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International Journal of Civil, Structural

,
Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering
Research and Development (IJCSEIERD)
ISSN(P): 2249-6866; ISSN(E): 2249-7978
Vol. 6, Issue 6, Dec 2016, 13-26
© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH CONCERNS OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY
BHUPINDERKAUR & CHANCHAL
Department of Fabric and Apparel Science, Institute of Home Economics, Delhi University, India
ABSTRACT
In India, the Industrial revolution was triggered by the textile industry. It occupies an important place of pride
in the national economy. The textile industry provides immense scope for employment. It is the single largest industry in
the country. It meets the needs of the increasing population for one of the basic necessities of life i.e. clothing. But at the
same time it has environmental and health concerns.
KEYWORDS : Textile Industry, National Economy, Increasing Population

Received: Oct 17, 2016; Accepted: Oct 24, 2016; Published: Nov 03, 2016; Paper Id.: IJCSEIERDDEC20162

INTRODUCTION

carried in the ultimate product. Controlling pollution processis as much important as creating a product free
fromtoxiceffect (Wagle, 2001). Moussa (n.d) reported that the textile industry causes various pollution
problems as depicted in Figure 1. These are –

Noise Pollution

Air Pollution

Solid Waste Pollution

Water Pollution

Original Article

The eco-problems in textile industry get created during some manufacturing processes, while some get

Figure 1: Textile Industry Causes Various Pollution Problems

Source: Moussa (n.d)

Noise Pollution
Kharat et al., (2000) stated that a number of processes in textile industry, especially spinning and weaving

produce noise. Das (n.d) reported that high spindle speeds reached on new machines (ring spindles up to 20000
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14

Bhupinderkaur & Chanchal

rpm, rotor up to 110000 rpm) in the spinning mills can generally be assumed to generate a great deal of noise. Noise levels
of 70 to 100 dB are commonly recorded in workrooms. Values of noise level in textile industry are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Noise Level in Textile Industry (Texturising, Spinning and Weaving)
Process
Texturing Plant
Filament Take-Up Section
Texturising Section
Compressor House
Spinning
Ring Spinning
Schubert SalzerSpincomet Rotor Spinning
(Individual)
SchlafhorstAutocoro Rotor Spinning (Individual)
Rieter M2/1 Rotor Spinning (Individual)
20 Open End Rotor Spinning I.E 3840 Rotors In
Operartions
Two For One Twister
Weaving
Source: (Das, n.d)

Noise Level (Db)
93.20
94.80
99.50
80
84
85
86
100
100-110
100-120

The studies had shown that a one-minute exposure to a sound level over 100dB could cause permanent hearing
loss. It was also reported that a large number of textile workers, especially weavers suffered from occupational hearing loss
(ITUT, 2003). A study was conducted on 2,652 workers in the textile industry in Egypt to find out the relationship between
exposure to noise and induced hearing loss. Analysis of the results showed neurological and cardiovascular changes among
the workers examined in the study (ILO, 1984).

Air Pollution
Kharat et al., (2000) reported that the air emissions from textile processesfall into general categories, namelyoil

and acidmists, solventvapours, odours, dust and lint (Table 2) (Kharat et al., 2000).
Table 2: Types of Air Pollutants
Pollutants

1.Oil and acid mists

2. Solvent vapours
3. Odours

4. Dust and fly

Sources
Oil mists are produced when textile materials containing oils, plasticisers
and other materials that can volatilise or be thermally degraded into
volatile substances are subjected to heat.
The most common source of oil mist in textile industry is the tenter
frame. Because of higher operating temperatures, compounds in tenter
exhaust are partially oxidised and therefore, they are more odourous and
corrosive.
Acid mists are also produced during the carbonizing of fabric and during
spray dyeing.
Organic solvent vapours are released during and after all solvent
processing operations.
Odours are often associated with oil mists or solvent vapours.
Resin finishing also produces odours, mainly of formaldehyde.
Other sources of odour are sulphur-dyeing cotton and cotton blends.
Dust and fly are produced during manufacturing of yarns and weaving of
fabrics. The dust level varies with type of operation, fibers used and type
of dust removal system.
The average concentration of dust in a textile industry is presented in
Table 3(Kharat et al., 2000).

Source: (Kharat et al., 2000)
Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Environmental and Health Concerns of the Textile Industry

15

Table 3: Average Concentration of Dust in a Textile Industry
Dust Concentration at
Work (Mg/M3)
Opening and Mixing
1.5
Carding
1.7
Drawing
0.8
Spinning
0.3
Winding and Twisting
0.3
Weaving
1.0
Knitting
0.2 to 1.2
Source: (Kharat et al., 2000)
Process

Chattopadhyay et al., (1999) had also found the typical symptoms of byssinosis such as chest tightness and
difficulty in breathing among Jute mill workers. Perenich, (1996) conducted an epidemiological study in three textile mills
in Ahmedabad. The finding showed that the prevalence of byssinosis in the blow sections of the three textile mills ranged
from 18.75 to 35.29%. In the card sections, the prevalence of byssionosis ranged from 26.92 to 50.00%. Also, it was found
that cotton dust concentrations (dust less fly) were high in the blow and card sections of the mills.
Salhotra (1998) stated that the agent believed to cause the disease was not actually cotton but microscopic foreign
matter in the cotton that was released, when bales were processed in the mills. However, there was evidence now to show
that the presence of Zirconium in the cotton plant was also partly responsible for the disease. Sahachter (1998) reported
that the prevalence as well as the pattern of lung disease was seen in textile workers in United Kingdom and the United
States.
Mishra et al., (2004) identified the prevalence of chronic bronchitis among cotton textile workers. In general, the
higher age had been established as a risk factor for chronic bronchitis. In a study from UK, cotton textile workers with age
over 45 years were more likely to suffer from chronic bronchitis. The problem became grave in the presence of other
conditions, like smoking, other indoor and outdoor pollution and incriminate worksites which had an irritant effect on the
lung mucosa. Smoking was also found to be a significant risk factor. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was also found
among smokers. Lal (1998) reported that lung and heart diseases, brain diseases, nausea, burning of eyes, suffocation, etc
could be caused due to the presence of air pollutants.

Solid Waste Pollution
Moussa (n.d.) reported that solid wastes generated from the textile industry are non-hazardous. These included

scraps of fabric and yarn, fabric and packaging waste. Various types of solid waste generated in textile industry is given in
Table 4(Moussa, n.d).
Table 4: Sources and Types of Solid Waste in Textile Manufacturing
Source

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Type of Solid Waste

Mechanical Operations of Cotton and
Synthetics:
• Yarn preparation
• Knitting
• Weaving

Fibers and yarns
Fibers and yarns
Fibers, yarns and cloth scraps

Dyeing and Finishing of Woven Fabrics:
• Sizing, desizing, mercerizing, beaching,
washing and chemical finishing

Cloth scraps
Flock
Dye containers
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• Mechanical finishing
• Dyeing and/or printing
• Dyeing and/or printing (applied finish)
Dyeing and Finishing of Knitted Fabrics
Dyeing and Finishing of Carpets:
• Tufting
• Selvage trim.
• Fluff and shear
• Dyeing, printing and finishing
Dyeing and Finishing of Yarn and Stock
Wool fabrication
• Wool scouring
• Wool fabric dyeing and finishing
Packaging
Workshops
Domestic
Wastewater treatment

Chemical containers
Clothe scraps, dye and chemical
containers
Yarns and sweepings
Selvage
Flock
Dye and chemical containers
Yarns, dye and chemical containers
Dirt, wool, vegetable matter, waxes
Flocks, seams, fabric, fibers, dye
and chemical containers
Paper, cartons, plastic sheets, rope
Scrap metal, oily rags
Paper, sheets, general domestic
wastes
Fiber, wasted sludge and retained
sludge

Source : (Moussa, n.d)

Water Pollution
Water pollution by the textile mills is mainly attributable to the various waste streams coming out of the wet

processing operations like desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercersing, dyeing and printing (Bhatt et al., 1981). Input-output
structure of textile wet processing industry could be represented as Figure 2 (Lal, 2000).
Figure 2: Input-Output Structure of Textile Wet Processing Industry

Source: (Lal, 2000)
Lal (2000) reported that wet processing of textile is a polluting activity. Of the various manufacturing activities in
textiles, the wet processing of textile is responsible for maximum pollution. About 70% of pollution in textile industry
comes from textile wet processing activity. Indian textile industry consumes around 4.5 million tones of natural and
man-made fibers and filament yarns, and produces about 39,000 million square meters of fabric annually and around 90%
Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Environmental and Health Concerns of the Textile Industry

17

of it is processed in one form or the other. On this basis, the consumption of the fresh water and waste generated thereof,
could be assumed as gigantic figures. Dyes and chemicals are the integral part of textile industry. Right from cultivation
and manufacture of fibers, spinning, weaving, processing, garmenting and finishing of textiles, more than 14,000 dyes and
chemicals are used and a significant quantity of these dyes and chemicals go in the solid, liquid and air wastes, resulting in
pollution of air, land and surface water. The various pollutants generated in textile wet processing are given in Table 5
(Lal, 2000).Upadhyde et al., (1999) discussed that the textile wet processing effluents when discharged into the receiving
body of water without adequate treatment can cause irreversible changes. The effluent discharged will increase the
temperature of the receiving body, thereby, reducing the solubility of oxygen in the water. High alkalinity of the effluent
leads to the increase in pH of the receiving stream. If the pH value exceeds 9 or falls below 5, it will have adverse effect on
aquatic biota. Asolekar et al., (2000) emphasised that the alkalinity and toxic substances, like sulphides and chromium
affected aquatic life. Streams containing 25 PPM sodium hydroxide was reported deadly for fish.
Table 5: Various Pollutants Generated in Textile Wet Processing
Type of Pollutants
1. Phenols, Ethyleneoxides,
phosphates

Source
Alkylated phenol ethoxylates,
alkyl phenol ethylene oxide,
phosphate and phosphonic based
dispersing agents in scouring and
dyeing.

Nature
Hard to treat,
toxic/carcinogenic

2. Non-biodegradable organic
materials, solvents and
surfactants.

Preparations, dyeing, printing,
machine cleaning.

Hard to treat, toxic.

3. Dispersible wastes

Printing pastes from printing,
squeeze washing, wastes from
foam processing, finishing,
coating, mercerizing, grease
removal.

Dispersible hard to treat.

4. High volume wastes

Wastewater from scouring,
mercerizing, bleaching, washing,
dyeing, machine cleaning.

Containing dyes, chemicals,
salts.

5. Chlorinated solvents, chlorine
based carriers, bleaching agents.

Chlorination of wool, dyeing,
Hypochlorite bleaching, stains
removers

Ozone depleting, adverse
effect to fish fertility.

Desizing, scouring and grease
removal.

Toxic and high BOD (upto
85%).

Dyeing, printing, finishing,
reducing agents, oxidizing agents.

Toxic/carcinogenic

Printing and finishing.

Toxic.

6. Sizes like starch CMC,
modified starches, ethers, esters,
acrylates, gums, antistatic agents,
oils, solvents, biocides, PCP,
defoamers, emulsifiers,
dispersing agents and surfactants,
softeners, fibers, lints and wastes.
7. Sodium sulphide, urea,
formaledhyde, salts, metals,
acids, alkalis, carcinogenic
amines.
8. Air pollutants like solvents and
chemicals vapours, kerosene
vapours exhaust gases from
drying and curing.
Source: (Lal, 2000)
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ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH IMPACTS BY TEXTILE CHEMICAL PROCESSING
Upadhyde et al., (1999) described that the soluble colours and dyes present in the wastewater persisted in the
stream and interfered with penetration of sunlight for photosynthesis. The colloidal matter in the wastewater increased the
turbidity. The oily material in the effluent produced an unsightly appearance. Oily scum on the surface of the water
interfered with the mechanism of oxygen transfer at the air-water interface.
Ramana et al., (1986) reported that if the textile process effluents were let out in to the public sewer systems, it
caused a number of effects both on the sewer pipes as well as on the sewerage treatment plants. The high levels of pH,
alkalinity and TDS had a tendency to incrust the sewer pipes. The sulphur dyes and other sulphur compounds present in the
waste may gradually lead to corrosion.
Sekar (2001) discussed that high electrolyte concentrations in the effluents, made a destructive attack on concrete
pipes. If sodium sulphate is used as an electrolyte, then due to the formation of alumino-sulphato complexes, which swell
and cracks concretes with considerable alumina content.
Caustic alkalies from kiers or free chlorine from bleaching sections, the harmful pollutants, if present in
appreciable amount, not only make the receiving water unfit for use, but will also destroy the vegetation and crops where
such water is discharged (Bhatt et al., 1981).
An investigation of several hundred commercial textile samples revealed that nearly 10 percent were mutagenic in
the Ames test. Another study conducted on 45 combined effluents from textile finishing plants showed that 27 percent of
the wastewater samples were mutagenic in the Ames test (McCarthy, 1997).
Verma (1999) discussed that the chemicals used in the textile industry are responsible for severe health problems.
In the interaction between man and chemicals, the routes of entry of chemicals into human system can play an important
role. The common routes of entry encountered in the textile industry are by absorption through skin or inhalation or
ingestion. Absorption means the entry of chemicals into the blood stream. The skin route for absorption is important
because certain chemicals, like Aniline can produce serious health problems. By inhalation route, the absorption occurs
through lungs.
Wernli et al., (2006) concluded that the acids, bases, and caustics category included such chemicals as acetic acid,
sulfuric acid, and ammonium hydroxide, which would most likely be used in scouring, bleaching, and dyeing of raw
materials, yarn, and fabric. The main route of exposure would be either skin contamination or inhalation. Acids might play
a role in altering the pH of the esophagus and stomach, resulting in gastroesophageal reflux disease, which is a risk factor
for esophageal cancer. Bases and caustics are corrosive, which might alter the epithelial cells of the esophagus or lead to
corrosive esophagitis.
The main alkalis used in the textile industry include ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium and
potassium hydroxide and carbonates, peroxides and silicates, and tri-sodium phosphate. The alkalis, whether in solid form
or in concentrated liquid solution, are more destructive to tissue than most acids. The free caustic dusts, mists and sprays
may cause irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. The combined effects of exposure to ammonia and sulphuric acid on
the respiratory tract among 80 workers had been reported. In this sample, 24% were observed to have mild and 28% had
moderate lung function impairment (ILO, 1984).

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Environmental and Health Concerns of the Textile Industry

19

Viswanath (2001) reviewed that textiles/garments have carcinogenic/dermatological and allergic effects on the
wearer. The concern is because textiles are in contact with human skin for 24 hours of the day and children are more
sensitive and likely to even chew them. Textiles are termed as ‘second skin’ in Germany. There have been spates of articles
in German popular press talking about ‘poisons in the wardrobe’ and highlighting a few cases of people suffering from
problems related to the harmful residues.
Chakraborty et al., (2001) tested eighty samples and analysed on High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography
(HPTLC). The banned amines were identified in some samples. Out of eighty samples, 15 samples had shown the presence
of banned azocolourants. Out of fifteen samples (showing presence of banned azocolourants), 13 samples were found out
of the permissible limits. Twenty-five dye samples (including Disperse, Base, Acid& Reactive dyes) were collected from
local market without brand names. Out of which, four had shown the presence of banned amines.
Harmful Dyes and Chemicals
The red listed dyes and chemicals, whose presence on a textile product is being considered as dangerous, could be
divided into following groups:

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) used as preservative gums, sizing agents, fungicides, rot-proofing agent etc.

Heavy metal present in dyes, antiseptics, fungicides, dyeing assistants, dye-after treatment etc.

Toxic pesticides to prevent pest attack during cultivation of wool and cotton.

Formaldehyde based compounds – resin finishing, dye after treatment, binders for pigment printing etc.

Azo dyes – those which release any of the listed carcinogenic amines during reductive cleavage.

Halogen carriers used in the dyeing of disperse dyes on polyesters.

Chlorine bleaching (Nishkam, 2000).
PCP is toxic and in humans, its bio-accumulation takes place (NITRA, 1996). It causes acute poisoning and is

marked by weakness, respiratory problems, increase in blood pressure, urinary output change. Also, it causes dermatitis,
convulsion and collapse. Chronic exposure can cause liver and kidney injury (Bandyopadhyay et al., 1999).
Achwal (1996) reported that 48 years old lady could not speak and her hair started falling. On her detailed
examination, residues of toxic chemicals were found on her body (Formaldehyde lindane-pesticide and pentachlorophenol
preservative) that were used in sizing / finishing. Other case had been reported that a lady felt giddy, doctor had found
lindane and PCP not only in her blood and urine, but also in the brain. Pitchai (2001) reported that accumulation of heavy
metals in body tissues and binding to cellular enzymes disrupted the functioning of cells resulting into abnormal growth of
cells leading to tumors or cancer. The possible health hazard of these heavy metals, when they are accumulated in human
body is depicted in Table 6 (Pitchai, 2001).
Table 6: Health Hazards of Heavy Metals
Heavy Metal
Chromium
Arsenic
Cadmium
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Health Hazard
It is carcinogenic and toxic to aquatic organisms (Shenai, 2002).
Causes disorders in blood producing organs and nervous systems
Cadmium poisoning leads to vomiting, diarrheoa and prostration.
It may also play role in cardiovascular disease.
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Table 6: Contd.,
Over consumption of cobalt shows symptoms of depressed
Cobalt
weight and appetite. Cobalt toxicity also induces heart failure.
Excess intake of copper causes its accumulation in liver and
brain. Symptoms are nervous disorders, difficulty in swallowing
Copper
and stiff joints. If not treated at early stage, the effect will be very
bad within a few years.
Lead poisoning includes abdominal pain and anaemia. It also
Lead
results in defective hemoglobin synthesis.
Body’s ability to eliminate mercury is limited and it can pass the
Mercury
blood-brain barrier and induce nervous disorders. Symptoms are
irritability, dizziness and depression.
Nickel
Causes disorder of various body organs.
Prolonged consumption leads to impaired growth, anaemia and
Zinc
anorexia and even death with high enough intakes.
Source: (Pitchai, 2001)
Smith et al., (1994) reported that formaldehyde used in chemical processing can cause eye irritation, dry and sore
throat, runny nose, cough, sinus irritation sinus infection, headaches, fatigue, depression, difficulty in sleeping, rashes,
bloody nose, nausea, diarrhea, chest pain and abdominal pain etc. Gottfried Frank, from Wehr in Baden, worked for 20
years in textile warehouse in folding readymade shirts, blouses and bed sheets. The place was full of formaldehyde smell,
which caused irritation in nose, eyes, mucous membrane and breathing problems. He was analysed to be psychic and made
to retire early (Achwal, 1996).
Gopalakrishnan et al., (n.d) reported that 90% of all occupational allergic contact dermatitis was found on the
back of the hands and the fore arms of the workers (shown in Figure 3). This makes clear that chemicals used in
industries and work areas affect most of the workers.
Figure 3: Percentage of Exposure to Human Body

Source: (Gopalakrishnan et al., n.d)
However, dermatologists had reported skin reactions that were thought to be caused by reactive dyes and disperse
dyes (Christie, 2007).Dawes et al., (2004) identified a 43 years-old woman having dermatitis under her breasts, across her
back and around waistIt occurred after wearing blue dress having blue color lining. It was due to the presence of disperse
blue 106 in the lining.

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Environmental and Health Concerns of the Textile Industry

21

Prithiviraj (n.d.) conducted the study in Tirupur showing that about 20 percent of dyeing and bleaching industry
workers reported having skin diseases and problems such as hair loss, in addition to body pain, frequent fever, cold and
headache. Workers in dyeing pond bleaching units reported as suffering from severe headache when dyeing black fabric.
They also believed they had more frequent cold and less sense of smell since they began working with chemicals. Workers
complained that while dyeing dark fabrics, they felt very tired. Young workers interviewed were very concerned about hair
loss (from head and body).
Mastrangelo et al., (2002) conducted epidemiological study it was found that there was an increased risk of
bladder cancer in dyers, which was generally attributed to textile dye exposure. The environmental and health impacts in
the different textile processes are summarised in (Table 7, 8 & 9) (EEAA, n.d).
Table 7: Summary of Health and Environmental Impacts in Spinning Industry
Process

Chemicals Used

Impact of Gaseous Emissions
Cotton Spinning
Byssinosis
(brown
lung)
disease, risk of chronic
bronchitis
Wool Spinning
VOCs (solvents) may cause
bloating, Diarrhoea. Irritant to
eyes and skin. Cationic
detergent is more toxic

Impact of Effluents

Spinning

Cotton
dust
(soil,
particulates,
bacteria,
fungi, pesticides

Scouring

Detergents,
NaSO4,
soaps, alkalis, H2SO4
(for grease recovery)

Carbonizing

H2SO4, Na2CO3
(for neutralization)

Acid fumes cause irritation of
the eyes, nose and throat

Occasional acid bath
dumps, stains the skin
brown to yellow.

Spinning

Noise (causes hearing
problems)

Particulates

_______

Impact of
Solid Wastes

_____

_____

High BOD, high pH
disturbance of aquatic
life.
Not
readily
degradable, COD

Sludge
containing
toxic
substances
Charred
carbon
residue,
which affects
respiratory
system
_______

Table 8: Summary of Health and Environmental Impacts in Fabric Formation Industry
Process

Sizing

Weaving
Knitting

Impact of
Solid Wastes

Chemicals Used

Impact of Gaseous Emissions

Impact of Effluents

Natural starch, polyvinyl
alcohol, carboxymethyl
cellulose, oils,
waxes, adhesives Urea, di
ethylene glycol, etc.
Noise causes hearing
disabling, particulates
Particulates, noise, but
less than weaving, not
causing much problems
in hearing

VOCs, methanol from PVA, is
toxic at high levels, causing
central nervous system damage
and blindness Highly flammable,
forms air pollutants
Particulates cause respiration and
hearing problems

Washing residues cause
high BOD and COD,
metals
(from
size
additives)
causing
disturbance of aquatic life

_______

_______

_______

_______

_______

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Particulates affect health

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Table 9: Summary of Health and Environmental Impacts in Finishing Industry
Process
Singeing

Desizing

Impact of Gaseous
Emissions

Chemicals Used
Small
amounts
of
exhaust
gases,
negligible impact
Enzymes or H2SO4 for
starch, detergents and
alkali for PVA and
CMC

Scouring

NaOH,
Na2CO3,
surfactants, chlorinated
solvents

Bleaching

-Hypochlorite
Hydrogen -peroxide
-Acetic acid

Mercerization

NaOH, surfactants, acid,
liquid ammonium

Dyeing

Printing

-

- Dyestuffs
- Auxiliaries
- Reductants
- Oxidants
- Dye dust is a main
source of pollution for
breathing or skin

-Dyes (acids or alkalis),
pigments,
kerosene,
binders, other additives
- Ammonia - Xylenes

Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

_____
May cause bloating
and
Diarrhoea.
Irritant to eyes and
skin.
Non-ionic
detergents
may
cause bloating and
Diarrhoea, Irritant to
eyes and skin.
Chlorine
gas
released,
causing
severe irritation of
respiratory tract and
eyes tract and eyes
Toxic gases
_____
Ammonia
is
irritating to the skin,
eyes nose, throat,
and
upper
respiratory system.
Basic
dye
is
generally toxic (e.g.
crystal violet)
Potassium
dichromate
can
cause dermatitis and
ulceration, it is
carcinogenic
- Exposure to dye
dust
through
breathing or skin
can result asthma,
eczema, and severe
allergic reactions.
Formaldehyde
causes
intense
irritation of eyes and
nose,
and
headaches. It is
carcinogenic
- Kerosene causes
nausea,
vomiting
coughing, leading to
respiratory paralysis
- Ammonia vapour
is severe irritant to
eyes,
causes
vomiting,
and
diarrhoea, sweating

Impact of
Solid
Wastes

Impact of Effluents
_____

_____

High BOD or COD, high
temperature,
size
impurities,
lubricants, metals.

Residues
of solvents

High BOD and temperature, very
high PH, fats, waxes, size residues,
causing disturbance of aquatic life

_____

Low to moderate BOD, high pH and
temperature

_____

Very high pH and dissolved solids,
some BOD

_____

- Heavy metals e.g. (Cu,Cr)
- Carcinogenic amines
- Toxic compounds, e.g. carriers
- H2S
- Corrosion,
- Irritant
- For wool dye, high BOD, possibly
toxic, and pH low

Chemical
residues
can cause
allergic
reactions to
skin
or
respiratory
system.

- Heavy metals (toxic)
- Carcinogenic
- Irritants
- Fire hazard
- High BOD& COD depending on
type of thickener
- Disturbance of aquatic life, eg.
urea and phosphate

Chemical
residues
can
be
irritant and
toxic.

NAAS Rating: 3.01

Environmental and Health Concerns of the Textile Industry

Process

Chemicals Used

Chemical
finishing:
- Anticrease
Flame
proofing
- Softening

- CH2O
- Phosphorus
- Softeners
- Fluorinated chemicals
- Catalyst
- Formaldehyde
- Ammonia

Waterproofing

- Paraffin
- Aluminum salts
- Zircon salts
- Silicone
- Fluorocarbon resins

Antistatic
Finishing

Anti-felt finish
(for wool)
Moth
and
beetle
protection
(for wool)

Weighting

Hydrophilising

Delustering

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Surfacesubstances

active

- Chlorine
- Polyamide
- Epich chlorohydrin
resin
Chlorinated
sulphonamide
derivatives
- Biphenyl ether
- Urea derivatives
- Pyrethroids
- Stannic chloride
- Sodium phosphate
- Water glass
- Polyamide
- Polyacrylic
- Silicon
- Phenol
- Turpentine
- Pine oil
- Glauber salt
- Barium chloride
-Resins
containing
formaldehyde
- Alkali sulphide

23

Impact of Gaseous
Emissions
and coughing. High
concentration
can
cause
respiratory
arrest.
Intense irritation of
eyes and nose and
headaches.
Carcinogenic.
Causing vomiting,
and coughing. High
concentration
can
cause
respiratory
arrest.
- Toluene may be
used in solvent
coating operations
can
cause,
headaches,
confusion weakness,
and memory loss,
and affects function
of kidney and liver ,
formation of ozone
which
causes
asthma

Impact of Effluents

Impact of
Solid
Wastes

- BOD and COD
- Carcinogenic
- Skin allergies
- Heavy metal toxicity

Chemical
residues
can
be
hazardous
and toxic

Fluorocarbon resins may cause
disposal problems BOD, COD

Chemical
residues
may
contain
hazardous
chemicals.

BOD, COD, additive residues

Resin
residues
may
be
skin
allergy

Large quantities of effluent with
COD

_____

Pyrethroids
may
cause neuro toxic
effects

COD

Chemical
residues
may
be
hazardous

VOCs, combustion
exhausts have effect
on skin

Large quantities of effluent with
COD

VOCs, possibly skin
allergies

Large quantities of effluent with
COD

Possibly
allergies

skin

Chlorine vapour is
hazardous, and can
cause
respiration
problems

- Allergy inducing
- In some cases
carcinogenic
substances

COD, heavy metals

Chemical
residues
may
be
hazardous
Chemical
residues
may
be
hazardous
Chemical
residues
may
be
hazardous

editor@tjprc.org

24

Bhupinderkaur & Chanchal

Process

Abrasion
Resistant
finish

VOCs,
causing
irritation
of
respiratory system.
Skin allergies

- Silica gel
- Plastic resins
-Urea formaldehyde
Melamine
formaldehyde

Sanforizing

Impact of Effluents

Impact of
Solid
Wastes

Large quantities of effluent with
COD, toxicity

Chemical
residues
may
be
hazardous

- Wastewater, BOD
- Toxicity,

Resin
residues
may
be
carcinogen
ic

Impact of Gaseous
Emissions

Chemicals Used

- Skin allergies
Carcinogenic
properties

Source:http://www.eeaa.gov.eg/ippg/EPAP-Manuals/EPAP
Manuals/Sector%20Manuals%20I%20Inspection/Final%20textile/Final%20Textile%20Eng/Chapter%203.RTF

CONCLUSIONS
In the view of above, it can be ascertained that textile processing does have the capacity to pollute the
environment and causes harmful impacts to the human life. Thus, there is a need to use the process technologies that are
energy efficient, which produces less waste, require fewer resources such as chemicals, water and lastly they should be
easy to handle.
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Impact Factor (JCC): 6.3724

NAAS Rating: 3.01