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Soil Dynamics

11/26/2015

‫دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ‬
Retaining Walls

Hasan Ghasemzadeh

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

1

15/2/1390

‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﺮاﺑﯽ‬

١٣٨۶ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﮎ ﻏﺮب‬
Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

4

‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﺮاﺑﯽ‬

١٣٨۵ ‫ﭘﺎرﮎ ارم‬

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

2

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ ﺧﺮاﺑﯽ‬

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‫اﻧﻮاع دﻳﻮارﺣﺎﻳﻞ‬

‫آرﻣﺎﺗﻮر‬

١٣٨۵ ‫ ﺗﻬﺮان‬٢٢ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‬
‫ﮔﺎﺑﻴﻮن‬
15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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1

Soil Dynamics

11/26/2015

‫دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻜﻮن‬

‫اﻧﻮاع دﻳﻮارﺣﺎﻳﻞ‬

‫دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻜﻮن‬
 v  h

h

 h

 h  K 0 v

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

‫ﺿﺮﻳﺐ ﻓﺸﺎر ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﺧﺎك در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻜﻮن‬

‫اﻧﻮاع ﺷﻜﺴﺖ در دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ‬
Failure of Retaining Walls

‫ ﮔﺴﻴﺨﺘﮕﻲ ﺧﻮد دﻳﻮار‬-

Collapse of side walls

Foundation failure

Heave due to water pressures

Settlement due to groundwater lowering

Seepage carrying fines into base of excavation
‫آب‬

(‫ دوران‬-‫ ﮔﺴﻴﺨﺘﮕﻲ ﭘﻲ دﻳﻮار )ﻟﻐﺰش‬‫ ﮔﺴﻴﺨﺘﮕﻲ ﺑﺮ اﺛﺮ ﻓﺸﺎر آب‬-

K0 

‫ﺧﺎك اﻻﺳﺘﻴﻚ‬

1 

K 0  1  sin(  )

Jaky 1948

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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‫ﺧﺎك داﻧﻪ اي ﻣﺘﺮاﻛﻢ‬
De wet

‫ ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﻳﻲ داﻧﻪ ﻫﺎي رﻳﺰ ﺑﺮ اﺛﺮ ﻧﺸﺖ‬-

‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻓﺸﺎرﻫﺎي اﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﻜﻲ و دﻳﻨﺎﻣﻴﻜﻲ‬

‫ﺧﺎك داﻧﻪ اي ﻏﻴﺮﻣﺘﺮاﻛﻢ‬

K 0  K 0  5.5( d /  d (min)  1)

‫ ﻧﺸﺴﺖ ﺑﺮ اﺛﺮ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ آوردن آب‬-

seidek

K 0  0.95  sin(  )

15/2/1390

10

K 0  K 0 Roc

15/2/1390

Brooker & Ireland 1965‫رس ﻋﺎدي ﺗﺤﻜﻴﻢ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬

‫رس اﺿﺎﻓﻪ ﺗﺤﻜﻴﻢ ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬
Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Wroth&Houlsby 1985

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Cantilever Walls ‫دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ ﻃﺮه اي‬

‫روﺷﻬﺎﯼ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﻓﺸﺎرهﺎﯼ دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ‬

‫ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﻣﺘﺮاﻛﻢ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻜﻮن‬: ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬
1773 ‫ ﻛﻮﻟﻤﺐ‬-1

  40
 d  17.3 kN/m 3
 d (min)  15.5 kN/m3

1857 ‫ راﻧﻜﻴﻦ‬-2
3m

1941 ‫ ﺗﺮزاﻗﻲ‬-3

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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2

Soil Dynamics

11/26/2015

‫دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻜﻮن‬

‫دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ‬

‫ ﻣﺎﺳﻪ ﻣﺘﺮاﻛﻢ در ﺣﺎﻟﺖ ﺳﻜﻮن‬: ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬

‫ﺧﺎك ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺧﺎك‬

3m

 h

  40
 d  17.3 kN/m 3
 d (min)  15.5 kN/m3

 h
Excavation

P0
‫ﺧﺎك داﻧﻪ اي ﻣﺘﺮاﻛﻢ‬
K 0  1  sin(  )   5.5( d /  d (min)  1)  0.991
h  0   v  0 *17.3  0
  h  k0 v  0
h  3   v  3 *17.3  51.9   h  k0 v  .991* 51.9  51.43

P0  (1 / 2)(51.43)(3)  77.15 kN/m

‫ﻣﺤﺮك‬

Active

‫ﺧﺎﻛﺒﺮداري‬

 v

 h  K 0 v

15/2/1390

 v

Direction of wall movement

‫ﻧﻴﺮوي واﺣﺪ ﻃﻮل دﻳﻮار‬
13

‫ﻣﻘﺎوم‬

Wall frictionless - principal
stresses are vertical and
horizontal

 h

Passive

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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Rankine Active and Passive pressures

‫دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ‬
‫ﺧﺎك ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ‬

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ ﺧﺎك‬

  c   v tan(  )

Direction of wall movement

Excavation

‫ﺧﺎﻛﺒﺮداري‬



 v
 h (min)
15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

17

Rankine Active and Passive pressures

‫دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ‬
‫ﺧﺎك ﺑﺎ اﻧﺪﻛﻲ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ‬

Direction of
wall movement

Excavation

 h  k0 v

  c   v tan(  )

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﺤﺮﮎ‬

‫ﺧﺎﻛﺒﺮداري‬



Active pressures

 v

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﻘﺎوم‬

Passive pressures

 h (min)
15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

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15/2/1390

 h  k0 v
Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

 h (max)
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3

Soil Dynamics

11/26/2015

Rankine Active and Passive pressures
‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺎن ﻻزم ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻬﻴﻴﺞ ﻧﻴﺮوﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﺮك و ﻣﻘﺎوم‬
For most walls the long term, fully drained, condition governs the stability.
Use effective stress strength criterion with

Soil type

passive

Sand (dense)

0.001H-0.002H

0.05H- 0.1H

Sand (loose)

0.002H-0.004H

Large

0.01H-0.02H

Large

Clay (over consolidated)
Clay (normally consolidated)

15/2/1390

0.02H-0.05H

: ‫ﺑﺮاي ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬

Large

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

c  0 ,  

The effective lateral stresses on the wall are then

Active

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ACTIVE

 a  k a v  tan ( 45    / 2) v

PASSIVE

 p  k p v  tan 2 (45    / 2) v

2

15/2/1390

Rankine Active and Passive pressures

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

22

Rankine Active and Passive pressures
Rankine failure zones

45    / 2

  c   v tan(  )
H

45    / 2

 a  k a v  tan 2 ( 45    / 2) v

c  0 ,  


 h (min)   a

15/2/1390

Macquorn Rankine

 v

 a  k a v  2c k a
 p  k p v  2c k p
Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

 h (max)   p

45    / 2

k a  tan 2 45    / 2 
k p  tan 2 45    / 2
20

H

45    / 2

 p  k p v  tan 2 (45    / 2) v

c  0 ,  
15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Rankine Active and Passive pressures

23

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﺳﺮ ﺑﺎر‬

q

For most walls the long term, fully drained, condition governs the stability.

‫ﺑﺎر ﺧﻄﻲ ﺑﺮ واﺣﺪ ﻃﻮل‬

Use effective stress strength criterion with
bH

c  0 ,  
aH
H

‫اﻻﺳﺘﻴﺴﻴﺘﻪ‬


a  0 .4   

4q

H

a

a 2b
2

a  0 .4  (a  0 .4 )   

Boussinesq equation modified by experiment
15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

21

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

b
q
H

2

2q
a 2b
2
H a  b 2

2

‫در ﺧﺎك‬
2

0 .2 0 5 b

 0 .1 6  b 
2

2

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Soil Dynamics

11/26/2015

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﺳﺮ ﺑﺎر‬

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﻘﺎوم راﻧﻜﻴﻦ در ﺳﻄﺢ ﺷﻴﺐ دار‬
‫ﺑﺎر ﻧﻮارﯼ ﺑﺮ واﺣﺪ ﺳﻄﺢ‬

b

q

a

‫اﺻﻄﮑﺎﮎ ﺑﺎ دﻳﻮار وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد‬

H


‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ دﻳﻮار‬

z

P



z

q
  sin  cos 2 
H

Pp

H

H/3



‫در ﺧﺎك‬

2q
    sin  cos 2 
H

K p  cos 

p p  1 / 2 K pH 2
15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

25

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ از ﺳﺮ ﺑﺎر‬
b



c=0

‫اﻻﺳﺘﻴﺴﻴﺘﻪ‬

a

15/2/1390

cos   cos 2   cos 2 
cos   cos 2   cos 2 

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

28

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﺤﺮك ﻛﻮﻟﻤﺐ‬

q‫ﺑﺎر ﻧﻮارﯼ ﺑﺮ واﺣﺪ ﺳﻄﺢ‬
‫اﺻﻄﮑﺎﮎ ﺑﺎ دﻳﻮار وﺟﻮد دارد‬

Pa(max)


z

H

P

Pa

‫اﻻﺳﺘﻴﺴﻴﺘﻪ‬



c=0
to  R

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ دﻳﻮار‬

z   H   sin  cos 2 
q




H

W

‫در ﺧﺎك‬

2q
    sin  cos 2 
H
q
P  H ( 2  1 ) 
90
1  tan 1 (b / H )  2  tan 1 (( a  b) / H )
H 2 ( 2  1 )  (a  b) 2 (90   2 )  b 2 (90  1 )  57.3aH
z
2 HDr.(Hasan
1 )
15/2/1390
2 Ghasemzadeh

H/3

Pa

S




W



N

R

p a  1 / 2 K a H 2
sin 2 (    )

Ka 

26


sin(    ) sin(    ) 
sin 2  sin 2 (    ) 1 

sin(
 Ghasemzadeh
 ) sin(    ) 
15/2/1390
Dr. Hasan

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﺤﺮك راﻧﻜﻴﻦ در ﺳﻄﺢ ﺷﻴﺐ دار‬

2

29

Charles Augustin Coulomb

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﺤﺮك ﻛﻮﻟﻤﺐ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺮﺑﺎر‬
Ka 

‫اﺻﻄﮑﺎﮎ ﺑﺎ دﻳﻮار وﺟﻮد ﻧﺪارد‬

sin 2 (    )

sin(    ) sin(    ) 
sin 2  sin 2 (    ) 1 

sin(    ) sin(    ) 

2

q


‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ دﻳﻮار‬

Pa

H
H/3

p a  1 / 2 K a H 2
15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

K a  cos 

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ دﻳﻮار‬



c=0

H/3



 sin 2  
Kaq

 sin(   a) 

cos   cos 2   cos 2 

pa  1 / 2 K a eq H 2

cos   cos 2   cos 2 

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Pa

H

27

15/2/1390

K aH sin(  )

 sin 2   2q 
 eq    
 
 sin(   a )  H 

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

30

5

Soil Dynamics

11/26/2015

‫ﻓﺸﺎرﻣﻘﺎوم ﻛﻮﻟﻤﺐ‬
‫اﺻﻄﮑﺎﮎ ﺑﺎ دﻳﻮار وﺟﻮد دارد‬

‫ﮔﺮافﻫﺎ‬

Pp(min)



c=0

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ دﻳﻮار‬
S

to 

Pp
H


H/3

p p  1 / 2 K pH

15/2/1390

2

Kp 

N



Pp

R

W


R

W



sin 2 (    )

sin(    ) sin(    ) 
sin 2  sin 2 (    ) 1 

sin(    ) sin(    ) 

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

2

31

Generalized determination of active pressures (after Navdock)
Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

‫ﮔﺮافﻫﺎ‬

34

‫ﮔﺮافﻫﺎ‬

Coulomb earth pressure
coefficient vs. -angle for level
backfill and dredge line

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Active and passive coefficients with
wall friction (sloping backfill) (after
Caquot and Kerisel21)
10

32

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

‫ﮔﺮافﻫﺎ‬

35

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﺤﺮك و ﻣﻘﺎوم در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم زﻟﺰﻟﻪ‬
‫ﮔﻮﻩ ﻣﺤﺮﮎ ﺑﺰرﮔﺘﺮ از ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﮑﯽ‬
‫ﮔﻮﻩ ﻣﻘﺎوم ﮐﻮﭼﮑﺘﺮ از ﺣﺎﻟﺖ اﺳﺘﺎﺗﻴﮑﯽ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻞ اﺛﺮ ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﺤﺮﮎ و ﻣﻘﺎوم‬

Generalized determination of passive pressures (after Navdock)
Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

33

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

36

6

Soil Dynamics

11/26/2015

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﺤﺮك ﻛﻮﻟﻤﺐ در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم زﻟﺰﻟﻪ‬
Mononobe-Okabe Method
p a  1 / 2 K a H 2
pae  1 / 2H 2 (1  kv ) K ae

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ دﻳﻮار‬

Pae
Pae
Pa


H
.6H

z

H/3

pae  pae  pa
z
15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

37

15/2/1390

0.6 H (Pae )  ( H / 3) Pa
Dr.P
Hasan
ae Ghasemzadeh

40

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﻘﺎوم ﻛﻮﻟﻤﺐ در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم زﻟﺰﻟﻪ‬
Mononobe-Okabe Method
‫اﺻﻄﮑﺎﮎ ﺑﺎ دﻳﻮار وﺟﻮد دارد‬

Pp(min)


‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ دﻳﻮار‬

kv

Horizental acc. of earthquake
gravity
Vertical acc. of earthquake
kv 
gravity

kh 

kh
H

W

z
K pe 

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

38

‫اﺻﻄﮑﺎﮎ ﺑﺎ دﻳﻮار وﺟﻮد دارد‬

K ae 

15/2/1390

Pa

Horizental acc. of earthquake
gravity
Vertical acc. of earthquake
kv 
gravity

S


R

N

pae  1 / 2H 2 (1  kv ) K ae

sin (      )
2


sin(    ) sin(      ) 
cos  sin 2  sin 2 (      ) 1 

sin(      ) sin(    ) 

1

  tan ( k h /(1 Dr.kHasan
v )) Ghasemzadeh

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

N

p pe  1 / 2H 2 (1  kv ) K pe

2

  tan ( k h /(1 Dr.kHasan
v )) Ghasemzadeh

41

‫ﺑﻬﺮه ﺑﺮداري دﻳﻮار ﺣﺎﻳﻞ ﻃﺮه اي‬

• Considerable movement of the wall is required to mobilise the
limiting passive stresses
• The movements required to reach the active and passive conditions
depend on the soil type.
• For example, for retaining walls of height H the movements required
are

kh 

W
H/3


R

‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻜﺎن ﻻزم ﺟﻬﺖ ﺗﻬﻴﻴﺞ ﻧﻴﺮوﻫﺎي ﻣﺤﺮك و ﻣﻘﺎوم‬

kv
kh

H

S


sin(    ) sin(      ) 
cos  sin 2  sin 2 (       90) 1 

sin(      ) sin(    ) 

1

Cantilever wall serviceability

Pa(max)

‫ﺟﻬﺖ ﺣﺮﻛﺖ دﻳﻮار‬

Ppe 

sin 2 (      )

15/2/1390

‫ﻓﺸﺎر ﻣﺤﺮك ﻛﻮﻟﻤﺐ در ﻫﻨﮕﺎم زﻟﺰﻟﻪ‬

Soil type

Active

passive

Sand (dense)

0.001H-0.002H

0.05H- 0.1H

Sand (loose)

0.002H-0.004H

Large

Clay (over consolidated)

0.01H-0.02H

Large

Clay (normally consolidated)

0.02H-0.05H

Large

2

39

15/2/1390

Dr. Hasan Ghasemzadeh

42

7