ie schelete c:lilrc:ii,3 pe stringa (Poqtl' Coqvana)'

Nt/ rii SV
. - t, ^^.:- /,.\:.,^,,-^.,^
/-rrn^neqtii v'ecl-'
V'echt'
(ciucurova'cuconeqtri
lr,9gu1 cc,rpLllLli, unsori stiinga este pe baz'tn
cea
Miin:rle fiind
au
drepte
cazurilor
fiind m:rioritatea
lsar:,:et) siLu clreupla (lsrrccea, I)oqta, Trer;tiarra). Plcioarele
romb
(Poqta)' cel dreprt (Poqta)' sau in formir de
losr. iltcsrar:e caz,urile cirncl cel l;llng era indoit
( RdLsicirrelr i l'loi) '
structttrii funerare (ardere' lemn' platra)'
Sunt dir,,el.se;l cons:rlic:[:ile uuxiliare atirt dln interiorul
piatrd?n asociere cu manta de pamiint)'
t:i't ;i ccle e xlei'toilr'e (rrr.tttale satr ringuri de piatr'5.
o diversitate Ei mai mare ?n ce pnin sli,.Sit, clar cler as(',menea,Joat'in linli generiile, constittitm
trr contextul fttnet'nr'
vegte inrertrtarul ntortullr cit yr plrlsarea acestuirl
cle rit 9i rittral funerar' clt qi
Nu r,- c,nl r;tir..ri al( | pe larg atat asupra analizei caracteristi.crlor
lucr6r'i vtitoare'
il.riblrtarea [ot-, ac:,stea u'mtncl a f i subiectul unei
dostul de elocventd in favoal'ea suprlziiiei
Situalia le_qrt:al cle nlul ;i ritiLillul funerar, eiite o dovada
('- -eeilce.trrrpurii) a avut un cal'acter polietnic' in ce
,:ir ltroccsul de c.ns;titutir.': ii c'ult-rrii tr:rco-p:etice
autorul
lo';.1, fiind p"""''t qi elementul ad'enrt estic'
pr^,egte priLrl.icripl1r1tii, pe lingb elementul tia':t':
u i de transforrnare':ult'urali'
l o r i turii r: i nr:ti ce,, 1r''.'i,t''url
literatura de specialttate
?n spa!lulin ciisculie deja a fost norriinali:zata?n
tirrpurii
Pre:le n[ra sci(il.r

prerlonrirliitrd. ctirectiile

95,'l I - i 3)'
in favcl*r.ea elementului scitic la vest

Il,3 BuIIIt !1. fJerr ueHI'lo I

!)

de 60 de spa|Jistru vofbe$te qi desicopr:t'irea a mai Sine


(Vulpe 1990; I{aheu'
crerjenr cd provin din rnorrninte distruse
c|e itkinatl.: ?n clir,er'se cot'l'cXt0, dar care
Uikbaev 1!)98,, 115r.)-162: F{aheu 2001,38-40)'
, dar a'em certitucirnea
Rccclltstrttc{la,prezelltitt.Les]e:poatepreasc;hematicf,giexpusiipleaSucclnlTi""l."I,.::;;':T.:
nevole'
ulterioare, at&t de teren, de care este strigentS
cf, cstc cliLntr.e cclic, mai lriar-rzibile, rnvestigli{iile
prrlblemei'
ciar gi ,:cle die sint'::;i5,' cintnbuincl la elucidareil

t,

cle

BtetttccRnrte
Dacica I' i976' Ill-126
une chronol'rg',iedes Ve- IVe siecles Thraco,Alctandresr:u 1')7b: I'} Alextnclrescu, ['our
des fouilles de Cirlomdnegti'
ltr'riere
la culture gtto- tlnce a la
de la,.:hronrllogi':e
lBlL,eS 19,'i-5:

']i

l\{. Lilt,el, Pr,-.lemcs

l97i

t,15'139'

de .los [].' t.)alin ai;i i9lS

:, I'19-I-1

Dacia N.S, ):1.!:..

ca|picr l' i9613' 77-t)4'


C. lluzdul: rrr. Ne'c:ropola geticd de la lslobczia'
lmfbrelo| rlte'Lrnpilate la lsrria lEiucure';ti l!)57)' rrrri si civilizatie la Dtrn[rea
cla'arache, 1957: \,. r.lanarir, he, Irnpo'rul
Culturd 9i civilizaiie Dunpentru datarea unor lie'a''i g'eto-d'acice'
Conov:ci l()86: N Lltrno'vi'-: lllrpefe r:rontrlogice
BLrirdLrgan 19r58:

Flitheu2{)00:\'.Ftah'eu.lllerlopol;ttrrco-geticddelr'rDdncenirrrss
Pyretusl'2001 38-'10'
in.,rnt-*tul elementel.rsciticedela'estdeNistru
Lr;r'eu2001:.v.grheu.Akirrrkesur derrr Unghe-rii
160-162'
1998'
2'
'V HlheLr , \/. []ikblt:"',. Akinakes'rl drn r-nul ungheni' Revista Arhectlogici
de Mijloc (BucuFIrherr, []icbre',,:
Nistrul
Ia
V. [{iLhr:u' O' Levifki' Ve:;tigii t'"tt'-gtiit"
I(a9uba,
Ir,1.
.l
)00:
L..e'itki
Ilafrer.r,
Krrsutra,
reqtr.1000).
L,:r,i1kr, irrhei,r lgg,g: c).

Niculitii tCh'i:;riniu
IVkrsca.lu lr)83:

l.,l'irki, v. Llaheu, Necro'ola


1llr Ql' l'' l-1"4

hallstatriand rirzie ce la Giurgiuieqti. Studia

(Bur:uregti 1983)'
lVlcscalrr {-lerarnica traco-geticA

in honorenr Ion

Pi'vrnl.!)li(j:\/.I'lir"van,rli'rticl'lJptcrtoistt'lt'ieaDaciei(E;ucure$til926)
143-163'
Piirvant!)67:\/.r'li,uan.Drr:la.(liviliza{iileantice<linldrilecarpiito-Danubiene(Bucul'e$til967)'
Sirnio. lt)'76:G.srni'n,rl-t,tesdelaDoL.,roJja'-r'ttnitittltVlL''a'Chr'Thraco-Dacicar'r916'
1989'213-223'
VII-Vien') S1'rnp,siaTt''lcolggicn7'

g.|.l-ott"(sec
gi
,.i1l,a,n.pr.gu[ileDunrir.ii..CarpicaXXIII/l'1992'95-105
l9)2:G.sirnion,(cfii
sirrrion
113-128'
a C-hr' de la Isacce^ Peuce S N I' 2003'
Sirnion 2rlrl3: t.-;. Si:ni.n, C .ecr.p.li din sec.\iI-V
Srrnion l!)ri9rCi. liinri,ln,(le t:'ezlrcrivilizaliei

q'7

l;!4rl1l- A !,-l-----

l'-2' i994'2'l'5'256'

'lf irci,rf. 199,1 :1,4.'llka,:rul<.N{anifestiri r:ulturaledinsecv-lachr'"Ihraco-DacicaX\"


,rqo;,
(Buc:uregti 1967)'
,\. vulpe,ll.*,,..,p.tu hal r;tartian6 ce la Ferigile
i,,,ip,
II' 1970' 115-2l't'
'!''l'e:.,l]e'cetliri arhe.i:gice Si int.,f,"t* istorrce^pd"'irrd sec VII-V a Chr' lMemAntyq
Vrrlpe 1970: t\,
FerigileSr'up Da':ia N S X:ll' 1977' 49-90'
Vrrlpe L9]7: i\.\/ulpe' ;l,"li-ftt1]ttti"gie C"eI
vI' 9 (Munchen 1990)'
uiJir..in,.rrer der Ilallstattzeit in Rumanierr' PBF
B
\,.rlpe. 1!)g0: r\ \,/ulpn, Die Kurz,scfrvier.:r Dolche,
Vll-I ee lo P.X. IJ.rrKx xpocct<ynb,T)/pHblx AfiaIoroe.
tilg.]r: ;,| B. [ip;,g*.. rlr.E,. rx..uvr'' E...,upu6",
B1>1'rritl. Tnt,-t1,x,

MeNA)'uapolHoli
cenepHoro flpUvepHorvlopnr. Terucul aoKJlailoB
cfi.: Ilpoclerrtr i:urrdro-capNrii.rctioil4 up*aon,ranu
6c,Hdle1:enurrtt,.3anopoNue 199'l),21 -31'
rpeIlqecrnoccKor.o MexA)'peqb'l
Mexaypeqbfl c fp
- Tr^,,.rn_
flpl'ro- f{uecrpoecnoro
o{5 3xOurlrrli,r.recKn}: cBr3fx liacereHltt
K
e,rnpoc]
.
[iauapl
Il.
lggir:
6ruapi
sy'y"tni'i B c6': Flrtxoullii n aHrn'lHstii turup CerrrrcKrr\r \*rporu {,rro,r(aHHb.\{ rp(:qecKoro;;";pt; c IoFro.ituLUa
1991 )' | 7 4- 11 9'
BcpHo rrr I1p riuepruo rt oprn (O;re :crr
(J-leuuurpraa 19E0)'
KepaMlrqecKrli*lrnopr na Hr'rxnev llouy
fpeuecx,ii
[ipaurrrHcxrrii igg': 14.Iipauruucxnr.i
lit IlccIeAoBaHYq no apxeonorllH H

flepra,iee l!r9r,lr 8.,:\.,1,J11,.r,uau.

t) rrorlq'ruH."no*,'u*'"'n' roHa"' Fi c6:Marepua'lbl

rtnl4 uerneprar'r B
Xaxev, o r- neet{uruit' ra ca'ar I'eruxa
1999)' l2O-121 '
C':sopl;ofo tlp'uepHor'lopu (3ano-poxue
cil.: flp,ctirrerraur cxrtlto- capltar;xr:ti up*,-ono'un
.,.anl,Ltttiftt19]9:[}..["1ilrry,urrru.Partut'teQparrriiusrX-Ha.lluiriVe..4on.,."I..o.'.itllol-tMoIn'agrrH(Kl,rnuenl979)'
crn(rcxoii aF]xal.-K]I Ha'IeppuropHIr MolAoiqqs: o.r. .irt:BuuxHii. T tr4. [ernlueuxo. fra,rRruuxu
,ileerrixrlri,

-",";.ii:l:ll|l',li:;ii:::;?'5lll'ii:;''l:.?,];?ll'"jrI
,rer.riHxo

gsl.Br;6':llpeerrocruC]renncrttlllpuuepHc,HropulnN.pr,tva(\/)(3anopoNr,e199:i),41-53.
rapa I'i:i O:rbstttt (Kues 1981)
Jleittr',ucxan l98l: H Jleiinl'ucrern l(epauHuecnnfl
CerepHoro flptluepuolvopr'r'
A !1. .Ile,:xoB. lipe,rcr.:urfcx",i n.f,r,oo'u cr(]Ilfix

lgil:

MH'\

CCCP 171 (Mocxea

Jlecr<os
1971).
]Bocrox' PA 3' 1992' 8(r-107'
flepHo.[uraurtl crurfcxoii apxauxu rr '{per.nr.fi
i,4e.r.ec,'cxt,tq ll)9',l.. vltFl M,e^se,[cr(ir]d,
{lpaxui'iusr e CeeepHo:tt
iK eonpocy'o fpaHtiue-Mexly cxr'rrlaur'r'u^reraIlt{ 'Dpeeuue
.
\'le.nronosa..
A.ll
I9,(r9r
iu,ler.iorosa

,r.,J,'ru:liil'liil 'f,?*f-ff: ll]?,ly;:'JilJ?'3];liif?

"crapci;i crn{r'u" repoAora)


r,6pvaNe (x n'npocv o

l)A 4.2C01,:10 l'2


lttt.:1'.tttu:1987:1,1..1t.,[[trxy.ititrt:.CeeepHue$patrtriusrsVl-Ise.AoH.3.(KHuinHee].9Ei7)'
nyn,tyf"o'" *o"u*'.u^tr1$ron
F,e.c.r.i'a, ]{u;r.:suir [y'ar.i B cHcr0Me

?ernrra 2000: [;.(D.

E.epcrlrti N|aTepa,lU u ac,c.nilNeHrrur


,Apxc<l.,trlriR ta elT].10I|f,I'ia cri:rrroii

$panlrriues

B c6:

(oleca 2|"|0q,243.253.

Ser,oeal!)139:|{'Jl.Cepilea,fpeve;niuKepetN{rlqecKafTapal{3qp.*o"ruroJIAaBI,Il{.Bc6.:Ahllelg34roaa(Kttultl.

,"r,il:i,il],]ti; \]t;'-ll;rx,
.t
TxzL.r'x r()9,;r. r\4.r).

2, 1ee8' 60-86
r-ernxir .r\pxeororun rrNreH'. Revisla Arheologici

crpar'vrtl 3'
aHronoriru xrloHoJlofrltriecKt.X pa:prruoe)
i:au,r,x, r-e.ru.r,r, Korop./ro Mbr rroretrflirrr 1r'ra

1999":l'i 1--.104
Vasile Halrcu'
A:!'t::':i:tle $riinpet din Reptrblica Moldot'a'
Institttu! cle Arlrcotpgie si )ifitogrrtfi',
nr' 35' MD-2()12 Chisindu' Repttblica Moldova

str. M'itropolitul Brinutnl,."u tstoin''"i

--Oer: po

t:;

e',nu rt:

t)rrrt(.

st,J

u,s

L,t

C. C'.

gt.t r.ttl

ii'

erie. nou ii

Afl ct4cr EMI\ HA yKPEnfl EH H blx NOCENEHH'IX


rEiroB nEcoc]rEnHol4 Monfloput
fl eBYlHCKnil, Kt'tulnnoY

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Ii 56.

1t)54. -r!)-ir,3.

llux,.'.ri u), (]LlBet]]rbte Qparrtriusr e \/l-l ee. Io H.?. (l'irlrur'rHee.1987).


ll. I irri\'.rtuul A.3aHoq.,Opar:o-rercxLre nocereHllq I rl,lc,.qo H.3. B uel{rpalbHlrx KoApax
ln{o;rjtcr.s;1. C-iir':-'r;i1rc:a l-} t}/xrcpo.r :1001), 107-l 15.
-l'.C.
Apr.eo-lcruqecKlre pa3BeitKH B N{o,tranttti. KCH14MI{ 26. 1949.51 -68.
llaccex li)l9: IlacceK
POvauoscxas. 19'i l: N't.A. f'o\'itHortcxafl, Pacxonxu Ha reTcKoM ropoAlltrle PY',rr. B c6: AO 1970 ro,ra (Nlocxsa l97t).

l{rt',',rrrrr: 19lj7: tl.


lllrrr.,,,rtru;. llaHoq

2tlOt

:i5S-3 i9.

Pomarroscxas, l9lr3: lrli.,\. Pc,r,rilnoecxari. O pa6ore rercl(r)fo orprna. B c5: AO 1972r'om (i\{ocxsa i973)' 415-;1I6.
[]orrarroscxa;a. I9lI5: irl..,\. PorriruoB,lKari. Pa6orbr ret'cKoIo o'rpflLa. B c6: AtJ 1!)'7'l rola (Mocxna 1915),446.
Pril\,rij.loBCKirq. l!)7r5: F'|..A Porri nosoiar, ['lccre.qosaHtit Hzr ropoAuu.te P1'1r,. t] c6: ,A,O 197-5 ro;ra (N'locxna 1916),116'
l)DiuiLrroricKa:q u .r.p. t9l'r; N1 ..\. PonatroBcKar, ti.I'. frniillxoe, I-{.M. Maxapoe, A,B. BapeHoe, PacKonxrt fopo.q}jtua
t'y'ttu, [3] r5: r\O lr;)'/6 r,c,i ir (N4ocxsa 191]),459-46t1.

CltItpuotllt).19:t.ll'.l]V}ipHt,|].I{:.orrrapxeoJ!oI.l,Ir:iecKtlXl{ccJle,for]aHt,ItieMo,1Aaet.tne|946n.YqeHue3anl,lcx2.
t9.i(). 1E9-202.
CrrrrlrHor l,,i:tr9a: I-.11 t.-lrrultrrr 3, C'ruQcxoe roportlule tt gertIue "Bo,'lru1ae Ca>laprra''. KCll4l4MK 26. 1949.93'96.
K;riLrta 1;,a. 12000: I\1. I,(3iiubu, V'. Hrheu. O. Levifki. t/esti.t:ii traco-getice ;re Nistrul 1\4ijlociu. Bibliotheca Thracologica

(XXXf ) iBucureriri

20tJ0)

Yolrrtnttl 1.
I-c'v

richi

.\r. /
l00

l:

109
,r\1.

lL.erirrschi. D,ale preliminare privincrt datarea ccmplexelor lbrtificatiei getice "Safrarna-La Rei'echin"

'!'r'rtgeti,r I0. 20t-r1, 103-I

1:1.

]-ev'r.'schi,]0[,3:]-ei'inst:|ri,A'l'LinrilrL]I()nC)l()gil]5superictar
rente cultufal-cron()logice in r;g,ltr ul nord-prntic (Clhi;;iniu 2003) 26 1,284.
l-evLrL'cht 20{t4: ,\.1.1,,e','in:;chr, I:ior"ificatia getii:6 "Sahatna-La. Ikvechin" (cercetdrilt:,
ilrheolos,i're in I{e'pLrblica Mold<x,'a ('2000-2003) r'ol I (Chiginau 200;l) 64."8Cr.

drLn

anii 2000-2002). In: (lercetdli

]-er,irrschi.L-lr'alr:ncrl2()02:Ai.I-t:rlnsciri.SCl]Villenc{l.Ia1lort
l-e

lrlrtrfii:lL1i;r stcrticli "Sahal'na-.Lli Rr:vechrn", campanit 2001. fChiginau 2002).


vrrrschi ,r a. 19',),): r\l.l_evrnscfri. r_l $cipachin, Gh. Dulea, Rezervatia istorico-naturald,.Saharna,'_ prirnele investigatir.
'i'1 rarcti,.r 8, I999r. 5 l-68.

I-er rschi

t;.n. 2002: ,i\.1. l-e:vinschi.

li. Covalenco, Il. Abi:io,,,, Folificatia getici

Iensi\' 'f y'x,]5'tir I I 100r,;{] -r.8

"Sal-rar-na-L,a Revechin"-- sisrerr.rul de-

l4urtt';ranu :lCt04t 0, i\'lurt1eanu. Prr:liminlrir prrr.ind sistemr"rl det'ensiv de la Cosiiuti, judelul Soroca. ln: Cercetdri arheoL.rgict,: in llepLrbli,r'r \{oldova ( 1000-200i) rl) (Chi;;inriu 2Cr0,1), 9 L-96.
l,{urtt:anu lC[]4a: rO. l\{irrrteanlr. l.-e:s elements; du svsteme rleltnsif Ce Cosduti. in: Thracrans lrnd circumpontic Wr.rrld (II)
r.Chigrriir.r lC)0.1) 8.2- 1(l:1.
l"lusteatd 100'l: S. Mr.rsterttii. Unelc consideralii prreliminare plivrnrl leyultatele cercetairilor arheologice din caclrul cetdtii
1,:eticc N'ldgciiuti-Cetrrte. In: l'h'acians and,:ircumpontrc \\/oriC. IX-th Internaticlnal rCongress o1 Thracologi. (Chigr-

rau 2{10.1 ).8ii-90,


i'JicLrliti g.;r 1995r I. l,ir,--uliti;i. S. l'r',rclor". A. Zanoci, Silpi.turih: arheologrce cle a Butr-rc;ni, raionul Orhei (1993-199.1).
ln: Cr:r'ce,thr': arlrlrt r.rgice 1n lri,r nord-trac[ (l.t (BLrcurt:gti 199:),472-190.

|-Iiculita5.iL'l)99:I.T''}']icrrl;ta'lj.luIatv.:er,.EdPotinga,Ceta.tea

(lli) (llr,rcure;ti I 9!)!).), 219-343.


;..r. 20{-tll: I l\icuiiti. S Teodor', A ZrLnoci. Elutuceni.

rorcl-lr.aca

Monoglaf ie arheololqica Bibiiotheca 1'hraco)ogica


(XX); VI) (Eiricurrl;ti 1002).
l'tricLLiitd. Tlantrci lltl()4: i. Nrcul;iiii, A,. Zanaci. Sistemul dr:fe'nsi r la traco-ge{ii clirr regiunea liis;trulLri N4ijlociu. In:
'l'hracirrls and cir,;itnlpt:,ntic V"-r'ld (.II;1'31.t1t1ntl.t 200.1), 101-I29.
['avlo',20C,(): N'I. Prrvlor. Nlateria]c ilntropol(i_gi(:e gr arheozoolog,ice de la cetate.r Rucli - I-a $angrri. Tyragetia 9,2000.
l,licLrlita

ti3-r l[.

':iil.bl-rArnaLrti9!):j:\/SirbLr,f,.,,\r.r.litrt,Incirita

trin arfreolog:ice 1n irxia no1'd-irilca (I) (BLLcure;tr 1995) 378 400.


Z.rrlipciiin 1000: 14 l'clcirrc. G. Zasipchin. Date noi ile la cetatel Ruclr - La $anfuri. Cararterizarea tipologica
:;;i crorolrrgicii a ,,ornp)exelor lrchise. In: Tvragetia 9, 2000, 1tr1-112.
[]satair. l.t:,.'irscl-u 19!lr5: tr. ljsataia. Al. Levins:hr. Saharna. In: Cronica cercetZ.rilc)r arheologice (,\:XIX) (ClLtl-Napoca

'l'cnc'i..c,

1995t 7t3 11
i 199|i: ..\. zlllnoci. l-rort:frcali il: g:eto-cla,:ic: din spafir.rl ,ixt:racrrpatic in secolele VI-l.II a Chr. (ISlucure$ti 1998).
Zlanoc, Mirr:\(:ev ll{)01: A. Z.itnoi:'i !i. Matveer', Sitr-r1 tlirc,r-ltetic }lagcdufi * De:alul r,:el Mare. In: l{apnaltt B.qaBHIIFIj
1\4ali:piarn rrixrnapo;1uolo crr:.rnoriyrry). Oarpltica - Kapnarnra l-5 (Yxropol 2CO:Z) i!i5-98.
.

Tlanoc

ll,anoc200j":,,\.Z,irnoci''.l'rac'o-getiit'lirrtlazinulRirutuluiInfer.iclr.(]etateaMd9ct-rr.r1i
c:ircurrrpc:ntrc Worll (ll) (Llhigindu 2004) 4:;-61.
2,anoc, NtLricktvrtn 20t-)4: A. Zanoci, \,i. Mollo,ran, Gertic crtaclei Sahalna
tiVorlcl (ll) (Chi;irtiuL 20114) l3t-118.

"1,a $anr;. In: f'hractans and circumpontic

.4.:t

Il

t,t..Jl

Aet::rcnta

l2lA,

xc au dp

-,7

eau u c

xuir,

o at a u ur il .NIp s,,1 1'1 c nt op u u Nl o.,t t') o a at,


ll4D-2412,4,.'ttutuuol', Pecnyd;tuKa Xlo.rdoacl
a

t1

Reqisla Arheqi pg!4t'$ erie

to14;1-

1.lirr

PONTICA
DrruzRnen Ar/tFot?Er-oR GREcEgTl it\l nectut'tEA NoRo'vEST
iru secorELEi Vl - V a'Cnn'

Nataiia llateev ici, Chiginii

t:',t(ril1.'lLilt(tit'ttritltreyrtt'::rctttttltrt('l(tliitlt'st'ltitrtbt'-rtsocielatcctsclcuctgistu'titeaci'i'

t!:l.1r.t.t C )1l.t1tt!!.1b:.'ll .'I)etl';!i..'K1't'\1

t!(tCe'let!ttL\l i/ tl(1t!tltllLt r'tlll'\l l)!Op:OBUe 0lltHot4leltUtl'

',',1'ly.t11f117ipt;t'ttt|c:;|.:t,|lli:,ltittql,tlc!t.:,.eI(l,Ic|l\tirltrIttltl,',;0|tl(titie.\c,\c;l\l,ll/l

Pcrtclitth|]|C)|'c}l()gi.lt.pl:lsalirirrtreacicuajur:ndtateasec.Vlliisec.Va.Chr.,reprezintdetirpadccentrelor producdtoair, r,:gi,,rea bu-eo.<rrrpritici. .Numarul


ticbut ,r ri:irr!iilor. ..rner,. iare ;rrec,r-barbar.e
este destul de "modest"' cruprino."rif'otcs'ii'p""o"d''utupttti'v['
it
relrri:e
alr
iir.rnt
cirt'c
qrece$tr.
r.e
Ce'trUl neidentrKl.zOmene' Lc:;bOS' Sittttos"l'haSOS 5i
;t,lncl dO"ir cit.el'it i:(lntr. lnecli terltlte"ut'^Chit-'''
lip .Prothothasol;'
l'itrlri. (:ate procittt':clt anlf ''fe ale a9a - numiir-ilui
Printre
l5 puncte. dintlc care trei sunt colnplexe funerare'
in
l\mf,c,relc trrnpurii d. Llhros silnt atestat(:
cilindnc'
gitul
cu
c:it gr cele
amfore chLote tirnpurii cu gltr-rrumfrat,
t)6- l i 2') cu sfir;itul
.ce stc exlrnpiare i:Lr't iii.t state ata.
(Py6an
Luntlat, datate iupa RLrbun
l
gitu
cu
cl.rrrte
,1982,
ur
cele rnar tin.qrurii
2,4'E)' unde aliituri rie
'j're,
atesrate lacetatea g:ticd stinceit] lfrg
aulost
a.crrr,,
v
s:c.
ar
srcrt
VI_pr-irnrrl
sec.
(FlorescLr' Ra!a'
tip, a i,rst d.r.op.iitn gi o anrfori intfegibila
nrri rnuir,e: 1r.;Lgn"re:nte cle anrlirre iile acestui
umflat' cu o dagitul
cu
pir:rorLt;e' aparlinlnd amf'crel.rchjote
lltr5c),lll) ,tie 2.:itr. Frirli;rrente de girturi 5i
I l\'i:rt,:r'rLlr,tl arlicrtsttc ttl':'' tI llt:-r Io; ilt'eritpentrucerceIilredet.dtredrraS].etldtlt..citeiaiiaducemsincerelenOas|fe
nrirltulniri ;;: lle lic:easti calc

\''olurtri

l. \r. I

111

lare ;,Lnalor3tcii. au Jbst sesizate Jlt nqezarea Bradicegti, in plnctul Odaie Dea|-rl Beschiei, datirte cu sec. V
;l.C n I . (lconlrmu 201112 6l fig. 1.1,12), Crcde'm, totu$i, cd prel;ele ar puteit fi <Iatate cLt pnrna jumdtate a sec. V
It.C rt . (fiil. i.7). FnLsmenre d,3 :rmfore chiote timpurii iru fol;t se sizate
$i in cetatea FlirropLri Mare (fig. 2. i I ),
t:are:, in ltrr;riirile dtsFrre rczulta.t:le inves;tig;atiilor. cu tor.te r:ir sunt ilushate, nu sunt mentionate in text (Celrotitt'enc0 1\)97,219: 9e6oralleF{I(o. Cyr56rrruH 2000, 1321tuc.3,13).Irragmente de vase similare sunl des0opellte h a,lezntea nrixrzi Maj,r,.i (LlepHnxos 1960, 200'1 rif.g.2,l9), in agezan|: Gradelir:y iII qi Hansca aLr
lbst s;ernnal:rte {l'agr:ncntr: de arnfbL'e chiote tirnpurii, ce la fr:l se incadrcazd irl perioada r:uprinsi intre sf1rgitrrl i;e:i. Vi-sec. 'v/ ir.Chr. (N,len<,Noua 1963,70-72: Amdr-rt 1t003, 90).
I:lasrnente de,atrifot'e chiote cu giitui urmflat, ciirc sL.nt datatein pnn:ia-jurLdtate a sec. V qi al treilea slert;rl ircelui;rq;i l\ecol i-ru l'r,ts;t semnalate in cetatea
,etica de Ia Butu,:eni, pnntre cal.e menfronim
tnai rniilt;l ft'rsrnente dr: picrc,ru$e, buz:e, gituri (|{icuii1a, Banaru 1997,313\-383; N{ateevici 1999, g6;
l'Iu1e:3l,igi 200tir, '7''i.r (lig, 2.!1. t:1.18-19) l,a Buiuceni nrai remarclm qi l.ragnrent.c rle amlore chiote

Iimllr.rrti ,';u giitul ,-:riindric, plijducerea criirora inr:epe rjin ai treilea slert al sec. \/ a..Chr.. (Mateevici
1999. f ie. 1 3-(,) (1rg. 2.J3- 16.).2)
l:'rezcnt,r ltntotclor cLt giturL umflat incadlate intre sfdrgitul sec. VJI ;i prima jumdtate a sec. V
r,.Cll. a i'osi, scntnll,rli la a:ieu ulezL Cirltr:uciu (lllep6rtKcBa 1997,169.Iarc,voi, rnedrt, ptesele se pdsl:'eazit in l\rltizeul iltb,:rratorului ,\r'heolc'gi: al Lhrrverstrtafii din TiraspoJ). in aqezarea greco-bar-bard No'no-i'lekrlt:;ovka II rLu 1itsl sesizetc fragme,nie de amlore chiotc iimpurii, rtrit cu gAtul Lrmflat, clalale cu
rrijlocrul r,oc. \,' a.Chr. (f ig..Z,-:-6), cit gi ale celor cu gtitul cilindnc, datarea cdroruL lltarline celei cle a
t-oti,-r ium,iti!i a sec. 'v' n.(Jltr, (tig.2.\71((,'ano;,rnrixon, E1ty.axo, KoxoraLp.l 1999,93-94).
O amt'o'a intrcgitrrlii cu g;) u1 umflrrt,r f'ost recuJrerati din tumulul lG de la AdZigol (fi_e.2,2), care,
1'r vi;rtunc;i ttol,tsjtt'ir, (ionforll unalogiilor crLlnosc'ute, s-ar plltea data cu pr,ima jumitatr: a sec. V a"Chr.
.rrceasti piesir a fosi pLrbriicatii cc,;ercetatorul german ll..lber1, insd. tiir?i i,L se oferi 1\icadrarea ei cronolrlSi,lr,, (EbeLt l9l:i, l.l-13 Abl,. 9,10). O alta amforri chiotd intregibila provine drn tumuiul scitrc de la
('tolrr"Lrcir-r (r'\rr'.itrulr.uon. Oy6Solmt IC)9'i,186) (fig. ll.1). Piesa zr fost gdsitri inrpreund cu alte obiecte
cle ofrand:t: 'iiLri'Liri rJc slis.le{i de bronz, lp icd zorrniorfii in aur, care penduleazd j'ntr-un diapazon crronologir-: dest-rl .le lrlrg -,\nuine iarrrlof a ciriotri lL contribuit 1a atestarea acest,-ri complex ci.tre cea de a doua
.jttrnrilate ir sc:c \/ a.tllhr (l:'})'6r,ur 1!)82. 96- | l2).
Fragtnentul unei urnlbre t:liiote cll gitL'l umflat a.ios. depistat Ei la fcr-titicalia Satu Nou II- Novo:;:l' :;koe it (1ig. .l,2lf ).
.,r\.rrf(ri-e chir:te trrnprurii surrrt;mentionate $i in;Lgczarerr de la Nemirovo (ilaxrr{HaL21000, 216). Lipsa
ilustrr,.tnlcrr tipulLri rle rrmlbre ctriote cle la agezarea Nernirovo, nu ne poate ofled posibilitali pentru o datitre nuri cr(act{i a pres,elor. Bdruim, totugi, cd ar prulea ft vorba despre antfole chiote cu giitLrl umflat,
It:re;;ind c|n rJatalea rnt{orelc'r'i:'haice cle a aceastilapezare. O situa{ie similard se ?ntAlneqte gi in i:l$ezat"r:a i\;,,liss-trt (I-anisa 1r.t84. 71,).
Sipre resret, ?nsri. o d,:ltare rrtaLi precisiL a pies;elor arnfonstice chiote de la turnulul scitic'7 de [a Kovrlcvha, er:;te: irnporiitriliL, deoarece, autoni nu au r;ocotit de cuviinfa sd ilLrstreze ptesele, ltmit0ndu-se
clcar l-r iltootirrrtLrci.rL tipLrlui aillirristic chi,rt: cu gAtLrl umflat, datAndur-le tradrilional cu sec. VI-V a.Chr.
(l(ontLanet,Lxo, [:il nar;arr. I-anpu.rNlx I !)7 8, 7-5 ).
Ii greLL tle :;pur; cr,r r:crtitu,Jinrl cevir concret despre a:;u-numita amforii <,rcu gAtul plin>, atestatd in
i.liezrtea erctrcrt r\lcr.:clilr - L.a (lrr<.lon. datatal cll iiec). V a.(lhr. (HaheLl 199[:i, 120). Aceastd infbrmatie a
fost deja preluatii;;i cie alli cr:rcetf,tr:ri (KitSuba, Haheu, l-evilki 2000, 110). t9lioinolul ne fiind accesilr l, "t'porlLe corLstirl.u, cii ilustrrrlra rediLtir de aulorul publicatiei, nicr pe cleparte nu prezinta o amford
cirio:ii cu lratul urn{1a:, (t{aheu 1998, i33 fi_e, l0.ll. Plin u'male, piesa nu porrte Ii inclusdin aceasti cate go:ie, dcqi matenLr:rlc ceramice dr: l'acturd lclcala. ce sein<:adreaz[in diapzLzonul cronologic al sec. \/I \r a"(*lhr., sllt al.csl.i,rtcr'in aceastii agezarc.
tln alt cenllu qrecesc, cirrc expolta nLlrrfa in amb,alll amforislic in rr:giunea vizatd in ac:eastd
p,:rioudd. csle ]-,es;llrosul. Amlirrc ale accstLri polls au fost sesizate in l0 puncte. doar prtru clintre
cirre siLlnt irabitute. lllerle rnai tirnpurii rrnl'ore de rlestros au fost atestate in agezarea traco-geticir de
liCurteni, r',:pLe:zcntrte plin rr ri mLrlt-- fragmentr; de lorrte (Iconomr-r l'91'9,82). Un git de am1'ori
dr: Lesbos a f'ost. clc:sr:oprent in r;rezarea Oiobruciu, fard a fi specific;atii provenienla ei (Illep6ariona
Lt)qi',169,'i (fig. 10, 5) Pie:;erlc, provon.te din siipdturi e recente, au reiconlril'mat prezenla acestui

Rcuista,4rlrcolosicd. Seie l9ld

----

1[|

ro;tatrcd, aparlinlndLesbosuluit' Atat


centru la Crobru,:riu, prin 1i'agmentul unul picior:uq de amford
se incaclreazld intre sfirqitul sec' Vl -indi,rtar.ea pir::sel6lr de, Lli Cr-rterii, ci,t gi celor cle Ia. Cjobruciu
'V a.Clhr:"
ce:putul sec.
tumllul scitic 1N de la AdZigol
C irnil-orii1ntregibilir ilpar-linAnd ercestur polis;, a fost recuper-ata ciiin
'TaLt.9316) (fig. 1,29). Amfora de la AdZigol initial fu(Eibert igl3i.21Atr,b,. 28/:Mc,Ha;ioe Lgg(),4;.21
primul s{ert al sec. IV a.chr' (Mouaxon 1999,
sesi: incl*sri in acest cgnrpler furerar scitic, datat cu
'l'otoclatd, acelapi ar tor ntengiona prczen{a r:el pulin dubioasb a aces;tei piese in complexul lespec-126).
sec. V a.Chr. Probabil, primul cierceti.v,, intr.iicirt allrforn de L,erbos are o cu totul altd,latire -?nceputul
in stlatiglafia l.umulului, sub mantaua caruta
tatc,r al nec.roprtler de la LrJZigol nu s--a clarificat pe deplin
cr-r atil. mai mult cd aceastd necropoposil]il ca ar mai 1'r cxistlt qi un ah complex din pelioada ciasrcd.
conlinea qi inmo|mar:Ltari din perioada respecttvd'
r"i, dupii cl.rrl s-rl rnontionrt in cazur amforei chioie,

ilirl
(,

,,'
t\ \-o
r/

lYI

V,)
I

(il\t

q\
-n1
l!
"

"

t--;a

0,fi3 J>S
il

)12

ld

Fig. 1. Amfc're cle Lesbos 9i Samos;'

(;;;;,.,;];;,;;,
sin.:erelt: n,:)astre

l.liculitd, S. Fidelski, carora le aducem


_.u ,r.t,.,amabilitatii autorilor sspdturii E. rarovoi, I.
nrirltirmiri ;i pe 'rcelstd cale'

\'',lt,rttt,l L .t,:

113

amfori1 cu corpul bornbat din tumului 7 rle 1a Corjova erit considerate ca, apa(inand
unui l:entl'u necunos(;ut (6op:rrrnrc, MaH:ypa. Jleiluqlllrfr 1981, puc XII,2t5) sau unui cetttru ionian
rL:corrcret;zat (,,\,rniiut, :1003. ')l). i\naiizind acaastii pier;a drn punct de ver:lere morfologic, metric qi
srrltctura 1:asrtei. pLltent afirnli,:ir lecipientul dat este o rmford ro;iatrca d,:: I-esbos, datata cu prima
;umiitlte tL sr)c. '!/ a Chr. (fig | ,3). Recipiente amforis;tice de Lesbos au mari {bst semnalate in necrozisit au mai fost recuperate
prola r.le la Ma.jal< {.1'ig1. 1,[), un,:ie in morrnint aldturi de iimfora propriu
l:ron,z,
intre
sec. V- I'y' a.Chr. Autorri
care
dateazli
prese.
precum
ar
l'i
vlt-lruile
de
srigeli
de
altt.:
;;

\,lult tinrp

au datat ccmplexul nu dupd anrfor6, ci dupiL viirl'ur"ile de siigeli - sec. IV


(C,,'56oruir,
aCl"r
L)rxoriqnror 1981, 106). Totuq;i, cr:1 rnai exact reper r:ronologic: timpuriu rdmine
anfora, dutarea clreia ar fi rnijlocLrl - sfiLrqitul ser:. V a.(lhr. Credenr ci itct:e:t;i datare o are 9i picionr;;Lrl de arnlorii der llu nec:rr>po!rr l(ovalcvi<a II (I(ontauerF.o, Eivnart{n,.faapu;rrcx l9'78.62) (fig. i,6)
q; fnr1;merrtul a;lfolr:;tic rle lrr cctatea getica Stolnicernr (irtedit, fig. 1.7)'.
Firagn-entuJ nc t:x,ptfcrstv a.l uner arnfure cenu;;ii do Lesbos a fost recupefal din cetatea RutLtcenj,
c,.ire poiltc fi daurt 1n linritele s,(,,1 V a.Chr (Mateevici 19!)9, 178 fig. 1,10). I?rezenfa amforelor acestui
rrrr1.,1,',.l merrjiteraLnean este semnalatd in aqezdrile Zalissj;r (fauina 1984,7'7) 9i Ir,'ane-Puste (fauiua
1t61i. 106-l l7).
f,i niiri ntic cst,;: nurniilu] lrlJnumentelor arhec'logice la care au fost atestate aml'bre de Samos - 4,
c'[ipt1c ctu'i] clollii sLlflt" cornpl,c;(l l''Llnerat'e, Cea mai tirnpttrie prezentri a Sarnosului in regrtinea vizata
vasului. datitte
er ;tc i-t ,estlll d in age;u ar',la Curler .l'e,pl-e;zentatir fiin,J prtn picioru; $r partea srrtpel'ioard a
'VI
\,/
(frg.
1,9-i[0.). SfArqitLrl sec. VI - incecl a doua jumiit;rtc - st'iirqitul scc. --inceputul -qec. a.Chi.
pedolriiL vehi,:ul5r'ii arnfcrei sa.niene. intregibile rJin tumrrlul scitic 46 tifig.
irLrtul sec. \/ a.[]hr'. c:ste:
1,8) t;ri a l'r'tigntentrrlLri cle fric ot"u) der amfori samilnd din tumuhrl'13 cle la Dr.rb,dsari (l{erpap,r',
Lep:3a lr)Eri, l[r3. pric. 14,6-'') (fig. 1,3). Din recentele cercet[ri la fortificalia geti,:d Saharna -- La
Rer,,:r.,hin ilr,lyirle qi fr'agmentul unut F,ic or de anrforii a acestui cenr.ru, avi).ncl o datare ascmdnitoare
(l-eyrlschr. l)cipachil;i, Duleu 19199,66-tjl) (fig. I,i2). irragmentul unci arnfot'e samiene (piciorug) a
1r)st cle sccrllerit lin cot tteii Butlrc ,:tti' (fig. t, I I ).
'1.has9sul. ilentrLt grocesc junoscut, care in slec. \/ a.Cht'., incepe livrarea md.rfurilor lichide in
iLmfr_,re in reqiunea nlrci - ves,t prJnticd. [,a etapa iniliala de piitrundere a miirfurilor"g;receqti ?n aceastir rcgrir:nc:. I)re;.crnl,a rmforist,r'i thasilinlr este rierrnalatii deja din prima jr:lrnittater - mijlocul sec. V
thasiene timpLrni au
rL Cl"rr la (.)et,:lteil Stiinr.:e;ti prin flaEgniente: cle buze3. CAte va fragmenl.e de atnfore
ii)st leculor.ute;;r la r:ctarea Butuccni (Mateevici L99t),17). Precizdm, cZr piesele clln aqezarea Huqi (torn", consider"atc r:ir: noi inili rl ca apirrlinind irrLpr:rrl.ultri thasian tiinpuriu (Mateevici 2002,55-56),
irt rcalrtal.: s-iLu ad.everrt a fi t'ralgmente,Je antlore herat;leote, cu tcrate cd cercetdtoarea S.Teodor le
nrentjcneuzii c1 piesi: d,: irnpor-: rhasian ('Ieodor'.t981, 185,). Ultimele cercr:tdri de teren, efectuate in
datarea
1ieza1-ea Ir,ovo-lr{e l,:r'rrsovka lli, uri scos la il,eali gi prezen!a amforelor tirnpurii ale'I'hasosului,
clrori se 'ncadrr:az:ii irl a douit.lutniitato a soc. \'a Chr."
publi;lnri rrratr::riirlul ce rirrnirl n'ecuperiit clin tumulul scitic de la NicOla,3vka (Iitirnot'ka), cercetdumplLrtura mortgar.r:r,, A.-l l,lle [.julirtra semnalr:a:rit i]rezenta aici atirt lin tnantaua tumulului, cdt 9i i'n
(Me,rrcxona
a.Chr.
VI-V
cu
sec.
nientr.rlui .1. a fraqn:entelol dt: irmfore lrototl'rasiene, clatindu-le
?n
1984, 96- q7). (.lrpnntcne)nta NLce s,tor pleile, a fost strrbilitii rie regretatuI savilnt lr-r. Virrogradov). Doar
Ciobruirqezdrile
Klazorrrene
de
-ir:r
clo'?i punt:te alc spu{ir,rlr-n bugo - carpraticr a fost scsrzata amfora
acestui centrll
apirr{inlrrd
amfore,
multol
nlai
fost
rccuper-atr:1i'agnientel(3
au
1rn,Je
Nentiroyo,
ciLr
trrublir.'a1ier, insiL,

1i

srecLtsc,printrecaretoi]l'tcdc;rnt'oreprctatecuvoprie'l]maronie,lleretip,icioru$e,iarmart'ecentqi
buze (lj,lcpt:arioBzr lg9'7, 1,67: rnedit5) (fig. 2,10.23); (Baxruna 20Cr0, 2t) Incadrarea crclnologica
corcspunde r;fiir;;it.ului sec. Vl 9i sec. \'/ a.Chraces;tr.ti
itnplltulr:iarnl'rt,rirsti<: al

Frolis

colegului T. hrni.uri pentru prtsibilitarea de ii cerceta rrlate|ialul inedit rJe la stolniceni.


piesr:t r'e.iit6. cul.e rre-,r lbst rrfi:riti. 'u bunii\,c,intd de cdtre autorul sdpdturilor I. Niculil[, cdruia ii aducem sincerele
n()lri.r'r'mu tul:lif i \'i I'r,: lr;.'lsti;lle. 'fcodor'pen:r'u
i Sinc.,rele roi,strc rnpl(urlrri dnei Ii.
posibilitalea cle a cerceta piesele inr::dite de: la Stlnceqtt.
,lnf.t ntatti r.e-a fost ol'elitd cu rirnabilittti: de ciitre autorul s;dldturiLol I. Ilrujako, pentru care ii ilducem:'incere
I

sir.rcr,:re multumir-l

nrulturn rri.
it4u

r-rrniIr

le ltoa:;i.re

,--&r ut;lS-ArlUpJp-g4!,-Sett',t

111

o,,

it

fost surprinse itmft)l'e gre'ceqti,


ne \,'orbe$te in prirrtrl riirci cie situalia demol3raf iciexistentipe atunci in aceste teritorii. Pe de o parte
cli:nsrtateiL populaliei aut:rhtone la aceastd,3tapA este nesemntl'icativd, lar pe de alta - comunitalile
barbare in sec 1r1 r7 n.Lll. lru ajung ?nca la un nivel de dezvoltal'e ec:onomica qi politicd necesard,
c:arc sd le pelnritd intplic rrea tnastvit ?n comer{ul cu populalia nou-r'enitir.
A,Jou,l jum3tiate a sec. \y'l - sec, V a.Chn'. sermnificd petttru lumea greceasca din reqiunea circLlmponticii, periorldt de rLparilter ;i stabiliz:are a rnajoritalir agezi,rllor ?ntemerate de cdtre colOnigtt
Pr:rrtr-u:31<.rniqtti qri neguri.orii grerc:i, interesele prioritare, la acel moment nLl erau ilxate asupra stabilirii Lr:la.lrilgr.c6melciale iuratlle qi permanent,3 cLr popula{ia locald. Bineinleles, trebuia sa treaci o
rrrirrrnilii perioaclii de si,al: ilizare itr urma cdreia si apard necesitirtea de ar consolida Ielatiiie comerciirle
cu lligttnit5it,

2l

Depist;ireiL ia u.ceasli et:rpri n

de monumentc balbare, in care

IF

t0

i{f[

T'c ' -,

aLl

ll

q/
L'l

I r IIJHJfu
l6

ID

18

19

ltl

t)

Oil1[1
2l

22

LJ

Fig. 2. Amfore de Chios, Klazomene 9i Tl'rasos.

ol,r:4 1 N,J

115

'{pat]}ir in reqtunea nord-'/est potlticd a mdrllrjior lrece$ti din centrel) expofti:ltoare. cunoscute in
fa::ii it dc'zvoltrilii cometir:lui greco-barbar, poater fi Lxplicata
gr prin faptul cd, probabrl, aceste cenrre nu i;i giiseatr un de'buleu
peltrLl
realizalea rrarJulrlor saie ?n ti:ritoriLrl grccesc propnu-zis.
Propice
'{cci;le polisulr sunl' trer''oite sir-;;i inrJrepte privirile spre alte regiuni, in,;i nevalodficate,
in cazul dat, spre

lrinrl

(lelc cllcLLrllponlice' I]ste curclslrut cd


A,tena 5r Sanrorsul erau prrncipralii pr<-rdr.rciiton rje ulei
de masline in
t-- -,
- ;
lLllrrc''tgti:;'lca
lnsridator-rtaFrut:ni politrccsi celereconcinilceAtenas-aimpuspepiatalocald,elimind'd
t:oncltrent"tl pnncilral - Samos;1. intr-o nrdsurd mar
mic'a, Lesbosul, care r;au'vazut nevoifi sir-gi aieaga
irlte r'lirectii cle r:orrtctcializare I tnatfurrlor. o situa{ie sir-rilari
poate fi urmiiritir gi in privi.ta centrelor
ilxPoltato:ill'er de v'irlul'1, cum Lll fi Konnthul pi Chiosul. Primul.
in vrrtutea anrplasdni saie geografice, clar
;i liinciprobabil m*i putemic d;n punct cie r,edere Flolitic, rletinea intiiietatea iricomerlLrl vinicolin Grecia
conlittentrtli 5r I'eg,iunera meditet'aneand (arrrlbreie rJe Konnth clin penoacla
arhaica gr clasicd ?n reqiunea
rord-i'est pontitr;l sunt pritctir-'ine.xisternt:). Acesr polis a putut
eliminA concurenJa pe plan intem a
(lhir-rr'ulLri' crlre , ia;'iirrdLll siitt, a fost
impris; sa-;;i cauti:pie1r: cle desfacere ale mdrfunlor sale. Aceste
motr\e sl.rLI ia baza transltlt'nliilri rilltiosului in iicierul comerlulLri vinrcol
ba.rbarin
cea
de
a
dor_ialumd-qreco
tilte a secl' \/I-scc. \;' it Chr. Dt'c:'t conflrmare ale celor )xp,lse mai sus
Ser'\,cgr,r gi nr-rnrarLrl monumentelor
bat'b'llre, in care ltu l't:;t lliestrtf r .uuibre'chinte tirnpurir: ,ii"r zt
de monurnente. l:L car-c i-ru fbst semnalate
at.ufol e g1':rccl;ti in pcriolLrLu lc's1'l:'ctir,,ii. l-5 r:ontin arnfor.e: chiote.
Irt sr"rstiiterr:a itjeii ilxpujlc itntcrior.;,nvinci a cloua jrrr-ndtate a soc. V.I_ser:. V aL.Chr.,
ca perioada
clc dcrut lr r,:l.rtijlr:rr comLer-ctial:,tjr-r3c()-biirbar.e i'n regiunr:a bLrgo_carpaticd,
vine qi numdrul ne?nsem_
ttltt 'Jr: Picse ln:i1'c,ttisljce des;cc,perite la rronumentelc bnbare. Daci in perioada imediat
urmdtoare
nunriti-t'il i.tnloLt:lol's<.:si;liite llr tt't<tnunterntele barblLrer ale ircestei regiuni
tr.ece de cifi.a zecilrtr. la unele
sltLtri in Detloiicla in tial:i el,e nu depa;esc ci1'r'a r:riitf,tilcr. De obicei numZirul amfo'elor in perioada
ii'hlrii:ri nLr clcparqe :;rie cloua sau 1r'ei r:xernplure Ia fiec;lre sit.
Dintrl: cele ll c-lt.'nlottLllllel)t,il [tat-b,are i'n care a fcrst r;esizai materialul amforistic
clin sec.
\il-\/ 'r'Clrr'.. rilLse sllrtl. a$ezdri l'orti.ficatc, noui - arpezdrr rLerlbrtificate qi gase complr:xe_qrecesc
funerare (harta
I t. (lca mlLi mirsiril pl-e;zc:n1a ir Lnrportlilui grece:sc in irceastd per.ioacld este cea iChiosLrlui (harta
2),
lrind r.rrrllrt cle L-csl-ros (harta 31. Siam6s, l-hasos gr prothothlrsos. gi Klazomr::ne (harta 4). Rasp1nclirea
rl:ai Ilrrga in mecilLil b'attirr aJL ,'t:grt-ttiii nolil-r,est pontice ir amforelor chiote pi ale L,esbosuluiie poate
e:,plic-t pt',n pto<Jucet'ea r''it-tir:o ri tlai dezvoltatii. gi interesele comerciaie al3 acestora. in soeciai prin
1'lptLrl ca ltit ClhiorsLrl, crit q;i J-,r:;bosul. i'aciinci partr: din Liga Atenran;i. erau intr-o sttualie prt'ilegiata
atet (Jin pttnct c1c t'eclcrc: politt<, r:iit gi drr punct de verle,re economic, iapt ce le facrlita patrunJ.r.,

11:onorlliciliti Pont. ril-ucididc Ir;t. I,19). Prezenta,,mocleslS" a intportulur amfc,lstic sitmian in mediul
biLrlral al s;patiulr.ri trui.'e-,'","0,,tir:, poate f i explicatd nu pr.in faptul ci Sanio:;ul nu ar fi pLrtut concura
r-:r, ce:lL:laltc clor-rii cenlr"e exl)rrl'tiitoar.e gr.ecefti. ci printr,utr moliv mar
simplu, in ace,ar;taperioada Sat-t"tilsttl era prittc:illalLll r::rportatot'itl uleiulrri clc nrdrsliner in regiunea norcl-r,es;t ponticd. Cunoaqtem,
cd
ul;-rul dt- lrits;line e|a firlostt in r:antittiti mult mai rnir:i cler:iit vinul, de,ci, Si c,3r'el'ea amforelor samiene
l)i: plala gf i;1111iJ;r;rnlLct ela m;ri rricri. ccrmparativ cu r:entr,:ie exportatoat'e de: vlnulr,
z\llitlii'.,-t lrittt'LLnr:L:rii in me,Jiul irarbar al regiunii norci-vest pontice in se,c. VI-V a.Chr. a amfbrelo: -grcce$ti. rlerrrons;[.'eazi cii, n cele miLi multe cazuri, consllmator:ir principali ai acest6r procluse
ct'Lu triLrurile sedentltt'r: lle tnt:ilor seplel lrionatti. Astfel, am{bra chrota f:str3 atestrrld cloar la 4 com1)l,rxe lLrneritr3. celela 1e 11 fiinrl habitate, cea dc L.esb,cs, atestatd in ti hatritlite rpi 4 comple.xe funeralc ial';unfrlra sarnirnit,, atestittir in 4 purrct,:, dintle care clcar 1 flind complex funera1.,Aceeagi situatie
cs e cllrselr,rrtii;r 1ti'i,,'ind export.il thasran gi cel ,Ce Klazonene. Una,Cin exprlicaliile itcestui fenomen
i,n plllca fi :;i fa;rtul ciL relaliiie rlintle grecr qi
la dceosti etapd purtau ur]L caracter pagnic, ceea ce
-ee!i
se erplica prin a','anl-a.jele ecoromice reci:roce. Dr:;rlt5 ratura erau relafiile: noilor
-,n,eniti cLr scrtii,
clirr ptu tea i.:droril tottlertunii persista pericolul une,i incursirrni.
Clcloni;ta:ea terll.r:'r'iilOr not'c[-r'est pontice, ?n special a regiunii NistrulLri [nferior era strins legata
de cuntlitgti::rea <ic ciitte 5lreci a: itr-raliei etr.)o - cultururle, a lcestei zone gi a1egereu Lurui monrent c,pol.ttttt, cAttd rr':la:irle dinLt''c L-ele: tl'cr cornponente etnicr: principale: greci, geti gi sciti eruu pegnicc.
E,sle er idi:nt lii fiip,tul cd sr:o1tul pnncipal al coloniqtilor.greci, 1a mrlmentuLl inteme,ie,dr colonirlor in
:r:r'itoriile p,;lpulatc clr:: autolttoni :rrit ttLt afAt stabilirea gi <lezvoltarea relatiilor econonrice cu indigenri. ci
li i d-.i:t'ab,.t de zvitllrLrcl propr-ie,i ploductri ,]grare ;i nteqtegrtgireqti (Cauor.i:rosa 2000, 85-86).

Rer.,istgtilr,Lcolag,s

d' S ery,|g!

I 1l.r

anrblt-

relaliilr:r g|ecrJ-indigene pIOdUSele greceqti' Ce necesitltu


principalul consumator al acestora'
lai anrfr:ristic, erau clestir lte <loar alistocraliei lribaie, Care era
peritracid, cr: contin ambaiaj amforistic clrept
)Vlajoritatea crlrnprexelor Iuner.are barbare din rlceastd
pdturii soctale instirit.e a indigenilor' Drept confirmare
r,n\/entar de.rfr.rindE, apar-rn reprezentan{ilor
numir impunitor de vArfuri de sipier;c, de c,lranclri, d.epistate in ateste complexe: un
tcl'V3SC ;i
'1te
2,2), obtecte de bronz' afme' armuri la
q{::ii li aplici cle aur la [] obruiciu (Agr.rlnicov ilrl0-'i, a3 tig'
(Eb-ert t9t-4, 12-13; Kerpapl" Cepona 1992' 164;
AclZilgol, Du6asari, Kor,alei,'l<a I[, Majakr
oxotsptXC'n 1 9i3 1, 106)'
Konnag,:urr,r, Iiyuilrsu. I' mprurcx 1978, 75 ; C1'rjfi 1'trn,
aceasta perioada' provin, de regula' din
I)iesele amforistice d:scoperite in habitateler barbare din
locale' GhidAnclu-ne dupd celelalte piese sec:.mJrlexele loc.ti.,r,t. care ar plttea aparline aris,tocr^tiei
uncle aidturi rle fiagmentere amforistice aul mar
srzatc in aceste c'nrplexe c, i" lc,cuin{a de la Curteni,
1979"81-85)' sau in complexul de
frrst sernnalate riasc:r cle trur (lconc,tnu l()18-''tg,2l'17-220;Iconomu
Aceste mbrturii ale schlmburilor de
cr.rlt,Jin aDezi:lrea rje la CiobrLLciu (lt{ep6arrlna lg\)1,169-170)'
greco-trartrare (l1ui<1'llru: 1987' 34)'
ntrirturi viiclesc cu ptisostr(a o etapa rje debu't irrrela{iile
,f'u cer-riturlrnc. lir acr-

tsti

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3
Vl-v a' chr: 1 saharna-La Bevechin; 2 Butuceni;
l-larta 1. DifuzareeL amlroretor grecegti ilr sec.
6 *l1l'"^1i11:t^9i:::Tly.(it':.ir.?;
Frartopur rl4are 4 -ruoas"ari'i;
:"?i:trt%lii"",ll3"li)i3
14 Kovaievka rr; 15
ri; rg iurteni;
r:z r'ri,vo-r.r"riu.ouru
-igZatissja;
r.iil6ru"uxa;
il?L"J#:i'ii';i.,i,,i'liil;
Satu Nou ll (Novo21
lverne-Puste;
20
lid:Zigot; 1ri Stolnpenr; 17 Hun""u; 18 Nemircvol

ii

sel'skoe ll,l

i";;;;'

rrl

il/lllrl

l. )\ t .

, ^-4'l

__-.*.**.*_r-*"

der Chi,rs in sec. \'l-!' a- C)hr': 1 StAncegti; 2 t3rdclicegti; 3 l-lAtlopul lr4are;


}lernsca; 7 Br,rtuceni; 8 Ciobruc;iu (irgezare); 9 Novo-Nekras,svka ll; 10 AtiZigol;
'1
'1
1 Ciobrruoi.r {rrec,ropold); 12: 1,,(ovalevt<a ll; 13 Nernirovcr; l4Zirlissja; 5Satu Nou ll (Novoselskoerll}.

Herrta

21.

Difu;:;arera

amfore|:r

4 tlaja.lii, {r Grerciernrcy lll;

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:2,'ii ...\;;,::;)
E=
- '{ '-i"'i.---

(ai.'

',

I '... '-\:___.

\.
t--'",.

'--F:

\.

\,\/
\

\J

--?

_--!:
)\
./i"

"17-

E_
f-=-

/^J'=:

Harta i3. []rifuzarea arnfors|r)r de l--esros in s;ec. \/l-'r/ a Chr.: 1 Curteni 2; Oiobruciu (aqe;tare);
3l\d2igol; 4 Cr)rjrlva: 5 tvkqak, 6 Korialervka ll;7 Stolrriceni; 8 Buluceni; 9 Zalissja; 10 lvane-Puste.

_:111

113

__ _ _&uiila

,4rlyeo_lpgtcti._5erie.

norti

fl

2n
t''/r
r.to,

\u.
\_// \
\.?

r\ l'

l,4arca

SrtrrC-s it
I(l:tzr.tl:tctr

'l'l rrsos I

ru

cagri

c I

4. Di r)zarea amforelor cle Sarnos, Klazomene, Thascs in sec. Vl-V a Chr':


1 Curteni; !l ifubisari: 3 Saharna - Lil Revechin; 4 Butuceni; 5 Ci'lbruciu (agezare);
6:StZrnce:il;. i' Novo-Nekrasovka ll: 8 Nit;olaevka; 9 Nemircvo
Hartra

llst-e culnosct.tl. iilptLli ch 1'rnu-ile ce eralt aclllse in aceastd ileriOadA aveau tln prel destr-rl de mare
de clrahme, pe cand pleful unLli bou erli
1de e re,mplu, o amli)f5 c r vin de rlhros costa in Grecra 100
,31'ltu accesiblle popula{iei de
d(ri.rl dc (r() d.ruhtt'rt::) 9i t jn aceste, cilnsiclerentr: mdrfurile grece$ti llll
prea putin probabil
'i:rlt
r;'Lncl. La l'r:l cie sr:umpe: e
$i va.seli: de lur., in spr:cial cele ctl firnis negru. Este
cir ne'gustrJr-ii gre,::i si-;,i t gme:rcializezc mdriurile pe piala norc[-ves;1. pontrcd la prefulr mai mici declt
in tata lor', luind irr ,lons;t cleralte costul trans,poftullti pe mare 9i pe uscal-, putem presupune ca marfu-

rile expottului gret:esc el'r ru chiar ntai scumpc de cit ?n metropold.


l)eja'in sec. \r'l[ r.Chr societatea barbarii drn aceastd regiune. in speciai tliburile gelilor ca comllnrtirti apric<.rle :;edcnlilre. rtinst:sc1ir gn ni\el i.r\lltsat al dezvoltirni e:conotnice. cilre ptltea crea condltii
ldec r'ate pentru retlLl tzat'cr I mf,rfurilol g1'ece$ti gi era apta pentrll intre[inerea unor relalii de schimb cu
l]4; \4rhailescu-Birliba 1990, 20).
sr )c i cti,rtL'i.r s -' I a,,'ati r;ti Slt--' icd (Precla 1973,3'7-3';8; FJ.uxyruus l!)i87,
BteltociRnrte

S Agr.rlnrctlv. .n tunrr-rl scitic de lingd satutCiobruciu. Tyragetia XII. 2003.40-44'


Arrriiut., \'/esti:ri ale st:c. \'Ii-ill a.Chi in s,paliul de la Rdsdrit de Clrpati (Chilinau 2003)'
(li:tatea hallstattiirrii tirzie de la Hirlopul lliare. In: Vestigii Argeologice
1 99t7: Ch.ll'fL. Clel-r )t:i5.enco,

-,\5rulniccv llCCS:
,{r'naLrt.

l00]r 'I.

(lebotlrer,co

tCfriqiniiu 1997),

:ll i

din N{oldova

2:lr:'

(S,ud-ll-rssland). Prahistorische Zerntschrrft


Irb,ert 191.3 h'I. Ebert, A.usgra .rungen arri dem Gute Maritzin, gouv. Cherson

5, []l-1,
F;lorescu.

L 8.+.

Rl!5 i96'): lvl. Iiloresc r,

lMateriale (lSucea"'i'r [969).

S. tri.a{d, Complexul

dl cetiifi h'aco-getice

(sec.

VI - ilI

i.e.n.) de la StAncegti-Boto;;ani. Studir 9i

i qllr!r,l-1--,i',
Ir:rrnon,Lt
,

l9l9:

')f9.

_--'--

--

119

C.

79_'i)l

clrlci ,r.Xil. ::inll.

r5()-6:i.

.l. r99ij, lll-t3.5


F.aiub;1, Ha6eu, Ler'itl.:i

aXXXI) (,}-rcurett i 2C)0()),


Ler,ir:r,:hr.
pri rnel c' ir

rr,'c-s tr

ltati i.' f'-vr,rgeti a V

t, I 999, 5 I -68.

lrr: Strr<lir in llonolern I Niculila tChigrniru

l9t'9) 177-i9:t.

.1000. 75-86.
'r,1x161gr'lci

:13

2,-O-1:

N. llatr:er'icr.

6l

l,1ihiiil:sctr.t|fliblLl99r.-|\/.ir4ihill:scr.r-I]il]iba.Di'ci'rris5riterniiinset:.VI-I1.e.n'I]crncllni:
'i'he 'f r la,.:rrr' rvolti:l

lt

the cros;st

c lLds c,f

civ ilis;ttions ( Lluc u'est 199 7)' 373-383'

r7 80

'.-erxlt,.. 19tt i::i.'fr:od.:,r'..\5ezlreii ireto-dncicid,: ir I'luyi-Corni. lfhllco-DacicaII, 198


' -Lrcidide. l)''f( tPl z\1, I.l !)

l'

169t-197.

r\r',i,HiKoir.

i] c5: flnrorrnr:i rr aLrrl.ir{bu-r Nllgr Cesett.ro lptl'tepHo^'topbtl (O{ecca 1997). i82-18(i.


!(J

rr. (K;rutruer'; l')E2)' -\-27'

t] c5: ).1).;Il l 'YA,, Ilai,tqrtt lO.E, ,\rr,rPeeBrr (C'a]lKr-llerep6ypr 2C00)' 209-17


lC(r-117'
l-arr.r a i9t,:i: rJ /{ [-auiga. flgce.rreHrrq ci<ii[rcux,:ro rr;ic)')l ceri ir;arre-fi1cre. Apxeo;roril X]fX 1965'
]'aHiHirl98.l:()!|,lauiuir'floce-legtttoauriuocr.itb:r,xtiii-ro6r,rn,c6.lltg.l),c.3aJlicca..,\pxec,.noril
pat'loHe B c6: Al4M a i986
lierltiL:r,. ( cp()g1 l!)s6: ll A, rc.rpa1r;i. H..fl. Cepoua. llcc,rejlonanufl KypmHoB n /{,6occapcxorvl
il{tturtiHt,rtt I 992), i'+1 - 1.70.

lioe

nr.rHeHf c,.

Iivrtl-ttttt.

HB K)iKnoNt lr"'re (Krren l9'l8),7-132.


lv4e-rirlxoBa,l9,5j:,A..lliVlr:-rrrKosa,lJc':Ie.lcreattl,teI.3.rcKl1XIIa\1'THttK0BBcTenHoN,I[1o:tuecrpoe'beKCl4l\9t|'|963.2.eex Cenepoy c. Htrxo,raeBKa. B c6: Patluuir Nele3sslir
lv4ei:ir-rr,oea 193,1: i\.f1. N1e-lrc,KoBii, It..rprauur crirrrfcxnx KOtt0BH11lioB

It. B c6: lir,praHsr

.ianajtttot-tt l.'lprltcpr toir'ro;lsl (Kt'i:e l!)8'1)' 90 -I03'

(Caparon l9!)9)'
lr{our:.ios 199!r: Cl.iO. \4c,rraxcis, f'lle ut;cxu,3 ar'ttpop,t,l e flpttveprlovopre
1987)'
Jrrxr.rrrut 1987: I.l.'1. [[nr.:yrriq:r,ce st:pu;te(rpaxiriluulvl-lBe.Ac'n.:(Kuut*ree

,'i,;f iis;i-ii' B' l'u6nu

\eor(rr'rl tecfi IIx tta.ttrHt'ixoe Vripat tHt t (K Irer I !)82)' 96- I 12'
l(r(D: L,1

r-leuoli-,toel',

it)rerja i00t)), 79 8(i

]]ano;itttttx,]g'[ip1lxc,.|(lxtlnapy'l!)!i.):l4'B.CatlrlNulrxou,1.B,[ipyllxo,
O6iurecrsa (O.recca 199'))'
ilerip,iconxa u. r:' 6,i;,. Xpriiirre ;,ro6ulenur_O.lcccriofo Apxeo,ror {qecKoro
r'r*r" rJ\o'fl ltl Koll
cru C eee'po-l3ana..'tttorc' Ilpll'te;:r ioxlopbff (KIrge 198 I ) t 02 I ] 6'
Llc5ot.apeHl:o.Cy,6fiorlrrr:oor:r.cp..le'5ciraperrrt,l,rt.e.i:ytioorrlH''lo:IHl:ra,lbtUTaTcIioeI.()p()nl,Ic'

92-95

'

31 56r

rorilrrecxlrii roiirn,rexc n llpeBHrre nl'nor1"po, Ilo.quec'ryoebn llirpa':nr'rrs:000),


LIepH;lxonl960:I,1''r'LleprHrtxotl,l\1l>'r:o,torlr.te.5i'i111"'^1.''{'L!#:rol"{Hecrponcroro-rII,,I]aIIa'
| 8'
\eoJ,l( ) {-H'{ecli(lfo,J5illerlrBa | -l'| 1 (o.recc;i I 9r(r0). 209-2

Jo6prvqlrii

apr{6,o

1:18-135'

tJ-\epi::ar<oeil)9./:,i.,A.,LI]ep6axorlii,f]o:qriea)x;tr.lecrrtiirOpn30H'TnoceJrIeHH'I
rleBelrH0 r'o | 1pr r.rep ttor,top;s ( ( ) I ecca 1997 ), 167 - 11 0.
Notalfu NIatecvici,

Mtqettl Nctionol de lstorie u Molovei


srr. :l'l liu.qust l2lA, C!ilsindrt'

Reui.sln Arheolosicti. Sene notrd

1',20

Ot Kyn

t,tyF,HoM H xpol{ofl

orr q Ec KoM cotlrHotu

EH

14 14

Anqt.AnpcKoro il SpeHEturcKoro MorutnbHnKoB


PouaH Pit6nnoanu, Kutu-trHey

(Llt{irttttAtttl itnori Prtqtt:trt tle pr ltulat,i dii''t:rite ltt plun ctLlttLrol si ettti'::'

(l.titttj.tj,(l

!.;tl;:.'ill, llL" tt ()ttLt

itrtrl t,lt:tr

tltet l.,t,long

/(,,di.l".ferL',

t f it, tt.tltutal ortt! ellut,'c respects) gt'oLrps

oJ

poptilItttott.

oTJrIlrII4fr leyx paHl{ai-*ran cTa'fbtg nocrj lIIISHa E,htfti,IIeHHK) K\/11b1'\'pH6lx I'l XDOHollofHqecKlix
.Hijcl-)cJHegi3KOBbrK rril\'rglrrlKOB Vlo,'tJoert - .A:r,relapcKofo lI Et'';u.:urct{oro Moi'l'IrbHHKoB'
[{a rep;luropruu lIp.r'ro-,i{uecrpoBcKr{x 3eN{eJib B }Iacro.su{ee I]lDeNItt H3BecrHr,I c)re,[vrculHe N{o1{.fIF,}tfitiu L1 0,i(trHOrg{1,1e 11oq)e63HI.It, orHocrLIN{ble Izcc.:IeAoBtl'Te.]rttN{li }(o Bpel\{eHu }l uilTepBare
XIII, XasB.rgpa-q rro,.r()FiHH1 IX.-)ilIi en. A.'r.re,lap, E,l:ul,t:rvtll, ,r11'xlne1'xa, Iip:nerurr. 6pluemrr
,:uil,.larrtjllpr,, K,rnp:pnt Itarrrpa' florpe6a,rbltble ra^{.[THhKI4 e f[p-YTo-AHecrpoBE,e IlpelcraBneHbI
K:lnp:p,lle, Ka,'r$a) MofH-[bHuKa]\'IH,
K.,f pr,zrHlrbri\,rr.r (r\;rq:cllap) i rpr,,111ilBbrN.{I,I (Btrlour:urrr, JIuHtSapr,,
XaHcxa' B
l.1r;arroei{[,]N1n nor'1r,3,5eHr.rai\rr,r Ha llocelreHr.rtx. lSxnlr:yqb, Fp3Hem:ll XIII. Jiyx:rue-vxa,
gaK,rprirHlJONl \,ror:-r.l-irL,Ir IrKe it:r.rr:,fap 3axopoHeH[it: cotseputeHrl IIo o6psll' KpeMau[{H' Hecxcllr'ro
ocHo]lHaq
x,.lpo.ueruui:i no o6prl;r1 hl)eruaqua Bbr.sB:reFr.bI I{ Ha fpyHToBoNI MOTHJII,HHKe Iip:Henrrs,
Lra,cr,[, ilor-peSelruii F.or,ol]oro :Ipei(craBneHa r{L1t-yN{aII}ItMI4. Bce uilreplla,ilbl, 3a Hcl(JI}oqeHIleNI Moony6nllKoBaHbl (OeAor'r,r.jrr,r{r1K& .A.-rqeAall u no:'peCeHLiE }ia ErHvlytlxol{ roporluule , ilo.rlHocrblo
p,re l9(i4; lt)6,[a., ]i!)(:81 Irelc'por. rIeSor?ps111qo 1911, l0l-l 161 .]ir,nuc1' 1969, 12-18; 1970; 1973;
(rerc,poe, r{e6olaprerrxo. IJelulrar:{og& 198,1; 'q.6orapellKo 1913, 13-75; Lle6orapeHKo, T'errLHoB
198:l 9,5-96; Pa6ttt-tc,trtE'1, l-yKIIH t99l, 2I3-'Zl 4).
I) pauuecpelur,illrer(r:rrirjr'r rrepnoil sa se,5oluttroii tto flnouailu reppl'{Topl4u flp,u-ro-flHecrpoBb's
6e:1'c.'toBHo. flBI4BlI3ecq
N,rr,,r Ha6rlolr,Aer\{ };:lri{Br{Te.rbHO,,r ntloroo6pat"a ,16ppe6a,rtnoli o6pl,4uocru,

I eorpaQH,tecKrt0 tl?3Brll{l'lJl )(lorBBTCTByior


lvlo;r.loBa, Ns 764-X'1. o't2J.] 1.200 t rora.

3axOH'v O 'lepp,uTopl4albHO-aINll{HHcTpllTl4BHON'l

yCrpoiiCree PeCny6'rnxu

121

rl-reJ.crBli'-\t r\rHof ,rx)6pa3l,rt .\\,JrL,'fypllol'o u 3THr4rre()Koro. KalKnbrii


3 [epeLIr.rcJI,eFII{bIX nofpeoanb_
,Ibil{ il&Il.[TFII4KOI] 0tJIn'qileTct.t j{pKHuI4 HHIL{BLI.I}'albHbtNII4 LrepTili\,[I, .KapaKTeprlr3],IorqHMIa
14

Te

r4JIH

rrHr,r{i 3,[i:]rrlHT'br r'Iof,pe6airtrr0ii o6p_a.1toc.rll, H 3arlacTt,ro


oTI{OCrt.cs 3.Ir.t ilaN,rri.r}{r.jKIr pa3Hbll\[r ac-

(lire,l'llBa'l(l-lt{i\'ll't

l(l K o,lIHI{rt 14:t'eNI )Ke, To K pa3Hbl\4 KyJrbrypaM (,:r[peaHepyccKa.[ KVJIbr.\,pa>.


,<rp\,'ft[a nil]rrrrHr.tri,r']e Ilxut\,1::.,,rtr,-Ar.ie[:rp>, <Iia.uxaurt_fiyuaiicxa{
x1rn61,pa>, <<11aMgTHLIKLI KoH_
"axrtttlii :ioilbt>' ((l:-prr,JIIla I-lerpl'5g;r. ,(K'i-rib'ry'pa
X;aircxir-Peir),K3r{erib))

r,r r.r.).3a r(crTopbr\,r14 oHrr BH,lt f (: reui.t(lrI{rr,3c}.ioc :)T.nHge)c b i.)c coreLr;j{?r Hre.
llpe;+;:t-'' tie)I \ti,I Ilcpcii-let\,{ n uorr,,r-ran'ro KyJi'T'ipHtrx fl
xpoFro.lorr.rrrec*rrx orru.r}.{ri -AJi.re-

,jliu]Ct(0fOt,tIip:'rt.tctrl[C}(Ofot'I{rI-I1JIbHI{K

uc'fol)rroj pai(lrlr

rrr..r

ilogo/Iy I tr{oKy_irrJr\.pHoro KOHTeticra trfix naNr.,{TH]r{oB.


9tttcln:rn urypH

bl 14 Ko HTEKcT Mo

rhfl

bH

t4

KA

An q EflA p

li4onr.-rt,,l*t'( .,4\.lrte.t]tlp, rto r\,.rcTBr,ru,1,ia o,,lHor{r{eHsorry rioceJreHr{ro _


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,tr;llle rilP. il{) i\'lIIe.F:ll.tl(-) cIJoeI'c tlepllofo I.1cc-teloBilTe.rg I'.8. ()e.,Iopc,sa,
tB;rt{elcq flal\4.grH'Ko\{ npee_
llep'r..'cKoii }iVit:br\,'tDi,l (,Sre[opoe 11)60: u.qp.). ].( neii:xre oH o.rHocHJr l{
Iec,{rrrH,4p.ylnx noce-qeurlr:r _
Iioill)l'[eBbi.\ a cilr:)]hll0-l,I],ICoBbtx lopoilulll ]1 cllH)ipOiriltbtx HevKperrJleFrHbIX
ce.jruu - Ha ceBepe u ceBepo-Boc]',Jt'e f'{or7l,ler,r no lirrecTpv u B ee rIeH,rpalr,uor.i qacru __ e
lrrer:rpoecxo_pe1,rcKo1,{ \,te)i(_
-r!'perrbe. I-.i1. oc,rr:)p()E; crrtrjrir.r llrv K).,rrr,'f),pv )vrecr.Hbrr,r,rBjreHr.rev e flp,ylo-,4n.arpouua, .an.rrrua_
cKl.r EiDcxorl:utelil .l: H\"tbf),pe ..trrra Jlyrl-l)alircr:raeuKotli, a atur.rvecKI4\,r
_
ttocu.fereM
ee npeBHoclera

:)cr'orrHoc"[i:lBrHCti,i]c HaceJrrjilre. a rri{eljrrO jre,TcrilHcH6tx rlrBeprlee,. Xapaxrepglrii


,IpesHepyccrurii
o5-tll- ll-il K\/,ill;,'l Vpil. ilo \{HertttK) uccrrei(ouare-T.q, npiaHrrila B KoHue IX-nepnofi ro.lloBgHe X se. nori

c-le BXoirijleHtrfl 1'r]tBeprleB e .:ocraB !1teeHepl,'ccKofo roc\/ilapcrrra.


l_[penuepycc(as K),nbrypa B
[1o]luecrp,ttub(-, Iio I'.]i. Oelctrrcny,6rr;rit pacflpocr.par{eFra e X-XII ur.,,,,rr, }Krr.tHb
Ha Hexoropbrx
Ill\{'I'tHrlKLlx npeKl:)alf{rtacl)'}llitqHTe-rlbflo paHbIUe n X LI Aaxe n K s. (Gle;1opoe
1960;
1973: @e-

.:t,)pc)rl, LIeOorapr:uxo I 974

).

t lnpe,:(e.leHIt[,J,:] IlO3]ltix:el:L{:t{ BbI3Ba"rIa 3rr{Hr,iectr:ar arplt6,vuufl f.Ii . toelopoebrM


ApeBrrep}rccrioil io'rr,nprr fl,:r.ruec'rpoBr,Jr KaK "'rHBepcKori" y 14.l-.Xr,rHx1,. [Io ero ]\4FreHu]o, K\.nr,Typa rra_
\l: tlrF[l'lKoB tllna. [:.tlttrt:1'us-A,'rvt]!,op rplIIIalJreir(HT
rp'/foMy -rrelo[rrc]Jor\,ry Bocl.oqHocjraB.sHcKo\l\'IlilelleFII'I - \''rl'ltIa\t. B Trl llpellt Kax Tr{BepubI. r{a ol'o B3fit,rl, qB.rL{IOTCfl ltjre\,IeHet\I, ecJIlI He
pONIZll:lCKLiL{, 1'0 p{l\IiHO-CJlitlirtHltI{:HN,I. Iz[ trr,tettH,l TL1BepIIaNr npHlraA.rIe]Xi:lT
l{peBH(ICTU IIaMTTHTI_
lr(te 5rt.rixir.s0-J\'r-ftitiir:KC,ii K\'-Dr,r\,rpbr r.t: xy-rrb-fvpbr Aprri:), (XsrHxy Igi:)_, 159_17.5). 3a6era_s
Bre_
p('il. oT'\lel'll\I. rl'rO IJo3paxeil 'lt Y HeKCTOpbL\: ItO,rlllilBcKIIX u p)1"{bIHr:)Kl4X .acc,lte,qoBa1eneu Bbr'lbrBae'f tr olHrrceH:r.ic I',8. rJ):goltou,t\j r(
IpegHepy,c:xofr K),nbl.ype nax.{urHr{KOB vKa3aHnoro
IJIe\'1e:{!I (n lolt tltl{l.lL- lr Iip:tttttIuTctrllli Ko\{nreF:c), pi:l(:lo,'Io}KeFiI{6IX B tl13HTpajrlgoil
uacru 71Heq bs.
i:'r p o.e l: x o - [1 p 1.' r',c xo ro \r e )r(r]i
)
J)
111. uallotte'll. 1'pr.'ut,t fcltlKi:t 3lleHu.s u,:r ?'ri.IoKvr;r'vprtr,rfi KoHTer{cr
rIi}M.grHyKc}r3 THra A,ruerlap,
B03Hr.lliluAjit B IlcrcJre.{j.tpre fo:],br. Ei rtr.tlr.rrre or. l-.8. Oe,topoea u c-TeAyrorr_urx Ij pyo_[e
ero uqeii ac_
c,'lero.Bare.rreii lir'r ilo.qafeteM.,r[o B Br,]je-rlrreNroir Hlr r.u. rpeBHepyccxoii tc1,-n61]rpe Ilo;rrrecrpoBb_s
tteo6;<'.unlto BblLI.ne.HJ{l-b rrBa c\lqecrBoBaBIrII{x ciIHXpoHIto u, ilo-Bluur,{c)N,{.y, N,recr.ill\4u Llepecnonoc(

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Ilrl3oll'loM
'llvnu-F'artrcoeeqxoi.i n peruorie, ntr)elcraereHHrrii cJrolr{Ho-M:btcoBbrr\{H ropollllua)\lH rltnit I'.irttn;fi:Hbl ll t't [)eq\',ra u cI{HXpr]HHLIt\'Ir{ )lHM ropo.ll{[la]\4 HeyKpeilneHHblt\{lr nocenesI.IJIl'tH. liperltrolat'aet!'1. LIl'o ]locHTeJtNI]i 3Tlrx.epenHocreil 6tsrn rerorr.rcHbre vn]Iqu.
Bropori
r(\jrrbl')'plrbltr N{accflB -- ril\,I_s'ilr,rKrr KoJrbltei}brx fopoAHL| THrra Erul,ral,qs_,A.:r.re4ap. 3ra x1,,rr,:r.y,pa
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tieborapeHKo,
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clr:ctii x1-1,rr;pe ({Der4op,ctt,,
iaggpertuBocrbK)'
B.t.opcri'o aBTol)a, i(iit( I,rrJ ) BIUIr.rNI ;lLIIee, or-tll'Iltaercrl Hexoropoii np'lf
l1 orHec ra]IHoe rIOCeno;r1':eMntlltKy
il.I' ,Kr,tnx)/ rrc(rjrrll( git.I tra tioceJTer-rurr [ip:irerurr XIII
(Xr'ruriy 1969' 52-53)' FIeo6xoiregi.rc Fi BtLli)r{3J:.II \ 5a:rx,rito-:1'yuc.iict:oir xy,nlrlypbl THIIa flerpl,'xa
Ilotl. l.'0 lelluttu,.6a;rrcauo-,1,vn,li':iilKa{ K)'jlbTypii> 3'fOT alllop I{ HeKOTOpble efo
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Iloc. gqrieu, IOro-Boc-ri,qrroii u I]eurpa:rluoli Ilrrponlr (ll"IerHesa 1981' 76;


1978'
r$reJopoe, Ll.e,5o1apeun9 :97-1,9ri-98; Oexc,pon, H.erpyrua 1979, 50--5iil Eltpss, Padlaloeuu
B
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u rxrpxo-60'[rapbl' Bcelt rpe\'I rp]ilna\I OH
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OeAopon'
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123

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il(uc'6Haq cI.tl'\'aLprfl oKet3ajlac b H0 enllill{'-iltoli.


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Hl,rN,r () ExllulyUarlt, ,A.-l.teAaptxl. P.vilsrc, lI r.,I" (<De4o;ron,
ltrlc-te,IoBiI.T trocE.nrlHpte Jly'x:trre1'xa V. KcTopoe, ro c-Y.flt. flB.rlg,'locb IIOCI{Q14 fOpOAl.{UIa, [pI{N4bIKaitr) K r{elr)'rr 6u:rcl i:rr.IHXltoHrrr:r. lo xperi.nrefi tr eper, s rcaxoii-ro ilepuon. OH orsec [oceJreHple Jl1'x:rile\'lii:r v li 6a-nxas0-,1yl{i}ficr(0ii lqrnr,rlr'p(r -- BaFrHirHTy 'rrna fle'rpy111. I{a uarepHaJla.x HN4eHHO 3TO|O
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124

Retista Arheol

a. Jene

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1968, il5-93;
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|)a6tltotllt,tli)9l):P.r\.F,J6ttHr)sLl.I.fJitpxertl,r|IaTeppiI1.C|pl
l'lus (,. l99tt. 111.).:i ,l'i'5.

Ivrirtr j()()l P.,,\. Pari]HJBttrt. l].11. I-'yrilrrr, Pe3r,irura,Tr,r pacFionoK Ha nocerelllltt Bpaneutrut XIII ll Hexo..ol]l,|1jcilo[)]:]bl|]t]c|IlpOct-llI3\Lj}llI'lrlllt|'lIII|KoB.r.ttrtafIerplxa.,]Italuegxa
il-ce1tr-',t lttr,t lI It,tcrqercriltr ll ) ) (l(tlul tttt:tl I991). l0:-22+
c 3epHbto lt: Kapnarol)a5,| ,.Ouli,r, Pfi,l,rtL-Eia lt)()j: P.,\ Pa6r'rHor:rr,r. C.C. Pr6ueea. lOne.irHpHble vKpau13llllrl

l)ii6trr oBrr,r

lIr:l,r.rii:c.ipot:ll''ll::lI:0H1.chCT|]h\,IbT),pIl()-]Ic.f0pI'il{()cKll}'np()ttecc(

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rti--ttiHee l()97). l3(r-2"1,5

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l'r'.1r r; l,4u;,1,-rBr:, .\.preo-'tot-t ' tlcKtle

Bel--]

i l.

199:t,16-5-17[].

)an,,iltti.tl()83:.].|]'I)ilt}.lIll1A.r]].ar.ttpoBKeI.ol]o.1rttl1aA'q.Ie,lilp'Bc6:Cpc,l.rI]BeKoBbIena\l'.r}lltKlt{rrecrpecnollpvrcxoro Nte)t(-l)'pettbR rKttLr,ttlt-'tl l9E8). 5-l-7 l'


,aun,,riop.,. li,)(r7:

Il

;\.. l]riirnorro;:rr'. 3oerrnoe 3oattec'fBo 3artarHoprlccKllX 3e\le:lb

X XIV ee. \414A CCCP I;10'

,.)epct. Sifltirrn I:'ILis -5. 1999. ] l8 3:i(r


)l[jIrr''ga]r)()5:L.C'.l)lt5Ltcslt.!,pturrep1,cc'x
l-ieler:,tjr, pt .l00:1 ).
lerog l9(rlr tl.[:], (.'::llr)lt. O roro'-iln;lil]loii rilvillle BocrotlHC)c'liBflHcKrlx |IJel,{eH.

i6oDtilll': ( \1i.lcrintt 196:l). l9; -:10"1.


l-erc[t igf].:: B I1i. i-.,:.lUrr. Boc.roqHr,re clraBflrle u \tl-Xlll

<on.'''-\lll
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ng. (',A .1.

rrn,

Ap;tel.rorlrs

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1967

j q ec

Kllrl

c.

i9(rl. <( 7i.

05- 1 27.
3al trltcfi tr .lia6lrpor,tc rt0r0 lle.lll llc IIlT\'l'a b, 1 96 1. 1
\i-lX cr' (f'rrie 197(r)'
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llCC t) E!). l;960

r9ri.l: I-.8. (r..ropoB.


ts6,t.77-sli.

rDc-1r,poB

Oetopoa ll(rla: f-.b. r:D.jopoB.


rrre C;ooiiUtCttttl r,-)ll,:CCt':Ot'O

I,rL5o'rr,r Ilplrcl.o-,1]Hec'rponctrclii

lKcneallulll{ 1960-19(lL

rr' I(tll'lA

r\FI CCCP 99

Kpar'
I'lpvrcx0-flHecriloBcKoi ap(eoJoro-srnorpatlrn'tecxoii sKcnejlllutrrr e 1962 r'
6'l-[i t
t C)( \''llapc'fBerlilorti apXeOilOrilqrlcKOlO lr1':en 19Ct4'

l)a,5oTa

cDc:io|log196J:l-.,.B.,.]')c]ll:)I)oB.Pa6tl..'tI11lr,r.ci.o-,[rrecrptrncxoit:}KceIIlul1ll
Hace'!eHttl ,(nec'rpoBcKoGre.tr-rpos lgjl: l-.tr. (DerolloB. l-eHesrrc,, 1ra'ru,i'r,,a ()ec,Iarlll3l\{a }.[peBHep)rccl(oro
Espona ts 3nox\/
Krro-llocTo'ilraR
ll
c6:
(no
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ap.\eoJ'lcfnrtecKItNI
[1pr..r,tx,:ro \reil,i.I.vl)ertbr B ])i-]il] ss.

(leoililrttttrta (l(ttuttttteB 197'1 42-52


- e)ribff HrtxiHero lll,lrar o
ll neBOOep
,r1._r..1_n- ruecrnrrrrc (oro
ioro i\let{.L}lp()tlbi{
r
/{: I .i:i,. rlrr:Iopori. I-lir,:eleutte I-lllvicxo-,1\rrecrpoEc
tioHLlc I ll trartiute [l r.uLCrr.relelllr H.:]. (N40cIisa 1974)- pyfion]lcb.
([>r:.ropoB.8.N4. t-Jerpyrua, cnaB,tH3 t] 6anKallo-.tyHaiicKat apxeoJloflltlecKatl Kynbrypa' B
oc,r,.,poB. l-icrpt,ua l!)7(): t.E.
ll IOro-Bocro'ttjot:t Eeponbl (N4ocriBa
cd: l,iorrrr.:rsricnurt,np66.re\rrr rrclopini ,,,..',,ui'ypo, HapoitoB Ilenrpa,lrrroii

oe.lr: poB l9

I979rI. -.-8-5(),

q)e]..,l)oB.LIefitt,it;lct-tx.l19i.1:I..|icDg119i]o].I.'G)'LleijoTapeH},o.[laIlqTHllK't;ipeBHtl
.',,,,a,' nr.o xill'rra lr'1r-r.tt-litr;cxoii CCP (6) I Krrurrlrres 1911\'

(De]lrpc.rB.LIt:5or.;.t1l.)tllti0.Be:tttxlt.t.].girl9E4:I-'E'(;erllrpoe,[-.o9e6cr'rapeHHrl,M.C.Be.irttxattoga,lipal.telcxul1llo.
f]rr'lt,tltl( X-Xl srl (Krriurrue; i984)'
lvl'c,r!anlltt (K-rrLurilree 1969)
Xuriiil, t1.r,bg, ,r.r-. )\.r,r tx1 , IlOcg:rt nrrs XI-)ll\ BeKoB rr opreenc! ilx Kor.pax
BeKoB B M'cil.liltit'lll (KnrurlHes 1970)'
Xr,riit\, 11.r70: l{ I'. )t.r,r rril . Jlrrn6li:u - cpe-1Lter}eKoBr,rii l\lOft.l.,tbirrrx XII-XIV

B gylstu Ar

l)L

i799l9gt ai !-S ed,r 4qrr ri

EBXr'ru11 . l' sonpocll o llii(lceJlelltil'l TrrB(l[)ueB n \,.tlttleii B flo.uHec:]-poBbe . B c5: lOro-BocroqHafl


Dofrii ir cpe,lrrrle seKii (lirtLutrHee 1972)' 159-i?5
Xsrurcy 1973: I,1.1'. ){LrHx;', li;nplpun .. narlflrtlttK I(\/'rlbryptl X-XII us. (Kr.rurlres 1973).
BB.). B c6: flpeeHrn KyrbrYpa l\{orlaXur lxl' 1 974: l,l.l-. Xut ttx\'. i IaltqrHtlrlll iianxauo-aynaitoi:oit K),nbrvpbr ():-XI\i

.\srrrrl I9l).:

L4

l'.

Brilr (f:riull.irreB I97.1).

t-7-i

50.

Klr(ra - ropo.ttttue VIIi-X BB. tlir flHecrpe (KrrutrHes 1973)'


LI: to-riperixrt. K aonpocl, od lrHir.recKori npttHit,l-'le;,Kttoc'rtl 6iurx:rHo-IyHaircxor"r Nli-'lbr)'pbl B
(Nlocxsa
Kl-/illoil la,;11 [l;ly'lo-lIreclpon,:xofo i\'rexr]/pettbt{. I} c5: 3rHn'tecrat{ Ilcropllt Bocrorl}lblx po\laHtleB

{e6c,raperrrr<o

19i3: f.@

-le6orapeHxo l(.179

Ll,( ()rapeHK(:,

f'O

l97r)), 86- i{15.

rle(i0riipcuNr.r l1)g2: 1".o. Llr:,jorapesr.:c,, Irlace;rerrrre ueHr[)anbHori uacrrr /qHec'rpoBcKo-llpy'rcKof0 Nlexavpetlbf B

x-

XII sB. (Klrrurrlree 19112).


Lle(iorapeuno t()g3: I'.<D. 'Llr:riorapeur:o. lianxaHo-11'Har-rcKa8 ap\eoroil.lrlecKar K)'nbrypll B :ap;rs9;6Hoii ncropttorpa(KIruritHen 983)' -58-79'
t},riri. t3 c6: c,rrasr{no-uc jrraBcKile cBr':in n pal.rHnelrrrrrbl 3Trnr!recxoii ttcrt:,ptttt l\'tor'1aai}ar{
'lKcflealrutltl ts
geoorapenxcl, -l. e,rsrir:,e lgE.i: I-.<D. Llc6oTapeHxc,. H.fL Te,rsuoe. l'lCC.re,tOsanllfl lo,ritloCJraRtHcKol"l
1919 r.,\l,lM 1979-l!)Sr.) (Krrur.rrree I9E3), 88-101.
[]ltrrleltl95.5:l,l]ilr.nea.B1,zl'nce,Kieret|,tlrienr:;r.trleIJlisDltrrubeclr-rXar'rXIIsiecle.]\t.ll,elles
l9-t5. 169- lE0,
(iuiiin.N1itrrzut.l...Rltbii.rirl'ich.[.kaciLrk.9!)5:V'Gulljrl.
orv ar.d problerr oi'cu.lt.:r'll Helitrrge. Worlci Archa,:ological Bulletrn E. l9')5' 9-18'
Stefan.
Dirr.ge{il 1967: Dinogetrlr ASezale,ii fer.rcl.iln tirnpurie <le la Biseliculii-Glrvan. Gh.

Baruea'

L-ornla'

F.. Comsa tlluctrr-e5ti lt)(r7.t.


Badatr-\\/ittenbergel l995: E Sava'
SavlL. N4anztrra.-l-cacir-rc. l(urciatov. Ilutrulici, Rlbinovici, Gr.rchin. Alaibl.
I NIarzura. lr,[, lcacitrr. S. Kurcialor,. \/. Bubulicr, R. Rabrnovici. \' Guchin. R. Alaiba. M' Badau-Wrttenberger'
Inr,,r:stigatii|e-i:ltortctr-lilltetllrlgii':,:efeclttateinmiciclllcnaistrlrico.nlttur
in alia Nirld-Tl"rlaca (11 (Bur:ureqti 199-5)' 281-3-58
nLrl D,:*du$eni, Republir:u Mrilclovii. Celcetdri arheol,.rl;ice

P o-rt tt t t P o 5tt n ot;

Il t

t.

3u:r6py'.t.t'it

tc

t t

tt

tst

trtn

tl o ;l

o ? l ! r t e (;

ti

ltl

tt't'

tt t K o-1 Q,

l0u. l,'l.I-2021 Ktntruu4', ['ec'n)'5:trxrt I']o'tdor:tt

C;orustton:nATn pnr\/n,rD ,,crrADELA DE PAMANT" DE LA OnHerul VecHt


it,t t-.ulvttt'tR SATTTTTURTLOR ARHEoLO(itCE DtN ANil 1996-2001

Gheorghe Posticii, ()higinau


itltttti'.]|.).,2l()<:.,7i'tt1ll.ctt'jtttit:ilttltticye..;t

t'.'.,t, I t

c i t,

I I et ti
t'

tI c' t i

t t

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tIi

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t! t Il) tr ) ; 4.11 1r,

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1'l'1,,1't11,

11

It'ttRopucrRt'
irr

rnir

5i0 ui sccolLrlrri

X.)i in timpul invest:igaliilor i.r'heologice de la Olheiul Vechi realizale

de

cirtle rllh.[). l]rrrnor. in prea.;nrrr citade]er nredievale din Piatra au 1'ost descoperite cAteva grtn{url care
iul l'c,s: inte rlirt-.tlri.e cft: calre autlr drept constructii merdievale, unul dintre aces;tea fiind datat cu secoIr.rl l.lV. irrl altul c;u secolul X\/li. Cu regr"et, in anii cale au urmal.. aceste materrllc pre{ioase n-att
ft,st pr"rblit.:rrt,il, o pl1tc rdrninind in arhivl lVluzr:ulr-ri cle,\rheologie irl ,{fiNI, iar ultele ilt trt'hirl Pet'sonalii a ar:torltltti.
\1ai tilziLr. not.tI conclucritor al ;;anlit:rului rlrheolrrsic de la Orheiul Vcchi, P'P' Birnea' in bazit
n:atcrialelr:,r'c1c lrrhir',i. lr explirnat r.rpirra potrivit cdreia t;anfr:rile descoperite de pleclecesor, ar fi t'eptczcf tili rrrr:rele un0r .et51i rlir parnint, I)e cale a drtat-c'cu prinra jumitate a secolttlui XV. Aceasti
ipote z,;r s-lr d,-rtolLt Lrnol r,estigii deprstate in cadr"ul gan{r.rlLri allat la vest de citaclela din piatra qi interpl.ettroa fortrrtii u Llr)ol clate c,bIinr.rte anteriorin ganlr-rl drrr preajma zidulLri de r:st. Ca rezultat, in istoiirgrir're it apiu-i.rt rclet:a clesple (lxlstentii la Orhciul \/e,:hi, pe parcLlrsul se,:olulLri XV rl doua l'ortificitti :cetatei.r clc piirniint iltribllit:r ltcrioad,:i lui Alcxrindru cel BLrn gi cctalea din piiitrir atrlbllitd perroac1:i lui $telarr cr:l lvllare. t\cers;tiL r:pinie, clevenitd idee de lefelinid, a dominat istoriografia de la Chicle citre cineva'
Sinau lt0nii Ia sf irgitr-rl secoluluri XX, f[r'[ r fi pusi la irrcioiald
Vechi in anul l9!)6 a scos in er''iOrhciulr-rr
r:gice
citade,let
ciich'ul
clin
ReluaLeu siil;irturilor alhe<t
,concorda cur opinia lLn P.P.
c1:n1ii unelt,- ltroble:rnc ce linelrrr de cronclogia qanlului cle vest, care nll
Birp,:li, cjlnclLr-i rJrr:pttte lui Gh.Dr. Sntilnr)r,. Dar, lucrulrle s-au schirnbat gi mai ra<iical, dr-rpir consr-rltlrea iLpr.ofulcluti ii ntatei'ialelor <le arhivii ale lui rGh.D ljmirnov, ctre indicall ilsLlPra unei problenle
n-ult r-r.uu ieloils,e. i.:e tineau cle ins[;i 'vri.brlitateir icteii,,:itadelei de pdmiint"'. Or, corelalea datelor
.')int:ritzltlLit]rcitct-tttts|'lrrrterre1er.it'ite.lbunll'ri]e
Srnilnov. llL rncrmerttul rtctttal. sltnt drr,pSrute dirr lrhiva IAE

A$N/t'

{ieuislo,4r hcolqgj4-ri. Scne rroirti

)!+

in timpul sdpatunlor
arhcologtce c,bllttute de Gh'D. llimtl nov cLt mate,rialele alheolt)gice descoperite
de la orheiul ver:hi nLt
noastre ciin a,rii 199(r-rl()0 [, ii at'dtat foarte clat., ci icleea,,cetdlii <le piimint"
ar(: supoltlll qtiintif ic co'e spunzittctt'.
lie alheologice descoi,-, ,,.ent i:Ontcrt. in celc ce iirnteazd VOIn pl'i3:aenta cele llrai recenle materi
a acestora cu date le obtinLlte
pLrr'ttc in prerima,:;ttacl:]ei Orheir-rlr,ri \/ec:hi 5i va fr et'ectuatiL o coleliLfe
al prolrlernei in cauzii in scopr-rI solLr.!ionicle cirtn: Glr.I). Smitnc,r', pentl'Ll a oferi Lln labloLl t:xhitustiv
rii ilir ergertlc lol

aPi'irute

1. CTncETAREA AllHEol-oGlcA A $ANTUl..ul DE

Vesr

l.'1. Date generale


al cltadelei
zidrilr'rr de
cle '\/e st" re prezintir un complcx alheologic situat in prcalma
"est
Gh.D. Slnimov in anr'tl 1951' cancl
de pi.t'L cle lu Crr-trr:rul i,echi (1r91. 1t 2). A fost iclentiftcat cle: cdtle
lr clescoperit inca patrLl seglnente ale
a 5r lost:realrzatii [)11rrril lr,ri sectiirnar-e. in anri t9'55-195? autolul
arheol,rgice din ciich'ul i.rc(sstlli comprlex ar-t fost stopate, iices$antului resperctil,. \4iLi rrpoi. siLp5tu.rile

.,$,nt.l

terr fiinclt'e,lLtitte cle

calli: subsernniltul pe la rnrjlocul anrlor'9(l'

cie
cafe se aflau la
in anri lg96-?.001 arr l'ost corcetate p.t.u nr;lrnente ale q;url{trlr'ii, trei dintre
"'est
A19-420 (t'ig.3i). se)ctortll nr' 7i - carourtle GH5-2r
zi,JLrl citaclelcr cle pntrii sectolr-Ll rrr.7l - caroLrril,e
coltul ei de sr-rd-r'erst: scctorlrl
(irg. rl: (r: 7). scclorul rrr.7-5 (fig. 5l g), iar una in incinta ciitadelei, in
este cle 23'0 rn (respectir': ('r'0 m' l3'{) m'
nr,. l,(r. L-u':lrnr,:u totlrlii a seglnelrtelor cle ganl stucliltc
1.Ct

rn sr 3,0 rn).

,-/-"-"*'y')
-4t

r-//

.ffi:iil;:,i:
r

li,i::i!

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I { ui!r5111

'

i1r ,ct

tr.' i I \i;r:t.l

.,..."
m

:lurr J.:

.Rlul ---"

ltr'rtltiitrl

f:

general
Fig. 1. Complexr-rl arheologic Orheiul Vechi [:'lan

("ill:;:l.lirl;l tnt;l:

''

'ri''

'11li

lrt'rlli

I))

\"irlrrnrr/ 1. i','r. 1

:.'

ie

_r': i

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'r

Fig. 2. C taclela dr: p'iaird de ler l)rlreiul V'aciti Planr;eneralcur;ectoarearheologicecr3rcetateiniiniil996-2001

,liJrri dt Yct si ;hadelci

It':--

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/rl

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1a
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^

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a-'/

ir,nr!l it i..til.\.:l

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lii

r-r.

Seric nori ri

,._ .1,_

1i

-,

t
I

Zidul tie vest


al citadelei

$:Lttlll de t'est
st

t. XIV

,----

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de vest' cuptorul de ars var


complexelor arheologice din secolul XIV: $anlul
Fig, 4. Orfreiul Vechi Sectorul nr. 71. Flliln al
rrr. 15, lvlormdntul nr' 18.

Zidul rle vesi

$ii'i'

Fig,5

Ctrl^eitrl Verchi se'c1{)rul

al cf,lldaici

XIV)
nr' TEi Plarr al $artului de vest (secolul

I)t
\ olrtttr il i. ,\t l
iit)

t=:-:i
I

6rrr)a nr I 5r rje rc"r

ii rlrllorui

dc lJs \ in

r.r.{l\

(10)l.ut qilbu r'n crrn\ru

rr\l

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i j)Pieflr.,.

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r,,

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(:ilS.)l,.ru,tirr.
)
l,r1',ir rrlrLlui

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li atlpl!lll d! rt\ rrr

vest-ost: 1 - cilrourile l2'-F2',(peretele de nord)'


si(3ctorul nr. ,'1. $an\ut der vest (s,ecolul XIV). Profile
cle ncrd),4 - r:arourile J4-A4 (peretele de rrord)
2 - crarouri e Gi'..F1' l.poreteie cler r;trd). 3i - caroLrrile it-L;t 1p,,r"tnle

Fig.6. orireiul \rechi.

(!))0roiptscc

)Ji

17)l'ietri5. dcntolue

i]5
r!) !ol !'ertii

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tr)i,k)l

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<

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l
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sec.

'.rttiir

\lf \l\

. l0) S\rl cjr !it1. trroioi


Slplturi i,h I).lirllhs\'. l9j{r

({)Svl

(l)'ix

lrr J. \es'. te-

esull[

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150 crrl

-:=:ve$t-est:
sectorul rtr 71. santul de vest (secolirl X V)' Ptofile
inversatd)'
(lpticd
- perreteler de :;ud al carourilo'l\5-J5

Figl.7. Orheiul
J15,'2

,y's6:rri.

- peretele de nord al carourilor A5-

,---

jr3

R.qclq

4!,ylt e ol o sic u.

.t elgil-ot]gi

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q&{q1Jsll$*/"

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I

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l\\

\rrc ..lpllurri

rlrrt .t:ril

(9 r5ul

^..."".,".._.._

lulos-n'siP0{J1\lrflar. slt rt

(b/5n ieiluil.l r:.iihls

l'

it n'ln ' i'*

l'undllia ciudrLer:

ccrrry'uIrLLD'

'

.il

(9)Sol *nu1ru

trirn

irL.;rr'

'10j

D2
D-r \ rrr.
Yxxr -rrqx

i.Ei!&.Ll

(E)

150

c;n

Profile vest-erst. 1 - peretele de nord al carourilor D8;enlul de Vesl (sec:olu XIV)


..--ti.l>_-perelele
rle sud al ceLrc,lrilor Dg"D1 (opticd in,rersaLtd).

Fig. 8. (lrhe ui Ver:hl. S;ectoru nr.

75

1.2.{j;r:gmentulr|r.1(SectoruInr.71,carourilelA19-A20)
lr)nga lLiitula de vest a citadelei de piatra'
dupa
'in carout'tl,e Al9, A20, p0 O p0l'1lul1C: CLi lungirrea cle 4,0 m;i lalirnea cle l'Cr m' in locr:l' unde
inspfe est, fapt confirmat;;i de cdtfe pfezentele
.:irlcLlrele rLu (ih.D.SmirrDr,, $antur fricen o cotituri
.Ailt1tlLt.sttred. A, l,ost :L-rcetilt

in

cach'ul sectorrilLli

nl.Jl,

'csti slitii f ig l),


t. niVelul
ni.clrrl tnlrrlrri
r-esolulur ce
^.__^. r^ ..,r^,,,. ,-ro
de la
(.urttt,tan.tti,:d. $a1t! .l el'a siipiit in solttl steril, partial in stanca de calcar'
XiIl - pflrna jumirtate a secolului XIV' Seglll$iu-gallbLlr. .liliitt cLt nt tteriale itrheologice ciirr s;ecolul
urrnarlt {'oarte clar in peretele de
Inerttul ganl.l-11 cr. orierrrtat pe rl\a rest]est. Profilul $antulul 'rlost
de sud $anlul el'a intretdlt
.,,est al carourlor .\lg, .,\ 10. Latura t"le nord a;ar,1.rlLri eftl albiati.'in pat'tea
cf il cro 1,20 m lric (de la nivelul contemrJe si;ratur. rLrr cih.D.smil-ro\,ciin lgr52. Acrancim<:a $antLllui
secn-a fost obser'lrt, rJat fiind fiiptr-rr cain acest
)orL.n). Sub z.trur citaderrci cle piirtra trase*r $anturui
ior f Ltndatil z-rciulut se spli.irnea pe stlnca de calcar'
cu mLrrta al'surd' fragmente de lut
(,rtttrtt,rttttrtLlianlLllLri l.eprezentii sor cle curoare neagl'a amestec't
efa supfilpus d'e Stfatul de construclre al citildelei
rrs r;i ciirbune; cle lenln. ,n p{irtea supel'ioar;i, $ernftll
de piirtri, alci.tr-rit clirt ntt,ttttt'5i Jrictlr;.
f,^^+ -r^^^,,^.,rit ,,de ceramicir 96lbuies6lbuie
fiagment cle
un f!-rsrnF,nf
Ittvetrtur.lr P.rfteil r;uperioitlat il Llmpluturi a fost clescoperit
r,r;iettcri a l{c,ardei de l\ttr'

GH5-21)
1'3. fiiegmentul nr' 2 (ser:tc'rul nr' 71' car'ourile

G5-G]l' H5-

x Secrorului nr" 1l'i'n caroltrile


l\trrp,lusurer'r, .A fosl cercetl[ ?rr partea cle norri-vest
m spre \/est de la zidui de crtadeaflatii ia distanll rje
l{.1r, pe c, por.{ir,rnc' c:u lungirnea cle lJ metri,
din piat'i' orien-

ll

glinlul este paralel cu:ridul cittrdelei


lcr ,:le pirtr.d tllg:. a,6,lil.j" sectoruI men!ionat
0'30-0'60 m'
la
r-' ile I .5' spre est. !lantul a fost observa\
3{ancitt^.11.1
rat rjp,re nor-d c r-r o cte
'ic:
in proporlie cie 60 %' restul frind
(uru<'te,stlc,rr. poiqir.rnea rnenIlonata ;,r ganlulur a I'ost studiatri
secolul XIV'
n:clsit,alea pdstradi cr-rptorulrli c1e ars'ar din
corsr:r.rratti. r\cest luc', . fost rilctat de
pcl"liunea
Din aceasta cau:rti a f-clst cr:rcetata complet doar
rlescopcr.it liirrgii rnar_uir-ca cle er;t a E;anrulur.
a $antLllui (carourile H3'
stLr.clilLta doar jumritatc;a cre vest
santlrlui crin car.ur.ile (iH;l-,5, in rest fiincr
arheologice au fost sistate la nivelul
it:.'gt, Lllr. FI2r), in l)Lu.rea tje riLsirit a fortifit:a{iei lucrarrle
ct iJr-'lttic't ii c trntttt'tt iui :;rnlttltti'

\'pl:ttt,l -1- I'i_1_

m' $anJul era sdpiit in lut steril de


$anllll aivea o lalime cie 5,50-6,0
celelalte
era s[l)ilt pinI la'ivelul rocii der cillcar. in
LLlrc)rrre g.Llbure,in,.,rrirn.'in carrurile c,I{4 $anlul
nu ajungea ]* stinci' Perelii;anlului cor:.'.o*t-l al'lale irr pirfl.ea supe:ri,ari'f, a pantei, fundul qantirlui
cerLir{inrea fundurui gan'fului dupii cum au aratat
irorrLr spre lirnrj ?n pantd. FLr'rlur ;;anl'rt.i era prat.
t:61'-"I:'1i:ii::ilt'
c:etiurle integruler clirr crrourilc Ci-I{4 c,ra cle 3'il nr r\clAn:imel 9an{uluier:a *
clin piutea supenoara a
G2'
H2"
(j4. t{-1, iliin pi'te:r tnferi.ara ,r 1-rantei 9r de 2,60 m Nc:, in carourile
rlr clc lrL nir'elul vr:chi der cdlcare ltl solului'
l)itntr:ri. sl,,,.t ,Je l,l0-1.0
{,inr{,ittiilftl $i]lltului era ilcdtuita din patt-u stralun:
felrezenta o lentila alcitr-ut6 din sol cenuSit-t
l)t.ir-rrLrl strat,, din partca infcrioitrd a garr{ului,
edificarii citadelei de
,pr,lvenit probab,tlL clin fostLri r,'al, aflat la es1 c1e;anl demolat in perioada
citadelei de piatrd)' Acest
riltrir). cu pi5lrn::nli clc mru'litr qr clc calcar t.ploi;eni1i din const|ucii;r cle la margtnea de est cut o
ugil'n't pe 1'unclul ;an{ului'
;tar.-t aveu lgrosinr,,:Lt de 0.3g-.).70 m li .r,.
respectlv eri"l
norcr a porli'rii cercetate qanlului' stratul
Lr;.lrr.ir incrrrar.e .p,,;r,;;. 1,, 1,"r,." drl
^
pe
alocuti ct-t
iar
df: ntortaL,
jolT]ftls djn sr-',I tlegl.Lt sau girltltri anle:;tecat r:u lttt iirl;, ciilcar, bLrcili
j.a

aciar.Lcirrrea (lr3 0,50-0,r5i) lm

cirL,ttne de le trn.
misiv6. alcatuitd clin pieire de calcar cle diferite
DeasLrp*r strlLrului infcr.i.r er.a pras.tii o lentila
crn);i br.rc[ti cre m.r1.r'srniilar clupi cornpozilie 9i cucrirrrL:rsiuni (cr:le r.n;ri mar.i ari'gleau 40x20x15
in pitnti de l"i marginea cJe est a $irnlulur (acliinloare cu,--el folostt la conslr'uc{1a citadelei, aglernute'
0'80-l'10 m fJc')' t-a captitul *:-"1-.llTtt
(aclan:inrea
cirtl:1clt:0,30-0,i10 rn Nc) sl)'e centl'tll lui
'le
groslmea
m. iar in partea centritl'i a pr'rrtir-rnir studiate
unii str-rcliirle. iitrirrLll ir'ea !;1',isit'ea cie 0,:l-d,45
111 m
stf atLtlLti clc ptc,tt',: atinge I l,(t l '
nivelare' alciitLrita din sol
lerntilir clin pielre ;r mortar reprezenta o
pr35ts
Al tl'erlea strrlt' stlprepLls
m' prc-rvenit
cir: cirlca'' ttt u grosime de 0'20-0'60
celltSitt'in'lltts g,t'l'lttulos slrru lle)gl'u cu iarirmdturi
var - compk:xulnr'15'
prr,rtrabil. dtn sitp'lltttt'tt cl'tptortllui cle itrs
din
o nivelare sub f'ol-ma tlnei ientile alcdtLritd
Al 1:,at.11,e:, slr.rt, clin patteu supertr)at'il, fepre;zcnlil
probabil
provenea
().tCiO,ZS o,,.,,"t a fel ca qi startLll prrecedent
sol ccnrrlir.r cu lu[. cu o qrrlsitne cle

o'"

strcrr
llli; l]i,:'il':]llll''l,t?.;il;',1;i.;st,rc: L,n fragrnenr cr,:
l::11 l,il ],:.j::lt'::ii:,T,'-:l;lli"
al
a fost clescope'tti ?n stratul inferior
(

crc z1rur. ccianrrca


eai[ruie-r.giet..Lcii tle iiprLrl r,,rcirrdci

"o':.1]']ll,l;,ilt:;;;l,ill"iilr,,'',

'an{ultri'

rnteres ceramicit' pietrele


st,rbilirea cronol.s:it:i ea'1r-rlui prezintii

'

per"ioacler
mc)'tarl,l }i clatell:.lrlttiqt'ltficr:.
_--, ..+..-:; -,,-t,,lrri ,:rnrrline
rrpar'li-ne in totalitate pel"lorlt
a Llmp r-rturri gan!Lrlui,
rr.lerioard
partea
c,.:s{:olleritd1.
ce.rr.nrc,ir
jrtmitate ir s;ec:olului KiV plniin ll|11!l?:
Ho.rrclei cle A,tr, rjlttata clrrr primlt
gr culoare cu ntortarul
r:ste icrentic dLrpd stl'Licturrd, cc,m,pozilie
MOrtrrrur crin Lrmprlutur.;: qantului
a Hoardei cle
clatatf, in ultinra lai''r cie domlrraliei
piatrii,
de
citaclel:i
tr'uncll.tiej
fOlrtsit in ct.rrrs;tnrc!ta
'\,e .:hr. l-16,6-1369 (ll'ocrrr'rx: l)005)'
Aur-ltr orhei,LLI
funda{ia ctdin f,ndatia
-...,-: ..i
pietrele rlin
^,,rn.,,,.o,.,,
cu nie'.ere
qi cul'o''e
pir::trcle clin r,r'plr.rtura;,rnturur sunt simirare dupir structurir
tipic pentru fundalia construcavcrrlr ampr.nte evidente cle mortar
tuderei rJe pi*trii ,r.,'',1t. crinrri: cal.e

t'.

procerlll .1.:::l'l'::i::.,i.:"::o-"::l"T#?['.:J, "'Ti]l:lll;1,ii1 r,,.,,,e i'ctici o le girtrrrir cirrccld inrre Iegdturi esr-e clem''rstrater de stratig'iifra ;;an{uiricrulur c.e vest. rrceasr6
tr.rrral.err qantr,rlui di, preajnr r
a l.ost astLlpat dinspre eSt, dinspre

rn,Jrcd l.oarte e;x.pliclt cd qanltrl


lrrr' Ast|el. trbsct.r,i.ttille nrintr{ioase
din timpul Iucri'ilor
ce c.r-r1.inea restu'i evidente p'o'enite
ameste.ilt,
pdrnilt
cri
piatr.ir"
ile
ci'adela
u"?i.'[:;:.1'll,:,'i,|.!i.,J.f,::':lli"
inrre anii r366-136e'
ri:'iter s'pe,'ic,are: a ern!urur esre srabilitd
:ir eclificarea citadsk:i dir piatt'a'
c,i,ncl era asttripllt in iegatrr'r''i
complex lipaten!r'.la faptul c6 in umplutura acestui
uir.g,,,n
grurlului
siratigrafi:i
conrexrur
irr
var. Aceasti obse'vafie demonstreazii
line ae lemotaiea :uptorLLlui de ars
Procesul
s;e:sc rcstr-r, rriiir.r:rille ce ar.
iu's
$an'ul era deja astupat'
cle rnoLare a cuirto'ului de
'a.,
conacestel
cii in yrerioacra rJe r.unclionar.e qi de
a
superioar[
stratLrril,: cle niverare clin pal.ea
orremonstre,zii
curl
clLrpi
,s;t.pirr.ii $antllr'r,
mic interval de
gr:opil crlptorului' care s-a procius la un
slr.uctii s-a frnalLi.zat 1'n pe.,:acla arnenajarii

r,r,p

e,:j;1q1!rh e-s!.oAt!-59!"-q

-.--

lar)
rlLrpii ir'c,rnj.r-,:r.r

lur,Jltiei crtirciclci de Pratrd. Restutilc mitteri;-rle Proverite din cttptot's-all

"

it

sLl-

piapr_ls dcrar.partial tSLlpili rlanlulr-rr rJupd ce acestit era astupat.


relatrvf, a comple.E'tttyte.ln baz,1 obse,,.r.atiilor:fectuate []utem stabili ur*51c13Lel cronologie
gantul; la a doua a fost dernolatd partea
.,t*lor clin Sr3ctol'ul cretcetit: la plirna,etapd a 1'ost amenitlilt

construcvalului. solul fiind lrun,:at in partca inferioard a $an{ulr-ri, la a trela a urmat


r:tapi a fost astupata partea inferioarzi a;an!ulur cu
tr"L p:.rrtillii a cjtadetei dc piatlal la urrnatoarea
groapa cuiptorului de' ars
rcst*r.i clin c,cnstr.uciia cr ldelei clc piatra; la a cincia etapi a l''ost sdpati
a qrrn{Lrlui; la a $asea etall-ll.solr-rI scttls clirt g,t',itpli a r;cl'r'it 1]entlu niveLarea par{ii supe'rioilre
'i.rf.
tencuirea zidLrlui crtar:rri a functronat cuptorl,1,.rr. p|rciucea valul nec:sar pentrll cottl,truc:1iil 9i
cdruril par'{ial s-all sllpfiipLls
,:1,:lei, rar. la etapa f,inalii r fost rJistlris cuptorr:l cle ars va1', restufrle
p-'st-- LrmIlLtILl'lt \Ll'rL'l-itrf i it Sitttt;lL i'
respective'
in baza ohserlatiil,r.r-ealiza-re qr inventalului alheologic de:;co1:rerit in stratr-rrilede ALrr, drrl
perioadei Hoardei
lLrcr.ir.ile efectuatc, lil etrllelc nr-.2-',tpot fi rtnL[Lite cu sigurantii.
lnir l 36b-1 i69.

r,;rrlteri.lir.d a

1.4, Segmentul nr.3 (sectorul nr' 75)


sectorult-ti nr.75, nemijlocit pe mllrglneil
t\rttp,lus,ttra:r. Seqme:rrttil nr. .l a fost stucJial. in cadrul
rn sple \/est de la zidLrl citadelei
stlncii Rdu'rrlur,,.rnd'e inc,:1lea treLseul ;an1ui,,ri, la rlistanla cle 8,cr-10'0
avea o iungirTle dr::6 rn 9i era orientlta pe ltxii nclrdr:le piatr.d (tiill. l. it). por.ti rnea cer:etath a;anfulur
:iLld clr cl:rie re cle 15 gt'ltctl spre Vest'
rrr a
r qrrnrrlrri
ma lilrgi in comparatl(l cu colpul cle baza al
era mai
,Cr,t.(t<;ttri.stit.,t. fixtrt mitatea cle ncllcl
ianlului err
cotiti spre norci-est Lalirnea 9an{ului la nivelul vechi
,:OnrPlexLrlui g, dr:via cie lit tritseui ,seneral, J'jind
(l',70-i'tl
varia cie la 5'10 m la capdtul cle nord' 4'30 rn la rni'1,.lc cill:are al solt-tlut (aciirtcimea Je
"t)
:ianluiul'
locu por-Jrr-urii ce|cr;tate ;i -i"50 n'i la capltlrl cie s;ud al portiLrnil
rn Nr: sau l]'0-2'30 m de la niVelul
2,80-:i'0
de
stelil. alir-rgind adin':intea
$irnrr-rl cfir satpat in i,rt
gratle' tar furtdul q;anfului era
iLveilu ft>r'rnii cle panta, sLl) Lln r-rnghi t1e 4:ii cle
cle cirlcir.r"e. I'et'e1il

1uldului de l'0-l'30 m'


pi,u ?n,,.,r1iu1e qanfLrl ir\ ril o fot'rtri trapezcidalacu l[limea
succesjve, cal'e erau amplasate t"::9:^t:"
Liut,rtluturtt;rilil[iljil,]efa alciituttii din patru stlaturi
(pa'tea de es;t), fapt ce ne permlte sa
,",erir.rtii compi,l.rir.i\ cu s;tr rrigrafru solu'iloirjin pro,jma sectiunri
t'c'cr rtl:il.i Lttittt cIap-'lt' .tsl tt1ritrii larituILti'

'cclri

9i
i l,il lr.rnclui ;ilnfr-rlr,j. la aclri,ricimea de 2,3'5-3,0-5 m (carcurilecuD5-D7)
grosimel

l'80-2'40 nl.(carourile
de 0'60-0'80 m' In ca-

(f'7). se gdsee Lrn st1'at, alcatr-r:t r-lin sol lr,ttos pe alocuri centtrliu
de
fost desi,rpeiite 6lragrnente de cerarnicd gdlbuie-rogietrca
,Jr.Lrr acesrui strat, ru func'r qan{ului, au
a
pentlu
tipice
Je ceranrrcri cenu;ie moldgveneascA
'uc[gr.a prierrtali r:tllicd sir:colLrlLri X[\" I 1)'agrnent
de
o rupa cle I'ier cre ci'ca -500 g'^me gi 2 lame
1ou' lurniitute a rsecorurrr xr\r - inceputLrr sJcorului XV,
comtlatt:aza stratul tespectrv cu se.olul XIV' Analiza
slle:x rlin pareDliticr,rl tiirziu.,\cestrl clescoperrr-i
valulutt
a
ace:stil ar putea ptoveni tlt" p::lt^ superioari
po:litiei solului ch' acest strat piufe sli inclice cd
pratr[, a
de
citadelei
durpi finis;area lr-rcririror cre co:nstrucr;ie a
crin prelr.lrna grnrurui, c*e, fiincr demorat
iie rrnde clndva a fost ertras'
ti:st arunclt dilei:t Ia 1r-rnrlul ;antului. sru acolo
nt
cle I'E0-2'-36 m (carourile D5-D7) 9i l'07-1'80
2. Dcasupra. str:rtultLi prece.lcnt., la adincirneit
de
calcar'
de
inchis' compact ctt pigmenli
(ililroLlrile G-q-G'i) se gliisca un stfat cle pi'nllnt c:enuqiu
de ceramica galbuiesl'Ii'lt illx l'ost descoperite: l0 fragme'trte
0,5,0-0,75 nr in glrc,sin-,,-'. in crcllrtl acestui
]{l\/' I fragment cle' cetamicd cenugie molcloveneasci
roE;reticd clc tacl'r'f,.rie'tald tiprcI secolului
din paleoli--inceputr-rl secolului x\l $i T lame de silex
tipir:ape'tlLl Lr clr).'r jun'dtate a:sccolultii xlv
(adiincimea un inel din fitt (-2,0 rrt)' o placa din arama
ticLrl tirz:iu, I o' Lrma'. ti oase,ler animale.
descope'iri dateazf, stratul respectiv cu perio'da
r,r1 rn);;i 3 bLrc:iti cre;r:ur.i de r,ier (150 gr.). r\c,este
respectiv provine drrl
solul'Lri r;e poate i""tp''nt cd sttatul
sec,JlLrl lllV. JLrdecind dupii c.mpozt{ia
lurcrdrilor de concin'e a 1'cst o'untut in qant dupl finisarea
de lingn
par.[eil rnijlocre t

(:r-5

'alulr

'an{,

sttLrc!ie I citllcie le i cic lltr'tta'


fornra unei lentile' care se a$o aglornr:rafte de mortar qi pietrr: sub
11. Pr:ste striattll nr' 1l se gasol
la capatul de sLrd
not'cl-lsttd. Lalrmea stratr:1ui era de' 1'60 m
ternea tn plrl.ea r:e:ntrale a ;an{Lrtui, pJ'r^.

1.+1

m la cirLpJt.Lll de nord, iar grosrmea lui rnaxrmald era cle 0,40 m. Mortarul era de
le bucdli -r.tinglnd dirnensiuni de piina la 15x1.lxi0 cm, 12xl0x8 cm, fiind analogic clupli compcl:,t,ii.ie gr cukrirre c:u rlortarul drn stratul cle constt't-tc;tie al citaclelei de piatra din secolul llIV, <lescgpe:rit liingd zic.Lrl ucesteia. N4ortal sirnilal a fost descrtperit i:n segmentul nr. 2 al ganfulLri. celcei.al ?n sectorul nr.7l.Ir4ortarul crzr amestec,at cu pietre de, dimensiuni mari (80x65x40 cm.
rj0x.:i0x4t-t cm, 55;r^-15x3{) crn.:i0x40x30 crn), miilocii gi rnici, provcnite din resturile de constt'uc{ie..
r:rtuclclci de purtrri clin secolul XIV. c:u-c, dupa iinrsarea lucriinlor c1e construclie a celei din urlr6, ali
os. iil'un- irl.c in );r lt.
in stratul cle rnortu'drn ;lnl iiu lost dcscoperitc Ei 1'rrgmente de ceramici gdlbLrie-roqteticd de faciurii orientirlir trlticri 1tenrru sct;olr-rl XIV. Aceas;ti ceramiclr demottstretzilcd stratul respectiv apitrtine
'in rrcelagi stlat, Ia irdiincimet de 1 .62 m, a fbst descopelrti o lupa de fier
reritracie i 1'loar-cler rlc ,\Lu'.
itu lltelrtale;r de cit'r:ir 3 kg, ltrt:venitir cle a fundul ttnui c-tptol de rcdus rnin,:reu de fier.
,1. i1 ;raltca superioati rr gan{ului se gdsea un slrat de panllnt,ienu$iu deschis practrc fdri
mplrritdti. cu1'e rcjlfe;.enta o parte cliri stratr-rl de cu,lturi nr. 2 diri sectotLll nt-. 75, observat in pleljma;arrtuIui,,\(:r:r,t stlirt i:rL grosimca de 0.20-0.90 rr. avea fornta unet le,ntile cafe acoperea toaa prirteir, supclrc,r,u-ii il. piintul-ri, cle lt r,ivelul solului <lin secolul XIV, adAncimea de 0,4-5-0'57 m
riLrrii la 1.20-i.(r0 nr. iln ca,Jnrl stratulur respectiv au fost descoperite: o llara din fier (-L'-54 m)' 28
ir.altrnenr.c cle cet'arnicii. ciintre c:are l Z fr-agrncnte a1:ar{in Hoaldei de Aur. secrllul XlV. rlrr l6
i-lltrnenLe d,er cer-it.p1ci molcloreneal;cli, cle cLrl,lare ce nuqie tipicii perrtrlt I doua lumdtate it secopaleoliticul
Lulrtr XI'l'- inceputr-rl secolr.rlui X\,'. Au mai fost descoperite 4 fragmente cle sile.x din
:fu';rju;i I i:tri ,Cirr ftct',
{cest str-at esr.c i.inalogtc rJupir cornl:rozrlie qi culoarr: cu stratul de culturd nr. 2 din ctrclrttl sectorupartea superroard a stralLri rrr..7:i. gbsr:r.r,,ir.t i1 ai'ara:;lLnlului, spt-e est qri vest. Pornincl de la faptrrl cd
reprezentlncl de 1'apt o
preqm[,
Ir.rlrrr c;n ianl s3 tt,r:isca practil lzri aceliLqi nivel r:u stratul lespectiv clin
esi' din
:ontinuar.e $l o plrte il acestLira. lllltem conchicle cd ac:st sol. a fost aruncat in $an! dinspre
piatra'
d,e
citadelei
a
constrttcfie
tullti.r fostului val, tJemolat in ri:z:urltatLrl linisirrii l';crdrilor de
din lier, element
Ir;,etrtrrr din,;.t1,1t. in por'lir,rrrea ccrcetati a qan!ului au lost descoperite,: o verigd'
rjin aranld (-2,11 m) q;i I cui de
cle l;, o ziibala peltttt.l cai (-2.t) m). 6 bari drn l'ier (-1,51m). o placa
de z-9ula de
fier-.,1..i5 m). l.l l;.rrre cle silex din paleoliticul tirrz:iu,2lupe cle ller (3,1i lt.e),3 bucati
fragmente ceramica de
fier-r'i-5tl _er-). fJ oi-1SC de anir-nrrle, I os; uman gi 54 fragrrente cle ce|amica: 36
moldoveneasca tipici pentru
f'actr.r*l ri:rie:nrlla tipicii secolulr-u XIV ;i l8lragrnent,e ceramicd cenu$ie
lu clgLrit jtrntatate it sr:cglullti )(l\'' - inceputr-rl secolului XV'
('rotrsltt,e,itt.lt:rttltitti.In t,irita materiaIelor oblinute. pLltem conchide' cI in parlea de est a ganlului
isloricd a fclst clemolat, pdnilntul din corpLll lut
i_i exrstat un r,,rirl r:Le pimiint, cure la o anumitd eiapd
stabiHtd cu certifiind arurrciir 1n qan1. I)ata dcrnciliu'ii r,alLrlui de pdrnlnt li data astupdlri SaniLrlui este
plecleazd ceramica 9i mortalul
tuclire in liinitr:lc unilclr.(r0 rr secolului XIV. in favoarea acestei ciate:
inclusiv la fLrnd, aparline
drrr Lrmplr.rtura qantulur. Ce,rri-nica, clcscroperrt[ la toate nrvelurile rlan{ulr"rt,,
ar secolului xlv (flocrux:r
pcr.r'aderi }loar-dr:r rle Aur g. oste dalatii la or"heiul \/echi cu anii 30-60
masir de mortar 9i pietre, prove20r,):). Dat frinct,,:ir in uinplr-:rura gan!ului a fost descoperit un strat
de Aur' plltem
nitc clin lcstunle r1r: consti,-rctre, ale critrLclelei cle piatrd, eclificatd in perioadii Hoarclei
a citadelei de pratrir;i curdtirea
su:itrne i.,i:;,rntUl a lost astu.ltlt dupa linisatea lucrirrjlor de construclie
Observa[iile stratigrafice
pZin'rint.
de
rere*ului clin p,rg216a ei. iri:rr;elagi timp a fost demola: gr valul
astulpirrii qan{ului' La inceput a
au pernris sa i;taSilirn ordineriL ctemolririi valului gi. r'eslrectrr, orcltnea
qi aruncat inapoi in
fost tiiat vir.furl valulitr, alcirtt.rit clin sol lutos, e:<,tra:i ciLnciva din fundLrl $l'rniului,
valului, alcatuita din sol cenuqiu, extras cangan1. La a dou[r 1,,a|,a. afost,J;:ntolatd pllrtea cle rnijloc: lt
in ;;an{, deasupra stratulr-u prececlvr din l)arteit cle rnijloc gi suprelioari a qanfuluLi, gi aruncat inapol
resturji de construc{ie (mortar 9i piedent alciitLitt cl1n sol lirtos. l-,r itreia l'azd,in $an1: au fost aruncate
terenuluti clin preedma citadelei, dintre
tt-e). prc,r,,enite din Santrerr-ll c:itndeler clc piatrii, clurp[ c-rrd{irea
de prdrnant, alcituitd din sol cenuzicl 5i va)'l cle piirnirnt. La a l)atra fazilitl'ost clernolatii oaza valului
trruncar:cleasurra stratului de mortal'9i piatrd'
;iu, extras drn iri'',e i.rl vechi ie cilcare $i
ceIn legiitLu.l::r,t inventiil-r.ri identificut un interes apirrte prezintii cles,coperirea fragmentelot'de
descoperii ceramrcii moldovene$ti
r.arrrrc6 nrolclc,.veneasci in par.tea infi:rioar6 a qanluJui. condiliile

rLl ;an{ulr.ri \;i cle :i.1")


r:ulorLre griilbure. une

11-)
la.a

Reuisla Arheolo

(L Jene tl)u1

cxclricl orit:e gincl clesprr: o pdtrundr3l'e a lor la frindul $anlul{.ri intr'-o perioiicld nlai terzie declt trmpul
astupalii lui. Analiza ir cntai a fragmentelor descoperite demclnstreazA cA acestea sunt similare ceramicri nrolclo\iene$ti tipi:e pentr'rr r r1oua jLirldtate a secoh,rlui XI\'- ?nceputul secolului XV. in acest
corrtexf pulenr c,rnchidc ca prez:en1u ceramicii moldovenegti in garrL! impreund cu ceramicii Hoardei de
,\ur reprezinta,c[e fap1. rrn indicr: cale pernrite sii stabilim tirnpul astupalii qanfr-rlui de vest, care in acest cilz nu poate fi dcc;it per"ic,rda clin Lrltima {azd.a dominirlrei in lrnut a Floardei de Aur, anii 60 ar
secolului XI'vr.
in iegiitLrri cLt l)r'e:.,lnti-l in r;an! a ceranricii rn,:ldovene,sti trebuie de amintit ci clescopeliri similare rr l'il:ut h anii 50 qr {}h.D.Srnirnor'. Aceste fapte. mai tiirziu, r:u"t fost folosite nejustificat de ciitre
P.F.Ililnt:r p--ntru clatarr:a aceslui c,cmplel. cu ep,lca lLri Alex;rndt'u cel Bun (iilrpuq 1984, p.82-85).
,A.c,,:listf, opinie cste cor.estatf, <ie observar.rrle stratigrafice, caracl,erul umpluturii qi matelialele cerarnice descopcfitc'irr garrr pe parr:Lu'sr.rl anilc,r 19196-2001. Descoperireain pat'teil inferioard a;;itn!ulLri a
clc,rri 1'r'lgnrerrte de cet'utnictl tnolcloveneasci, cu caracteristici tipir:e pentru it doua jr,rmitate a secolulLrr XI\/,- lnceprrtul sei-' 'lului X.\'. l;:r f-el ca qi diesc:operirea unui frrr-ement sirnilar in partea de rnl.iloc a
cornltlerxulni re:;pcclir,'. reprezintii un argun-ienl foarte seric-rs in favoarea pretlen{ei la Orheiul Vechi in
lirnpul clonrinatieL Holi Jei de.A.r-u'I populaliei moldovenegti. Aceast.l intr:rpretare a descopeririloL
mcntionrrto:,e qiseSte in clepllni concordan!;i cu descoperirile r'rrheologice clin gropile de ars vitt'
r'crrrpleriele nr L I ;i l5).

1.tr. Segmentull nr. 4 (sectorul nr. 76)


irlentifrcat jri sec;toru.l nr. 76, ince-piincj cu adlncintea ci.e l,l8-1,30 m in partea de est a calourilor (l-5-I15 gi curou 'ile C6-tlt5.
'[1 pcrtrgle a,Cin crrourile L].5-Ir5 qi C6-E5 qrnlul era adl.nci1. in solul stenl piind 1a nivelLrl stlncii de calcar, pe ulscr-rr strtipungincl stlnca cu 5-8 cm. Grosimea lentiler de pimlnt pe aceasta portiurtc de Slltl era rlc 0,:()-0 40 nt. Lllmele constructiei au l'c,sl observate atiLt in plan, sub forma unei
pe,te de cglolre cenugir-inchisii, ciit gi in;lrofilr.r perefilor carourilor respecttve. Traseul constluc!iei :1a orie:ntirt lle irxit'reSr-eSrt. f iind observiit l)e o porliune cu lungimea de aproximativ 3,0 m.
rvirnci o lllirne ,Je.1,6(),4,80 rrr. in partea de nc,rC lutura construc:liei cobolu'd in pantir spre sucl. Latura cie sud a.,sa1!uluri r:r'a suplllpLrsir cle',;estlgiile unor construr.:lii dtn ser:olr-rl XV (cornplexul nr'
ln
*5r[). Solrrl cle umplurr-rrii clin;;an! reprezerta piLrnlnt de culoare cenugte irrchisd, firi lnlpuritd{i.
pi.Lrlera superir:rari se g:r;ea Lrn sirrlt cle parnint als puternic de 5-7 cm. In solr-rl de umpluturd a I'ost
('ittr. La rJistlnta de lll nL spre est de la latut'a interioari a z-idr"rlur de vest a
Je'srcoperiti ,,) r;t'tt,it, d't'
-'iLrrdelei de 1rix11';i tt'lu;cttl $ilnttllLli sc tet'minl'
in c,rntiitLrilreo traj:Lrlui dlt. la nivelul locii rle calcar. in carourtle C7-b7 pe o porlrune de 3.0 m
a fr)s,t obs()l-rittji c, lenti ii alcirtuitir clln sol cenugiu steril cu pietrrg, care venr3il in cclntinuarea poftuntl
,Cer gan1 obliel-\,atd in carourile C5-tr5 qr C6-E6, cliLr dat i'iind cii act:stit se afla sub nivelul vechi de cdlcare al solr:lui nu llr,rte,tlr pune aceasta lentilain legdl.urdcu traseul ;;irn!ulr-ri.
.A fc,st

1,i6.

Particularitii!ile $an!ului de Vest

AnlLli;la materialelgr'ob{inLrte, permrte si face:m anunrite observalii privind particularitAlile tantului de,,rest. Frin s,:sm,:'rrtele celr:etate au fost slabihte dimenrsiltnile Ei traseul 9an!ulLri de vest'
citlr1elei cle piatrd" Are un traseu serniovrl$an1ul se a1:la la cli:;tanta cle 10,0-l2.ji m dr: la zrclLrl
CrpiiiLrl lui de norcl facc Lrn col sple est la dis;tarr{i de 6,0-8.5 m vest de la coltul citadelei de piatra.
pe cle;.rlta p1r.te. capiltul cle sr-rcl al 5anlului l'dcea un cot spre sud-r;:st-est intrind sub zidul citadelei de
pratLi,in porgiurrea rfjir ri la distanla cle 3,0-8,C) in norci de la tutnul ei de sud-vest. Lungrmea $an{ulur
perpendtcular'
dc yest, nrdsir-1.rirtir pe ir\.a zidului citadelei de prirtra era de circa 98-99 m. $an1ul era
vest,
fiind paralel
se i'ntin,lea pe axa n,r'd-sud cu deviere de l5 grade spre

m;l.lLli abrspt al RiLrtuliii,

pe o lungilne de
cu zidr.rl citaciel:i cle pratr6 pAnI in tegiunea turnului semiclval din miilocul laturii,
in punctul aflat la
6ri.0 m, de uncl,: incepie r, cotitura Ientl sprr: est, iritrAnd sub::i<Jul citadelei de piatrd.
distan{a cle 9J,',t0 m d,:l la laturit ile nord.

l,olrr,n'r1 1. ,r\'r.

---

1- - -

143

nI' 76' a
unea cercetati in caclrul sectorului
collrrl de siuci,-vest al r-:rtack:lei clc piatra' pe por!
de sud o'entat
.po{ir.rne srab
qanluriri, tar.e ,Jesemna inceputul traseului
rr-onLlntata ii
lost sesiz:irtir o
aflat la
-lrlseLrl cle sud al sarrlurlui a f'os;t observat c1.ar pe o por{iune c':6'0.m' in intervalul
est.
tipf.
piatr"d. nrar
intetioari a ztclulut 9.'*: ,]1,:]tadelei de
riistlrrta de 1().()-].b,|] m Sp1.3 st cle la matgincl
indicat' In
te,rmind|ii acestei construc!ri in pLtnctul
,Jep,arte spre cst. ncl.iin<i sesizilbrl, posibi clin cau:ra
de:crlrnozicnl cLI o grosime de 0"20-0'40 m'
iectc,rul ile sttcl, FanlLll et'a sllrltt intr-un strat
?n sec{iune cu ldtimea in par,r,e st ir\ieir o 1'O'nrd trape;loiclalii, pe alrlcuri semio\'ald
cle
$antul
la nrvcltti vecht
de rj,q5-3,r1 r-n. Adincrmea qan{ului de
tea Supei.ioarii cie 4.70-5,E0 rn, iar l1 flilcl
cle vest a citadelei
cle suci in regilnea intersecliei cu latttt'a
cle ciilcar.e v^r.rii de la 0.(r0 rn la capatr-rl
plnd la 2'35 m
pre,,rjma tr.rr'ului srmiovar ar ziclutui, a.iLrngind
cre piat'i, ra r.0 rn in regiunt:a din
')in

rrot'tl

permit
,r ,r^^..r..^;..-,,,, {nrr descopel'ite
cltt'e perlr
r-rnc.,'rrnelile probe
n;tlbe cale
u;'n{ultt , in timpLrl sirpirturllor arheologice art fost
conval cle peirlnt' cilre a fost clemolat in timpul
si sustiri,:nr ci irr scctorul rcs,pectjv a,:xlstat un a fost descoperit un stlat de pamint cenu]lLl' casapl.u'ilor
str'(:tie1 ,:ilatlelei d,: prllttra, Pc pat-cut'sul
clin prea.lma q;anfulr'ri de
cle pii*int. cu valrir cie pa'mrnt
val
eventuar.r
cLr
regatLrr.d
in
pur;
re. fo'tc fr
clin parteu inferioarii a acestlri Ean!.
Ve rt. pofte ii legata i,iLilr',pI,_rt,,rir

in'-'.rpit'tI

i'

'Je

partea cle est

1'7. lSronologia $anfului de Vest


ulm'toarele n-]ateriale: diitele strati-

perl*r stubilir.c* cr.o'orogier grn!'Jur cle rrest prezinti rnteres


cur cuptorul
mate'ialele ceramice clin;an1' corelarea
strlrtigrafice
5r
gene'irle,,t,t.,t*
gr,lice
'an{ulur
,""';,.1il,1';,1;.1':::,::?:tl::,"!:p,:]li:,'nta niverLrr sr,arigfafic ar gr.pii. ean!urui, observar foarre
cle cdlcare al soluqanluluL,erra sapiia cle l'r nivelul vechi
gr'raplr
Or'
cerrc:etaLtrl
1nbrne in sectoiirele
jr-rn-rdtate ii secolitlt-ti XIV' fapt ce
-XUl
p.r,r'u,"tt"tut
tipice
lr-ri, ce {rontrnea matet'iale
; f].i*" intr-un anumit rnterl'al de timp din
rerat:^ir a ga'urui cre vest po.te 'i stabilrtii

clici. cii, cronorosia


.a
o'grirfi^
'T;'l.;1:lill:l;:r.,-c,111r16'gic, it relrezinrii s;rrat
I'l]11:'j':,:,,:,'::**,'":i';:
d'emolat'iarinfinal cltmoloz
in3-4e.a'e'lainccputtupatiinitrinvalul
star.lel'estalostllstLlpal
$irntlll
p.rnind cieia faptirt, cir crata cclit]cirii citadelei de piatrieste
c*:
cilacielei
[:,iatra.
suspoate
c(lns;r1.'c!ra
cr3 ra
1366-1369' sc
cie Aurr in tir't, in pe'icada anilor
sltpertoat'a a
birrrir i, ultirr* l.*z:ri a d.mir;r1iei l{.arclcr
rJr''
cronologtca
limittr
pel'i.a<1, :espectivd'
in
ii-.-pr,.lclus
gln{r-rlLri
ttne cii 5i ns,tu'i'.c^
a.Jeceniului $apte a s;ecolulr'rt XIV'
polrte fi stliriliitii in I coua jurnlitate
in maiori;.irrfLrlr.il ciuiitlsl
material:le ceramicc din Lr:mplLrtura;anluiui'
pentru
Al tr.eiler,r r.:per cronolcgic, il reprezinia
de tip 'rrienta}, caracteristici
ir 1,ost clescoperi'f, ceramici
gan{ur,i
umprluturl
in
In
tilr.ei,i cirzufir.r
tirnpurie mol,ioveneascd - r8 fragmente'
cerami,:[
riir
rerativ
Flr.rarcr., c'e ,,\.rir._ 49 fragrncilte $1
cle ceramicd de tip ol'iental
au fost clepistate'28 ftagmr:nte
ump'lt''tr.l'ii
ale
l't'-'tJul
stratltrile lnicrioale
au fclst descopel.itc:
ir, Stri]tu ol. *o,.to,.;t piatrli din
qi 2 fr.rgrnente .ie ce,ramic.i rr,oicior,erelsca,
au fost recr-rperate 13
Aur, ial in slatui surf.tio.al $an{ului'an!

,Til;ffffll:

cle ceranriceiL ,, I-loarcle,i rie


lritsm.nte clt: ct:r"ln"'ir:5 cle -ip'
At
rr-r,:urstfe[,zd r:d ltstr,tparel Panfului

[i iragrnente

Aceste date de-

t"'itnt"ili i6't''51"'tn.te de "eiam'cd molcl:rveneas;cd'


malul Rdutut'"" t-" p''inl'"'1n perloacla cincl ?n a$ezarea cle pecenugie
de tip
gi ceramic. m.ld.oveneascd

raspin-dir:e
fiin r.ind cu,.iLrrarnica tipicri orientr,l-ri...,'ata
Jilul*r citaclel.t:,,t1,*t' numeroasa dLrpa
o4:
rru$;,rrrn. *ceasra i'iinctr..trliu 'ardin:t,r*.itit'r
iT
in ultima ftrz'aa domrn.liirsemene^ sitr-ralie se pLrtea crea
o
girn{urur.
a
ni'elrrre
cre
nisarea procesurr_ri
anul 13 69' cind tradi]iile q;t
pr oclusd
ong;iito,
o
precarea
a'i.dupI
.r mo.gole 1n 1.rnur sau in
'n o.nttrniti perioadir' dar in
og"'"re pentru
pistre
t''"fuiit
t,,gic
m.rJ
in
'rimii
,1,:)l-[uriiclr orten'tirllt
atitohtond a
'aqi "'nrtrteriare'"1n
noi, caractefistrco pentru populaiia
,r-,rJitii
rmpuni
se
sd
ar:elarii timp trebrurau
de vest s-it produs in pe,\stfel, ,. 1,.,nt.'ccnchicje' ca l.stupa,ea 9a'n!utrri 60 ai secolLrlui XIV'
ca'rpirl.cl-nistrean
a anilor
!lnutLrlut
d,,'Au.?n finut, in a oo,rol.rm6taie
vest cu
rioacr,r frnarii a ct.minatiei r-i.ardei
cofelarii stfatlgrafice a $anfurlui de
rezr:ltatul
reprezrn[d
il
l1l 131tpslr3:a reper cl'cllloltogrc,
l5)' U)tirnirl a fost clescoperit la est cle
(conipitl,
tui
p'''olilu
?n
rl.r,,.,l,erit
"t parte din suprafala qantului' Din cele
cuptc,r-Lrl cle: ars,urr
n..p.ri,.ro c'ciar'rnarurile sale o
tlem,lat,
locul
pe
$an!.

rr:ii,

'rlului

ReL,isla
1.,1 +

Al:s9bgt 4. &-9J]-i4l

ars
cotrclrlzli: prilna const[ in fiip'tr;l cd in momenl'ul constructiei cuptorulLli de
incetase
i$i
',,ui, valul cl.e pirpl)nt era ri:molat, iar ce-a cli:-a cloua, este cd in momentul cind cuptorul
piatra. Avind in
r,:,.istenfa. ;antul er.a astuput complet. inclusrv cu moloz din construr;fia citacleler de
,,,t:dere faptul, ca r-lmplutuLa cuptilrului con{inea lTrateriale tipice pentrll pertoacla finala a Hoardei de
,,\ur, sus{iinr:rn cit gantLrl ttlte de o tr'azd mai ve che.
,fil cincilea r.elter crorr.llogic. il reprezintd cc,relarea gantului de vest cr-r citadela de piatra' ObseLmal
r.rirlr: stratigraficer i;i unc,: categ,rrii de matr:rial,c demonstreazl l'oiu'te clar cd q;an{ul de vesl este
de
latura
it:clriin c6mptrl!ie cLr citlidela d,:) pia.tr,r. De spre aceasta vorbe;te, in primLrl liind, faptul ci
sLrd al ${n!u\,(jst ir citaclelei ils, piatra. tlin punct cle vedere: stratlg:rafrc era sltprrapttsd peste capatr'rl.de
In al
sud-\'est'
cle
pe o pol-tiltne rt'latf, la rJistanla de 3-8 r'n sDre norcl cle la tumul clin coltr-rl
Ir-' cle
'est
reprezi ntli moloz. din construclia citade[1,.)rlcrr lirncl. riti-lrtu,l de nro-tar ;i pirLtr.i clin unipluturr.r gan]ului
pl'ea.lma
lri cle: pilLtra, ar-unr:at in 5rnt dupii telnrinarer zidulr citadelei qi amenajarca l'et'itoriului din susti1366-1369,
anii
lrri. irr accsit conlexl. tiniurcl cont Je faptul ci cil,a,:l':la de piatrir este datati cu
n:m
- r:a ;lnf Lrl de vest a lrrnctionat lllrrir in perioada men{tonatl.
i; b,.r-r ..p.n:6r cri,iologicr: enunlaie. clata l rnitd a qan{ului de vest de la Orheiul Vechi este
s,ttbilita 1tt peritlli,clil attilt'' (i0 ai sr:i:olului XIV"
l'emarca, ci la etapa acluali
Oat pr.irre;;te lir:lita cr,.triolosr:i irrferiolrd a s,itt-ttului de vr:st, Putenl
pentrLl stabilirea unei date crlt cle cit exacte' Cu toate acesteiI'
;;,.iini. nL, clisptrne cllJ ntii,.(':r-itle nelestre
inferioari a
irr Lrazu rnriestigatrilol lll r:ologic,: ltc lroiite sr:s{ine cLl certitLl<line,'::f-r limrta c:ronologicd
sec'clLlltii XIV'
ri:estLri ;;tnt 1inc c[r: ult itlt-rylrl de f irnp cle pina lrr rlrjlocr-rl
so intilnesc fragmente ceramlce 11sporacllc.
Iraptul cd,n :;tr-atul ri: cr-rlturii ,Cin prea"in-ia citatlelei.
\illI af l),,rtetr con-stitui un inclicc inclilect in lavoarea datdrii qanlLrlul cle Vest
lrice pcn,trLr:;et:rllrJlc -XIll
qi Cih'D. Smirnov Dar, aVlnci in r"edere' ci materlalele
r":ir ltcriolcla 1,.r'cr-llongolri,, clupi Ct.ll1l {Jredea
30'000)' ilr'
sunt l'r;ar-te pLilin,: ll numdr (doar 219 ffagmente din clrca

(:rl"puse rciese clottii

Lreri,rmice,di' 1;,cnoilcia rnriicritir


cortrprlex arheologi<; clin perioada secolelor
r:r interior.r.rl citaclclei clc ,ratr"ri n-a fr:st iclentificat nici un
:'an!tll de rrest perioadei nominalr)i[ .KIll. in st;,rcliul i]ctLL-ri al cerct:l"irilor este t'oarl-e diticil a atlibr-ripr:rrfittnile
crlrcetate ale 5an]ului n-a
itl
,-1,,, r,edeft: pt'c;ltntit inleles :;l faptul. c[i
,.rtc. Din liceluSi
'nghi
pentru secolele xII-xllI' Pe de alta parte' descol'cst,Jcsc:crperir. nii:r Lrn 1'r.rgnrent r]e ceramici tiprica:
tlpicri pentrlt secolul XIV' ar'
la lirndul ;;an!r.ilui ,il-,,",ol. l)'agnlente c,erarnice cie facttrrd orientali

'erircliconlirrtr:r o probii i-, f ,voareii rLt'ibuirii


tinut a lrloar.tlei cle AuL. <iin pr"ima jumatate
lin
'rrte,
2.

acer;tei construclii perioaciei de

r;ecrlului XIV'

lporezl Ct'rntleuet
2'1.

lii inceputui dorllinaliei

Dertr=

DE PAMAN'r

generale

specraliqtilor icleea apartenen{ei acestr'ri cornplex


Descoperir.ea qanlulL. de vesl in lnii 50 a suglerat
perioacla respectivf, era idertificat
cont ae fnptur cd
ra o iurumilii for.tifi:a1ie. ln acest .:on{ext, 1i't'cl
sdpatudlor-c'ir'D' Smirnor' a emis o
dcxle. fun' in part:,a de cr;t a,:ttadelr:i de pr atrd' alttorul
lun
re'rezrlntzl ilrme ale unei citadele de papot.Z-i cle luct'u p,ttiivit e:irei. rele clcluti comple;ie puteall
a fi ex-

i'

ll

Acr:astir ic*ce . insrii n-a f.s;t promo'atir inpubliialiile


75)'
doirt itt rnateriale chr itrhivi (rl)n'rr'rpuon 195:lb'

rint.

tr-rt-t-sti

;tiinlifice ale autorului' rdmlnind

Prirnulcitre,aDlornovrltiriliteriLturaclespeciirlitateiPotezrprivindt^i:l::.::laOrheiulVechrin
arhivet
pam,int a fost i.P. Bittt,-"' in rezultatul prelLrc|irt'ri
afard de cita<JeiiL cle piiitir a unci cilaclele
(Elrplrr 1984) ;i a reconfirmat-o
idee ii respcctir,[in a'ul 198;4
lLri Gh.D. smir.n,l\,. ,*,t,,llut clat rL lan:;at
cirept baza lnve'stigafirle lui P'P' Ilirnea
in 1991 (6r,rp,rrx 1991^ l7-20). tn anii care {lu urirnat, avind
legaturi
a fost prelLratS cle catre alli cel'cetatofi in
,sLrr)ra:.irrri'ei rui Gh.D. SmiLn.v,, icleea rnen{i.nat[
\y'echi'
arhit-ectura orheiului
cLt studiefeti Lulo,r asper:t: legate cle istoria 9i
au confirmat e;xistenta gan{ului de Vest,
Dat r.irncr" cii sirpdtr.ire arr.reologice din anit 1996-200r
la srne' Dar'
ev,:ntuala "crtadeli cle pan-rint" se impunel de
ide:ca priVind rpartcne,itl,il iicestuia la o
prin l;ectorLrl nr' 72, n-au dus la identificarea qanlului de
avrjn<j in vcdere f irptul, :d ace le,r:1i sr'tpdturt,

lirr1ryru.l

145

l. ,ltr' !---,-

pdmint" de la Orheiul
yechi, pei-rtru a st,ir.pi11 in ce nrisura este viabill aceastd ipotezd gi care ar {'i locul ;;antuiui de vest in
s ste rrtul tortif ica{rilor de la Orheiul Ve:chi'

de icleea "citadele'i cle


er;t. a iipdru,t r-lecesltirtou reevaluiLril intregu.ur context ce 11ne

2.2. Esr:nla icleii


(,onfc,rrn diltelur lui Gh.D. !irnimor', e:xpuse de P.P. B'mea, "citaclela de p'[mant" ar fi ocupat un spaclin pitLtrd, dePirgind-o pe ire-a rJin urmd spre est )l vest' spl'e
! Lt c.c,\,,.1 nrai mtre 1'n corlpar,iili: cr-r citadela
''Citadela dc pirnrint", in viziunea autoruiu.l, aveii o fbrrnd sentior''ald in
suc1, insi. linci ce,ir: nrai micd.
jliricl;rr.otejatd de rnir,iul abrupt oi Rliut'ului, iar clin celeliihe pilJi de un I'ttl de pdmint cu pa1,lar, la norci
vest(Ei'rprrx l99l,l2-"3])'
lis<liir1rni:rnn.p,rer,'[:.Lltcu;an1 JelLpirare pelaturiledeest;;icie

mongole in !iln l,i,:iLrnel.L lui Gh.D. ljpir"nov ".,,,icl.l" r1e pf,mAtrt" era anterioard dominaliei
secolului XIV
rr't. iiincl at;rtruitri popular;i,:t ltutohtorLe.lin p,:iioacla secolelor XIiI - inceputul
ob130. P.P. Bit'trer, p,',rpun.. o alti interpretare a datelor
(Crir.rpuc,r ;1960,'79i. i;
^rheologice
"citadeld de pa""ii
rrir-rngin.l 1a cc,ncluzirr poiririit crireia presupusa
!inu,tc de critr.e: cih.D. snrirrLov.
cu anir 20 ai
clatati
cel Bun' respectiv frind
rnint," c'r'it atribui'tii llclirladcl ':re dorllre a lur 'r\l':xanclrr
nai recent al Iui P P' Birnea' scris in colabor;ec,llLtlui XV ,ildtrprrH 1!)84, 8:1-E5). int,'-u,r rnattusct'is
(.[lapac 2004' 84' 153-164)' este exprimatd ct
tilre JLI 1;.Ntcrrlar: 5i rleclial.:;at cle citre M' $lapac
?n perioada de
jde,: nouti, potl'r\'tt cdt'eia "ci;ar,lela de pin,int" rr r.p'()zenta o ct:ns'ttuclie apirrut'a
lpoteza lLri
,rfu:ii la,,rrlcxanci[ir crei Bun,,n anii L3,io-t400. Pe de o a1t.6 parto, 1n ultirnul deceniu,
de
publicatii
in clteva
,fh.j.). Sr,irn.r,. !lni'cl cont tJe invcstr!!lliile lurr P.P. Ilirnel, a fost Prr::luati
,:it:'e I. llincr.r (1995)li Glr. [)ostica (2(t00a' 2000b)'
ultimilor 50 de ani' ccrcetiitoili au expnmat
\naliz.a rstolr,oglaficd clertnonstreazll, r:d pc patcr-rrsrrl
f iind
cle pamlnt cle l'Orherul Vechi' aceasta
:rer ipote::ze cu ,e f.:rliu'e h crt.rttoloqia pres'p.,sei^citactlele
secolului xiv (cih D' Smtrnov, Ion l{lncu'
cat,ti cL, p3r.1r.).(r.r l)r-e*on1r. i. secolLrl xitt - i'rceputr:i
ff'' Nicolae' P' Bil'ea' M' $lapac) 9r perroada
Gh. posrrcii), pcrrrxL<ln'rol,Jr-rt'encasci, cc. l3?0-l+trO
(P B?rnea)'
ciorrniei lrit Alt:xant]ru cel l3un, l:t00'l't3i
2l'3. Formularea iPotezei
desparrrilt" a fOst I'ornru atd de cdtre: Gh D Smirnov in lezultatul
el d'ept scut{ul tle est st
in pri:ajma cltlcerei d.e piat'a, nonrinarizate cle c.Ltre
m fiecare'

Ipcltezi.r prir,incl, "cttlclcll.l clo


co1:r,,:ririi

cior_ra,r

q;arrlurr

o lunglme de aprrlximatirr 90-100


de
iii l{autull.i p. ri^ nc,rd-suci gi se a{'lau 1a o dista'fa
er.urr an(:.'.i:rtc in muchiir mr..ruiui pLipasiios
morlor
c10ud $anturi, cit gi caracr,errsticiie
cre artur. pozi!ia rle extrenri a ceror
circ,r r(r0-r.65 rn
'nur
di. anir r952-r957 rsa faci o legdtr-rrd logicainfol.gice apr.piate, r-au crus t,c aritor-Llr ,Jescopeririror
pd(i componenin iapolrrtele nepublicate de sdprdturi drept
tre ..ceslc cron.ipl3xc, penil-u a le interpli:ta
respecti, tit'ept "citadela de pdmAnt"'
te ale urrui sistern 1,'-iificat, dr:finrt la ti:'pul
fortificat pal'.:a logica qi clln punctul de vedeAplrtene.tii celor douri i;ornplexe la un siston-r uni:
cr"r toate
care se irrscria perfect intre.cele,douii EanlLrri'
re irl cor.eldr.rr irccstLriu cu cilrclela di: piatri,
chiar de la
in const.r-rc[ra ipotezei piivincl "citadelade p'nant"'
ace:itea, trr:b*rc rernarcat 1,ap,r.i1l. cd
continurtate a
nu-;,i gi^r.,1 o ldmurire rezonilbtla lipsa de
in,::,',:put,3xlslilll lrnrumite p[o1;,leme.;\slfel'
de
pamint. pe cie artii parte. ptrasarea ganlulur
ga''u'r.r. pe tri.irielll cle sucl ;rr positrlei fortil,icaii cre
anumisine
XVII, aclucea dupir
dt: pirmant nr. 3 clatat c* ilrceputur secolului
est nenrijl.cit ringii
de la orheiul
'arul
ca gi imp,erlecliunea sirpiturir.r iirheologice
te susprciuni. or, irceste p'.obreme, la fel
autoril.r
partea
p.rtrit'i,:i ql expiicalia c'orespunzatoare din
Ve::hi cljn anii 5(). rru gi-ar-r,gisrt aprercietea
va Vedea in
7i)-8()' Mar mult' ca 'atiit' ciupii cum se
inilcr
palcLtlsul
pe
u1,1scl:iv
ace:rl
cic
preocupa!,i
greqelilor metodice din
ciL nu s-aucrarificat in Iabrrrntr-rl
c.'trnuirrr:, respccr.i'ii irutori pe lingai'r,ptut
erori, care la rlndul
inl'rc,clt-ts in cir.cuitu'l gtiin!:ific alte
contint,o,.,.*
irr
trralat
le.ltr
c;lre
anrl 50 Pr]
?n cauz'a'
lc,r au c:txrplir:at Ei rlal rnrrlt'problentli
oblinute
rgevr!1a rezultatele slpattu'ilor ar:heologice
in c,ontextul celor eK[]u.se, este im1;el'ros rie a
I'eridinit'elul
r;itadelei ,Jrheiului Vechi, p(3ntl'u a stabil
c': citr,.: Gh.D. !imirn.r,?' ti*rpul cerc,etdrri

ldnittl dt'r(',\'l.Clclc clou[

para]ele' c:u
Satrtt.tt'i, apro;;lpe

__

146,

Reui sta Arlrcol

ctgA- )suLlpyg

in cire ilcest,3ir pot fi servi in ;alitate de sursd istorico-arteolo-gicd. O asemenea


.rL-rorrjare \/a a\'ea in con:;ecinfa dlept efect, aprotrarea sau dezapt'obarea tpotezei preliminare a ltti

(ri1,rtli lor gr masurit

(ih.D. Smiilrrov' dcsl;r'e e.\rstenla Ia rJrheiul \/ectri

a citadelei de pdnriint.
punct
Din acest
cie l,e {lere, urrnea:rd a aniLhza sr:llarat fiecare dintle cele douli gantud, a evidenfia mat,:rialele
din crrdrul accstora, a stallili cronologia fieciruia'in patle gi a ef'ectua corelarea lot'.

"ifieologtce

2.4. $anful de Vest

,lunlul dt'V,ts't a for;t identificat de ciLtre Gh.D. Smrrnov la distanla dle 12 m spre vest de la
,riclul crtadelel d,: ltiatrii [,a suprafa.ta solLLlLri la trmpul respectil'nu etista, nici un senln clrL- pui:a si rnclice asLlpt'ii pre;:en1ei s;lrnlului in acel loc. S-a constatat c[;antul era paralel zidului de
resl al crtaclelci de piatrii, urnriLndu-i trase ul prini in preajn-ra tut'nr-rlui de s,ud-vest, unde liicea un
,.jot sipre sud-etst. dLrpi cc se terntina. Prirnr-rl seg:ment al cornplc:xLrlr,ri dat at fost cercetilt ilr anul
t9-5lt r.Sectiunca nr'.3/l!)52) (Cl,rnpnon i9t56,5) In anul l9ji6 au fost dez,r,elite alte trei porfiuni
.rle ;anlr-rlui (iSeclrunil:: r1r. l/1!)56, nr. 21195'6,3/19-56) (Ciunprron 1956, 5-7), ial in anul 1957
'incii o p,rrtir-rne (liercjiun,:a nr. l/1957) (Cnrupnoe 1951,7-8).In acest context, trebuie de subliniat
iaplul, cd clttcun-tLentarul arheologic ce tine cle,:errcetat"ea acestui q;an! este foarte va-9, iar materlale
cral'ice 11'acti,: lipsesc. L,a etapir actuald, inforinalii generale despre Santul de vest pot fi g,[site
,:.tgar subr l'ot'mit cle text i't rapoartele de sapraturt ale iui Gh.D. Smilnov din 1956 9i 1957" Informatiiler gr:nerale. culese dir acesle iurse sunt e.KpLlse in tabeltrl nr. l.
TABF.L.UI-IJF,

/, DI\TE PRIVIND MATERIALEI-E D=SC(f


i\"1at.eliirle

:r/1952

(lerrmici rle tipLrl [{oirr: ei de


dr

).il956

l/lt)56

t/1957

l6 liag

52

l\ ur

(leLannici rtrtl

PE:RITE DE CATRE GH.D. SMIRI'IOV iN "$ANTIJL DE VEST

27 tirtg.

rvene.ts; ii

()*.;a;;;;r. ---_

I-acdt clin 1-ier'


-N,1,,*air..i*;i-'H,*ii ;;le -T
I

20

1l

1l'rr

ac

ti'r'I.

/\ ur

Latintea Si.nttrLlul

_-Ad,in,Lrne,:itnt.u.ur

+ 0.ti5 m

___

Irolmr;anluluL
Iirrrp lut lrr,.

1a ttf t.l Ltt

str;rt de

strrrt de

pllitra

nirrtri

tbiatl

stral de pir-

tf,i,
250x40/50

strat de piatrd.

3ti0x...m

pentru tolite p6rliulrlc cerc,irtate ale qangului de vest era caracteristic f;rptul prezen{ei ?n prartea
,,Lrperioarri a umpriuturii i unrl strnt nnasiv cle pir:trt:, care aveillt o intindere de pdna lir 2,50-3,60 m cu
formd triunghiulardin secltune,
1.) gt.osime de circa 0,4Ct t).,50 m. in partea dinspre nord ganlul avea c)
iar :;lre sucl o formi albrriirtir.
pentru stabilirea cronologiei ganfulur pri:zir-rti interes urmi'Ltoarele matet'iale descoperite in
partcl inl.erigaril u cor-lplexului dat: fragment: ceramice de tipul Floardei de Aur datate cu
inijlocul secciu]ui XI'\/. o monecld clin aramE. a Hoarclei de Aur din aceiagi perioadd qi un fragstrarnent der cerami,:d cenu;ie mol,Joveneasc[. Penr:t'u datat'ea complexului prezintd interes $l
sapdturilor reprezentii
tr-rl <ie priatr-d clnr parterr sr-rperioarii a qan!ului, care in opinia ar-rtorului
Gh.D. Smirnov
obiinute,
r.esruri cle construclie rle la cirar1ela cle piatri.. in baza materialelor
c6 <Jata astulririi qarLlurlui de vest p,otte fi stabilitd.in fazt firrala tr domina{iei moncorrs;i(Jeril

gole la Orheiul \y'echi.


,Ce vest, cit 9i data stabiTabloul arhe,clogic rlin sapdturil,: lui Gh.D. Sirnirnov din cadrul qan{ului
qan! documentata aracelr"ria;i
lita rle acesl aLltor, slncq,rdd per{'ect cu srtualia ar:Lreologicf, din cadrul
lreololtic; prrin sdpr;iturile ttretodice din anii l'91)6-2001'

I j'i
tal

21.5.

$anful de Est

zidul
Smirnov l.r drstirnta cle ':irca 30-40 m spre est de la
unui val adiacent dtn pacitad1.lei J.e pialrii.. Siple cleosellife cie ganfut clc vest, unde lrpseaui ':rmeie
al lui Gh'D' Smirnov'
.int. in c.;rzLil :iiinl.ului de est. Jr-rplicLurl se mentilneazdin raportul de sirp5'tu|imai
pulin pronuntat la
n-rai mult siau
sc cLr tstali rr irnbinat'e a iLccsttti crJmFrle{ cu tllll '''al cle lldmlnt,
lui dinspre est'
in
fa{a
rje pdmant, l''iind plasatr;Lrpr-lrfala r;olLrlui. l):rn{ul cle er;r urma tlascLrl acestui val
orarlului ?n doud pa{i, incepind
,r\ces' val drrpa cum r;ustine ins,d:;r Gh.D Smimo'v inl.retlirt terttoliul
o distan[[ cle circa 20-30 rn de la tLrrnul de
cle la malul alrr*pl ll RauturlLri. al'lat in partea rJe norcl lrr
Peqtet'a'
rror-rj-esr trl <.:rtrclelci cle piatrir. spre sr-rd, in <1irec1ia MiLna;tini
ciu'ela complexul nomtnalizat'
in ba:za datcl.r ltri Gh.l-) lSrnirnov, aji-rngem la c:on:luzia potllvit
'\,'r:]r-rl cle piil-]rirnt nr. 3 Jl Oi'hei'rlr-ri \/e chi, ciire clupd culrl s-i:l constat mai tdrziu datepl-czenta in li.rpt
tea;:r'i clin r;c:olttl rlt l{Vli-le;a (lir'tpnx l9()] )'
(secliunea nt 211952)' in anLrl
in anLrl l!r52 a tost cercr:rl-tr pilntlr segment al garfulr-ri cle est
11-15; Arhiva MA-1954' nr' 100)' iar
l95,j.un;Llt sesrnenl (Sec!i,'t:a nr'.6/195-1)lc*r"pnun t9546'
f/1955'
jn l!,,-i5 lltr: pi-rpte ,segn1ent13 rlc rtcestui comp'lei (Sectoarele nr' A/l9ii5' E;/1955' B/1955'sapaturile
de
I),cume'ra^rI arhr:ologrc ce line
r/l!1r55, iKilc):i.5. K/i955) (C:,rrrpHoe 1g.55. i0-37)
foarte vag' Cu excepl,ia sectiunii nr' 6/195'l' nu
rlantl-lur,:le crit. ca;ri ?n caz:ul qan{ulr-ri cle vest, :ste
textLrale, crar, cu rr-nportante lacune gi contfadictii
r-uu pislr.nr u-i'teriillc graficr,: unere chte sunrar-e
195'l;i tr95-5' I'forrnaliile culese
cte sitPhttrri ale iui Gh'D. Snlintov ciin anii
;au,risrrrr in
'upcia-teli,
Jin lcesle sLlrso st-lLllt e xpLtsc irr tat:relul nr' 2'

fiutttu!

ott:

I:lta fost iclentrlicat

I-

'2'.

Dl\TE: PRlVll''lD

cle r3h.D.

GH D SNIIBI'JOV iN,,$ANTUL DE EST"

^lR.
"I

r'eliirlc t-i;,.,.t-::

-- ------.

, a -,"t,r'J,,10

-|-:::---

-f

1+

tinul llolu.,Jei
lant rc it
ce tugie m,.ll-

L--e

t;,doOa:'eet^];.;.-ce lnri
I
I
---{*!e
::-i-__--fi.se Lllniln
\

eits cat

-F

nt|etirerc

t, )l n litlll

iisnrtd tlt:

IPllttlr---T-----_lLll l-l
LVI()llC!lc1 rilirr-n:i
II l\4(,nccl,i
iLl

ur
,\i,tl
u\- la
rf, Jitl ll.r de
II Hlarda
] M,orrr:dll itt'a-

l l --,,..^1,.,,

miL A.lexi.tndtu

et i
I L _Llitrrrelt
.- --_---:q;irnl
B'ttn

sLlii

Lilit.nea

:1itn1

31 cm

I J(:jt*_____

A,dinl'tnre

l---l-]-,_r#_-*k
-ll'"1-1'.*-------.]
l-llLu,'lttt
.

lilmirlutut'a
1
| ___----_

in

1_-_-giatra-'

moltal

tron(:on
piat r6.
m0f t&r

piatra

ganlului a fost descoperitii o lentila din


nr' 6/191i4 'in partea suPerioat'6 a umPluturii
obselvatii in sectiunile qanlului de vest'
in opirria lui Glt'Dt Snrirncv era similarri le ntilei

se,:itunea

piatrii, cru'e

tr()ncorl
platl'4,

_ B-_1ttJslihgglpgi.cit._.Seie nottct
---- *
in llte sectit.tli ale gant.ilui de e:srt umplutlrra reprezenta cel'noziol'n in amestec cu pietri$. $iintul avea
o formA tronconicd saL triunghiula.rd in sec{iune . Materialele ceramice din gan! {in cle un cliapazon
cie:s;titl de lalq. linceplrrrl cu secolul XIV gi terminind cu secolul X\,'-XVI: ceramic[ cle tillul Hoardei
de: Aut-'in'{ cazuri (6'19-54. l\./195-5,6/19-55,;{171955),cerrmiciicenLrpie molcloveneasca-i1 6caztrri (6/1954 A/195-5, t;/1955, 1l/1955, E/195:i, )U195,5), monedtl a Hoarcle:i cle Airr (E/19-55) $i rnone,dd moldo\cneascd di tirnpul lui Alexaldru cr:l Bun (wl9-55).
L1S

Anali::a tnalet'iale,lor drn gun{ul de est aratd, r:a structurlL acesl.ora gi diapazonLrl cronolo_9ic dif'era
,-'' ,-1,
,.,u
uesrl(,,')cfit'ile din qanlul de vrtt;t. Dacd materiale descopei-ite in gantLrl de i.,est au
perniis datiit',:a etapel f'nale a cornplexului cu perioada domrna{ici Hoardei de Aur', apoi rnaterialele
descr:peritc in gitntul c[r: :st cletteazd. etapa finalii a acestei construcl.ii cu perioada moldoveneascd.
Or, acestecorlstatair " itr cazul acr:eptirii cure;lrltate veridice, vin siriistoame toaticonstluctia ref'enlortre la cit.adcla meclievlr a de piLnrint de la Crhciul Vechi, lansatd pr:blic de citre P.P.Birnea;;i acceptatd
lat'ii rJisculti clc altj specilliqti. ln aceastd situatie, te oretic se po.ite presupune ca in timpul sapitLuilor clin
anir ,50 putea sii se 1tt'oclucit o confuzie de materiuL:. mai ales cilasemenea lucrurli ali avut loc in alte sitLratii Dar, o analizS" atentil t rapoartel,rr de sapritr-n-i ale: lui Gh.D.Snrirnov. aratd cirin cazul de tina problema
l'lu este in posibila gre;e rrla it autol'Ltlui, ci in interpretarea difer"itir irr celor dourd ganluri q;i acceptarea de
aprioti a iLel3dturii rtrszlnir:r dintle aceste consh'r-rctii jn cadrr-rl unui sistem unic fc,r'tificat.
itr -rr^rn,'''rtio
,,,'g,,'p'-rrdrL

2.6. Solutii stiintifice

;,
In legirtur'5

cLr prot' cma elucrdittA, trebuie nle nfionat, cir descopentorul celor doud;anlud, Gh.D.
Snrit'no"', pl'actiLr, rt-a in:ercat sir fiica argLlrrentart:a metcldicri i.r cronologiei acestor complexe in leeatLrriL cr-L ?ncildlare,u lol iin sistemul posillilei ,,citadlele de pdmiin1.". Inlerpretare:a q;anturilor'?n calilate de
par'fi ccrnlponenl,3 ule "citadelei de plimint" s-a. fii;ut la etapa inilirrla inbazzt. Lulol'conslatdri folrnale:
pozitia viilufilolin spi:Ltitr: coreiarea lor cu cjta,Jela de pratrd; orientarea, forrna gi dimensiunrle santur"ilr)r: c10s,loix)nlea in girnl ir cetLmic'i rnoldovenegtr,
N-a fiicut ninrc pt:r .ru arguilncrltarea crrr:n,rlogiei celor cloui q;riin{r.rri nici P.P. Birnea, cale cLl toate cd a avlrt Ii indenriir,ii rnateriulele lui Gh.D. Snrirnor,. n-a t'iicut analizii cuveniti a acestora, acrceptin<J fiu'5 rczef\'o rdeel legdturit ,:elor douii $ar'lturi in sistemul unic fbltificat al citadelei de p-imirnt.
in l,celagl tirry, )?.P Bjrrrea. a larisat icleea desple existenla la est rJe citadel:r Orheiului Vechi a doud
qanLun. Lrrrr.rl f irnd le_eai,1e "citaclela. de pimint", datatd l:r irLcepul.r-rl secoliilui XV, iar celalalt de viilul :r. li rle la in,reputul ;ecolului X\zII (EsrpHq 1991, l2)'.
Confolrl opiniei lui P.P. Elirnea gan{ul ce {inea de valul nr.3 datat cu secolLtl XVII se aila la
;roalele cle vest ale lali-rltri. iar;;aniul n-iai vechi, r:t: tinea de "citadela de pamlnt" era amplasat la poiilele de est a acestui val t3srpns 1991.12,17)-.
in le;gitula c,u celc rrention{rte. atragern aten{ra al iaptiil. cd respectiva afirrnalie a luj P.P. Ilirnea
nu irvea nici i-rn te:ner, r:prezentind o simprlii erolre, dat fiinci cd autoi'ul sdpltLrrilor. Gh.D. Smirnov.

'ir,

rcesl

:u..|I1L'I.'pnio.lt,'.!O('l11i1()C'l|;|t''!Kpu:}||bI.1|

,:st,le citiideli. i e se gdse:au aliitr,u'i. dm se refe:rh la di1-elite perioa,Ce. Primul este ntai tiirziu (secolul XVIIt,
- rnai tirtput'iu. l)t: aceea, prinr-rl intr,:tiia cimitirul. () lli'u't,3 din nrormjntele cdruia au tbst sdpate in
rumplutura r:c ur de-ul doilea rrnl rnai trmpuriu, sincron cu alt gan! aflat la vcst de citadeld).
Santr.rl

de

ll

iar cel de-irl doilea

rin|ecit'tl}.i0tliice]asiaP.P'IJirneascria:,,

o 5o.'tce nojdtte-,,t
lrri nr'. I, crre purtial
ce \,r)rbe:ite rlespre conslnr,lt rr rnai ttr":rie a valului gi gantr"rlui in compala{ie cu necropola). In alta ordine de idei acelaSi
6()ct1l0Lr||OiOp6u.|)u(:tt()..|()')'t((,ttHO:o
apir.lrr: de la est de citacjelrt,le piatrd iiu scl)s la
grrntrrlui lui. $anful are: adinc -nea 3i-5 m).

iveali vestigiile Eanlului timpuriu de est, arnplasat in tatl valtrlui nr. 3 5i

149

r'l t I1-r1

-,Li1;.r. ]-,

a doua $an!1lfl, lar


despr.e exisr::nta in sectorul dr: la est de citadeia cle priatra
a rl(:.rs
'iciren
in acest sens'
P P. Iiilnelt n-a clenlonStrat vre-un al'gumcnt SCfiS Sau grafic
in arhiva N{uze6nuliz,a rappartelor <le siqri.tuli ale lLii Gh.D. Srnirncv din anii t9512-1956 aflate
nici un indice cu refedte
Lrlui cle Ar-heologic l Acaciernrci de $tiinle a Republicii N4olclova, ttu oferd
de r;apituri din anrrl 195-5, se
llL un al d::,i1:a qan{ l:r est cle citarJela de pratra. Dtn potrtvd, in raportul
acestea liind cercetate pe
sripuleazd foartq clar, cd aici :s,tc vorba rJe un s;ingur garr! 5i un singur val,

niultttr irni prin illtennediutl unor secftr'trrt arheologice'


llicr, treburc sii remarcdm, cii este acl,ivarat ;i fapt,ul, cd in laportul

p,aic,-,,'s,.rl miLi

sapdturi din anui 1957 de la


valtrltri nr. .3, Gh.D. SmirnOv, constata
C)r.herul \ze.chi. il.l lr:rqarl.ul-a cu crl-cet[rrea unei noi poLiuni clin cadrr-rl
vedere faptr:l cd sec{iunea
de ,,,ersl lLle acestLri ::ompler. ar 1i descope,r'it ur $an{. Dar. avlndin
ci llL
se afla la distanla
rle
sdpdturi,
opera:ri
'.alcle valrllui nr. 3 in anurl 195'z clupd cLrm este inclicat ?n raportul
's.'fa
complexul adincit de la poalele de vest
cle .l5rl m r;'r-e r;r.rcj ,Je lii capiit"rl cle nor,J rLl valr-rlui nonrinrrlizat,
poate fi pLrs in legdturd cu pfestlpusa "citaale ,,,alulu., c'hiL in r::lr:zLtl tnteqtri:tLdi lr,rj itr calitate de gan!, nu
in trusettl ilcesteiil'
t-ielI de piimiiltr'' <Jat f'rind cir rLl: ;e incacl|el.zit nici pt: clelliute
p.p.
ca ganfr-rlcie est al "cltarlelei cle panilnt", aflat la poalele
<Je

"-

Birnea sus;lirrea
i ; ac:lrgi ilonte)(l.
- incepr"rtul
,"alu,lrii nr. --1 a iost suprapus cl: necrtlpola medierrald dirr ii douii jun'i[tatr: zt secolttlui XV
eum af ilma rlttorul mai multo molmlnte
:;ec.luiut .KVI, 1in,.,,.,'1ilu*r1;lrn[r.1lui iiir,cl descoperite dLrpd
t 6;rp:rn I!)91. {7-18 )'.
preajma cttacronologicli iscatii intre gatrlul de est ;i q;inlul de vest din
ln lesitLr-ii. cu pr1;trlerna .V.:cl-ri.
se g6se.qte la
rezolvittii,
che:il
trcbttic mentlonat, ca piind la ur'miL
c|cle:i cle l)lalI.l cie la Ol.heiu]
sens Lln interes rjeosebit prezintd concluziile lui
insa.gr dcscopelitcl|ul itcestc)r:onstructii. in acet;t
plrne 1a indoiala
(jh.D.smirrov la r-aprortul cle s;dplitur-r clin anr,rl 1.955, prin care aul.orul siLp.rturilor
qan{ul
de er;t (consldeGh.l). Snurnov susfine, ci
i,pur-rene'tr.l qanfulrri"r]e est la ''.:itudelii cie Pdnriint".
(datat[
mal tarziLl dec,lt necropcia din acest sector
rat rli in:unte pailc ir.,r":itadr:rei cie pam)nt",), este
pa'te din
se,colulur XVI), reprezenrri'd mai degrabi o
c:u . ilouu lumiitrrtc rr secorulr.r XV inceputul
Eremirt Movill la incepul'ul sec' XVII'
:,ist,:rnul rlelensrV lntLlit la Crrhr:ir.rl Vechi cie catre
,\stfi:l.r,uttrl,1'Ltlicleii<;iracie,l.:itlcpf,lrrint,bazindLt-sepeclatelearheologiceoblinute'aniut-tsin{'inalla
firrtificalii, gi anurne gantLrl cle rdsf,rit ar fl dintt'o
r:oncluzir. p,rr.ir it c6rcia r.rnul[ rJ ntr-e gan!Lu'ile prcsllpusei
lrcr.lirlciirnlllitiLt'.2-iec[ccit,sanlLilcler,es],saunraiexactclittsecolulX\u.C]orrst,rtdrileluiGhD.Snrimov
dati' dat fiin'C ca pllneau sub semnul
,lin anul 19-5-i. cfclLu, bine'in;cl:s. c| sttlialie cle c:onlutz in lloblema
<ie autor r:r-r ciliv'a ani
,ntr.etr.-u.ii ,in'agi rclce;-i rxrstentci la orheiLri \"echi ii "citacleiei de pimint", e;tpdmatd
[a ce'cetarea Eanfr"rlui de est' dtn
n': 1n*irrte. Dupa cer.cetarire din anul i955 Gh.D. Smi'ncv n-a rel'enit
cu Vederea
opittic I lLr Gh D' Smilnov' insd' a fost tlecutii
:arr: :auz:ii protrlernrt ir fost cruts;el'vate. uitima
a rdn-lal; ilecunlscutf, pentru cetr:eldton'
Je r:litre P.P. B|lnr:1, ditl clu'e: cltt-t:zi aceasta
viziunea lui G'h'D' smirnov' tfaseul a$ain lt,:qhtu.ii cu ottser'a!iilc fac'ter, l)utem consta, ci in
est ale vamai tArziu l;i P'P' Bit'etr' se' afla l1 poalele d:
ruLirrrtulLr: gan{ dc cst, clLtlrd c,rtm recltntjltca
,]onsta in faptul ci in trmp c': plirnul ajunge'a la conclulului nr.. :i. Dilcrcnli] clintre ce r cloi cel'ce'tirtofi
xvrl, cer cle-al d.ilea considera ci'r Sanlul reszia rinalj crespre {J*'.arcil ai:*,tr-ri conrplex cu ser:olui
cu inc:eputirl secolului XV'
pectt^\, lirre cle ''citucie la de piLttiiint", datrlta
se intamplc cotnproate: f i lamuriti situalia cu:m putea si
In ci.rzrLl ar:ceprtiLr-ii icleii c.in urmd. pil.rcr.lc nu
jn secc;lr-rl XV cr'r tt'aseulunui val eclificat cu circa 150 ani :nai tirziu' la
cidc'{a tr.'seulLu r-rnr.ri gant.';tupa.t
3 ridicat de cr:rnstructorii luri Eremra Movild'
ca va.lul
ince'utLrl secorLrrr.ri l{vlt. or. t:ste grerL d,: acrmis
'r.
maiinalnte'
('Kact pe mltrginea urrui q;an1 astupat cLl peste o:;trtd de ani
.,clin gre:i,:ali" r;d f i {tlst l.t'ils;.tt
G;;;";;;;;,J.,,,),,,,,,u()n1.|rc|1l!tnlb,||'Ul()3|:'lt1[tI)t!btitucocntc'l,titt'tii1laat1|tl:a3lll||c.1|o?.\'t1l6utntcllll-

Ili(' i:L'lllb

ite

K():\)(l

c1er.i:st5i.Jeest:ltr';:lLlu]nr..3ntLptlt1isincrtlnc,,1.irndcliinutn.olr'rturii;anpluicleest9i-'l^o^.]i'",
ntr,rInjntt:crr:;lttlc:fii|5inVentaI.i).t'ciil'alul

lrrallainmilnt.ltlittr.ri.dlrp5Ctlfr(:I.ilinca;zttlcirndnocrop,tllaat:opereaunrp|r.ttura;;anpluidup5astupat.eit]uit|epf[il.
cind el eri clemult p6rlsit )'
lrtunci cirnci rse i:oustruia:lillt,itl, d^t'mai tiirzlu,
der:t. nu

!;,0

___-

__

tr-cL i;Jn

/r[glogi, ,i.

Scri

p-toJJil

Amplasarea sianlulLlr Ia poak:L: de est ale vah:lui nr. 3, s-ia proclLrs, fari irrdoiala odatd cu ndicarea
lcestui \ial (Ci,lnpFror] l'9):i6. 1-2)'. lin aceia$i perioadi de la ?nceputul rsecoluiuri }iVU. La o zrsemenea con:luzie a ajuns gi Gh.D. Snlrnor''in urma cercet6ril()r alheologice din anul l9-55. DLrph studierea a $apte
poltrunr ale acestLti sant. (ih.D. Snrirnov ficea consta.tdri, care A\/eall sii irund la indoiald ipoteza apafienen1ei ganlulu.i de esl.la pres,rLrLrsa.,citadeli de prinrlnt", ,.ht retiltcttul sa:,otiturilor s-u constcttut unttcitourele:
!t:tt;/ul' L'utlinlt,at rlle lrr nrul,

lttt1rlr'|fil||l'\'(i|irerl1pe'.uic'i,prtlL,ct
:-,i|rd.ale,;.,|utttlt.1rc'|.:0rttll'pahiei,

,tt,|,i1inteu'17un|ttttti*:).040tln,ld|ittrusctn|ult,t'ilusupra/ctitt-1'5-5'0rtt.Au.ttls|dt'pista
:tttilirt|e't',t,rtutlit.'ti,:lt,clt|'urecetlusiesirosit:,pietre
:lt'totts{rLu.:tie,iitr.Lttt|.'('^:,d|bStt,|cs'<.,,:4lefttitltttt'lttctliirleripL|
|lt0.\'('(i,pn't|rtI'.i|dilttiltt,t;ttllu'iAle:tcutclntcelI}ult.$:tlt1t,
,,tinttAti, r( prc?rttAnd nu, i
t)toi (lepot'te r()l'p,!'nttit(' .sii eltrcirltirn ntc.finitit'tt'aseul lrri " (ClnirpHoe l9-55, 38-39)'
$anfu.l de csl n-i,t cler\/rar de la trlseui l'alulLri, dupd cum ar fi tr-rst normalin cazul aparlenenlei acestuia
llr preriupusu "cltitde lii dc iranrant". in r',.Lportulde sirpatLrn pentrLr anLll 19-55 cincl au fost realizate cel'cetirl
,le arrploare: in sr-:opul clrrcidalii trarseului ganfulLu cle est gi in special a presupusei cottluri spre qaniul de
vest. Lihi.l) Srriirncr,. rrc"iioneaz:i dLrpii a ll-irincercare de.,ciiLttalc" pttn sapituri a,,cotittttit $antLllui":
,.[r

t re:.ttlt to t tl i u rt't:t

it

ril

ce inse antnll cl-t ucest $al]!nLl lre'r nici o lcgdlur[ cu presuptlsul traseu cle est al citadelei de pamiint.
.:ale lttgic tt'ebuia sli l'aciL i.ln cot in rlilccfia de r'est, spre capatul de su<[ r.rl qanfului de vest. Ace astd c(fnstare, c,emonstt'a ire <ic aitli 1:iute ca i;rnlul de cst leprejzcntii o construclie netenntnata.
tee

LL

ip llta oljine dc tcle r. remuriJrim. ci suprafalr $antului de erst nu erll suprrlpttsi de necropola creSltlii clin a dolrr.ir-rrtritate a seccliului XV dupd curn sus{inea P P. []ilnea. ldcelr cu descopeflt'eii unor
nrorn-rinte cre itine in Lrrrltlutura lirn!i,rlr-ri clin pr-eajtnlL valului nt'. 3 reprezlnti o el'oal'e a cercetat()l'Lllui
:lat rli nu ule nirric: contLn cu reulitatea alhe:ologi,;ri stabrlita de Gh.D. Sminlov. ln rapoartele de sdpdturi ale lui Gl"L D. Sinrirrrov. ia care sc leferi P.P. Birnelt nu e>listanici itn caz cltid vre-un mormitlt al
nec;o1.lc,lci ar sul)txpllnJ slu ar irLtt'c,tiia urnplutr-n"a;an!Lrlur ,Ce es1.. Dtn conlr'a, in trnlplll sapdturilor
Jin anLrl l95ii este' serrrrralat un criiz r:iincl ;rantul cle est l intretaiat un n'iortnint cre$tin 9i nLr ittrels,
l'lDt ce de rrorrrltrr:lz;i cii,lompier(Lrl rjat este, mai ::irziu declt necro'pollt (Clrupuoa l9-5-5.30)". In ace-

lesL'{ )p'ci- jt

.tceLmot-rtenttccl,etli.:i.]ar..cliinitce1iC,t|lrlcitlc1el,:i
lernn f6t.tifi,:1!ie de pirn1irrt. .rltigr"rtiir $tnturilor.
iicpe

cetd!uie

igi contttrul'ile ei t'i'mineau

necLlnoscute).

:rt

,|tt)tli)t,|btltc''t,t]ft.\tottl1l(l,tttdpl,:tl'tt
St tttlt', ttt:
L'Ll('l1te]|b|;tlpo0t,t.,,.Iq.'tt,ttcituttte

]Te>ittlloriginaIesteurtndttltd:.,[Iptt
utt (J KqK)'to cn()POtt\', t'.1 tll(lK)tc? u ue npoDo-t-tt(uctllLt! t)Q"tt'tttc"
rinacestcontextGh.D'Smir:nll,men!itlneirzA:,,Crele'mCtL,tbHO
KortttuL?,nra',, tte nL)61:)putltt6au:i

\'-,:,141ryr]

l- ll.

__

151

1l

cileVa ocse umane clispert'n untl)ltltlll'il $antulLLl rje est, intr-un alt caz, al fost descoperite
195-5,35,39), fapl' ce indicS la o datare possrrtLr. ,-are ptcl\,cne,rtu de la motmrnte clistruse-(L-rvrr'lpuoe
in sectorul qan{ului de
r.:r.io,ri a $antuLul cornp1ratr\,,cu rrecfrJpcla. in finitul irivestigaliilor efer;tuate

ligi tinip,

rst,Gh.D.Sttrtrnttrlilrungealac,'lnclu;lilrdespr''cliitateamartirrzicrace:;tuicomplexinritpottcLllle,.

(,:,lrtt'tprlon, tt)55. 39)'.


jin c.nti:xtu,l ccl*rr prezerrrirre, se IXlirte

1'o1)(.,lrt

constata,,:i Legitura ciintle grln'lul cle est qi $arlul de v'est'


drn piirnanr"' ce I pulin
in vcderea atr.rDui.lr l9r la unu gi ace ltqr srsteni frrtificat - presltplisa,,citadeld
in srlclir-rl actltal al cr:t'cetlirilor, nu poate fi acceptat6'
in piirtea de est a citadelei de piatr[' inlr^ptr-il, i:ri :rap,.luLrile arheologice,Jrrr nnr-rl 1996 efectuate
mai mult itceste
r:lur;i,,i' prc'lnia rirlull,i nr.. ll, ri-au r1u; la rclcntrficaler qan{r-rlui cle esl., spore$te 9l protnoVatiintl'cle Gl-r.D' Smrt'nov 9i
lnctrieli. riclrcirrclin general prrotrlema vrabilitafii idcri o:primate
ce piatriL cie la orheiul \/echi a utre i
pe
locrricitaclelei
rrn icl siirr aitrrl rje irlli cer.cetiiti:ri, privincler.isterrta
"crtildele cli:, pt-it'niint 9i lcntn"
parant" !ine de viitc'arele sirpdtufi arheologice'
lLez,rlrar-er clltrrrrtiva a pr.obleme:r ,citadeleL cle
cu aclel'iL|at un comple'x' arheolcgic similar
in,:;rzul da,:i lli cst cle ciiar:lc]u cle pnLtri va fi clescoierit
''citadeie de
se vtt prttea r"orbi clespr': 'lestigiile unei
nc
ianlrrlui cle 'er;l,. lrs'pril ci'ul fapt
-indoim.,
efect clezaprotlarea definitivd a 'deit privind
prlrnri't,, L,tn e,,,e.ntri,j .,-rult.,,t negati\ ?ttsli, r'a a'ea cfi'ePt
irc:st c:lz Vii apdt'er necL'sitltteil exprlicdrrr sr:nsului con3xlstentir pr.esuprr:rci ,,citaclele cle-pin-rlrt". in
sareprezinte tin complex nefiniszLt din timpul
stftr.!rci l;o]rtare - a;;antului it:'vest. crill3Ilu este e.{clLIS
pe la mijioctrl secoluiui xI\" in legdturd cu
clot'rnatir:i Floartlcr cie.Aut 5t iistupal. tot irtllnc:i,
sci.rilnlrai.eilstrl,ttctlirtrorgierlrficltrelLcrtacleleicl'rnpiat.t.it.
BteLtocRnrte
Arlri.raN1',\l95'.l:lip)tL-0.Il0|r]H0cK.1ct|cc.1e,lo[.i1tlt1'leCrapoiut01lree.Athir,a
grc. ii,irl,irlr-r'rilc r:lir anul l9ii:l
-'i
ttin:ir t9;5: l.F{irne u, tltrherLri Vec iChiSirriru l!t95)'

Pilstic:it])0Cii:C,h.I)r.r:tici.()bst:Ir'atiiSt|a]'igla1'1c]epr.ivlnc|cetareJnlec1ievirlidepi'miintc1eilorheiul
uLIlvl - 20cr0 (clhilinau 2t100)'
cljr anii ]ggt':-19991. in, Syrnposir Pt'ofessorurrt
inr,.esrr5atrilor.arhe,logice

Po;trc;r.]l]0t,b:|ilr.I,r.rs1icil'I,rtrbli;tllt
11.|.i41rl6grc::.

$lai:,.rc 2l)l)4:

rt.

gtiinlifice. t7 iurrie 20{)0 (chigindu 2000)' 5-6'


rrri.jlocul secolului al XVI-lea)
din Nl.lclo.,,a (rriijlocul ,e.ol,ilui al XIV-lea 5lap.,c. ceinli rr:dieiale
In: ilestitutio

iL

]rt{tgt'LLni. N'iLrreri.rlele:onferin ei

,,,,],.i]'tli.i,'1!l.l.l,.i,,,,,,,.NIo.n,I1[iBcKuilcF}er1HeBeKo[tuti;iroprolnf\uecrpoucr:o.[Ip.yrr:xoHlN1e)K,4}'peqbe(X\'-Hatlao
XVI s. ) ( l{rruruHce l9E:l)'
6sr;lHrl:)9]:Il.il'1bii,r1luli,i,1:lttct.-:,pttI,tllcc,e.l08aIi[I
3aH:lt l;

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('osatr!i' pand
locuire gra'etirnd

cu mai murt,r niveruri


Lii stl{ruinea crrn pale.rrticul tar.div.
de podoaba 9i exottcc' care
r:le artii prleo'trci nr.bilii'
p;.r;
5O
p.r::
..,I.:pist^t:
in 1:,r.ez:,nt. au lrlst
pLrbrlicarir matet'ialel'rr arlteologlsisti:rr,atice. l)e prru.rut
atit
ltrorr,iri
,r,-,c.,,r
a';tfel de piese
ot.,,..t,-r1
de..,^ aL, 1,.'r,,
y-onuii'o in :xclr-rsivitate a unor
publicarelL
spe':ir.l,
in
l,iza,-r,
1996' 49-51;
cc, cit rli spec:ial,:, ce
tgq-o' l9-40:' IJorztac' otte
6'l-85;
1993,
56-:ri;'
(B:rprrr* l!)!x): il..,'r,rir. lggl,
in aceste lr:c.iri au fost
Ot':e' l'lojrct l;;8' 5-28; etr:')'
Eiorziac'
39-:-406;
degi mai resB,o'zta:, Chirir:. 1996'
anii ur*ato.i, lucr'6rire l^ staliune'
tn
in
p; Irlt,"t:l:l-:1r-r:ttirilor atr {'ost deptstaab'rdare pie,seli,;: clepistare lriini.
^r"i-iqgs
au conrirua;
pl.ecerienti
*nii
iir
mel'itd sd
clecrt
trirnse crr
exotic'3' crlre, in opinia noilstra
piese
qr
rr.r
p,r.irouu,'.,:rt
^n-,pr,.)irrrc.
de
gtiintific al a'']estor mostre
t,l *oi Jrit,:sc rle lrti *robilii ii
,in ansarLb,i.r. Irubliclr-ca gi inirodu,r..* in cir,:uitr:i
lol'
fic ex;Lnrina[e
in itcel*9i timp 5i asupra incacirlrii
insistlnJu-se
luct'6ti'
comcr.trstiluc .bicr':rii't'ti p1'ln'lil'al 't "'tt'-i
gi cere lirnitrofe' ca material
zona oarp'to-nr.tr""n:i
ciin
prrlc.liticulr:,
a
in etapele cle e.,,'lr"r!ie
pale'olitici depistate anterior' dat'
t""t'i,a
ttti
se
pie
u*'rt
p1:*tl'
it
itc(:ste
'le
pi.*.ati'v \,o* rerir.Jltc,o pe
de saturl
1,,,;'. ,..'
ra circa 500 m spre norc.vest
:lXiH1-:LtJi:.i1.^:ituarr rqgs, puc. l,l)' pe parcr'trsul cercetarrnra]ur.,1r.rr,.iy1trului,(Eoprr"n
[r.s[uLqi, rar.nur Sor.ca, t,(
au'fost,clepistaie gi par-tral.studiate
(rgEl-tq,6q, zoo:]; p,, t,,cutlrt4J.t"ii
aII-ira

l";,fli*:,ru;:1il,:li

lo'

sisrematicr::

'rr:ltianuiii,,
rc,;r.iir.epareoliticd,incorpo'atei,r'J"f,-t,r"riletrrrciigiaciirrealeterasei
'ireruricle
intre circa 2[r ;i l2 mir ani
]\iistrirlui,cciLlirtrsaicio'i;'osirnet'"ft""it*"io'tt"nit'"luriledelo'lt-tit'esuntsepa:r'ateunuldeirlrr"nir,r g; ?'timp';;;; spa,iLrl
clepr.rncr,
cre
rr"rr c1c nir,clr'r
"rr..,.oro1ii.

rr,:stur.ire'2r

184

&.r,sta

.4rteqloCA

a,;grt

n9l!4

a.Chr. Pentru datare:t ni"elelor cle locuire au fost oblrnute peste 50 clate racliontetrice, iar stratigrafia
in.ipecabild a nlvelelor dt:
q;i
'ocuire a celor litologice de pe iocul statiunii au servit esential ca model
de e'litbr:rrat'e i'i uneri noi nter?retau'i ai geocronolol;iei paleoliticLrlr-ri superior dintle Carpatii Orientalr
;i lrlistru (Har:saer"ts. Ilc rz,iak. Clhirrca. Damblon, Kulakovskzr, r,an der Plicht 2003). Aceastd noua
citrt'e 5i intcrltt-etaru r l:e r)c:ronclr:qiei. la etrlpa actralS de studii perrrite incadrareii in ea a majc,ritzrtrr
statiunilor str;,ttificatr: dirr paleoJitricul superior clin zona, fac:ilizind astf-el cercetdlile cronologice gi
.'ultLrrlrle (iig. 6 )
In t996 a I'ost stucliirt nivelul li <Je locuire, pe o supraftd de 13,,1 rn', in 1991 gi 1998 a tbst stucliat
nivelul 6;rpe,:l suprafl!l de l2rn:, Tot o datd, p,rrntr-un sonclqt ad0nc, menit pentru studiul stratigrafiei 9i coler;tltrca de trrotitr'J pentru datare gr analizl structuralli a se,Cimentelor gi palinologici, au fost
str:di:-rte pe o i;uprafafli dr: 8m'nivr:lrlrile de: locuire 6b, c. d,7-l0l Pe parcurstrl efectudrii acestor lu:rit'r lt-t lbst tlepistlttrl rnumel'oase rJate arheoloEticr:. rnclusiv;i unele piese, care reprezintd obiectir.Lrl
lce-.ttti strrdiu \,1ai rt:adlrcem pr: arleste pagirri urnele piese, cure au fotst deprstate anterior, dar care dirr
lunurrite consirlerentel nL-irLt fost abolclate in publicirtiile citate
.

epr:Rrclnt

rJL PtESELoR

In ttiiielu .lb dc locrrire, in incinta conrplex.ulrri de l,rcuire N4 r(Eiop:usx, KoBaneuxo 1992) a tost
I- l'ragmentat intenlionat. In z,cna mai plata. in apropierea epifizei osul este perforirt d r amlrele piirti qi ca re;zLrl.at are un orificiu cu diametrr-rl de 1,9-2.2 crn. Mar,sinile pelforariiei ;i s,rrprlLt'lfa inl.ericrari a ei si-lnt glefuite minufior;, atAt in urma perforani, clt qi in
,lrmJ unei utrlizliri irrten;e (1'g. 1,5). O piesri sirnrlru'd a fost depistati de M.BrLrdiu, la stafiunea Cotul
Micuiintt (Brrrcliu lr981t) An-rbele pir:se au r destinalie neclarii. PuteaLu fi utrhzate ca,,?ndreptitoale",
r,iidoma celor confectlionlrte drn com de ren qi denurnite ,,baton d3 comendant" gi interpretate qi ca
..indrepliitt'ritr(:". crit qi c;r semn de prestigru a;l purtdtorului (posesorului), dar qi ca mediatoare la
i-inrle saniilol ori capcr"elor'. la care se utilizau ftniile.
Tot iri acrst nivcl d: locuirc;,ru fost depistate 4 friignrenle de tubuli pentlu pdstrarea acelot'diti
DS.'-[r)ate repr,lrzinl,ri 1'ragrnente de oase tubr-ilare (nretapocHi) cle iepure. O metapodie este reprezentatii
r-lc r,n fragnrenl cuL lunetirne a dr: J,J crn. In zona rnai sub{iata a epifizer este perforlt un orificrlu, cu
,Jrlrrrc.trun cle 0,-l crn. l'c,t astfel de olificir mui au ;i alter dor,rii fragmente epifizice ale altor
:rnetapodii.Dorra lr'agmr:rite de portace sunt reprezr;ntate de fragmente centrale de metapodir de iepur-e, cu stiprafelele glelirirr:;i inteliorurl gol.IJnul clin aceste flrgmerLte convine unui fragment cu orifir:iu. altul. al'e gravat urr:.-'rnlt de tipLrl litelei N, plrtsat transvcrsal la un capit al osulur. Orificiile ser'vear.l pentfu atiirnareii gi ,.rurtarea pot'tacelor pe f ir (ftg. 1,2-3,-5.10).
in ni',,elui 5 cler loc;urre a fost dcpistat un por.ac intreg. confecliottat dintr'-un os tubular <]e rett
L.utrginrca 1;ie sei este d,e 17,8 crn. diar-retrul exterior 1,6-1,8 cm. Suprafelele exterioara
''{'ernLr?).
qi iriterioar-ir a osului srr-t glefLritf:. [lnps1s1. sr]nt retezilte 5r locu.l tiiieturilor de asemenea este milutios;;lefLrit. I-a u:n crrpat (numrt de cdtre ncli pt'oximal), in perretele osului este o pelforatie,
sfi'c,Jehtii din pnltca c).1()noarat. Diametrul ei este de Ct.5 ctn. Orificiul. ca q;i la portacele descrtse
mai sLrs, em prede,stinat pentru atiirnare gi purtarr:a piesei pe frr (fig. 3,1-2). Pe suprafala exterioal'd alriesei sunl arnena.jir :6 grupe d.e incizii tranr;versale, pli-isate ci)te 2 grupe in trei colonile verIrcale. in prirna grr-rprii (,ezi imaglnea desl'dguratri, de la stiinga lr clreapta) sunt 7 inciz-it ctr lungimeu cie 0,6-0.7 crn, cLr rcepulr-rl la 1.5 crn de la capdtul proximal gi continud p0nd la clistanla de
,4.6:m, aviin,.l un inrcrlal intre ele de 0,4 0,6 cnt. La distanfa de 3,1 cm de prima grupl 9i sub ea
L'ste plasrrti a clor-ra 13:rur1ld de in,:i:zii, care au ace:iiqi lungime qi ritmtcitate metric6, dlr conline 9
incizii. Prima grr-rp[ rJe rr,cizii iia treia) din a cloua colonil[, similare primelor, ?ncepe nemijlocit
,1e la capdtul pro;rirrral si continua pAnI la distanla de 8 crn 5i confine 19 incizii. O privrre mai
,Jepistat Lin m:rtatafs,J: Iiquus caballus

nu-i apar{ineau, inclusiV


' in ,,na clirr luclirri, Si. Cor,iri3nco, nu nurrar c5 a publicat infbrma{ii inedite despre sit, care
de la staliune, deja inde
locui|e
nivelelor
numerotlirea
a
schirnbirt
gi
in
mod;rrbrtrar,
dar
ir:d.
strar.igraf
se;renta
5i
a incdlcat dreptul de
astfel
,-'luse,in r:ircuirrrl Stiintif i,l.'r'ezi: KovalerLko 199ti, 233-.261 . Consider'. ci S. Covalenco
ilutol itl sdp,dlut' 1,,t.

__ 185

diStantate (0,? cm) de alte 8 <lin aceasta


uncl,: incepre grupa a douiL de incizir
r,rr_rpr,i cle mai -tos i'tr.:aga gr..rprd se telmina e)xact l. ni'elul,
termirdlii inctztitin'p,ri*,, c,cii'nitii. ,\ douallrupe cJe int;izii din colonila a cloua ittcepe la nivelul
ei ;i plna la
a d,)ua dirr prirn,r colonila gi conline 10 incizii. Distanta cie la sfirqitul

llterrtli ne corryin,tle, c-ir I I

rlor

trrit

izii de stls sLlnt oarecLlnl

5_:r.up.:i

t apdtul clrstal al picsei este clt'

l',8 cttt.

ffir
u*i
W\,

i"

,q,::

-,J

tri{il

flllil

il\ ';l
hr

;q

.
I
:)

,.::

, r,r,:-

l-:r-

5'.,,,1t'

i'll!

,1';-

ti,':il
vi 'll

l-;;

ittr

,m?

,$

#,#
'l

\,,

m"
h
rtl
a. r ,ll

iliifr.
I'i

l,'l,l

F[{

[ri$.
W',,
Fig.l.Cosiruti:1-s.:ltetnaamplasiriistatjurii6psirrti(l.terasiqelulca;21|,||_terase,3-ripi;
Nltt:i!il 4'36-- staliunea Ccrsduli);

lor;atilali; S - izoplrzrleie OeifanOSatt; b'inatliti


6-mela,tarsdecal cuperforalie.
2_3,5,10_-fragmentr-.deportac:e; 4,7-g-parrdaniive,perle;

4,

il"'.us,pta

Reuisla Arheologica. Seie rtoua

1ii6

Prima grupli chn atlei;,, colonrlS incepe sub c,rif ciul de atel'nare (l,l cm) de la capdtul proximai)
gi corrtinr.rd pe l)al'cursrrt l6.3 cm. incluzdnd l5 incrzii (intre a.3-a 9;i a 5-a este una mai scurta)' l-Iltinra incizie din rceastd 1n'trpa transversal coincidr: c; penultima inci:zie drn prima grupd a colonilei a
<Joua. A rloua plrupi dt: in: iztl din c,clonita a treia ittcepe la 6.8 cm mai ios 9i conline 7 rncizii. Incepr.rtul er c:olespuncle crr uliirrra incrzie clin gr:pa cle ios (a cloul) al c,olonitei a doua. intre grLrpele de
sus a,e cr:lrlniiclor;r ci.oul gi a tleiir este -qravata tl scarilii de tl barc trernsvet'sale. De asupra scari{er
nrai este :lnrena.iatii o inc,ii le trans'versalzi, oarecurn oblicd.
de pe alte pie-ctemnrflcalizr;,i im1;,:ltanln palecinformaticd al acestot'grupe de incizii, precum 9i
st: cle arriL palegIiticd rngbiliL, inclusiv gi de la Cosd;{i, este gr continui sd fie pusa in discu(re (Valtic
21101:, iar aici ne \,(:)nt rcreri tnai pr3 scurt la accas:i piesir. Este clar, cd ea reprezinta, clin punc:t de
yrldele fLrnr:lro1al un port lc, in urrnprlutura lui (caz untcal pentru ast,[el de piese) a fost depistat un ac
(t.r-r urechigga :'r'iintri) clin os, cu lung,imett cle 7,J cm (fig. 2,3). Aviinci in vedere volumrtl interior,
pistrlrea a rnai mu11.or ace. Omamentul tncizat rm{}{Jrta,JLll rjat errL conler:1.ir-r at ;i prr:clestilat p,:nt1rr
plrcd portiicLrlui un criLac:.r rle piesi de arti paLloc'liticd rnobilir, iar amplasar-ea inciziilor in grupe.
pie1r-anjitte in1r-o rnor]alilaLtc ;pecraili - gi cte piesd cr-r r:vidente anlprenl.e paleornformatice. Oricum,
slrde tip prrrtac clescrir;ti nriri sus, atiit CLrpb rrdrime. ornament qi depistare,,itt itct f-lagrant" cu un ac in
eir esle unir:ald pentru palt:oliticul eLiropean.

i!
1r

I ,ii
liltll'i

jiii,'

\lii

l',1
Fi1y.

2. Cos2iu\i: 1,2

portac c,rnamentat; 3 - ac, depi'stat in portac'

188

Reuislo Arhcoloqicit.

Se

rie rtorrrT

'l'ot astfel poate fi considerat qi un pandantiv din fildeg de niarnut (fig. 3,-5) depistat in douS:
1'ragment,e, plariate in ni,,'e lul de locuire la o distanlii de 3,4 m unLll de alturl. Lungimea piesei - 9 cm,
lr.trmr:a nriLximlla ('in parll:lr de jrrs -- l,7cm, in partr:a de sus - 1,3 cm. Secvenla transversalit mai crircularii.jos 9i miri pl;:rt.i lsLr, este lentiliformd. Pe toalS suprafala sa piesa este glefuitd. La extremitatea
tb sus se observii urrnelr3 ileteriorate ale unui orific;Ll pentru atiirnarr: pe fir. La 0,6 cm maijos, de pe
rmbele parfi p,ane, po axt centrald srrnt efectuate ,entatir,,e de repetat"d perforare, dar care nu a f'ost
te rminati". Mai .jos cle ace rrstd tentativd de perforar',: se observit 4 zone acoperite cu incizii circulare
tlans',,ersa1,3, grLrpatc h ti,6-7.5 gi 8 incizii. Alrcuri, inciziile sunt $terse, posibil, de utilizarea
indelugatir a pi,rsei.
In nrvelul ii de loc:Lriii: iiu fost d,splstate piese dr: arta paleoliticd m,rbild, constituite clin gravLrli pe
(J;rse. Au fost clepislut,,: .1
iriese de acest tip. Dorla rlintre ele reprezrntri unelte de munc6, alte doua rJe
lragmento
claste: dc anirnale cu qravuri incizate.
F'nma dintre elr: r'eprt:z,intd un slriipungdtol, ccnfeclionat din co;ista de cal. Lungimea piesei I.3,5 i:m. Pr: o 1'a[5 plan5 iL piesei :;e o]rservd dou;i zone cu urme de gravurd (fig. 3,1). Prima grupa de
m:ri
1p111yil1ye de nrijlocul piesei r:stt: constituita dintr'-r-t linie oblica (de la dreapta la
' nl:rs:rti
"'"I-"'"*'-"
stin._lrr), s;ub carc sunt plrr;lte paral:l una fa{d de alta gi perpendicular ei 7 incizii scurte. De asupra
ar.restci lirrii, de, sus i'n.ios srrnt plrsate patru linii ?ncrucrqate, cloud cAte doud. doui semne sub fot'ma
Irret'eL V, cu derschi;tatura:,pre marginea piesei qi ascu{igul spre linia oblicd. Mai aproape cle viirf este
pLasald a cloua grupir de s,,:nrne incizate, constituntd din 5 linii scurt(3, oblice, de la stinga la dreapta.
S :nsrrl i ncrLrstr tii lor rijLrrLine neclar.
l\ dclr.ra urrealtri d,e, niLri'rcd, sa.u. irrnli, ropre:zirtti un vdrf din os, cu Iungimea de llcrn gi grosirneir de 0,4 crn, Sectir.ine.r pe toatd lungrrnea este rotundd. suprrlfaqa glefuita. Funclional, poate
fr att-rbLut strapungirtoar':lor sau '','i,rfuriior cle sdgeatd (fig.3, ). In partea de sus, ntai aproape
ci,: viir'ful lscr-i!it, pe suJrplfxla piosei se c'bserr,i 4 in<:izii scul't(1, aranjate ?n formi de zig-zag
lr.rngitLrdrnal pJ;lsat pc p,ir:si. Alte drtr"rd pie:se reprezintd fragrnente de coaste de cal cu elemente
tirl gt'llv ul'ii.
F,r'tma dint;'e el,l (frg. 3,6), este cLl un capat lrrint gi piezi; diseclt5. astfel ca alt capat esle asc:ulit.
Suprirfa{a dezpolita prin ..lisecare este;lefuit5. Pe o suprafata planLd zt osului. transversal saLr pu{trt
,:r3lic sunt jnci:tate pes;t,3 r.5 linii r:nai drepte sau mai pulin vilurslsis:, tnoi lungi sau nlai scut-te. unele
dintrc eler. r:vid,lnt fiincl g'ul)ate ciite,l, unrte la o laturf, (din dreaptat) a coastei, sau cite 2.3 5i :1, desp,ir{ite dc intervale Iiberre de gi'avurd, Aceste incizir continuau 9i pe paltea li'acturatd a piesei. Atlt
cl,:strnalia l'unc.lr:narl6, cr)t ;i sensltl gravurei r1e pe srrprafaia ei rdmAn neclare'
,4 6fgruir coasta arr llrigjrner cle 20,8 cm gi l;ifinteade2,3 cm. Pr: itmbele fele plane ale osului. cLr
linrr in,quste sa,,t sirnple z:;;iirieturi, riunt gra\ate im.rgini I;uprapuse, finite sau foarte sttlizate, care in
ansarnttlu s;unt ti:larlr: dif ir il6[e dgs6:ris gi examinat. Aparte. se cleslugersc siluete de animale cu coilnle
(r'eni. bo',,irje ?), anirnirlle "niirunte, (]ixl,rem de strlizate, posibil, ;i fig;uri umane. Aceasta piesd este int.usa cie noi ?n nunidrul cr:lor de altd rnobilii palleolitic[ datoritii prezenlei pe ea a siluetelor gra'vate'
A.lte r:oas;te, depistate in lr:est nivel do locuire, cdt;li din alte niveluri. studiate la staliune anteriot', nu
poarta pe suprtrl'e [e astl'e,] ile incizii.
in nrvelul i cle lclcr-uro au mai lost depil;tate qi piese clin clil'eritr: val'ietdli de piatri, care, de aseiTtenca pot fi ircadrate jhr .,alegoria,::elor de iutd rnobila paleoliticd.
Din nunrf,1ul eces,tot'ir,'in prLmul rlnd, vom men{iona o tigurinii antropomorfi sau zoomorfa ('?).
rnocierlati clititr-un frallnie rrt cie sile;'l cenugiu, acrlprrit cu cortc.t din cretd. Inal!irnea ircestet concretii
este de 4,6 cm ('fig. .3,'2). Iartea <le s;ur; a concrefiei, uqor Lrombatd dupa subfierea ce semnaleazd gltul,
pe o pafte are 0 pt.oernirrr'n1d, ce reprezintd nasul srru botul, prin addncituri sunt redate orbitele ochiirrr, rririle ;i grLra. in ,,,:,ts' caz , ca gi in aitele, dlespre ce vom relata itr continuare, omul p|eistoric. a
aclaprlt, prin aplicajii nr:e ;en!iale, gusturilor sale estetice, o concretie naturalA, ce semdna cu partea
supet'ioar-d a unui oftt i;ltLl trnimal.
,\ cloua pi,:sii din ilct:ilsti grnpii reprezint[ rt plachetd de gresie de culoare maronie, de o forma
irntropomoll'a. ip6lJrrre :r ci este dc lL2,-5 crn, lf,{irnelL, la nivelul ,.umerilor" - 9 cm, grosimel mltximalil- f ,2 ,:rn (fi..i. 4,1). ,4,111 supra{'elele plane, cAt gi laturile pe intreg perimetru sunt glefuite la lucru.
I)osibil, ca acerstd presd rt:prezint[ o liigurinii anl"ropomorfS.

189
\'111rrr1q,/-/.--1'v4

-<i.__:-.

.-.-

r.

-l-

r--l

ilrr

,i
t,\
tl
f

lrf
fN

!1
l'
|

fl
(.1

ir: {

l':

.l

-li1
trr,j
! ,i:fl
I r'{
IA

t{l
I

{'-":i1
?'1

l-l,d
latr)

l-tN

\;,{
'u,l

clin r;resie; 2 _ figurin6 s;tiIizatd ant!.opomona


Fig. 4. Ccls-ruti; 1 _ flgu rn5 stilzatd antropomorfd
gresi0'
din marn6 ,,u ornum"'il i'tczztl',3'- d'sc alefuit din

forrnd oltfecum tliunghiulara' de aseirltir piesii rlln miilnd ]onlpactd, cle culoare alb6,.cle^o
(fig' :,2)' tnillinrea plesei este de 9'8 cm' 16lrmea
mgr:tea r-eprer4lntr,r,.1 t'igr-rrina fcrrrtnind stiiizatd
,'r'rnghiurilc)r" sLlnt u$or fotungt'e' latr'irile'mrrrimiL - 3,.51 grrn*,ni., mi.rtmd - 0,7 cm. Capeiele'
jt:1.111 Ultirnele doui piese' ca qi prima - anglcluite Pe o latutrii. in pat't,ra cle.lc,s ;unt apli':at.- 9
naturale' ciLre prtntr-o acomodare neet'opom,:jrta-z:.om.rfri, cles;crrsri mai strs, repiezint6,,crealii"
au 'OSt transf.rmatr: in ceea ce noi rrcum nLlmim
Ser!iali,, inclur;ir,';ilefuire, slt'ed'elire 9i rnciustare
piese d,:: artii tlltlililit.
r:^^ r:-, ^.o"ir. rte crr
op,resdcitnacestrep,et'olit,tr.eprt:zintdr:lplacheti-discdirrgresiedeculoarebruna-nralonte.
plane
cm, g,rtlsimea - 0'9-1,0 cm' Perimetrul 5r lelele
For"ma irreser este rotuncla, {.lionl",rul - 5,6-6,3
oricunl'
un semil'abficat pentru pandantir''
ale piesci su:rt rntens ;;lefuitr:. Pr.,sibil, cii piesa rep'ezint6
lui intr-<l manierd atit de minu,:ioas[' Astfel
utilizar,,:a 1:i r:a gIcf'uitor (lisoire) n, n...rira ntoielar:a

Arheologicti'

Se

rie norrri

-*='-' -Reuisia
:lil) _ _
din zonele IiCosiiuli (Borziirc, chirica t996) cat Ei
staliu'ea
la
arit
depir;tate
f.st
mai
aui
c;e discuri
rnai degrabi ca exoticd cleclt ca
qi clin re,perroriu poatr: fi consiclerard
mttlte
de culoal'e,maronie' ftT,ttn'utii in mai
'.,,plachetii rJrn qist
ptcsa tle d,3col'. :tteprezirLfii o
neregu'ilitio'
cvazltriunghiulard
dou6 mai mari' care avlntJ o f'rm6
bui:ati. cele recr.rpel.1"e se,:onstitue,i'n

'"'ili,,1";l';lJl;i"i:'l,lr,,

IatiseLlnesCinIreele.Penat.gini,piosaintregitaastfel(rimlnefdr:dunmareiragment)poartape
adlncitur"6 de forma (duPe una cli"n fele'le plane piersa poartd.o
glefuire
:li
rle
ci,rplire
urme
:;upra1,:te
de cilca 5 cm' Diirmetritl la
,:i calr:ule g,eonretrrc,rj unci tieimi dLnvolr.rmul unei sfere, "u clilmetrul
fo'matd' conf.l'm
ArJiincimea ei este <te l'6 cm' Este
crr.
3,8
de
este
aclftn,:itr-iri
acesler
al
supr.afa{a
ur.rrelrlrdinintL::rrol.illei,inurmaintense]orqiindt:lungatelorglefuiricirculare.La2cmdeprima
de formare ca $1 pr1<:a formi' mdrime 9i ca mod
asemlniiioare
alteiu.
urtteie
pdstrat
s,-au
aclincrturir
focului plrin frecare cirreprezinta un suport pentru cirp[tarea
m;r (fig. 5). ConsitJer. r:ii rt,:easta piese
cd in efectuarea miqcdrilor
re,irrezint.d un i'tere, .i^r,"' Porit'il'

procularii. Oric:um. plesir itste bizard 5i


e)ra antrenatd coarda arcului'
pt.,n't:u cdpritarr:^ irstfel
r:lementtrlui
,,11i:citor"
a
ci:.cul,rre
'iocului'
din Asia de SLrdarhaice, conservate in unelo zone insulare
c:ederr cLllloscut in me<tiul :onrunitatilor
cu adlncituri
pentru cipitarea focul*i a servit gi piat'a
suport
de
c'lrtate
lrn
cri
excrus.
esr.e
Irst. f,ru
cd acest procedeu
pr:rr.;ie, ciatatilL,,u.po.o mLrstoriana (cronxp ll9'75)' Posibil'
urmi'
srmiliLre ciin grrta I-a
tirnpu'iu, cu mai murt de 40 mii ani in
in,,,entat cre: c;.1tre'm inc6 fo.rte
crr: a

cirpdta focr.rr a

'osr.

Fig.

rl:;.

cosiiiufit pri:sii fragrnenta'd din

9is;t sili<;ios,

pentru dobandit focul


cu adiincituri glefuite-- suport

\.iclronul

191

/. )/r. /

Concluzlt
p'intre piesele: de artd molril6 gr de pocloabd puse,in discufie sunt mostre, care au mai fost depislrrp, discuri'
trre !;r in llte nive,le cie locurr',0 -porta,JeolnlrfferLtilte, pt:rle din din{i de rdpitori - vulpe,
C;OriAUTSl (MOLDOVA)
ChronograllgraP tY

t-dhostratNln3l)hy Arch. Grcnlngen datr:s Palae('envlronmnt

P ASA

T
E

-:::c:-ji

G
L

-13.360t80

-13.66Cr140

1.050

--------l

cosAuTsl

lll r

_-_--_____-J

1'lO

P'.).\,'IERAi.JIA

r l-

l7.r3o

1ao

T
Y

T
E

-17,230i

140

2c
N

3a

c'

17.780 a llo

5
6a
6b

-.18,260 a ::1O
-.18,430 I 1m

6d

6c

10O

100

19,120
19,440

19 070 1 1cc

l^
I

-.19,2O0r150

(.

C]

tr

cl)sAUTSl\L2

FI1ANKFURT

s.
s,

- 17 .620 r.2.1O
r $o
- 17,910
-* 18,030 r 150
-17,95O:t1@

IJ

L.

ID

- 19,410

cosAUTSl Vl-2

cosAUTSl

Vl-4

100

BFIAIIDEI..IBIJRG

PASAB
P.

l-raesaerls'C'0:

Borzia<:' chirica' Damde pa locul staliunii cos6r'lti (dupd llaesaerts'


Fi,g, 5. s:,hema strerturilor de dr:prtlnerri tardiglaciare

bkin, KoL.rlakovs;lla, 'uan der Pliht :21)0ll)'

Ret'isla,4rhcolosic-li-Selie

lle

no141

----llunctiform' piesele din concrelii

asemcn,30 SUlI prezelt,- panclal]tive, rnclusiv cele cu ol-narnent

Llrne cle adapt;Ll'e , tlesc Nlrerite arilelior clolLl in ni,,elul II de ]ocuire al acestei stafiuni. Apar' insiL, 5i
litrnre;i motil,r: itltlstLcg rrgi, precunr ar fi 'portiactl, ornamentat clt grupe distincte de incrzit q;i de
antet'ior. oas(3le cu gravurd,,abundent6", 1)anltropcrtrr tmpulatoare, llet)trll astfel cle piese cunoscute
.i,,nii',ul :Ln filcle; ,'-r,rrriirnent cir,:u.lar gruipat. r\,leSte noi tluan{e cOrnpleteaza evident repertofiul
scneral ul piescktr cle li1li'lrleolitic'ii rnobila gi de podoabii de la aceastf, staflllne
1rJiyelul 5 <le lor:uire I stafiunii (3osdr-r{i,,;a $i toate, identif icate la raceasti sta{iune esteincotporat
h. depLrner.ile cuaternaruLirri tardiv, reprezentate ile,rrizontuli de loess, nisip fin cuariitic, pietriq alu.,,joniir., argite. Str:c1ul nrri::rostratigrral'jc. et'er:tuat d: cdtre geologul Ei arheologr-rl de la Institutul de
cu ingreliriinle Naiural,: din Bn;x.:lles p. l-laesaerts. coresprlnile cu un nivel de depunere pe argila,
de sol
(sar-r
emblionar)
,,i .nt., de
f,ln q;i prielrig dezagregat, plasr,tt deaslpra unui orizon'l degradat
'isip
unei faze reci 9i aride a
f,,rsil. ceincunL,rrelLz;iii:rc:lrrl I\z cle depunen c1e la act:astd staliune. Corespunde
(fig 6)' PenOcidentala
Europa
,:limer. Acr:astii firzii r'.:r:c r:orespunrlle microg;lacialului Francfiirt din
ani BP (I{aesaerts'
rrLr arest nivel ;le locurr"c ir I'ost oblinutd data raciionLetrica GrN-2358ll18.260t2l0
acum este evident ca
l;ior-ziac, Chiricra, Drilrnblc,rr. Koulal.rovska, r,an rjer Plicirt 2003, 163-lB8). De
in
ttrma acopeililti conciutor.rtS uilet suficiente crrnser\'dfi alc r-estulrlor de culturf, uman6,'parvenite
staliunea cosdLrli a
scculrve.rprdt: alr: r-riveltrlc,r cle iocr-rire cle noi sedimente, allor factot'i naturali'
mobll[ 9i podoabd pentru Gravetianr"r]
c[evetrit c,el mlr rfirportii]lt furntzor,Js: lliese paleolirice de arta
clin suatii.rl dtnlre Nlstt'tt,'1 isa qi Dunarc'

cr,r

Btgt"tocinerte

1991t'-56-7

l)nie:itrM.,,cn.t-e, paldo,rtiquee;leJ\eolrticlueclela.RcumanieenconterteEuropden(laii
I.}tlrzj.tcl!r91:I.lJorztlc.Pll,.::li:icul9inr::zoliticLrlirrspa1iuldintreNistr.ur;iPrut'T'hraco-Dircic

l'

al'ong the Dnestr River and is tlrbutaries'


Ili.rztak i993: i ilorz;."-a1.<, sirrbsistent:e r,r'a,:iices ol Latr: piLlecllithlc GlotrPs
and London 1993)' 67-85'
l:r.m X..stenl,i 1s rill,.l1,i5 tipper ])aieol irhic-Paleo-lnchin Adaprtation fNerv-York
pluristratigraficf, gtavetiana
sta!iLrnea
clin
poclo;Lbi
gi
rle
[]iur.ziirc. Otr,: l9!)b; I. lJ.rz.iac. Irl. Otte, I,ier,e c1e a1tI paleoliticd
i996)' 49-51'
(Tirgoviite
1996
Tirgoviqte
r-l.s5r.rti (Ni ,rr'l l,tijlicrcit f.{i-rldovir) Srrnpoz,ronui do A:heologie'
de
la valie du Dniestr
superieure
pieses,
paleoliticlue
du
nrarne
de
l;ior.zr,rc, chirica lt)g6r I rlo.ziac. Ll,V. Chirica.
L)r'ehistoare ir:.ttl'opeene

()

1996, 293-"10,2'

urtd paleoliticd 9i de.podoabd de la -staiir-rner'


[],rzi.rc. ()tte, N.rret 1998: t. Borzi;rc., M. Otte. l?. Noiret' Piesr: de
2' 1998' 5-28'
r.i''eluri d,: l,rcuire (loshLrti rJin zona Nistruliri N{i.1lc,ciu. Revista arheologicd
(Ll

trle.litici

rn&r rnultr:

[}r.Lrdiul9rE7:Nl'Brurjttt'L,t:tr.ltvltillt:dt:l.clsetatrboisd.:rennedarrslePai6clLitiquesuperieuredelazoneduPiu:
(lali 1987)' 73-86'
cle 1l i{oumanle en crlntexte Europ6ene
\{oyen. t,e ltalolttitltti:

lc N6olithique

F Damvan der Plicht 2003: P' Haesaert's' I' Borziak' V Chirica'


chlli,:t. i)atntrlcrn, Ktrulakovska,
PleniglaLate
-the
and
east C)arp'atiln loess record: a relerr:nce tbr the middle
blon, l-. Kor"rlakor'sl"a' i'tn der Piir:ht'

f{aesiLerts, Eiorzi .ik,

cial lStratigr rrph'y in C:ntr'li Ettrope(]uaternaitr:

1'1

r'3t' 2003' 163-1EE

[(rrr,:rlenkir lgg6rs.Koval,:rrl l.Ther-Lppr:rl)aleoliticlndustriesintheDnesterzoneof

Moldova'PrehiistoireEuropeennt:

9. l!)g(i. 23:\ 261


.,,,^Ltrc. p,rt-ir,
ul lui IlrrziLuc: oli ane;<f, la pul,:oinlblntatici //rvwrv-Out'net'md/portac/'
vartrc 2001: A,
()rxpsrrue H0aOii HrHoroc.noiinoir n&neoJ,'ltlr'iltlech:ol-{ croflllKtt Kocoyui'l
b,0plu:ax.
A.
lioprrrnx l!)g-5: 1,1

Ha

cpe'lHerr flHe-

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.rrirruLrl3cKo,l c.rorr{r.lF,e li:c:ry,uu
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t
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Boprurx, Koeargl$i,l t9,)2: ,t.,'\. Iiop-]ttlrx, C.l',l. N.osa;rerrt:o.
(Ktruttltlee 1992)' 3-27'
!.Hec'r-pe. Fi cti: l\l'llV rr 986 ro.lri
tlro6pa:llTeJlt'HoFo rlcKycc,lBa (Mocrea 1975).
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