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Soberano, Noel Patrick L.

Petrology Lecture

Saturdays, 7:00-10:00 am

Homework 1: Forms of Igneous Bodies
Plutonic (Intrusive) Igneous Rocks
I.
Hypabyssal Intrusions. Hypabyssal intrusions are igneous bodies that form at
shallow depths beneath the earth’s crust.
1. Dikes. These are discordant igneous bodies that measure less than 20 m in width.
Discordant means that the body does not agree with the strata that it intrudes.
2. Sills. These are concordant igneous bodies that are normally 10-30 m thick.
Concordant means that the body agrees or is in parallelism with the surrounding
strata.
a. Laccoliths. Laccoliths are sills that exhibit a dome shape. It is sometimes
described as a blister-shaped structure.
i. Bysmaliths. Bysmaliths are laccoliths that have been faulted.
3. Phacoliths. These are intrusions having the shape of a lens.
II.
Plutons. Plutons are larger intrusive igneous bodies that form deeper in the crust
compared to hypabbysal intrusions.
1. Lopoliths. These igneous bodies have the shape of a funnel. It is a concordant body
that is concaved upward. The feeder dike that is connected to this curved portion
gives it a funnel like figure.
2. Batholiths. These are the largest of the igneous bodies covering areas greater than
100 km2.
3. Stocks. These are smaller igneous bodies than batholiths. Stocks cover areas lesser
than 100 km2.
Volcanic (Extrusive) Igneous Rocks
I. Explosive Eruptions
1. Pyroclastic materials. These are the particles produced when a volcano erupts
violently.(the numerical figures below are the measure of diameter)
a. Ash or Dust. These are very fine glassy fragments that are less than 2 mm.
b. Lapilli. These are larger pyroclasts that range in size from 2-64 mm.
c. Blocks. Particles larger than 64 mm that are made from hardened lava when
ejected
d. Bombs. It has the same size as that of blocks but is incandescent when
ejected.
II. Non Explosive Eruptions
1. Pillow lavas. These are lava flows produced by eruptions under water.
2. Lava dome or Volcanic dome. If the viscosity is high, but the gas content is low, then
the lava will pile up to produce this structure.

Reference: http://www.tulane.edu/~sanelson/eens212/intro&textures.ht m
Fundamentals of Geomorphology- Richard John Hugget 3rd ed.