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Atoll

RF Planning and Optimisation Software
Version 2.7.1

SPM
Calibration
Guide

AT271_MCG_E2

SPM Calibration Guide

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Atoll 2.7.1 SPM Calibration Guide Release AT271_MCG_E2

© Copyright 1997 - 2008 by Forsk
The software described in this document is provided under a licence agreement. The software may only be used/copied
under the terms and conditions of the licence agreement. No part of this document may be copied, reproduced or
distributed in any form without prior authorisation from Forsk.
The product or brand names mentioned in this document are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective
registering parties.

Introduction
To find an accurate propagation model for determining path losses is a leading issue when planning a mobile radio
network. Two strategies for predicting propagation losses are in use these days. One of these strategies is to derive an
empirical propagation model from measurement data, and the other is to use a deterministic propagation model. Atoll’s
Standard Propagation Model is a macrocell propagation model based on empirical formulas and a set of parameters.
When Atoll is installed, the SPM parameters are set to their default values. However, they can be adjusted to tune the
propagation model according to actual propagation conditions. This calibration process of the Standard Propagation Model
facilitates improving the reliability of path loss and, hence, coverage predictions.
This guide describes the way to import and manage the necessary measurement data. It also indicates the calibration
method and the steps to calibrating the SPM, from planning the CW measurement surveys to obtaining the final
propagation model. The resulting tuned propagation model is directly usable in Atoll as an additional model.

© Forsk 2008

AT271_MCG_E2

iii

SPM Calibration Guide

iv

AT271_MCG_E2

© Forsk 2008

................................1.......3..................2.. 16 Making Calculations in Atoll .............................................2........2.........6 2.................1........................2......................................... 31 The SPM Calibration Process ...............................................3................................................2....................................................................................................................4.............1............................................. 29 Before You Start...... 37 Importing Several CW Measurement Paths ............................................2 3...........................1 4......................1..3 2....................................................... 21 Losses Due to Clutter....... 18 Absolute Spot Ht...4 2....4.......1................................. 40 Checking the Correspondence Between Geo and Measurement Data ....................................................................................................................................3.......................................3...................................................................... 20 Correction for Hilly Regions in Case of LOS ....................1.......................................3 2......... 30 Selecting Base Stations ......... 21 Recommendations for Using Clutter with the SPM .......... 17 Visibility and Distance Between Transmitter and Receiver ......................................................... 17 Effective Transmitter Antenna Height............................................................................................ 20 Diffraction .............................1 4........................................................................... 31 Additional Deliverable Data ................................................................1...2...........................................................................................................................1 3..........................4....................... 16 Reducing the Hata and SPM Equations ....... 46 Using Manual Filtering on CW Points ..........1...................4 4........... 11 2 Standard Propagation Model ......................2.................3 4...........1...............2....4....... 35 Setting Coordinates ....................................3....................3 2............... 16 Equating the Coefficients......................... 16 Typical SPM Parameter Values ...Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Introduction ......2....4...........................................3.......................4................. 40 Defining the Display of CW Measurements .......................... 43 Filtering Measurement Data ...3..4........ 43 Filtering on Clutter Classes.3 3.................. 29 Geographic Data .............3 4............................2 4......1.......... 17 Height Above Average Profile...........................................................................5 2..................................................................................................... 44 Signal and Distance Filtering .......1............2...........................4........................1 4.................................................3............................................3.......1....2....................................................2...................................................................................................................................................3 4...................................1............................................... 30 Planning the Survey Routes ..1...........................................1 4...............................................................1 4.....................1 2.. 17 Slope at Receiver Between 0 and Minimum Distance........................................................................................1...........................1 3.... 49 About Specific Sections .............................................. 15 2................................... 18 Enhanced Slope at Receiver ..2........................... 45 Typical Values............................ 50 About Potentially Invalid Measurement Levels ......................................................................... 17 Height Above Ground .................. 38 Creating a CW Measurement Import Configuration.........4 © Forsk 2008 SPM Formula ............................................1..2 2......1............2 3......3................1.... 17 Spot Ht.................2.........4..................................3 2.6 2...... 49 About Diffraction ............................................................................................................5 2............1 2......................2 3........4 4 4.............................................................. 30 Radio Criteria ..........................................................................4 4.............3....................2............. 52 AT271_MCG_E2 v ............................... 36 Importing Geo Data .................................3....................................2 4................................................2 4... 29 Measurement Data...................................................................................................... 35 Setting Up Your Calibration Project ........................................3................................1...................1.........................4.....3 4..................................2... 36 Importing CW Measurements....2 2................. 29 Guidelines for CW Measurement Surveys ...................................................................................2 2............7 3 3........4 2.......... 46 Creating an Advanced Filter .........................2. 47 Filtering by Geo Data Conditions....................................................................................................................................2 2............................................1............................................2........1....................................3 4................................................................................. 22 Collecting CW Measurement Data.......... 15 Hata Formula..3............................1 2......... 35 Creating an Atoll Calibration Document ............................................1...................................................4...............4 4................2 4............................. 15 The Correspondence Between the SPM and Hata ............................................2 2........................................................1 4... 50 Deleting a Selection of Measurement Points ..................................................2.........................................................................3...........................................................1 3....................................2.............................2..............2 4.............2.. 46 Using the Filtering Assistant on CW Measurement Points.. 36 Importing a CW Measurement Path .............................2.................1 2.......1 4.........................................1...............................................2 4.............................1 2.....2............................................ 15 Correspondence Between Hata and SPM Parameters ..........................................................................1.......................................3............................3............. 18 Effective Receiver Antenna Height............................2..............................

.........................53 Filtering by Angle ..................................................................................................................4.................................55 Setting Initial Parameters in the SPM ..............77 Survey Site Form ...........................................................................2.....70 Deploying a Calibrated Model to Transmitters ....................1 4.....................................................................2........SPM Calibration Guide 4...................................................................................................................4 4...........................................................2..............4...................................2 5..............2...........................77 Adding Transmitters to a CW Measurement Path...1 5......54 Calibrating the SPM...3.............75 Drawing a CW Measurement Path .....................................................................2 5..54 Selecting Base Stations for Calibration and for Verification.............2..........................55 Quality Targets....2 4................................................................................................................................................................................................................55 Clutter Tab....................................................................................................................................................................1 4........4.................3 4................................6 4...................................76 Calculating Best Servers Along a CW Measurement Path...................................5 4.................4....59 The Assisted Allocation Wizard ..............77 Selecting the Propagation Model ..77 Calculating Signal Levels .....................71 Additional CW Measurement Functions ....................................5 4...........................................................................2 5 5........................................4 6 vi Using Exclusion Zones on CW Measurement Points .......2 4................................................2...........3......1.....3.......77 Setting the Display to Best Server ...........................4......4 5.................4 4.....................................................4.............................................58 The Automatic Allocation Wizard ..............................4.....81 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .......................................2.................1 5...........................................2.................................................61 Finalising the Settings of the Calibrated Model .............2........................................4............................................................................75 Creating a CW Measurement Path......3...2.......................................66 Deploying the Calibrated Model..................................................3 4...........2 4.....1.....................57 Running the Calibration Process................3 5..................................................................1 4...................................................................................................................2 4..............................60 Analysing the Calibrated Model ..3 5..................................................................55 Parameters Tab..1....1 4......................70 Copying a Calibrated Model to Another Document................................76 Smoothing measurements to reduce the fading effect .......

............................. AT271_MCG_E2 18 22 23 23 24 24 25 37 43 43 45 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 56 57 58 59 59 60 61 62 62 63 63 64 65 66 68 69 69 70 75 76 vii ....................................... : Point Analysis Tool window showing diffraction peaks........................................................................................................... : Path and Calibration method selection for SPM Calibration..............35 Figure 4....................................................... : Diffraction caused by surrounding buildings when the receiver is indoors ....................................................................................... : Comparative statistics of the verification stations ............25 Figure 4...............................................................................................................................................................................................29 Figure 4.................................................................................14 Figure 4........................................................................ : The Setup tab of the Import of Measurement Files dialogue...............................................................38 Figure 5.............................22 Figure 4..................................................................................31 Figure 4............................................................................ : Filtering Assistant Launching.................19 Figure 4........................................................................................................................................33 Figure 4........... : Comparative behaviour of the clutter weighting functions in the SPM.................... : Simultaneous display of measurement path and table .................................... : Settings when using clutter heights set per class .8 Figure 4.................................................................... : Range definition for SPM parameters during calibration .........................................................................................16 Figure 4...............................................................................20 Figure 4..................................................................................... : Setting losses per clutter class .....1 Figure 2.................. : Angular Filter around a station.................................................... : Description of the available clutter classes..................................................... : SPM Transmitter effective height method selection ... : Distribution of the Measured Signal Strength around a station ............15 Figure 4....................................................... : Point Selection Tool in the Filtering Assistant....... : Point distribution in the different clutter classes................................................12 Figure 4.... : Table listing the correlation of the SPM variables to the global error ..........30 Figure 4...................................23 Figure 4... : Defined thresholds as they will appear in the Legend ................................................. : The New CW Measurement Path dialogue ........................... : Distribution of error around a verification station ........................................... : Calculating the signal levels on all CW measurement paths .........4 Figure 2................................................................................................................................................... : Sliding Window Property Dialogue ................................................................... : Tx-Rx profile .....................................9 Figure 4...............11 Figure 4..............................32 Figure 4....................................................................... : Calibration launching on SPM model.........................................18 Figure 4..... : Point Exclusion Tool in the Filtering Assistant ......... : Clutter class settings when using a clutter height file ......................... : Description the Clutter tab of the SPM model.............................................................................28 Figure 4..................................................................24 Figure 4....................................................................... : SPM Comparative Calibration Results ...................................6 Figure 2......................... : CW Measurement Analysis ................................ : Losses due to Clutter.........................34 Figure 4............................... : Distribution of the point positions around a station ...........................................................13 Figure 4................................................5 Figure 2........................ : Selecting the calibrated model for all CW measurement paths ...........21 Figure 4.......26 Figure 4.27 Figure 4.. : The CW Measurement Analysis Tool window ........................................................36 Figure 4..................................................................... : Selecting on of the verification stations for the statistics ........................................10 Figure 4...List of Figures List of Figures Figure 2......................................................................................... : Calculating the total clutter loss between the transmitter and the receiver...39 © Forsk 2008 : Enhanced Slope at Receiver .3 Figure 2...................................................................7 Figure 4............................... : Opening the CW Measurement Analysis tool ..........................................................................................2 Figure 2......................37 Figure 5. : Selecting the clutter weighting method in the SPM ............17 Figure 4.............................

SPM Calibration Guide viii AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .

CHAPTER 1 Introduction Atoll RF Planning and Optimisation Software .

SPM Calibration Guide 10 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .

© Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 11 . the Model Calibration Guide presents you with detailed information on the SPM and guides you through the calibration process. For detailed technical information about Atoll projects. To that end. to incorporating the CW measurements into Atoll. • The SPM Calibration Process: This chapter explains the entire SPM calibration process: - Creating an Atoll document that to use to calibrate the SPM. including the SPM formula and the Hata formula on which the SPM is based. you can go directly to the chapter that interests you: • The Standard Propagation Model: This chapter describes the Atoll SPM. The Model Calibration Guide follows the calibration process from planning the CW survey. see the Technical Reference Guide. Filtering the imported CW measurements to ensure that you are using only the most relevant data. typical SPM parameter values. If this is the first time you are calibrating Atoll’s SPM. and recommendations for using the SPM. Or. making calculations using the SPM. For information on using Atoll. • CW Measurements: This chapter explains the role of CW measurements in calibrating the SPM.Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Introduction The Model Calibration Guide is intended for project managers or anyone else responsible for calibrating the Standard Propagation Model (SPM) using continuous wave (CW) measurements. Calibrating the SPM. you might want to read though the entire Model Calibration Guide. nor to provide detailed technical information about Atoll projects. This guide also contains an appendix with additional information on using CW measurements in Atoll. Finalising and deploying the calibrated SPM. Other aspects described include. to using the CW measurements to calibrate the SPM. It also gives you information that will help you successfully plan and carry out a CW survey. see the User Manual and the Administrator Manual. using either the automatic or the assisted method. It is not the intention of this guide to explain in detail how to use Atoll. Importing the measurements from the CW survey into the new Atoll document.

SPM Calibration Guide 12 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .

Chapter 2 Standard Propagation Model Atoll RF Planning and Optimisation Software .

SPM Calibration Guide 14 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .

and WiMAX radio technologies. B2 f hBS d a(hm) Cclutter Note: Hata parameters Frequency in MHz Effective BS antenna height in metres Distance in kilometres Mobile antenna height correction function Clutter correction function The distance in this equation is given in kilometres as opposed to the SPM. 2. B1.55 for 900 MHz. cdmaOne and CDMA2000.1 SPM Formula The Standard Propagation Model is based on the following formula:  K 1 + K 2  Log  d  + K 3  Log  H Txeff  + K 4  DiffractionLoss + K 5  Log  d   Log  H Txeff  +  P R = P Tx –    K 6  H Rx eff + K 7  Log  H Rxeff  + K clutter  f  clutter  + K hill LOS  where: 2. A2. the Hata formula on which the SPM is based is described.16 for 900 MHz.90 B2 = 6.1 Hata Formula The SPM formula is derived from the basic Hata formula.82 B1 = 44.2 • • • • • • • PR PTx K1 K2 d K3 H Tx • • • • • • K4 DiffractionLoss K5 K6 K7 H Rx mobile antenna height (m) • • • Kclutter f(clutter) Khill. LOS multiplying factor for f(clutter) average of weighted losses due to clutter corrective factor for hilly regions (=0 in case of NLOS) received power (dBm) transmitted power (EIRP) (dBm) constant offset (dB) multiplying factor for Log(d) distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m) multiplying factor for Log(HTxeff) effective height of the transmitter antenna (m) eff eff multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. • • • • • • A1.Chapter 2: Standard Propagation Model 2 Standard Propagation Model The Standard Propagation Model is a propagation model based on the Hata formulas and is suited for predictions in the 150 to 3500 MHz band over long distances (from one to 20 km). which is: L = A 1 + A 2 log f + A 3 log h BS +  B 1 + B 2 log h BS  log d – a  h m  – C clutter where. K4 must be a positive number losses due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB) multiplying factor for Log(HTxeff) x Log(d) multiplying factor for HRxeff multiplying factor for Log(HRxeff) The Correspondence Between the SPM and Hata In this section.30 for 1800 MHz A2 = 26. UMTS. 2. A1 = 46.90 for 1800 MHz A3 = 13. where the distance is given in metres. A2 = 33. The correspondence between the SPM and the Hata formula is also described.2. A3.55 AT271_MCG_E2 15 . Typical values for Hata model parameters are: • • • • • © Forsk 2008 A1 = 69. It is best suited to GSM 900/1800.

1 3300 27.2. A 3.8 1xRTT 1900 23 2300 24.2. you can ignore the influence of diffraction and clutter correction.2 Equating the Coefficients If you compare the simplified Hata and SPM equations. with appropriate settings of A1 and K1.2.5 GSM 1800 1805 22 GSM 1900 1930 23 UMTS 2110 23. some examples are: Project type Frequency (MHz) K1 GSM 900 935 12.5 m.8 3500 28. the Hata and SPM parameters are compared. B 2 f hBS d Hata parameters Frequency in MHz Effective BS antenna height in metres Distance in kilometres The SPM formula can be simplified to: L = K 1 + K 2 log d + K 3 log h BS + K 5 log dlog h BS + K 6 h meff + K 7 Log  h meff  If you rewrite the Hata equation using with the distance in metres as in the SPM formula.SPM Calibration Guide 2. you see the following correspondence between the coefficients: K 1 = A 1 + A 2 log f – 3  B 1 K2 = B1 K3 = A3 – 3  B2 K5 = B2 K6 = 0 K7 = 0 2.3 WiMAX 16 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .1 Reducing the Hata and SPM Equations Because you are only dealing with standard formulas. A 2.2. you can set the clutter correction factor to zero without reducing the validity of the following equations.2.7 2500 25.90 K 3 = 5. and taking only one clutter class into consideration.3 Typical SPM Parameter Values By referring to typical Hata parameters. and has negligible values for realistic mobile antenna heights. 2.2 Correspondence Between Hata and SPM Parameters In this section. typical SPM parameters can be determined as the following: K 2 = 44. The Hata formula can now be simplified to: L = A 1 + A 2 log f + A 3 log h BS +  B 1 + B 2 log h BS  log d where: • • • • A 1.55 K1 depends on the frequency. It is understood that.83 K 5 = – 6.4 2700 26.2. The correction function for mobile antenna height can also be ignored. The mobile antenna height correction factor is zero when hm=1. you get: d L = A 1 + A 2 log f + A 3 log h BS +  B 1 + B 2 log h BS  log ------------1000 This leads to the following equation: L = A 1 + A 2 log f – 3  B 1 +  A 3 – 3  B 2   log h BS + B 1 log d + B 2 log h BS  log d 2. B 1 .

2. Distance min. Atoll will take into account the set of values (K1. Atoll determines: • The distance between the transmitter and the receiver. • K is the ground slope calculated over a user-defined distance (Distance min. HTxeff = HTx 2. Distance min. © Forsk 2008 • H 0Rx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at the receiver (m).” • Whether the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight or not. the different aspects of making calculations using the SPM are explained in detail: • • • • • • • 2. Height Above Ground The transmitter antenna height is its height above the ground (HTx in metres). Note: 2. HTxeff equals HTx only. H Txeff = H Tx +  H 0Tx – H 0  where.3.2. • H 0 is the average ground height above sea level along the profile (m). K2)LOS.3. Effective Transmitter Antenna Height The effective transmitter antenna height (HTxeff) can be calculated using one of six different methods: • • • • • • 2. The profile length depends on the minimum distance and maximum distance values and is limited by the transmitter and receiver locations.3.2. the receiver is considered far from the transmitter. - If the transmitter-receiver distance is less than the maximum user-defined distance (the break distance).2 If the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight.1 "Visibility and Distance Between Transmitter and Receiver" on page 17 "Effective Transmitter Antenna Height" on page 17 "Effective Receiver Antenna Height" on page 20 "Correction for Hilly Regions in Case of LOS" on page 20 "Diffraction" on page 21 "Losses Due to Clutter" on page 21 "Recommendations for Using Clutter with the SPM" on page 22. Atoll will use the set of values called “Far from transmitter. is the distance from the receiver.3 If the profile is not located between the transmitter and the receiver. Atoll will use the set of values called “Near transmitter. H Txeff =  H Tx + H 0Tx  – H 0Rx + K  d where. Visibility and Distance Between Transmitter and Receiver For each calculation pixel. the receiver is considered to be near the transmitter.1 "Height Above Ground" on page 17 "Height Above Average Profile" on page 17 "Slope at Receiver Between 0 and Minimum Distance" on page 17 "Spot Ht" on page 18 "Absolute Spot Ht" on page 18 "Enhanced Slope at Receiver" on page 18.Chapter 2: Standard Propagation Model 2. Atoll will use the set of values (K1. K2)NLOS. and Distance max are minimum and maximum distances from the transmitter respectively.2 Height Above Average Profile The transmitter antenna height is determined relative to an average ground height calculated along the profile between a transmitter and a receiver. Slope at Receiver Between 0 and Minimum Distance The transmitter antenna height is calculated using the ground slope at the receiver. • H 0Tx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at transmitter (m).” If the transmitter-receiver distance is greater than the maximum distance.3.3 Making Calculations in Atoll In this section. - 2. If the receiver is not in the transmitter line of sight. In this case.). AT271_MCG_E2 17 .3.

05.2. This calculation is made in several steps: 1. - i is the point index.3. in order for them not to negatively influence the regression line calculation. These values are only used in the last two methods and have different meanings for each method. Atoll extracts the transmitter-receiver terrain profile.6 Enhanced Slope at Receiver Atoll offers a new method called “Enhanced slope at receiver” to evaluate the effective transmitter antenna height.2. Figure 2.3. - H Rx is the receiver antenna height above the ground (m). It determines the filtered height of every profile point. 3. Atoll determines line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver. Atoll evaluates the ground slope between two points and compares it with a threshold set to 0. To determine the filtered terrain height at a point. Profile points are evenly spaced on the basis of the profile resolution.3. H Txeff = H Tx +  H 0Tx – H 0Rx  If H 0Tx  H 0Rx then.1: Enhanced Slope at Receiver The X-axis and Y-axis represent positions and heights respectively. one established from the transmitter and another from the receiver. H Txeff = H Tx 2. Atoll takes 200 m. Atoll uses 20 m in calculations. where three cases are possible.4 • If H Txeff  20m .Res  i  d where.5 Absolute Spot Ht H Txeff = H Tx + H 0Tx – H 0Rx Note: Distance min. Hills and mountains are already taken into account in diffraction calculations. Some notations defined hereafter are used in next part. 18 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . • If H Txeff  200m . Therefore.SPM Calibration Guide Notes: 2. The LOS line equation is:   H 0Tx + H Tx  –  H 0Rx + H Rx   Los  i  =  H 0Tx + H Tx  – -------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Spot Ht If H 0Tx  H 0Rx then. Atoll filters the terrain profile. and distance max are set to 3000 and 15000 m following ITU recommendations (low frequency broadcast f < 500 Mhz) and to 0 and 15000 m following Okumura recommendations (high frequency mobile telephony). Atoll calculates two filtered terrain profiles. 2. 2. Res is the profile resolution (distance between two points). It is assumed that the X-axis is oriented from the transmitter (origin) towards the receiver.2.

R.05 . If H orig  i   H orig  i + 1  and ------------------------------------------------------. Atoll compares the two filtered heights and chooses the higher one. Atoll chooses the highest one. H filt – Tx  i  = H filt – Tx  i – 1  If. there are three different possibilities: H orig  i  – H orig  i – 1  a. - R  0. Notes: • • When several influence areas are possible. H filt – Tx  i  = H filt – Tx  i – 1  +  H orig  i  – H orig  i – 1   H orig  i  – H orig  i – 1  b. If H orig  i   H orig  i – 1  and ------------------------------------------------------.Chapter 2: Standard Propagation Model - H filt is the filtered height. It corresponds to the distance from receiver at which the original terrain profile plus 30 metres intersects the LOS for the first time (when beginning from transmitter). H filt  i   H orig  i  Then. 0. there are three different possibilities: H orig  i  – H orig  i + 1  a. If H orig  i   H orig  i + 1  Then. The regression line equation is: y = ax + b © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 19 . If H orig  i   H orig  i + 1  and ------------------------------------------------------. 0. If H orig  i   H orig  i – 1  and ------------------------------------------------------. - H orig is the original height. R must contain at least three pixels. R = d. H filt – Tx  i  = H filt – Tx  i – 1  c. H filt – Rx  i  = H filt – Rx  i + 1  If. Atoll determines the influence area. as well.01  d . The original terrain height is determined from extracted ground profile.05 Res Then. When filtering starts from the transmitter: Let us assume that H filt – Tx  Tx  = H orig  Tx  For each point. as well. H filt – Rx  i  = H orig  i  Then. H filt  i   H orig  i  Then. Res Then.05 . If d < 3000m. Res Then. H filt – Rx  i  = H filt – Rx  i + 1  +  H orig  i  – H orig  i + 1   H orig  i  – H orig  i + 1  b. Atoll performs a linear regression on the filtered profile within R in order to determine a regression line. 5. If H orig  i   H orig  i – 1  Then. 0. The influence area must satisfy additional conditions: - R  3000m . 0. H filt – Rx  i  = H filt – Rx  i + 1  c. H filt  i  = max  Hfilt – Tx  i  H filt – Rx  i   4. for every point of profile. H filt – Tx  i  = H orig  i  When filtering starts from the receiver: Let us assume that H filt  Rx  = H orig  Rx  For each point.05 Res Then.

Then.3. if H Txeff  20m . Its equation is: regr  i  = a   i  Res  + b 6. 6. H 0Tx + H Tx – b H Txeff = -------------------------------------2 1+a If HTxeff is less than 20 m. Notes: • If H Txeff  1000m . 7. an additional correction is taken into account (step 7). 2. 1000m will be used in calculations. L model = L model   H Txeff = 20m  d f  + K lowant where. Note: The calculation of effective antenna heights ( H Rxeff and H Txeff ) is based on extracted DTM profiles. Atoll calculates the effective transmitter antenna height.3 Effective Receiver Antenna Height H Rxeff =  H Rx + H 0Rx  – H 0Tx where. Atoll recalculates it with a new influence area.SPM Calibration Guide   d  i  – dm   Hfilt  i  – Hm  i a = -----------------------------------------------------------------------2  d  i  – dm   i and b = H m – ad m where. If H Txeff is less than 20 m (or negative).3. • If H Txeff is less than 20 m.63 + -----------10 .–  0. H Txeff (m). They are not performed properly if you have not imported heights (DTM file) beforehand. R d m = d – ---2 d(i) is the distance between i and the transmitter (m). which begins at the transmitter.93 + -------------  1000  1000 2. H 0Rx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at the receiver (m). H Rx is the receiver antenna height above the ground (m). H 0Tx is the ground height (ground elevation) above sea level at the transmitter (m). Only points within R are taken into account. Atoll evaluates the path loss using H Txeff = 20m and applies a correction factor. if the receiver is in the transmitter line of sight and the hilly terrain correction option has been selected: 20 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . 1 H m = --n  Hfilt  i  i i is the point index. Then.3   H Txeff – 20   – -----------------------------------------------------------------------------5 d   d  9. 20   1 –  H Txeff – 20   d K lowant = --------. Atoll extends the regression line to the transmitter location. Therefore. Therefore.4 Correction for Hilly Regions in Case of LOS An optional corrective term enables Atoll to correct path loss for hilly regions when the transmitter and the receiver are in line of sight.

it sorts points according to the deviation and draws two lines (parallel to the regression line).29 log  h  + 6. Losses Due to Clutter Atoll calculates f(clutter) over a maximum distance from the receiver. where d’i is the distance between the receiver and the ith point and D is the maximum distance defined.1924   H 0Rx + H Rx – regr  i Rx   H 0Rx + H Rx – regr  i Rx  2 Else K hf = – 2   – 1. In this case. Only ground altitude. h. • d log  ----i + 1 D  logarithmic weighting function: w i = ------------------------------------n d j log  ---. Atoll calculates K hill LOS . K hill LOS = K h + K hf If 0  h  20m . K h = 0 2 Else K h = 7. Atoll considers average clutter height specified for each clutter class in the clutter classes file description.6 Ground altitude and clutter height (Consider heights in diffraction option).Chapter 2: Standard Propagation Model L model = K 1 LOS + K 2 LOS log  d  + K 3 log  H Txeff  + K 5 log  H Txeff  log  d  + K 6  H Rx + K clutter f  clutter  + K hill LOS When the transmitter and the receiver are not in line of sight. you can take one of the following into consideration: • • 2. 1. Then. 2. Atoll calculates height deviation between the original terrain profile and regression line. 3.746 If 0  h  10m . • • • L: loss due to clutter defined in the Clutter tab by the user (in dB). Points are evenly spaced depending on the profile resolution.5 Diffraction Four methods are available to calculate diffraction loss over the transmitter-receiver profile. one which is exceeded by 10% of the profile points and the other one by 90%. Atoll uses clutter height information from the clutter heights file if it is available in the ATL document. w: weight determined through the weighting function. These methods are explained in the Technical Reference Guide. K hf = – 2  0. Otherwise. n: number of points taken into account over the profile.73  log  h   – 15. Influence area. n f  clutter  =  Li wi i=1 where. and regression line are assumed to be available. For every profile point within the influence area.616  log  h   + 14.3.75 log  h  – 11.+ 1 D   j © Forsk 2008 1 AT271_MCG_E2 21 . Atoll evaluates the terrain roughness.3. Four weighting functions are available: • 1 uniform weighting function: w i = --n • di triangular weighting function: w i = ------------n  dj • j 1 d i = D – d' i . R. 2. • • • • Deygout Epstein-Peterson Deygout with correction Millington Along the transmitter-receiver profile. the path loss formula is: L model =K 1 NLOS + K 2 NLOS log  d  + K 3 log  H Txeff  + K 4  Diffraction + K 5 log  H Txeff  log  d  + K 6  H Rx + K clutter f  clutter  K hill LOS is determined in three steps.21   ------------------------------------------------------------h iRx is the point index at receiver. it is the distance between the two lines.

the clutter classes file has relatively good data defining the height per clutter class and has a high enough resolution. or is too roughly defined. if you use the height per clutter class. you must not use a loss per clutter class. you can use the height per clutter class. For more information. However. This section gives a few recommendations on using the information available to you efficiently with the SPM. but. you should define a loss per clutter class and not use the height per clutter class. For more information.SPM Calibration Guide d ----i D • e –1 exponential weighting function: w i = -------------------------n e dj ---D –1 j=1 The following chart shows the weight variation with the distance for each weighting function.. The following scenarios are possible: • • • No clutter height information is available: You do not have a clutter height file and the height per clutter class is either not defined. In this case. Losses per Clutter Class If you specify losses per clutter class. AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . using this approach is recommended. as illustrated in Figure 2. This approach is recommended if the clutter height information is statistical (i. For more information. In this case.3. Clutter height file is available: You have a clutter height file available that has accurate data over a resolution that is fine enough for your network. More information is given on each option in the following sections.e. No clutter height file is available: You do not have a clutter height file. where the clutter is roughly defined and without a defined altitude). if you use the clutter height file. But. Note: 22 Because the Standard Propagation Model is a statistical propagation model. Figure 2.3. In this case.7 Recommendations for Using Clutter with the SPM The decision of what clutter information you should use with the SPM depends on the type and quality of the available information. you must not consider clutter altitudes in diffraction loss over the transmitter-receiver profile. you must not define a loss per clutter class. see "Clutter Height per Class" on page 23.2: Losses due to Clutter 2. you should use the clutter height file. see "Losses per Clutter Class" on page 22. Normally you want to use the most detailed and most accurate information. see "Clutter Height File" on page 24.

In this case.." losses due to clutter will only be taken into account in calculated diffraction. you must specify a receiver clearance per clutter class.e. average height specified for each clutter class in the clutter classes map description) are taken into account along the profile.4: Tx-Rx profile In Figure 2. © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 23 . f(clutter) will be "0. When the clutter height information is an average height defined for each clutter class.Chapter 2: Standard Propagation Model Figure 2.3: Setting losses per clutter class Clutter Height per Class If you consider clutter height per class.4.5. Both ground and clutter height are considered along the entire transmitter-receiver profile except over a specific distance around the receiver (clearance). The clearance information is used to model streets because it is assumed that the receiver is in the street. in which Atoll bases its calculations only on the DTM. the ground altitude and clutter height (in this case. as illustrated in Figure 2. This approach is recommended if the clutter height information is semi-deterministic (i. you must not define any loss per clutter class. where the clutter is roughly defined with an average altitude per clutter class). Figure 2.

Atoll does consider diffraction caused by surrounding buildings. In this case. Figure 2. as illustrated in Figure 2. Atoll calculates the path loss if the receiver is in the street (i. This approach is recommended if the clutter height information is deterministic (in this case.6 on page 24 this diffraction is displayed with a green line. If the receiver height is lower than the clutter height. In Figure 2. the clutter height information is accurate enough to be used without additional information such as clearance. It is not necessary to define receiver clearance if the height information is from a clutter height file.. a clutter height map). Important: In order to consider indoor losses inside a building when only using a deterministic clutter map (i. if the receiver height is higher than the clutter height).e. f(clutter) will be "0.e. In this case.6: Diffraction caused by surrounding buildings when the receiver is indoors 24 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .7. Nevertheless.SPM Calibration Guide Figure 2. do not define any loss per clutter class.. the receiver is assumed to be inside a building. where there is a clutter height file).5: Settings when using clutter heights set per class Clutter Height File If you use a clutter height file. Atoll does not consider any diffraction for the building (or any clearance) but takes into account the clutter class indoor loss as an additional penetration loss. you must clear the Indoor Coverage check box when creating a prediction or indoor losses will be added twice (once for the entire reception clutter class and once as indoor losses)." losses due to clutter will only be taken into account in calculated diffraction.

Chapter 2: Standard Propagation Model Figure 2.7: Clutter class settings when using a clutter height file © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 25 .

SPM Calibration Guide 26 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .

CHAPTER 3 Collecting CW Measurement Data Atoll RF Planning and Optimisation Software .

SPM Calibration Guide 28 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .

The types of geographic data you will need are the following: • Raster geographic data: The SPM can use raster geographic data as input. This section describes the data you must have before you start your CW survey: • • 3. see Chapter 5: Additional CW Measurement Functions. therefore. In these files. This chapter presents the points to be considered when planning a CW survey in order to get the most accurate and useful measurements. Only the signal from the best server is scanned and.e. If you perform a CW survey on an area for which you do not have up-to-date geographic data of sufficient quality. When you import measurements. the Lee criterion cannot be fulfilled (see "Guidelines for CW Measurement Surveys" on page 30). Measurement Data It is strongly recommended to use CW (continuous wave) measurements to calibrate the SPM. representing at least major roads. measurements made in the field for a single transmitter at a given frequency (continuous wave). Atoll enables very complete management of CW measurements and provides several features allowing you to update geographical data. The sampling rate of each measured station is low because a lot of stations are scanned at the same time. Clutter height maps describe the altitude of clutter over the DTM with one altitude defined for each pixel. in other words. forests.1 "Geographic Data" on page 29 "Measurement Data" on page 29. open areas. AT271_MCG_E2 29 . Clutter classes files describe the land cover (dense urban areas. DTM and clutter class files must be of a sufficiently high resolution to obtain a high-quality and accurate results in a calibration project.Chapter 3: Collecting CW Measurement Data 3 Collecting CW Measurement Data CW measurements. part of the measured signal is actually due to interference.). Atoll offers other possibilities for working with CW measurements. Geographic Data You must have up-to-date geographic data when you are planning your CW survey. buildings. Therefore. you will not be able to use the CW measurements you have collected to calibrate the SPM. importing them into Atoll and using them to calibrate the SPM is explained in Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process. Using directional antennas implies that the propagation calculation strongly depends on the accuracy of antenna patterns.. although the SPM is calibrated only for a base frequency. in a clutter height file. • Scanned maps: Scanned maps are useful for planning and verifying measurement survey routes in urban areas. It can obtain the ground elevation information from the DTM (Digital Terrain Model) files and clutter information from either clutter classes files or clutter heights files. Creating CW measurements in Atoll can be made either by importing measurements or general data samples (including Planet® data) or by pasting measurement results directly in the document. • Vector data: Vector maps. it is possible to have different heights within a single clutter class. and only the measurement points in the direction of the main beam are relevant. residential areas.1. the ground is represented by a grid where each pixel corresponds to a code allocated to a main type of cover. Once you have made a CW survey and have collected the CW measurements. the SPM will only be calibrated for coverage predictions and not for the evaluation of interference. you can save the settings used during the import procedure in a configuration which you can used the next time you import similar measurements. i. Although it is possible to calibrate the SPM using test mobile data. In any case. define additional fields. are used to calibrate propagation models. to a clutter class. Several frequencies are measured for test mobile data.2 25 m or less for urban areas 50 m or less for rural areas. For more information.1 Before You Start Before you make a CW survey. or define how the path will be displayed. it is essential to properly prepare for it. the signal level is measured over only a short distance from each transmitter. villages etc. it is not the recommended approach: • • • • • © Forsk 2008 Since test mobile data measurements are made on a real network. Clutter height maps can offer more precise information than defining an altitude per clutter class because. 3.1. The resolution of geographic data should typically be: - 3. up-to-date geographic data will be later required to produce realistic results in coverage predictions. Therefore. are useful for planning and verifying measurement survey routes.

such clutter types should be avoided. One propagation model for each "area type–frequency band" pair must be calibrated. before planning and performing CW a measurement survey: • • • • • 3. you can only meet the quality targets if the CW measurements. Selecting Base Stations When selecting stations to be used in the CW measurement survey. the following guidelines should be respected: • Measurement surveys should be performed over a long enough distance to allow the noise floor of the receiver to be reached. in other words. These points will have to be filtered out during the calibration process. For each area type. flat_rural. the following guidelines should be respected: • A minimum of about eight stations should be measured for each propagation model to be calibrated. Even profiles between the transmitter and the receiver should not cross such kinds of clutter. etc. The antennas on the measured stations should represent the full variation of antenna heights (typically from 20 m.2. UMTS. you should plan CW measurement surveys if you need measurements to calibrate the SPM. on which the calibration will be based. urban.2 Determine the number of required propagation models depending on representative area types (urban.). A histogram displaying the antenna heights can be a useful tool in determining what antenna heights should be represented. Typical distances are: - • • 30 Rural areas: approximately 10 km Suburban areas: approximately 2 km Urban areas: approximately 1 km The measurement routes must be laid out so that they have equal numbers of samples near as well as far from the station in all directions. are of good quality. An omnidirectional antenna should be used. the stations selected should not be obstructed in any direction. The survey routes should not cross forests or rivers. Therefore. the following are described: • • • • 3. to 50 m. Select a representative area of each area type. If there is a variety of different types of clutter in the survey area (open. in a relatively flat region. For each selected site. which respect the conditions described in "Guidelines for CW Measurement Surveys" on page 30. suburban. a minimum of 10 stations for each propagation model to be calibrated is recommended. The terrain within a relevant radius around each selected station should be representative of the entire area covered by the survey. Planning the Survey Routes When selecting survey routes to be used in the CW measurement survey.) in the area covered by the survey. hilly_rural. define a survey route. etc. This section gives some information for planning a CW measurement survey.1 "Selecting Base Stations" on page 30 "Planning the Survey Routes" on page 30 "Radio Criteria" on page 31 "Additional Deliverable Data" on page 31.2 To avoid problems if the measurements of one or more stations must be rejected. which respects the conditions described in "Guidelines for CW Measurement Surveys" on page 30. suburban. there should be as equal a distribution as possible of the major clutter categories within a relevant radius of each station. Ensure that it will be possible to respect all other criteria described in "Guidelines for CW Measurement Surveys" on page 30 when performing the measurement survey. GSM 1800. a station surrounded with hilly terrain would not give measurements representative of the entire area.). if these types of clutter are not especially representative of the area. Keeping this information in mind when you are planning the survey route will help guarantee high-quality measurements that can serve as input for the SPM calibration project. In this section. The stations should have good RF clearance. and on the number of frequency bands (GSM 900.). Guidelines for CW Measurement Surveys The quality of the calibrated propagation model depends strongly on the quality of the CW measurements. the provided radio data are correct. and the calibration procedure described in Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process is followed. dense urban. For example. AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . where the measurement survey campaigns will be performed. The exact number of stations depends on the terrain.2. etc. select at least 8 sites (6 for calibration and 2 for verification). However. There should be sufficient roads available to enable easy access with transmission equipment on all sides of each station.SPM Calibration Guide Therefore. Note: • Selected stations should fulfil the following conditions: - - - - 3. all rural stations selected should be surrounded by relatively flat terrain within a radius of 10 km.

000 and 20.4 Highest Speed (Km/h) Sampling Rate (samples per sec) 60 45 90 68 120 90 150 113 The measured signals over the distance of 40 should be averaged. The frequency measured must be clean: - • For GSM. downtilt. This can be verified by checking whether the reception level is at zero when the transmitter is off. At least 36 samples must be collected over a distance of 40. The maps used to plan the survey routes should use the same projection system as the scanned maps in the Atoll calibration project. there must be 3 contiguous unused channels (i. This will allow you to validate the survey routes beforehand. and antenna height Transmission power.. height. of the transmitter (including their relative location.000 points per station must remain after averaging. the vehicle speed must be adapted accordingly. and height) Any nearby obstacles (for example. • • • 3. The maximum distance between 2 stored measurement points should be equal to one half the resolution of the clutter file used. The following data should be collected during the survey: • Measurement data: The radio data collected should meet the following criteria: - • A rooftop sketch: A rooftop sketch must be provided indicating the locations of: - The transmitting antenna Any rooftop obstacles (including their relative location. distance from transmitter. The azimuth and station number should be recorded for each photograph. For UMTS and CDMA2000. Only one frequency must be measured during a single survey. A typical number of points per measured station is between 10. a clearance of 200 kHz on either side of the measured signal). the following radio guidelines should be followed: • • • The area to be covered by the CW measurement survey must be scanned before performing the drive test to ensure that there is no interference. The Lee criterion must be satisfied in terms of sampling rate to overcome the effects of fast fading.Chapter 3: Collecting CW Measurement Data • • • • 3.3 When planning the survey routes. and width) • Panoramic photographs: Panoramic photographs should be taken from each rooftop of each station starting from north and turning clockwise. A typical number of points per measured station is between 10. Additional Deliverable Data During the survey. there must be one unused carrier.000 points. The GPS of the CW measurement equipment should be configured to match that of the mapping data. This is necessary to obtain a good representative sample of each clutter class. certain types of information should be collected in addition to measurements. But.000 points.000 points per station. The survey should have at least 5. distance from transmitter. If possible. Precise coordinates of each station measured during the CW survey Antenna patterns.e. The following table provides a list of required rates corresponding to different vehicle speeds in order to respect the Lee criterion for a frequency 900 MHz.2. This additional information will aid in interpreting the collected CW measurement data and will increase the overall quality of not only the CW survey but of the subsequent calibration.2.000 and 20. These photographs should show the surroundings in all directions. with the mean signal level (50th percentile) being the one stored. because the required rate depends on the highest speed the vehicle would travel during the survey. before actually making the survey. other buildings) within 400 m. This is necessary to obtain a good representative sample of each clutter class. Radio Criteria When planning a CW measurement survey. and transmission gain and losses AT271_MCG_E2 31 . • Transmission data: The following data should be recorded for all stations: - © Forsk 2008 The measurements to be imported should correspond to the average of the measured signals over the dis- tance of 40. you should try to ensure consistency between the coordinates given by the GPS on the survey route with those used in Atoll by making a test drive without taking measurements. At least 5. azimuth (if the antenna is not perfectly omnidirectional). any proposed routes should be presented for approval to the project manager in the form of vector maps in a format that can be imported in Atoll. The maximum distance between 2 stored measurement points should be equal to one half the resolution of the clutter class file used.

You can find an example of a survey site form in Chapter 6: Survey Site Form. receiver sensitivity. Each CW measurement file should be accompanied by a "Survey Site Form" indicating: • • • Details describing the station The locations of any spurious measurements where the physical clutter data does not coincide with the mapping data Any useful information about incidents that may have occurred. Vector maps: Vector maps of each survey route should be collected to be imported into the Atoll calibration project prior to the measurement survey.SPM Calibration Guide • Reception data: The following data should be recorded for all stations: - • Receiver height. 32 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .5). and reception gain and losses The voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) (should be < 1.

CHAPTER 4 The SPM Calibration Process Atoll RF Planning and Optimisation Software .

SPM Calibration Guide 34 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .

This is explained in "Checking the Correspondence Between Geo and Measurement Data" on page 43. Atoll offers several different ways for you to analyse the calibrated propagation model. - "Calibrating the SPM" on page 55. you must set a few necessary parameters and import or create the preliminary data. This is explained in "Filtering Measurement Data" on page 43. You must first set a few initial parameters in the propagation model and then you can begin the calibration process. For information on creating a document from a template. The missing values can be extrapolated from existing data or from standard values. the necessary CW measurements must be available. you must ensure that you have properly prepared for the process. from creating or selecting the project you will use to calibrate the SPM. the imported measurement values are supposed to be smoothed by the measurement equipment so that they are not subject to any fading effect. After preparing the CW measurement data. When the CW measurement data is available. - 4. 3. to calibrating the SPM. For information on planning the CW measurement survey. This step is very important because Atoll will use the geographical data of the document to evaluate the CW measurement points. your next step is to verify that the CW measurement data you have just imported correspond to the geographical data of the Atoll document you will be using for calibration. 4. and in order to improve the input data for calibration. using either the automated or the assisted method.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process 4 The SPM Calibration Process This chapter explains the SPM calibration process. to deploying the calibrated propagation model. Once you are satisfied that the positions of the CW measurement points correspond properly to the geographical data in the Atoll document. see the User Manual. For information on making a copy of an existing document. you can filter out the CW measurement data that. When you have imported the CW measurements. you can average them by defining a smoothing sliding window as explained in "Smoothing measurements to reduce the fading effect" on page 76. Once you have created the calibration document. - "Setting Up Your Calibration Project" on page 35. especially clutter to each point. you can begin calibrating the SPM. you can import the CW measurement data and filter them in order to ensure that only meaningful data is used for calibration.1 Creating an Atoll Calibration Document You can create the Atoll calibration document in one of two ways: • From a template: You can create a new Atoll document from a template. If the points are not properly situated on the map. Before you can begin the calibration process.1 "Deploying the Calibrated Model" on page 70. In the case the fading effects occur on the measured samples. for various reasons. When the Atoll document has been created with all the necessary data.1. Deploying the calibrated propagation model: The final propagation model can now be deployed to the transmitters for which it was calibrated. Creating the Atoll document is explained in "Creating an Atoll Calibration Document" on page 35. First. After calibration. - "Finalising the Settings of the Calibrated Model" on page 66. These steps are explained in the following sections: • © Forsk 2008 "Setting Coordinates" on page 36 AT271_MCG_E2 35 . Atoll is delivered with a template for each technology you will be planning for. you can begin the SPM calibration process: 1. you must make a few final adjustments to compensate for values that could not be calibrated due to missing or incomplete data. 2. see Chapter 3: Collecting CW Measurement Data. the final step before proceeding to the calibration step is selecting the base stations that will be used for calibration and those that will be used to verify the calibration process. Atoll will not be able to apply the correct geographical data. can not be used in the calibration process. you must first create or select an Atoll document with the network and geographical data necessary to recreate the CW measurement data survey area. 4. see the User Manual. Finalising the calibrated propagation model: When you have calibrated the propagation model and are satisfied with the results. you can make a copy of it to use in the calibration process so that you can calibrate the SPM without making changes to the original document. as explained in "Selecting Base Stations for Calibration and for Verification" on page 54. Setting Up Your Calibration Project When you set up the calibration project. • From an existing document: If you already have an existing document covering the CW measurement survey area. Calibrate the SPM: When the CW measurement data has been selected and filtered. In theory. If you already have an Atoll document that you will use to calibrate the SPM. Setting up the calibration project: The first step consists of creating an Atoll document with all of the network and geographical data necessary to recreate the CW measurement survey area. you can continue directly with "Importing CW Measurements" on page 36.

1 "Importing Geo Data" on page 36. you must convert them to a single cartographic system. thus. For more information on any of the geographic data formats that can be used in Atoll. with DAT. For information on importing geographic data. or a map of roadways. Several different geographic data types are used in a calibration project: • Digital Terrain Model: The DTM describes the elevation of the ground over sea level and is indispensable in a calibration project. • WMS Raster-format Geo Data Files: Raster images from a Web Map Service (WMS) server. If you regularly import CW measurement files of the same format. Although they are not used in calculations. or spaces as separator). If not. it is possible to have different heights within a single clutter class. see the User Manual. see the User Manual. The imported files can also contain other information. For Atoll to be able to use the data in imported files. The image must be in TIFF format and be referenced in the document. for example. the same coordinate system is used for both. 4.1. you define the two coordinate systems for each Atoll document: the projection coordinate system and the display coordinate system. The maps displayed in the workspace are referenced with the same projection system as the imported geographic data files. you must indicate which columns give the abscissa and ordinate (XY coordinates) of each point. When you import the data. the imported files must contain the following information: • • The position of the CW measurement points. In this section. You can use a WMS image to add a precise background for other objects. AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . or to add place names.SPM Calibration Guide • 4. it can not be embedded.1. The import configuration contains information that defines the structure of the data in the CW measurement file. You can import a single CW measurement file or several CW measurement files at the same time. • Clutter Heights: Clutter height maps describe the altitude of clutter over the DTM with one altitude defined per pixel. semi-colons. you will not need to define the data structure each time you import a new CW measurement file. such as point names and field characteristics.1. you can import CW measurement files in the form of ASCII text files (with tabs. they can be used to verify the accuracy of proposed survey routes. • Clutter Classes: The clutter class geo data file describes land cover or land use. for example. the projection system depends on the imported geographic file.2 Importing CW Measurements In Atoll.1. that can be used to define the display of measurement points. Setting Coordinates In Atoll. By default. For more information on the projection and display coordinate systems in Atoll.2 Importing Geo Data The geographic data is an important part of an Atoll document when the document is going to be used for a calibration project. Notes: All imported raster geographic files must be use the same cartographic system. Clutter height maps can offer more precise information than defining an altitude per clutter class because. • Scanned Images: Scanned images are geographic data files which represent the actual physical surroundings. the following are described: • • • • 36 "Importing a CW Measurement Path" on page 37 "Importing Several CW Measurement Paths" on page 38 "Creating a CW Measurement Import Configuration" on page 40 "Defining the Display of CW Measurements" on page 40. The measured signal level at each point. TXT. WMS images are not used in calculations. and CSV extensions. and the Technical Reference Guide. in a clutter height file. road maps or satellite images. Either clutter classes or clutter heights must be present in a calibration project. Note: The only propagation models that can take clutter heights into account in calculations are the Standard Propagation Model and WLL model. you can create an import configuration. 4. see the User Manual. • Vector Maps: Maps with possible survey routes defined as vectors can be imported to verify the planned survey routes against other maps. to filter points. By using the import configuration.1. They are used to provide a precise background for other objects.

Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process

4.1.2.1

Importing a CW Measurement Path
To import a CW measurement file:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the CW Measurements folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
4. Select the file or files you want to open.
5. Click Open. The Import of Measurement Files dialogue appears.
6. On the General tab:
a. Enter a Name for the CW measurement. By default, the CW measurement is given the name of the file being
imported.
b. Under Reference Transmitter, select the Transmitter with which the CW measurements were made and select the Frequency.
c. Under Receiver, enter the Height of the receiver, the Gain, and the Losses.
d. Under Measurements, define the Unit used for the CW measurements.
e. If the Coordinates used for the CW measurement data are different than the one displayed, click the Browse
button (

) and select the coordinate system used.

Important: CW measurements are usually made using WGS84. By default the coordinate system displayed in the coordinates field is the display system used in the document. If the CW measurements were made using WGS84, be sure to select WGS84, a geographic system as
indicated by the globe symbol ( ).
7. Click the Setup tab (see Figure 4.8). If you already have an import configuration defining the data structure of the
imported file or files, you can select it from the Configuration list on the Setup tab of the Import of Measurement
Files dialogue. If you do not have an import configuration, continue with step 8.
a. Under Configuration, select an import configuration from the Configuration list.
b. Continue with step 9.

Figure 4.8: The Setup tab of the Import of Measurement Files dialogue

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Notes:
• When importing a CW measurement path file, existing configurations are available in the Files
of type list of the Open dialogue, sorted according to their date of creation. After you have
selected a file and clicked Open, Atoll automatically proposes a configuration, if it recognises
the extension. In case several configurations are associated with an extension, Atoll chooses
the first configuration in the list.
• The defined configurations are stored, by default, in the file "MeasImport.ini", located in the directory where Atoll is installed. For more information on the MeasImport.ini file, see the Administrator Manual.
8. Under File, on the Setup tab:
a. Enter the number of the 1st Measurement Row, select the data Separator, and select the Decimal Symbol
used in the file.
b. Click Setup to link file columns and internal Atoll fields. The CW Measurement Setup dialogue appears.
c. Select the columns in the imported file that give the X-Coordinates and the Y-Coordinates of each point in
the CW measurement path file.
Note:

You can also identify the columns containing the XY coordinates of each point in the CW
measurement path by selecting them from the Field row of the table on the Setup tab.

d. In the Measurements box, select the field that contains the value of the measured signal for each defined
point.
e. Click OK to close the CW Measurement Setup dialogue.
f.

If there is other data available in the file, in the table under File, define the Type for each additional column of
data.

9. Once you have defined the import parameters, click Import. The CW measurement data are imported into the current Atoll document.

4.1.2.2

Importing Several CW Measurement Paths
To import several CW measurement files:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the CW Measurements folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
4. Select the file or files you want to open.
Note:

You can select contiguous files by clicking the first file you want to import, pressing SHIFT
and clicking the last file you want to import. You can select non-contiguous files by pressing CTRL and clicking each file you want to import.

5. Click Open. The Import of Measurement Files dialogue appears.
6. On the General tab:
a. Enter a Name for the CW measurement. By default, the CW measurement is given the name of the file being
imported.
b. Under Reference Transmitter, select the Transmitter with which the CW measurements were made and select the Frequency.
c. Under Receiver, enter the Height of the receiver, the Gain, and the Losses.
d. Under Measurements, define the Unit used for the CW measurements.
e. If the Coordinates used for the CW measurement data are different than the one displayed, click the Browse
button (

) and select the coordinate system used.

Important: CW measurements are usually made using WGS84. By default the coordinate system displayed in the coordinates field is the display system used in the document. If the CW measurements were made using WGS84, be sure to select WGS84, a geographic system as
indicated by the globe symbol ( ).
7. Click the Setup tab (see Figure 4.8). If you already have an import configuration defining the data structure of the
imported file or files, you can select it from the Configuration list on the Setup tab of the Import of Measurement
Files dialogue. If you do not have an import configuration, continue with step 8.
a. Under Configuration, select an import configuration from the Configuration list.
b. Continue with step 9.

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Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process
Notes:
• When importing a CW measurement path file, existing configurations are available in the Files
of type list of the Open dialogue, sorted according to their date of creation. After you have
selected a file and clicked Open, Atoll automatically proposes a configuration, if it recognises
the extension. In case several configurations are associated with an extension, Atoll chooses
the first configuration in the list.
• The defined configurations are stored, by default, in the file "MeasImport.ini", located in the directory where Atoll is installed. For more information on the MeasImport.ini file, see the Administrator Manual.
8. Under File, on the Setup tab:
a. Enter the number of the 1st Measurement Row, select the data Separator, and select the Decimal Symbol
used in the file.
b. Click Setup to link file columns and internal Atoll fields. The CW Measurement Setup dialogue appears.
c. Select the columns in the imported file that give the X-Coordinates and the Y-Coordinates of each point in
the CW measurement path file.
Note:

You can also identify the columns containing the XY coordinates of each point in the CW
measurement path by selecting them from the Field row of the table on the Setup tab.

d. In the Measurements box, select the field that contains the value of the measured signal for each defined
point.
e. Click OK to close the CW Measurement Setup dialogue.
f.

If there is other data available in the file, in the table under File, define the Type for each additional column of
data.

9. If you wish to save the definition of the data structure so that you can use it again, you can save it as an import
configuration:
a. On the Setup tab, under Configuration, click Save. The Configuration dialogue appears.
b. By default, Atoll saves the configuration in a special file called "MeasImport.ini" found in Atoll’s installation
folder. In case you cannot write into that folder, you can click Browse to choose a different location.
c. Enter a Configuration Name and an Extension of the files that this import configuration will describe (for example, "*.csv").
d. Click OK.
Atoll will now select this import configuration automatically every time you import a test mobile data path file
with the selected extension. If you import a file with the same structure but a different extension, you will be
able to select this import configuration from the Configuration list.
Notes:

You do not have to complete the import procedure to save the import configuration and have it
available for future use.
When importing a CW measurement file, you can expand the MeasImport.ini file by clicking the
button ( ) in front of the file in the Setup part to display all the available import configurations.
When selecting the appropriate configuration, the associations are automatically made in the
table at the bottom of the dialogue.
You can delete an existing import configuration by selecting the import configuration under
Setup and clicking the Delete button.

10. Once you have defined the import parameters, you can import the selected files:
-

When importing several files for the same transmitter: Click Import All. The CW measurement data are
imported into the current Atoll document.
Note:

-

When you click the Import All button, Atoll does not import files that do match the currently selected import configuration. It displays an error message and continues with the
next file.

When importing several files for different transmitters:
i.

Click Import. The CW measurement data are imported into the current Atoll document.

ii. Click the General tab to ensure that the information on the General tab, especially the Reference Transmitter selected, reflect the current file being imported.
iii. If necessary, click the Setup tab and redefine the import configuration for the current file being imported.
iv. Click Import to import the current file.
v. Repeat these steps for each file being imported.

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4.1.2.3

Creating a CW Measurement Import Configuration
If you regularly import CW measurement files of the same format, you can create an import configuration the first time you
import the CW measurement files. The import configuration contains information that defines the structure of the data in
the CW measurement file. By using the import configuration, you will not need to define the data structure each time you
import a new CW measurement file.
To create a CW measurement import configuration:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.
2. Right-click the CW Measurements folder. The context menu appears.
3. Select Import from the context menu. The Open dialogue appears.
4. Select the file or files you want to open.
5. Click Open. The Import of Measurement Files dialogue appears.
6. Click the Setup tab (see Figure 4.8).
7. Under File, on the Setup tab, define the data structure of the file or files you have selected:
a. Enter the number of the 1st Measurement Row, select the data Separator, and select the Decimal Symbol
used in the file.
b. Click Setup to link file columns and internal Atoll fields. The CW Measurement Setup dialogue appears.
c. Select the columns in the imported file that give the X-Coordinates and the Y-Coordinates of each point in
the CW measurement path file.
Note:

You can also identify the columns containing the XY coordinates of each point in the CW
measurement path by selecting them from the Field row of the table on the Setup tab.

d. In the Measurements box, select the field that contains the value of the measured signal for each defined
point.
e. Click OK to close the CW Measurement Setup dialogue.
f.

If there is other data available in the file, in the table under File, define the Type for each additional column of
data.

8. On the Setup tab, under Configuration, click Save. The Configuration dialogue appears.
a. By default, Atoll saves the configuration in a special file called "MeasImport.ini" found in Atoll’s installation
folder. In case you cannot write into that folder, you can click Browse to choose a different location.
b. Enter a Configuration Name and an Extension of the files that this import configuration will describe (for example, "*.csv").
c. Click OK.
Atoll will now select this import configuration automatically every time you import a test mobile data path file
with the selected extension. If you import a file with the same structure but a different extension, you will be
able to select this import configuration from the Configuration list.
Notes:


4.1.2.4

You do not have to complete the import procedure to save the import configuration and have it
available for future use.
When importing a CW measurement file, you can expand the MeasImport.ini file by clicking the
button ( ) in front of the file in the Setup part to display all the available import configurations.
When selecting the appropriate configuration, the associations are automatically made in the
table at the bottom of the dialogue.
You can delete an existing import configuration by selecting the import configuration under
Setup and clicking the Delete button.
The defined configurations are stored, by default, in the file "MeasImport.ini", located in the directory where Atoll is installed. For more information on the MeasImport.ini file, see the Administrator Manual.

Defining the Display of CW Measurements
You can define how CW measurements are displayed in Atoll’s map window. CW measurements are organised in folders
according to their reference transmitter on the Data tab of the Explorer window.
You can define the display of individual CW measurements but also set the same display parameters for all CW measurements or for all CW measurements for the same reference transmitter.
To define the display of a CW measurement path:
1. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window.

40

2. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the CW Measurements folder.

3. Click the Expand button (

) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter.

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- Value intervals: defines the display of each object according to set ranges of the value of a selected field. The context menu appears. You can click the Actions button to access the Actions menu. 8. Atoll inserts a new threshold in the table before the threshold selected in the table. see "Using the Actions Button" on page 41. The following options are available: - "Defining the Display Type" on page 41 "Using the Actions Button" on page 41 "Defining the Visibility Scale" on page 42 "Defining the Tip Text" on page 42 "Adding CW Measurement Points to the Legend" on page 42. To modify the appearance of the symbol: a. Insert after: When the selected display type is value intervals. iv. For information on the commands available. Atoll automatically assigns a colour to each transmitter. 2. Atoll inserts a new threshold in the table after the threshold selected in the table. For example. Define the ranges directly in the table. see "Using the Actions Button" on page 41. ensuring that each transmitter has a different colour than the transmitters surrounding it. The Symbol Style dialogue appears. Insert before: When the selected display type is value intervals. you can choose from the following display types: unique. ii. signal strength. to distinguish population density. To change the display type: 1. You can click the Actions button to access the Actions menu. discrete values. Click the symbol in the table below. 6. Open the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Defining the Display of CW Measurements" on page 40. - Multiple Shadings: allows you to display measurement points by more than one criterion at a time. value intervals. The Actions menu gives you access to the following commands: - © Forsk 2008 Select all: Atoll selects all the values in the table. For information on the commands available. Defining the Display Type Depending on the object selected. i. ii. c. 7. see "Using the Actions Button" on page 41. - Discrete values: defines the display of each CW measurement point according to the value of a selected field. Modify the symbol as desired. i. The Properties dialogue appears. AT271_MCG_E2 41 . i. Select Properties from the context menu. This display type can be used to distinguish CW measurement points by one characteristic. Right-click the CW measurement whose display you want to define. Select the Display tab. b. Click OK. 5. Click OK to close the Symbol Style dialogue. or multiple shadings. Modify the symbol as desired. You can click the Actions button to access the Actions menu. Set the display parameters. Click OK to close the Symbol Style dialogue. for example. ii. 2. you could use this display type to distinguish CW measurement points by the clutter type they are on.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process 4. Select the display type from the Display Type list: - Unique: defines the same symbol for all CW measurement points. iii. Using the Actions Button The Actions button on the Display tab of the Properties dialogue allows you to modify the display type as defined in "Defining the Display Type" on page 41. Delete: Atoll removes selected value from the table. only available for transmitters. To access the Actions menu: 1. iii. For information on the commands available. or the altitude of sites. Click the Actions button. Select the name of the Field by which you want to display the objects. Click the symbol in the table below. The Symbol Style dialogue appears. This display type can be used. Select the name of the Field by which you want to display the objects. or by their reference transmitter. Open the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Defining the Display of CW Measurements" on page 40.

Defining the Tip Text For most object types. such as sites and transmitters. 3. Only visible objects appear in the Legend window. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Defining the Display of CW Measurements" on page 40. defining labels that are always visible is not recommended. In Figure 4. A measurement point is visible only if the scale. Once you have defined the tool tips. you can display information about each object in the form of a tool tip that is only visible when you move the pointer over the object. you can obtain a similar colouring by excluding the last break of the CW path display. Tool tips will now appear when the pointer is over the object. Note: Predictions and CW measurements are shaded differently. Given the large number of CW measurement points in a CW survey. When "Value Intervals" is the selected display type. For information on displaying or hiding objects. Adding CW Measurement Points to the Legend You can display the information defined by the display type (see "Defining the Display Type" on page 41) in your Atoll document’s legend. is within this range.SPM Calibration Guide - Shading: Atoll opens the Shading dialogue. prevent the map from being cluttered with symbols when you are at a certain scale. To define tip text for an object type: 1. including from fields that you add. select the field in the Selected Fields list and click Note: to remove it. you must activate the tool tip function before they appear. For more information on tool tips. Select the fields which you want to display in the label: a. see "Defining the Tip Text" on page 42. When "Discrete Values" is the selected display type. Nevertheless. To activate the tool tip function: • Click the Display Tips button ( ) on the toolbar. you select Shading to choose a Start Colour and an End Colour. The value intervals will be determined by the set values and coloured by a shade going from the set start colour to the set end colour. 3. for example. and enter a value in the Interval box. Visibility ranges are taken into account for screen display. Define the colour shading by choosing a Start Colour and an End Colour. Enter a Visibility Scale minimum in the between 1: text box. Enter a Visibility Scale maximum in the and 1: text box. Defining the Visibility Scale You can define a visibility range for CW measurement points. the intervals defined are: • • • 42 Signal level >= -65red -65 > Signal level >= -105shading from red to blue (9 intervals) Signal level < -105not shown in the coverage. 2. This can be used to. Note: For most object types. To select a field to be displayed in the label for the object type. Click the Browse button ( ) beside the Tip Text box. The Field Selection dialogue appears. To remove a field from the list of Group these fields in this order. Enter the upper and lower limits of the value in the First Break and Last Break boxes respectively. you can also display object information in the form of a tool tip that is only visible when you move the pointer over the object. as displayed on the zoom toolbar. on the Display tab of a signal level prediction.9. you select Shading to define the number of value intervals and configure their colour. You can also display information about data objects in the form of a label that is displayed with the object. This option has the advantage of not filling the map window with text. select the field in the Available Fields list and click to move it to the Selected Fields list. To define the visibility range: 1. You can display information from every field in that object type’s data table. They do not affect which measurement points are considered during calculations. select the ’Filter up to Last Break’ check box. To do this. 2. and for printing and previewing printing. b. see the User Manual. Access the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Defining the Display of CW Measurements" on page 40. AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .

as shown in Figure 4. 4.4 Filtering Measurement Data One of the most important steps in preparing CW measurement data for use in a calibration project is filtering the measurement points. For information on setting the display according to measurement levels. you can enter information in the Legend column to be displayed on the legend. see "About Potentially Invalid Measurement Levels" on page 50. For information on defining an angle filter. 1.3 Checking the Correspondence Between Geo and Measurement Data You can quickly verify the correspondence between the CW measurements and the Atoll geo data by importing the CW measurements and a set of vector files representing roads or a scanned map of the area and checking that the CW measurement survey routes correspond with the geo data. If there is an obstacle close to the base station. you should verify that there are no nearby obstacles disturbing propagation. When you are filtering CW measurement data. 2. You can also check whether the measurement path starts or ends at approximately the location of the base station used for the CW measurements. Figure 4. the goal is to eliminate the points that are the least repre- © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 43 . 4. Check the Add to legend box. you can check whether the station location is consistent with its relative measurement path by displaying measurement points according to measurement levels.10: Distribution of the Measured Signal Strength around a station If panoramic photographs of the area surrounding the base station are available.9: Defined thresholds as they will appear in the Legend With value intervals. Figure 4. If there is no information entered in this column. It is also important to check that the CW measurement survey routes used correspond to the planned survey routes to ensure that the CW measurement points are evenly distributed around the station. you can filter out the obstructed CW measurement data using an angle filter or remove the station from the set of CW measurement data if the obstruction is too wide. Open the Display tab of the Properties dialogue as explained in "Defining the Display of CW Measurements" on page 40. the maximum and minimum values are displayed instead.10.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process The entries in the Legend column will appear in the Legend window. If the IDs of the CW measurement points do not reflect the order in which the measurements were collected. The defined display will appear on the legend.1. see "Filtering by Angle" on page 54.1.

then the clutter class should be filtered out. If you wish. this should just be used as a guideline. You can always re-import the original measurement data if you want to add those points again. Filtering CW measurement data is made in several steps. 2. their values appear high or low.1. there may be a park along the survey route that is classifed as "Forest" in terms of clutter class. However. if filtering out the points on a clutter class means that that clutter class will no longer be represented at all.4. Then. right-click the CW measurements whose statistics you wish to display: - 44 All CW measurements: Right-click the CW Measurements folder. they may show extreme signal levels. A single CW measurement path: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. To display the point distribution statistics for CW measurements: 1. AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . they might be too close to the transmitter. In other words. 4. see "Filtering by Geo Data Conditions" on page 49. The rule of thumb is 5%: if only 5% of the points on a measurement plan are on a given clutter class. There are not enough points to give a statistically good sampling of the conditions for that clutter class. Removing sections that are not representative: The final step in filtering CW measurement data consists of examining the CW measurement data to remove points that are affected by obstruction or that are potentially invalid. it is possible that not all steps will be necessary. You can always try calibrating the propagation model once with the clutter class and once without and comparing the results. the basic steps are: 1. Typically you will want to remove all points on clutter classes that are represented by less than 5% of the total measurement points in the CW survey. however. right-click the CW measurement path. 3. If only a few measurement paths have points on a given clutter class or only a few points are located on this class. Therefore. keeping these points will likely cause the clutter class to be incorrectly calibrated. The zones where the measurement points are located might be in an area where the results can not be considered accurate (for example. i. keeping the points in the forest clutter class will lead to inaccurate results.11 shows the distribution of statistics for all CW measurements. Although you would normally consider filtering out certain data if. it is highly recommended not to take irrelevant clutter classes into account during the calibration process. see "Filtering on Clutter Classes" on page 44. Under certain circumstances. leading to incorrect coverage prediction results when the calibrated propagation model is used.1 Filtering on Clutter Classes The first step in filtering measurement points is to filter out the points by clutter class. see "Signal and Distance Filtering" on page 45. Filtering by clutter class: The first step in filtering CW measurement data is to filter out points by clutter class. The filtering process is often. You should also remove the measurement points located on clutter classes that are not at all representative of the survey area. If the area itself is mostly dense urban. and to deduce the clutter losses afterwards using similar clutter classes and typical values. Important: Before the point distribution statistics can be displayed. they might be in clutter classes that are of no significance in terms of the propagation model to be calibrated. For information on filtering by distance and signal strength. Important: If you set filters on the CW Measurements folder. therefore. you must calculate signal levels on the CW measurement points. you can permanently delete the points you filter out.SPM Calibration Guide sentative of the survey area while retaining a number of points that is both representative and large enough to provide statistically valid results. For information on filtering by clutter class.e. if that clutter class is not well represented in any survey path. you might want to keep them. Figure 4. For information on filtering by distance and signal strength. You can view the point distribution statistics for all CW measurements. For example. you might consider leaving some of them in. On the Data tab of the Explorer window. any filters set on individual CW measurement paths will be erased. you might consider leaving those points on the CW survey path where they are best represented. for example. There are several reasons why you would not want to take certain measurement points into consideration: • • The measurement points might appear potentially invalid. if filtering them all out leaves you with too small a sample.. measurement points affected by diffraction or measurement points that are too high or too low. You can calculate signal levels by right-clicking the CW Measurements folder and selecting Calculations > Calculate Signal Levels from the context menu. Or you can filter them out for the current calibration. but leave them in the measurement data. the points for that clutter class should be removed. for example. a series of trade-offs. Filtering by signal strength and distance: The next step is to filter out points that lay outside of a defined range of signals and that are either too close to or too far from the reference transmitter. or they might suffer from too much diffraction. All CW measurements for a single reference transmitter: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and right-click the folder of the reference transmitter. By the same token. Depending on the CW measurement data available and the individual calibration project. or for a single CW measurement path. or all CW measurements for a single reference transmitter. any points coming from behind a directional antenna should not be used in a calibration project).

The context menu appears. Click OK.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process The context menu appears. which also have to be considered. Warning: Remember that. Figure 4. 3. The selected CW measurement data will be filtered according to the defined parameters. Click Close to close the dialogue. To respect this goal.2 Signal and Distance Filtering The goal of the calibration process is to produce an accurate propagation model which can be used to reliably calculate the propagation of each base station within the area. There are limitations in the measurement equipment. The Properties dialogue appears. 4. by selecting the Delete Points Outside Filter check box. using the Filtering Assistant (see "Using the Filtering Assistant on CW Measurement Points" on page 47) will also be permanently deleted. 5. Select Display Statistics from the context menu. Select Properties from the context menu. 4. points that you filter out using other methods. 2. right-click the CW measurements whose statistics you have just examined: - All CW measurements: Right-click the CW Measurements folder. 4. Once you have defined this property. Click the Parameters tab. a dialogue appears where you can choose the statistics of which CW measurement paths you want to display. 6. select the Delete Points Outside Filter check box. © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 45 . If you permenantly delete measurement points and later want to use them. Take note of the clutter classes that have few measurement points (with only 5% or lower of the total number of points). A single CW measurement path: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. clear the check boxes of the clutter classes you want to filter out. for example. Then. 3. with the distribution of the selected CW measurements (see Figure 4.11: Point distribution in the different clutter classes To filter out the measurement points from the under-represented clutter classes: 1. you are defining a property of the CW measurement path. The statistics dialogue appears. In the Per Clutter window. Select or clear the check boxes to choose the CW measurement paths and click OK.4. If you want to permanently remove these measurement points. right-click the CW measurement path. 2. the propagation model’s own constraints with respect to signal levels have to be taken into account. under Filter.11). you will have to re-import the original measurement data. If more than one CW measurement path is selected. On the Data tab of the Explorer window. All CW measurements for a single reference transmitter: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and right-click the folder of the reference transmitter. Only the clutter classes whose check box is selected will be taken into account.1.

or in a single CW measurement path.2. When filtering out CW measurement points by signal strength. in all the CW measurement paths for one reference transmitter. Click OK. Measurement and Max. You can also use the Parameters tab of the Properties dialogue to filter on the following criteria: - Clutter class: For information on filtering by clutter class. Additional fields: For information on filtering with additional fields. right-click the CW measurements whose points you want to filter: - All CW measurements: Right-click the CW Measurements folder. All CW measurements for a single reference transmitter: Click the Expand button ( Measurements folder and right-click the folder of the reference transmitter. In this section. 4. 5. On the Data tab of the Explorer window. see "Filtering on Clutter Classes" on page 44. see "Filtering by Angle" on page 54.SPM Calibration Guide In this section. All CW measurements for a single reference transmitter: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and right-click the folder of the reference transmitter.2. 4. in all the CW measurement paths for one reference transmitter. For information on the filtering assistant. 4. You can create an advanced filter to filter the values in either all CW measurement paths. On the Data tab of the Explorer window. A typical value for the minimum signal level filter can be then considered to be: -120 + 8 = -112 dBm When filtering out by distance from the reference transmitter. filtering out CW measurement points based on the signal strength or their distance from the reference transmitter is explained: • • • • 4. the sensitivity of the receiver and tolerance have to be considered. because they would be inaccurate because of receiver overload. you will have to re-import the original measurement data.2. Atoll will keep only CW measurement points which are within this range. Therefore. Then. The selected CW measurement data will be filtered according to the defined parameters. you can filter the values in either all CW measurement paths. Under Filter. measurement data at a distance of less than 200 m from the station should be discarded because these points are too close to the station to properly represent the propagation over the whole area. 2. When you filter on the minimum signal level. some typical values are given. Measured signal: Enter the Min.4. right-click the CW measurements whose points you want to filter: - 46 All CW measurements: Right-click the CW Measurements folder. A single CW measurement path: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. or in a single CW measurement path. The Properties dialogue appears. AT271_MCG_E2 ) to expand the CW © Forsk 2008 . Click the Parameters tab. signal levels above -40 dBm are filtered out. 3. If you want to permanently remove these measurement points. 6.1. Measurement. To filter out CW measurement points using an advanced filter: 1. signals below “Receiver Sensitivity + Target Standard Deviation” have to be filtered out to avoid the effect of noise saturation in the results. Select Properties from the context menu.1 "Typical Values" on page 46 "Using Manual Filtering on CW Points" on page 46 "Creating an Advanced Filter" on page 46 "Using the Filtering Assistant on CW Measurement Points" on page 47. Distance and Max.1.2 Using Manual Filtering on CW Points When you filter CW measurements on signal strength or distance.4. To filter out CW measurement points on signal strength or distance: 1. Angle with the antenna azimuth: For information on filtering by the angle with the antenna azimuth. A typical maximum value is 10 km for rural areas.1.3 Creating an Advanced Filter Atoll enables you to create an advanced filter using several fields and expressions with which you can filter CW measurement points. see "Creating an Advanced Filter" on page 46.4. Caution: If you permenantly delete measurement points and later want to use them. it is highly recommended to use the filtering assistant to define a specific signal and distance filters for each CW measurement file. Distance. Atoll will keep only CW measurement points whose value is within this range. The context menu appears. generally. see "Using the Filtering Assistant on CW Measurement Points" on page 47. Atoll provides a filtering assistant that can be used for each CW measurement path. define the settings for signal strength and distance: - Distance between CW measurement point and reference transmitter: Enter the Min. These values are by definition general. select the Delete Points Outside Filter check box. right-click the CW measurement path. Typical Values The values to be used to filter CW measurements depend on a lot of factors.

) to expand the CW Measurements folder.12).1. 2. you can only use the Filtering Assistant on individual CW measurement paths. 4. and not on groups of CW measurement paths.13).Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process - A single CW measurement path: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. Click OK to filter the data according to the criteria you have defined. enter the criteria on which the column will be filtered as explained in the following table: Formula Data are kept in the table only if =X value equal to X (X may be a number or characters) <> X value not equal to X (X may be a number or characters) <X numerical value is less than X >X numerical value is greater than X <=X numerical value is less than or equal to X >=X numerical value is greater than or equal to X *X* text objects which contain X *X text objects which end with X X* text objects which start with X 7. 5. Then.2. Click the Parameters tab. On the Parameters tab. Distance.4. Filters are combined first horizontally. Select Properties from the context menu. even if they are for the same reference transmitter. To use the Filtering Assistant: 1. Underneath each column name. ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. 6. Or.12: Filtering Assistant Launching 4. Max Distance. 4. Min. select the name of the column to be filtered on from the list. click the Expand button ( The CW Measurements folder opens. Select as many columns as you want. you can filter by drawing a rectangle in the graph. The context menu appears (see Figure 4. After including or excluding points. The reference transmitter folder 3.4 Using the Filtering Assistant on CW Measurement Points Atoll makes available a Filtering Assistant to help you filter the CW measurements points of each CW measurement path. where "d" represents the distance. Because each CW measurement path is made under different circumstances. and Max Measurement. Figure 4. Measurement. The Filtering Assistant dialogue appears (see Figure 4. The Filtering Assistant dialogue displays measurements by 10log(d). The Filtering Assistant enables you to filter by entering the values for Min. Right-click the CW measurement path. 2. On the Data tab of the Explorer window. 3. you can verify the number of points remaining and their percentage of the whole. The context menu appears. Select Filtering Assistant from the context menu. The Filter dialogue appears. click the More button. © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 47 . In the Column row. This enables you to check whether measurement points are homogeneously distributed for the relevant signal level and distance according to a linear function. Click the Expand button ( opens. then vertically. The Properties dialogue appears. You can select the points to keep or you can select areas with few points to exclude the points. right-click the CW measurement path.

b. Select Excluded Selected Points from the context menu (see Figure 4. respecting minimum distance and minimum and maximum values. The selection rectangle appears outlined in red. The context menu appears. Click on the graph where you want to start the rectangle that will contain the points to keep. When you release the mouse.SPM Calibration Guide 5. Right-click the rectangle. 48 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . c. Typically. Figure 4. Click on the graph where you want to start the rectangle that will contain the points to exclude. the values reflected by the current selection are displayed in the fields on the left. The selection rectangle appears outlined in red. see "Filtering on Clutter Classes" on page 44. the values reflected by the current selection are displayed in the fields on the left. Drag to the opposite corner. Select Filter Selected Points from the context menu (see Figure 4. The Number of Points field displays the number of points kept as well as their percentage of the whole. Right-click the rectangle. All points outside the rectangle are filtered out.13: Point Selection Tool in the Filtering Assistant To select points to exclude: a. 6. The Number of Points field displays the number of points kept as well as their percentage of the whole.13). Drag to the opposite corner. The context menu appears. All points inside the rectangle are filtered out. clear the check box of any clutter class that is either under-represented or unrepresentative of the survey zone. d.14). Filter the measurement points by selection. For more information. c. d. you will first select the points to include. When you release the mouse. To select points to include: a. Under Clutter. b. and then you will exclude the anomalous points from that selection.

as they could be invalid. Click OK to apply the filters and close the dialogue. The profile between the site and the CW measurement point is displayed in the Point Analysis Tool window (see Figure 4. As well. and point index are displayed in the left of the dialogue. For more information. Areas around the reference transmitter where obstacles prevent proper propagation: Some measurement points should be removed because their reception is affected by obstructions between the measurement point and the reference transmitter.3 Filtering by Geo Data Conditions After you have made an initial selection of CW measurement points based on clutter classes and signal strength and distance. For more information. For example. measurement points that are behind a non-omni-directional antenna should be removed. There are several reasons why you should remove certain CW measurement points from a CW measurement path: • • • • Areas that suffer from diffraction: Areas that suffer from a large amount of diffraction should be filtered out because they are not representative of the entire area.1. if there are three diffraction peaks in the profile between the station and the measurement points there’s a greater chance of errors and thereby a negative influence on calibration. see "About Specific Sections" on page 50.1. © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 49 . • The Clear All button resets the existing filters.4. You can select and remove CW measurement points in several ways: • • • 4. see "About Specific Sections" on page 50. For more information. you can filter points based on geo data conditions.3.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process Figure 4. Notes: • When moving the mouse over the graph. Sections that are not representative of the survey area: Certain measurement points may not be representative of the entire area. the related distance.14: Point Exclusion Tool in the Filtering Assistant 7. see "About Diffraction" on page 49. You can use the CW Measurement Analysis Tool and the Point Analysis Tool to quickly review each measurement path for measurement points that have too many diffraction points.15). For more information. see "About Potentially Invalid Measurement Levels" on page 50.1 You can delete CW measurement points from the data table: "Deleting a Selection of Measurement Points" on page 52 You can draw an exclusion zone: "Using Exclusion Zones on CW Measurement Points" on page 53 You can filter out the points by their angle with the reference transmitter: "Filtering by Angle" on page 54. 4. About Diffraction CW measurement points that suffer from a large amount of diffraction should be filtered out because they are not representative of the entire area.4. Areas with potentially invalid points: Measurement points with a signal level that is significantly higher or lower than the CW measurement points around them should be removed. measurement.

Atoll enables you to verify the signal level of the CW measurement points: • • "Displaying CW Measurement Points by Signal Level" on page 50 "Using the CW Measurement Analysis Tool" on page 51. see "Using the CW Measurement and the Point Analysis Tools" on page 64.4. therefore.16). see "Using Exclusion Zones on CW Measurement Points" on page 53 Filtering them out by their angle to the antenna: For information. These points should be removed as they could be invalid and would. About Potentially Invalid Measurement Levels Some CW measurement points might have a signal level that is significantly higher or lower than the CW measurement points around them. have a negative effect on the accuracy of the calibration project.15: Point Analysis Tool window showing diffraction peaks For more information on using the CW Measurement Analysis Tool and the Point Analysis Tool to display diffraction peaks.4. potentially invalid measurements can be selected and deleted or filtered out by: • • • Selecting them in the data table: For information. see "Deleting a Selection of Measurement Points" on page 52 Creating an exclusion zone: For information. This way you can check on the map whether the propagation loss is spatially homogeneous. see "Filtering by Angle" on page 54. see "Using Exclusion Zones on CW Measurement Points" on page 53 Filtering them out by their angle to the antenna: For information. certain sections of CW survey routes must be removed before calibration. Any sudden drop in signal level or any areas where the received signal does not match your expectations will be immediately visible.1.2 About Specific Sections Under certain conditions.3. 4. see "Deleting a Selection of Measurement Points" on page 52 Creating an exclusion zone: For information. For example: • • • • • • A section where the profile between the transmitter and the receiver includes a forest area (unless this configuration is representative of the survey area) A section where the profile between the transmitter and the receiver passes over water (unless this configuration is representative of the survey area) A section of measurement points on a bridge A section of measurement points in a tunnel A section where the profile between the transmitter and the receiver is obstructed near the transmitter A section of CW measurement points behind an antenna that is not omni-directional. Displaying CW Measurement Points by Signal Level You can check whether propagation is homogeneous for all measurement paths by displaying each CW measurement point on a single path by signal level and displaying a grid around the reference transmitter (see Figure 4.3 Selecting them in the data table: For information.SPM Calibration Guide Figure 4. The values of the CW measurements in these sections could have been influenced by conditions in the profile between the measurement point and the reference transmitter. 50 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . These points can be selected and deleted or filtered out by: • • • 4.1. Once you have verified the signal level.3. see "Filtering by Angle" on page 54.

see "Defining the Display Type" on page 41. 3. Select the Display tab. 3. For more information. Define the display settings of the CW measurement path: a. The context menu appears. Right-click the reference transmitter in the map window. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window. c. Right-click the CW measurement path. Add the CW measurement points to the legend. 6. Define the grid around the reference transmitter: a. 2. d. The Radial Grid dialogue appears. © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 51 . 4. The Legend window appears. b. Using the CW Measurement Analysis Tool You can use the CW Measurement Analysis Tool to analyse variations in the signal level on all points on the CW measurement path. The CW Measurement Analysis Tool indicates any sudden drop in signal level or any areas where the received signal does not match your expectations. Select Grid from the context menu.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process Figure 4. as explained in "Adding CW Measurement Points to the Legend" on page 42. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder with the CW measurement path you want to analyse. 2. By examining the displayed CW measurement points on the map. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder. The context menu appears. Define a radial grid around the reference transmitter that covers the survey area. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. To analyse data variations using the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window.16: Distribution of the point positions around a station To display the signal level of CW measurement points on the map: 1. you can see on the map whether the propagation loss is spatially homogeneous. 1. Set the Display Type and select signal strength from the Field list. clear the display check box beside all CW measurement paths except the one you want to display. Select View > Legend Window. b. 4. 5. In the CW Measurements folder. This will limit the number of points displayed to the ones you want to examine. Click OK.

ordering the contents of the data table by Id makes it easier to select and delete contiguous selections of CW measurement points. Tip: 4. ii. which is indicated by the pointer ( ). 4.17: The CW Measurement Analysis Tool window 6. In the data table. 9. Deleting a Selection of Measurement Points When you have identified unreliable or irrelevant sections. Right-click the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window on the other end of the range of data you want to zoom in on. The CW Measurement Analysis Tool window appears (see Figure 4.17) Figure 4.3.SPM Calibration Guide 5. Select Sort Ascending or Sort Descending from the context menu. click the first point of the sequence to be deleted. 5. right-click the CW measurement path with the points you want to delete. The CW measurement path appears in the map window as a line connecting the reference transmitter and the CW measurement point. In the CW Measurements folder. You can select the secondary Y-axis from the list on the right-hand side on the top of the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window. Select Last Zoom Point from the context menu. Right-click the column name for the Id column. - Select the data to zoom in on: i. Atoll will automatically display in the table the data for the point that is displayed in the map and in the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window. iv. Right-click the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window.4 If you open the table for the CW measurement path you are displaying in the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window. Because the CW measurement points on the map are ordered sequentially by their Id. You can display the data in the CW measurement path in two ways: - Click the values in the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window. 52 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . 3. 8. The data table appears. The context menu appears. You can display a second Y-axis on the right side of the window in order to display the values of a second variable. Select Open the Analysis Tool from the context menu. Select Open Table from the context menu. 6. Click the data in the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window to display the selected point in the map window. To delete measurement points from the data table: 1. The contents of the data table are sorted by the Id of the CW measurement point. The context menu appears. ii.4. you can remove them by deleting them from the data table.1. Select Zoom In or Zoom Out from the context menu. Click the points on the CW measurement path in the map window. Atoll will recentre the map window on the selected point if it is not presently visible. You can change the zoom level of the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window in the following ways: - Zoom in or out: i. press SHIFT and click the last point of the sequence. Right-click the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window on one end of the range of data you want to zoom in on. iii. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window. Select First Zoom Point from the context menu. 7. 2. The CW Measurement Analysis Tool window zooms in on the data between the first zoom point and the last zoom point.

Right-click the CW measurement from which you want to exclude some points with an exclusion zone. 4. Click once on the map to define each point on the map where the border of the zone changes direction. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder. An exclusion zone applies only to the CW measurement path on which it is made. Click once on the map to start drawing the zone.4. AT271_MCG_E2 53 . The Properties dialogue appears. The exclusion zone is delimited by a red line. The context menu appears. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. Press DEL to delete the CW measurement points permanently from the data table. b. Note: © Forsk 2008 When you have created several exclusion zones for a path.1. Click twice to finish drawing and close the zone. Draw the exclusion zone to cover: a. 3. 2. Atoll automatically selects the same point in the data table. So. You can create several exclusion zones for each path. 5. you will have to re-import the original measurement data. Select Exclusion Zones > Draw from the context menu. 6. you can delete all of them at the same time by selecting the Delete Exclusion Polygons check box on the Parameters tab of the CW measurement path’s Properties dialogue.3. c.18: Simultaneous display of measurement path and table 4.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process Tip: When you select a CW measurement point on the map. To define an exclusion zone: 1. Figure 4. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. They are not taken into consideration in any calculations. 7. by arranging the map window and the data table so that both are visible. Caution: If you permenantly delete measurement points and later want to use them. This filter is added to any other filters applied to the CW measurement path.5 Using Exclusion Zones on CW Measurement Points When you have identified unreliable or irrelevant sections on a CW measurement path. The points of the path inside the exclusion zone are filtered out of the display and the data table. you can filter them out by creating an exclusion zone over the points you want to exclude. you can locate the first and last points of the selection in the data table by clicking them on the map.

Caution: If you permanently delete measurement points and later want to use them. If you want to permanently remove these measurement points. you can filter out CW measurement points that are outside of a set angle from the reference transmitter antenna beam. 3. A single CW measurement path: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. right-click the CW measurements whose points you want to filter by angle: - All CW measurements: Right-click the CW Measurements folder. 7. Absolute: Select Absolute if the antenna is omnidirectional. The context menu appears.1.4. the entered angles will then be offset from the north. 4. The Properties dialogue appears. select the Delete Points Outside Filter check box. Figure 4. a filter from -140 to 140 degrees relative to the antenna azimuth has been created to filter out CW measurement points in the 80 degrees directly behind the antenna. Click OK. Min.1. 2. Select the Parameters tab. Define the negative and positive angles of the aperture: a. select one of the following: - Relative: Select Relative if the antenna is directional. Under Angle with Antenna Azimuth. To define a filter by angle: 1. All CW measurements for a single reference transmitter: Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder and right-click the folder of the reference transmitter.19.3.5 Selecting Base Stations for Calibration and for Verification Once you have imported and filtered the CW measurement data. In the example in Figure 4. 5. Select Properties from the context menu. Selecting the correct base stations for calibration and verification is an important step in the process of calibrating the propagation model. b. you can select the base stations that you will use for calibration and those you will use for verification. 4. you will have to re-import the original measurement data.19: Angular Filter around a station 6. Because an omnidirectional antenna has no azimuth. Max. Angle: Enter a minimum angle from 0 to -180 degrees. 54 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . right-click the CW measurement path. Then. Angle: Enter a minimum angle from 0 to 180 degrees.SPM Calibration Guide 4. The entered angles will then be offset from the antenna’s azimuth. On the Data tab of the Explorer window.6 Filtering by Angle When you have sections of the CW measurement path that are obstructed by obstacles in the profile close to the transmitter between the CW measurement point and the reference transmitter or when the antenna is not completely omnidirectional.

the following initial SPM parameters are explained: • • 4. two base stations will be required for verification. you will only be able to meet the following quality targets if the CW measurements used in the calibration process are of good quality. Calibrating the SPM When the CW measurement data have been imported into the Atoll calibration project and prepared as explained in "Setting Up Your Calibration Project" on page 35.2. The Properties dialogue appears.1 "Parameters Tab" on page 55 "Clutter Tab" on page 57. Atoll offers both an automatic and an assisted allocation wizard. For verification: Select several paths (the number depends on the total number of available paths) that are within the covered area and not at the outer boundaries. you should use all the base stations for calibration. Therefore. 4. 4.1 Quality Targets The quality of the final calibrated propagation model depends strongly on the quality of the CW measurements used in the calibration process.2. The context menu appears. In this section. if there are less than eight base stations per propagation model being calibrated). you should keep the following guidelines in mind: • • 4.5 dB Verification Sites: • • 4. it is recommended to have at least eight base stations.20). Click the Parameters tab (see Figure 4. Calibration Sites: • • • • Global mean error on calibration sites: Global standard deviation on calibration sites: Mean error on each calibration site: Standard deviation on each calibration site: < 1 dB < 8 dB < 2. Right-click the copy of the SPM that you want to calibrate. you have to set a few parameters in the SPM. Parameters Tab To set or verify settings on the Parameters tab of the SPM’s Properties dialogue: 1. the provided radio data are correct.5 dB < 8.2. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Modules folder. When selecting base stations for calibration and for verification. Ensure that the areas covered by the verification paths are also covered by the calibration paths. and the described calibration procedure is followed. you can calibrate the SPM. Tip: After you have set initial parameters. 2. With a total of eight base stations. You can create a copy of the SPM by right-clicking the SPM on the Modules tab of the Explorer window and selecting Duplicate from the context menu.2 For calibration: Select paths that cover the entire area so that all the area characteristics can be taken into account during the calibration process. Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window. If not enough base stations are available (in other words. © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 55 . Select Properties from the context menu.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process In "Selecting Base Stations" on page 30. This allows you to restart calibration from the original version if you should need to. you can retain the original copy of the SPM by creating a copy of the SPM and calibrating the copy instead. 5.5 dB Setting Initial Parameters in the SPM Before starting the calibration process. You can verify the calibration later by using the same measurement paths as in the calibration process.2. 3.2 Global mean error on verification sites: < 2 dB Global standard deviation on verification sites: < 8.

ensure that Maximum Distance (m) is set to "0. Effective Antenna Height: - Method: The Method you choose depends on the relief of the survey area to be used in calibration. All other diffraction methods can calculate three diffraction edges.20: SPM Transmitter effective height method selection 6. The automatic calibration process adapts antenna height (as set in the transmitter properties) during calculations according to the characteristics of the profile between the transmitter and the receiver.No" to deactivate the Hilly Terrain Correction. select "1 . Hilly Terrain Correction: Under Other Parameters select "1 . the following configurations are recommended: For hilly terrain: - Effective Antenna Height: Under Effective Antenna Height. - K6: Ensure that K6 is set to "0. Verify the following settings on the Parameters tab: Near Transmitter: - Maximum Distance (m): Under Near Transmitter." If this parameter is not set to "0. Activating radial optimisation ensures that profile extraction is precise enough for the purposes of calibration while ensuring that calculation time is significantly improved.SPM Calibration Guide Figure 4.Height above average profile" as the Method.Yes" to activate Limitation to Free Space Loss.Yes" to activate the Hilly Terrain Correction. AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 ." Because the K6 coefficient is a direct multiplicative factor of the receiver height in the formula used to calculate path loss. For flat terrain: - 56 Effective Antenna Height: Under Effective Antenna Height. Hilly Terrain Correction: Under Other Parameters select "0 . - Kclutter: Ensure that Kclutter is set to "1. - Profiles: Select "0 . The Millington method can only calculate one diffraction edge.Enhanced slope at receiver" as the Method. You can either set the method yourself now. - Limitation to Free Space Loss: Select "1 ." it will be forced to "0" during the automatic calibration process because the algorithm can not calibrate a dual-slope model. select "5 . Diffraction: - Method: You can select the method use to calculate diffraction." Kclutter is the multiplicative factor of loss if the losses defined per clutter class are used.Radial" from Profiles. Activating Limitation to Free Space Loss ensures that unrealistic values are not taken into account during the automatic calibration process. If you decide to manually adjust these parameters. Other Parameters: - Hilly Terrain Correction: The correction for hilly terrain correction cannot be modified by the automatic calibration process and therefore you must set it beforehand. it can influence propagation results in an unrealistic way. or it can be set automatically during the automatic calibration process.

The effect of clutter on propagation will be taken into account using clutter losses.2 Clutter Tab To set or verify settings on the Clutter tab of the SPM’s Properties dialogue: 1. select "1 . 3. AT271_MCG_E2 57 . you can set the following parameters for each clutter class: - © Forsk 2008 Losses: Clutter losses will be calibrated. After the calibration process. you must set Kclutter to "0" on the Parameters tab of the Properties dialogue. 4. Clearance: Clutter clearance is only used when clutter height information from the clutter class file is used for a clearance distance from the receiver when calculating diffraction. 5." This parameter indicates the distance from the receiver for which clutter losses will be considered. The context menu appears. When the Max. Right-click the copy of the SPM that you want to calibrate.21: Description the Clutter tab of the SPM model 6.2.Yes" to have clutter taken into account in diffraction. you can set a Max. select "0 . it can influence propagation results in an unrealistic way. 2. Figure 4. Other Ki values will be calibrated during the automatic calibration process. you can set the following parameters under Heights: - Clutter Taken into Account in Diffraction: Given the impact that clutter heights have when calculating loss by diffraction. If clutter height files or high resolution (5m) clutter class files are available. to ensure that the calibration will not calculate clutter losses. this method should only be used when the height information available is very precise. Click the Clutter tab (see Figure 4. unless you are calibrating a model to be used for fixed WiMAX receivers. If you select "1 ." it will be forced to "0" during the automatic calibration process because the algorithm can not calibrate a dual-slope model. Under Parameters per clutter class. which can be chosen after the calibration process. The calculated clutter losses can be associated with a weighting function.No" to not have clutter taken into account when calculating diffraction. The Properties dialogue appears. distance is set to "0. Under Clutter Taken into Account. Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window.2. distance is set to "0. If this parameter is not set to "0. This option is only used for fixed receivers which are located on top of buildings.21). Verify the following settings on the Clutter tab (for more information on the settings available on the Clutter tab. distance to a value greater than "0" and choose a weighting function to smooth the clutter effect within a given distance (see "Setting Clutter Loss Weighting" on page 68). If there is no clutter heights file available and the clutter class files are low resolution.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process - K7: Ensure that K7 is set to "0. - Receiver on top of clutter: Select "0 . Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Modules folder. see "Recommendations for Using Clutter with the SPM" on page 22): Clutter Taken into Account. Select Properties from the context menu. which will be calculated during the calibration process.No". distance: Ensure that the Max." Because the K7 coefficient is a direct multiplicative factor of the log of the receiver height in the formula used to calculate path loss." only clutter losses on the pixel where the receiver is located are considered.Yes". 4. you can set the following parameters under Range: - Max.

Select Calibration from the context menu (see Figure 4." The default receiver height is defined on the Receiver tab of the Predictions folder Properties dialogue. Independently of how you calibrate the standard propagation model. It gives you more control over the calibration process but. 3. 2. Figure 4. The difference between the processes lies in how they accomplish the task: • • Automatic: Using acceptable data ranges that you set for the K1 to K6 variables. it must be able to give correct results for every CW measurement point from the same geographical zone. by first using the automatic calibration process and then fine-tuning the results of the calibrated propagation model using the assisted calibration method. Select the CW measurement paths that you decided to use for the calibration process (see Figure 4. On the other hand. see "Selecting Base Stations for Calibration and for Verification" on page 54. the assisted calibration process is better suited to advanced users who can apply their experience to the calibration process. The recommended approach is to combine both calibration methods. - Assisted Calibration: When you select the assisted calibration method. The context menu appears.22: Calibration launching on SPM model 5. You will usually proceed by adjusting the value of the variable that correlates the most with the mean error to reduce the mean error and standard deviation. including CW measurement points that were not used to calibrate the standard propagation model. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the Propagation Modules folder. Both methods have their advantages. The goal of both processes is to reduce the mean error and standard deviation of measured values versus calculated values. before using a propagation model calibrated using only the automatic calibration process. the results are constrained by limits you set.22). 4. There are some parameters that have more influence on error than others. When you select the assisted calibration method. For information on selecting CW measurement paths. Assisted: The assisted calibration process enables you to display the correlation of the K1 to K6 variables to the mean error. For this reason. As well. Right-click the copy of the SPM that you want to calibrate. any solution given by the automatic calibration process is a purely mathematical solution. 6. because there is no defined range set. Both calibration processes are started using the same method. The automatic calibration process is simpler and more straight-forward. Running the Calibration Process There are two different calibration processes available. it can lead to a mathematical solution that bears little relation to the physical environment. 58 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .2.3 Rx Height: Ensure that the Rx Height is set to "(default). you should ensure of its relevance in a realistic environment. Select the calibration method: - Automatic Calibration: When you select the automatic calibration method. you set the acceptable ranges for variables and Atoll attempts to find a solution that minimises the error between measurements and predictions and their standard deviation. Click the Modules tab in the Explorer window. So. you can adjust each variable of the propagation model using a correlation matrix which indicates which variables have the greatest impact on the mean error. To start the calibration process: 1. the automatic calibration process attempts to reduce the mean error and standard deviation of measured values versus calculated values. The automatic calibration process selects the method for calculating diffraction.23). The assisted calibration process relies on your input to set the values for the K1 to K6 variables.SPM Calibration Guide - 4. you can select the check boxes of LOS or NLOS to indicate whether you want to work with the LOS or NLOS sets of variables or with both.

continue with "The Automatic Allocation Wizard" on page 59. Click Next. Value and Max. The Automatic Allocation Wizard After you have selected the automatic allocation method in "Running the Calibration Process" on page 58. Value for the variable.. Click the Ki parameter in the Parameter column. HTx and diffraction method) you want to calibrate. continue with "The Assisted Allocation Wizard" on page 60. Note: 4.2. For each parameter and method (i.3. Define the range of each Ki parameter to be calibrated: a. select the check box of the parameter in the Parameter column. c. Figure 4. If you selected Assisted Calibration. you can continue with the automatic allocation wizard: 1. Set the Min.24: Range definition for SPM parameters during calibration 2. Click the Define Range button. - If you selected Automatic Calibration. b.23: Path and Calibration method selection for SPM Calibration 7.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process Figure 4.1 The filters defined in the properties of each CW measurement path will be taken into account in the calibration process.e. Here are default and recommended ranges for Ki parameters: © Forsk 2008 Ki Minimum Maximum K1 0 100 K2 20 70 AT271_MCG_E2 59 . The Define Range dialogue appears.

In other words. this variable has the highest impact on the error and modifying this variable with have the greatest improvement on the global error.3. 60 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 .26). Diff. calibrated Ki. the standard deviation and the mean error (error = predicted .. the graph on the right shows the regression line corresponding to the variable for all the points (see Figure 4. Click Next to start the calibration process.SPM Calibration Guide Ki Minimum Maximum K3 -20 20 K4 0 0.25: SPM Comparative Calibration Results 4. 3. K5. The X-axis corresponds to the variable (in ascending order for all paths) and the Y-axis indicates the corresponding error. HRxeff. The table under Variables in the Assisted Calibration dialogue displays for each parameter to be calibrated (K1. 4. Click Commit to apply the results of the calculation process (i. a results window appears with the previous parameters and methods and current parameter values and methods (see Figure 4.25). and clutter losses) to the initial propagation model. log(d)log(HTxeff). log(HRxeff) with the global error. After the calculations have completed. The variable with the highest absolute correlation is the variable that is the most correlated with error. Figure 4. The previous and the current statistics are also displayed in terms of the root mean square.2 The Assisted Allocation Wizard After you have selected the assisted allocation method in "Running the Calibration Process" on page 58. K3. K6 and K7) the correlation of the variables (log(d).measured). methods.2. log(HTxeff). When you select an entry under Variables.8 K5 -10 0 Important: Leave K6 and K7 parameters unselected. K4. Click OK.e. d. K2. you can continue with the assisted allocation wizard.

the Average. this will not improve the error. Under Statistics per Clutter Classes. Under Correlation Matrix. Click the Identify button. the graph showing the regression is a vertical line. you can undo them by clicking Reinitialise. Under Statistics. and standard deviation for each clutter class are given. diffraction method. as explained in "Calculating Path Loss Matrices Using the Calibrated Model" on page 62. To use the assisted allocation wizard to reduce the mean error: 1. log(HTxeff). this indicates that the correlation between the error and the variable is limited. standard deviation. using the current parameter values. you can compare the Root Mean Square. Under Model Parameters. the number of CW measurement points which match any filter criteria is given. number of points. Atoll offers several methods to verify the calibration or to analyse its quality. The assisted allocation wizard attempts to bring the correlation as close to zero as possible. and the Standard Deviation before and after. If the maximum distance is set to any other distance. and losses per clutter class. press CTRL as you click the other variables. and minimum and maximum values for variables such as the error. the points are scattered around a horizontal line. as defined under Range on the Clutter tab of the propagation model’s Properties dialogue. Calibration is complete when the Root Mean Square. the maximum distance. The first step is to calculate path loss matrices on the CW measurement paths using the calibrated propagation model. error (LOS). the settings defined in General and Clutter tabs of the propagation model’s Properties dialogue are summarized: formulas. Once you have path loss matrices that have been calculated using the calibrated propagation model. distances. along with the mean. methods. Atoll will ask you if you want to force the maximum distance to "0" before letting you modify the losses per clutter class. When the correlation coefficient is close to zero.4 Analysing the Calibrated Model Once the propagation model has been calibrated using either the automatic or the assisted method. It means that if the variable if modified. Click Statistics to view a report on the statistics of the propagation model.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process Figure 4. click Commit to update the Ki factors of the propagation model with the changes. and the Standard Deviation are as close to zero as possible. is a matrix of all parameters. Under Global Statistics. AT271_MCG_E2 61 . Diff. select the variables that you want to modify to reduce the mean error. mean.26: Table listing the correlation of the SPM variables to the global error When the correlation coefficient is close to one. Note: If you are not satisfied with the changes made when you clicked Identify. this indicates that the global error depends strongly on the variable. To select more than one variable. 3. error (NLOS). log(d)log(HTxeff). log(d). When you are satisfied with the results. If you want to adjust the losses per clutter class to reduce the mean error. and HRxeff. you can analyse the calibrated model using the following methods: • • • © Forsk 2008 "Displaying Statistics on CW Measurement Paths" on page 63 "Using Display Settings to Analyse the Calibration" on page 63 "Using the CW Measurement and the Point Analysis Tools" on page 64. 4. 2.2. 4. must be set to "0". In the table. the Average.

SPM Calibration Guide Calculating Path Loss Matrices Using the Calibrated Model The first step in analysing the quality of the calibration process is to calculate signal losses on the CW measurement paths using the newly calibrated propagation model. Select Properties from the context menu. The Properties dialogue appears. Select the propagation model you calibrated: a.27: Selecting the calibrated model for all CW measurement paths 3.28: Calculating the signal levels on all CW measurement paths 62 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . To calculate path loss matrices on the CW measurement paths: 1. Select Calculations > Calculate Signal Levels from the context menu. The context menu appears. Calculate signal levels for all CW measurement points: a. c. Figure 4. b. The context menu appears. d. Atoll calculates the signal levels for all CW measurement paths. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. Right-click the CW Measurements folder. Right-click the CW Measurements folder. Click OK. Figure 4.27). These path loss matrices will then be used to verify the accuracy of the calibrated propagation model. Select the Parameters tab and select the name of the propagation model you calibrated from the Propagation Model list (see Figure 4. 2. b.

2.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process Displaying Statistics on CW Measurement Paths You can display the statistics on both the CW measurement paths used for calibration and on those used for verification. Click the Data tab of the Explorer window. The CW Measurements dialogue appears (see Figure 4. The Statistics dialogue appears (see Figure 4. © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 63 . clear the display check box beside all CW measurement paths except the ones you want to display. you can see whether the calibration process was successful. 3.29). select the check boxes of the CW measurement paths of either the CW measurement paths used for calibration or the those to be used for verification and click OK.29: Selecting on of the verification stations for the statistics Figure 4. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. By comparing these statistics to the quality targets (see "Quality Targets" on page 55).30). To display the CW measurement points on the map according to the error: 1. 4. You can compare these statistics to the quality targets listed in "Quality Targets" on page 55. grouped by clutter class. Right-click the CW Measurements folder. In the Statistics dialogue. Select Display Statistics from the context menu. In the CW Measurements folder. 2. by examining areas where the error (predicted minus measured) is very high. The context menu appears. The CW Measurements dialogue gives the average and standard deviation for all points. Figure 4.30: Comparative statistics of the verification stations Using Display Settings to Analyse the Calibration You can analyse the quality of the propagation model calibration on the map. To display the statistics of a CW measurement path: 1. This will limit the number of points displayed to the ones you want to examine.

Click the Data tab of the Explorer window.31: Distribution of error around a verification station Using the CW Measurement and the Point Analysis Tools By simultaneously using the CW Measurement Analysis Tool and the Point Analysis Tool. 64 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . 4. clear the display check box beside all CW measurement paths except the one you want to display. 4. This will limit the number of points displayed to the ones you want to examine. To use the CW Measurement Analysis Tool and the Point Analysis Tool to analyse elements of a CW measurement path: 1. Select Open the Analysis Tool from the context menu. The context menu appears. Select View > Legend Window.SPM Calibration Guide 3. 3. Set the Display Type to "Value Intervals" and select "Error (P-M)" from the Field list. Add the CW measurement points to the legend. Right-click the CW measurement path you want to analyse. For more information. you can analyse the following elements of a CW measurement path: • • • • • The measured signal level The predicted signal level Diffraction The error The profile between the reference transmitter and the receiver. The CW Measurement Analysis Tool opens. In the CW Measurements folder. 5. 2. see "Defining the Display Type" on page 41. Figure 4. Select the Display tab. as explained in "Adding CW Measurement Points to the Legend" on page 42. b. The Legend window appears. Define the display settings of the CW measurement path: a.

Atoll displays the strength of the received signal from the selected transmitter as well as any diffraction peaks. Select View > Point Analysis Tool. Important: The propagation model used to generate the results on the Profile tab of the Point Analysis Tool window is the model defined in the properties of the reference transmitter. As you move the pointer ( ) along the CW measurement path on the map or in the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window.33): - The measured signal level The predicted signal level The error The graph You can select an additional characteristic of the CW measurement path from the list on the right. The Profile tab of the Point Analysis Tool window displays the profile between a reference transmitter and the selected CW measurement point.32: Opening the CW Measurement Analysis tool 5. AT271_MCG_E2 65 . Note: © Forsk 2008 You can also move through the CW measurement points by dragging the vertical line in the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window that indicates the current CW measurement point. As well.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process Figure 4. the following information appears in the CW Measurement Analysis Tool window (see Figure 4. The Point Analysis Tool appears.

of the clutter classes that are uncalibrated in your current propagation model may have been calibrated in the copy calibrated on the other area. Defining Clutter Losses for Uncalibrated Clutter Classes Clutter classes that were not represented. To ensure accurate calculations with the calibrated propagation model. After calibration is complete. you must define how the clutter losses will be weighted. you must ensure that all clutter classes have a defined model standard deviation. Defining how clutter loss will be weighted is explained in "Setting Clutter Loss Weighting" on page 68. Typical losses: You can extrapolate missing clutter losses from typical losses. The losses defined per clutter class refer only to receiver pixel. This is explained in "Defining the Model Standard Deviation for Uncalibrated Clutter Classes" on page 70. or that are not sufficiently represented and were." However. undefined clutter losses must be extrapolated from other sources. will not have had clutter losses defined by the calibration process. if not all. Once you have losses defined for each clutter class. the influence of clutter diminishes with distance from the receiver. there are still a few adjustments that will need to be made before the propagation model can be used. leaving the clutter loss at "0" could lead to large errors when you use the calibrated propagation model in areas where these clutter classes are present. when clutter losses are used. filtered out. The clutter loss for these clutter classes will remain at "0.33: CW Measurement Analysis 4. losses must be defined for these clutter classes in order for the propagation model to be effective over all areas. therefore. Nevertheless. or were not sufficiently represented and were. you have to take into consideration the loss on pixels between the transmitter and the receiver. you must calculate and use a scaling factor AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . You can extrapolate undefined clutter losses from: • • 66 Propagation models calibrated on other areas: If you calibrated a copy of the same propagation model using CW measurements made on a different area. filtered out. As well. Therefore. However. the first step in finalising the calibrated propagation model is ensuring that a clutter loss is defined for all clutter classes.3 Finalising the Settings of the Calibrated Model The objective of the calibration process is to reduce the error between path loss values predicted by the propagation model and real path loss values measured during the CW measurement survey. It is important to remember that the relative difference (between losses per clutter class) is more important than the absolute value of clutter losses because the absolute value is dependent on the constant K1. therefore. This is explained in "Defining Clutter Losses for Uncalibrated Clutter Classes" on page 66. If clutter classes are taken into consideration in the SPM. no standard deviation will have been calculated for clutter classes that were not represented or not sufficiently represented in the CW measurement survey.SPM Calibration Guide Figure 4. When you calculate the total clutter loss. There are usually a few clutter classes that are not represented in the area covered by the CW measurement survey. The final step is ensuring that a model standard deviation has been set for each clutter class. As with clutter losses. some. however. not to total loss.

e. Repeat these steps for each clutter loss that is undefined in the calibrated propagation model. 3.e. project  –  Suburban. if the value of K1 was 22. Open the Properties dialogue of the propagation model you are currently calibrating. note the losses for all clutter classes that remained uncalibrated in the copy of the propagation model you are currently calibrating. you must ensure that the losses from the other propagation model are normalised on the same clutter class as the clutter class used for normalisation in the propagation model you are calibrating. clutter losses should be normalised on the most representative clutter class in order to be able to compare them. to give you a value of 19. typical   Note: Remember that it is the relative difference between losses per clutter class that is important. normalised for the Urban clutter class.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process between calibrated losses and typical losses.." when you shift "Urban" it to "0. calculate the scaling factor between the two sets of values. 2." As well." you will have to shift "Suburban" by a corresponding amount. 5. has a loss of "-3" and "Suburban" has a loss of "-7." then the clutter losses for "Urban" should be shifted to "0" for that clutter class and the calibrated clutter class losses should be shifted to respect their relative difference from the clutter losses for "Urban" and the constant K1 should be modified to compensate for the shift. enter the losses for the clutter classes that remained uncalibrated. the normalised loss for "Suburban" will be "-4. The following table gives typical clutter losses. "Urban") and the clutter class loss that is undefined in the calibrated propagation model (i. In other words. 1. typical  –  Suburban. Clutter Class Loss Dense urban From 4 to 5 Woodland From 2 to 3 Urban 0 Suburban From -5 to -3 Industrial From -5 to -3 Open in urban From -6 to -4 Open From -12 to -10 Water From -14 to -12 To extrapolate undefined clutter losses from other propagation models: Important: Before you can extrapolate undefined clutter losses. in order to compensate for the shift in clutter class losses.. if "Urban.e. To extrapolate from the known values using typical values. To extrapolate undefined clutter losses from standard values: 1. To calculate the scaling factor. you use values existing in both the propagation model and in the typical values. The Properties dialogue appears. Add the delta of the project to the normalised clutter loss to obtain the value of the clutter class loss that is undefined in the calibrated propagation model. a project has the following clutter losses: Dense Urban = 5 Urban = (0) Suburban = 2 The clutter loss for Urban is undefined. typical   © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 67 . project      Dense Urban. the standard ). Using values that are present in both the calibrated propagation model and in the typical values. 5. Select Properties from the context menu. For example. on the Clutter tab. typical  –  Suburban. The context menu appears. you must first calculate the scaling factor. On the Modules tab of the Explorer window. Under Parameters per clutter class. 3. For example.. project      Dense Urban. for example:   Dense Urban. Under Parameters per clutter class. when you shift the clutter losses by 3. you will have to shift the value of K1 by a similar value. project  –  Suburban. on the Clutter tab. 2. Multiply this delta by the scaling factor between the project losses and the standard losses to calculate the clutter loss for the project: project = s tan dard  scaling factor 4. i. right-click the copy of the propagation model calibrated on another area. 4. Additionally. if the best represented clutter class is "Urban." the best represented clutter class. Calculate the delta between the normalised clutter class loss in the typical values (i. using the values existing in both the standard values:   Dense Urban.

This parameter is used to determine distance from the receiver in which clutter will be taken into consideration when calculating the effect of clutter on total clutter loss.34. 1. For more information on the weighting functions and on the mathematical formulas used.5" from "5" gives us a clutter loss of "3. you can calculate the delta between the Urban loss and the Dense Urban in the project: project = standard  scaling factor Or: 3 project =  4. Setting Clutter Loss Weighting Once you have losses defined for each clutter class. With the uniform weighting function. DU = Dense Urban U = Urban Tx Rx DU DU DU U U U U U Maximum Distance Figure 4. however. 68 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . not to total loss. clutter loss weighting will not have an effect. Weighting Function: The weighting function is the mathematical formula used to calculate the weight of the clutter loss on each pixel from the pixel with the receiver in the direction of the transmitter. the value of each pixel is displayed as a function of its distance from the receiver. The losses defined per clutter class refer only to the receiver pixel. There are four possible weighting functions: • • • • Uniform Triangular Logarithmic Exponential. Realistically. Figure 4.5 – 0   --.35 displays how the clutter loss of each pixel will be taken into consideration.5" for Urban in this project.35. the clutter loss of each pixel diminishes according to a mathematical formula. How the losses on each pixel within the maximum distance are taken into account when calculating the total loss depends on the weighting function. the defined maximum distance indicates that only the clutter losses on the first six pixels will be taken into account when calculating the total loss. see the Technical Reference Guide. When you calculate the total clutter loss. you have to take into consideration the loss on pixels between the transmitter to the receiver. up to the defined maximum distance. In Figure 4. the influence of clutter diminishes with distance from the receiver.5 8 Subtracting the result of "1.SPM Calibration Guide In this case: 3   5 – 2    4 – – 4    --8 Using the scaling factor. Note: If clutter losses are not taken into account by the propagation model. you must define how the clutter losses will be weighted. The influence of clutter loss on surrounding pixels is defined using two parameters on the Clutter tab of the propagation model’s Properties dialogue: • • Maximum Distance: The influence of clutter on total losses diminishes with distance from the receiver. With the other three functions. the clutter loss of each pixel within the maximum distance is simply added.34: Calculating the total clutter loss between the transmitter and the receiver In the example in Figure 4.

right-click the copy of the propagation model calibrated on another area.35: Comparative behaviour of the clutter weighting functions in the SPM To define clutter loss weighting: 1. using the calibrated propagation model. see "Displaying Statistics on CW Measurement Paths" on page 63. Logarithmic. 3. define the following: - Maximum Distance: Define the distance in which clutter loss will be taken into consideration when calculation total loss. On the Modules tab of the Explorer window. Select Properties from the context menu. Figure 4. - Weighting Function: Select the weighting function: Uniform. The Properties dialogue appears. the difference in the statistics should not be too significant between the original CW measurement statistics and those after defining the maximum distance. If there is a great difference between these two sets of statistics. 4. For information on viewing the CW measurement statistics. The context menu appears.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process Figure 4. you have made an error in your final adjustments and you should review the changes you have made. 2. Under Clutter taken into account. or Exponential.36: Selecting the clutter weighting method in the SPM © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 69 . on the Clutter tab. Triangular (standard). Click OK. However. Changing the maximum distance will affect the statistics when you display the statistics on the CW measurement paths.

37: Description of the available clutter classes 4. Important: Remember that the calibrated propagation model is valid only for the area and frequency band on which it was calibrated. Atoll also enables you to quickly deploy the calibrated propagation model to a defined group of transmitters in a document. 2. You should update the model standard deviation for these clutter classes if you calibrated a copy of the same propagation model on a different area that covered different clutter classes. On the Modules tab of the Explorer window. Open the following Atoll documents: - The Atoll document with the calibrated propagation model The Atoll document into which you want to copy the calibrated propagation model. The context menu appears. or were not sufficiently represented and were. Press CTRL+V. Click the Window menu and select the Atoll document into which you want to copy the calibrated propagation model. You should use these values to update the model standard deviation for each clutter class in the clutter class properties. The calibrated propagation model is now visible in the Propagation Models folder. 70 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk 2008 . b.SPM Calibration Guide Defining the Model Standard Deviation for Uncalibrated Clutter Classes During the calibration process. Select the Modules tab of the Explorer window. Figure 4. will not have had a model standard deviation defined by the calibration process. The calibrated propagation model is copied to the clipboard. you can use it to make coverage predictions in Atoll documents that cover the calibration area and that use the same frequency band that was used to calibrate the propagation model. Copy the calibrated propagation model: a. The calibrated propagation model is pasted into the Atoll document. Right-click the calibrated propagation model. Paste the calibrated propagation model: a. Clutter classes that were not represented. therefore. c. Click the Window menu and select the Atoll document with the calibrated propagation model. If you use it on another To copy a calibrated propagation model to another document: 1.1 Copying a Calibrated Model to Another Document You can copy a calibrated propagation model from the calibration document to another Atoll document. 3. Select Copy from the context menu. You can verify that the calibrated propagation model has been pasted successfully by clicking the Expand button ( ) to the left of the Propagation Models folder to expand the folder.4 Deploying the Calibrated Model Once you have calibrated the propagation model. click the Expand button ( els folder to expand the folder. 5. 4. ) to the left of the Propagation Mod- b. model standard deviations were calculated for all calibrated clutter classes. filtered out. 4. With Atoll you can copy the calibrated propagation model and paste it into another document.4.

Select the calibrated propagation model for all records that will use it: a. Only the transmitters within the filtering zone will now appear in the Transmitters table. Click each time you change the angle on the border defining the outside of the polygon. To deploy a propagation model using the Transmitters table: 1. d. Right-click the Filtering Zone folder and select Draw from the context menu. On the Geo tab of the Explorer window. select the calibrated propagation model. The entry under Main Propagation Model changes to the value in the first record of the selected transmitters. On the Data tab of the Explorer window. it is easiest to use the Transmitters table. select File > Undo and repeat the steps. Note: If the result was not what you expected. Click on the map to start drawing the filter polygon. to indicate that the folder contents have been filtered. c. Close the polygon by clicking twice. right-click the Transmitters folder and select Open Table from the context menu. when you are assigning it to a large number of transmitters. Select Edit > Fill > Down. click the Expand button ( folder. If necessary. The Transmitters table appears. Filter out the transmitters outside of the area over which you will be deploying the calibrated propagation model by creating a filtering polygon that selects all the transmitters within the area: a. If you want to assign the calibrated propagation model to the extended propagation model as well. b. 3. 2. sort the entries in the Transmitters table by frequency band: - In the Transmitters table. click the title of the Frequency Band column to sort the entries by frequency band. the Transmitters folder appears with a special icon ( ). The transmitters outside of the selected zone are filtered out.Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process 4. In the Main Propagation Model column.2 Deploying a Calibrated Model to Transmitters You can now deploy the calibrated propagation model to all transmitters corresponding to the calibration area and frequency band. c. Starting with the record you have just changed. repeat these steps with the entries in the Extended Propagation Model column. © Forsk 2008 AT271_MCG_E2 71 . d. ) to the left of Zones folder to expand the b. Open the Transmitters table: - On the Data tab of the Explorer window. click and drag to select all records that will have the same propagation model.4. The pointer changes to the polygon drawing pointer ( ). 4. You can assign the calibrated propagation model in several different ways but.

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CHAPTER 5 Additional CW Measurement Functions Atoll RF Planning and Optimisation Software .

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Under Receiver. In the New CW Measurement Path dialogue. you can modify the values of the path in the table. If the CW measurements were made using WGS84. © Forsk AT271_MCG_E2 75 .38: The New CW Measurement Path dialogue 4. Creating a CW Measurement Path In Atoll. Importing CW measurement data into an Atoll document is explained in Chapter 4: The SPM Calibration Process. and the Losses. the Gain. If the Coordinates used for the CW measurement data are different than the one displayed. a spreadsheet or word-processing document. Important: CW measurements are usually made using WGS84. select the X and Y coordinates and CW measurements to be imported and copy them. 7. enter the Height of the receiver. Click OK. Enter a Name for the CW measurement path. if the data are stored in tabular format in. you can import them by copying and pasting them directly into Atoll. Select New from the context menu. you can import CW measurements as described "Importing a CW Measurement Path" on page 37 if they are in plain text or comma-separated value (CSV) format. Figure 5. a geographic system as indicated by the globe symbol ( ). To create a CW measurement path: 1. 8. be sure to select WGS84. define the Unit used for the CW measurements. These are described in this chapter: • • 5.Chapter 5: Additional CW Measurement Functions 5 Additional CW Measurement Functions In Chapter 3: Collecting CW Measurement Data. 2. Once you have created the CW measurement path. The context menu appears. The New CW Measurement Path dialogue appears (see Figure 5.38). 3. 9. Under Measurements. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. From the document with the CW measurements. click the Browse button ( ) and select the coordinate system used. Atoll offers additional possibilities for working with CW measurements. for example. You can open the CW measurement table by right-clicking it in the CW Measurements folder on the Data tab of the Explorer window and selecting Open Table from the context menu. 5. click the Paste button. 6. select the Transmitter with which the CW measurements were made and select the Frequency. Under Reference Transmitter. 11. By default the coordinate system displayed in the coordinates field is the display system used in the document.1 "Creating a CW Measurement Path" on page 75 "Drawing a CW Measurement Path" on page 76. Right-click the CW Measurements folder. preparing a successful CW measurement survey was explained. 10. as well as preparing imported CW measurement data for a calibration project. However.

To Smooth the values of an existing CW measurement path: 1. The context menu appears. When you have finished. press ESC or double-click.3 Smoothing measurements to reduce the fading effect When the fading effect is not limited by the measurement equipment itself. 5. The context menu appears 4. you can use the mouse to add points to it. 5. Select Smoothing > Smooth Measurements from the context menu. or you can draw a path segment with the points separated by a defined distance. for each measured point. Enter the Step between each point and click OK. Click the Expand button ( opens. the smoothed values overwrite the initial ones in the M column. Right-click the CW measurement path.2 Drawing a CW Measurement Path When you have created or imported a CW measurement path. Click the map at each location where you want to add a CW measurement point. The context menu appears. 7. ) to expand the CW Measurements folder. the measured data is arithmetically averaged. 7. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder. In the path table. 2. This part of the calibration pre-process has to be done before the data filtering described in "Filtering Measurement Data" on page 43. 4. Draw the path of the path segment by clicking on the map to draw the starting point and each time the path segment changes direction.39). Right-click the CW measurement path to which you want to add points. 4. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. 8. 3.39: Sliding Window Property Dialogue 5. To add points to a CW measurement path: 1.SPM Calibration Guide 5. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. The reference transmitter folder 3. This parameter defines the number of samples to be considered when averaging the path data. The Measurement Smoothing dialogue appears (see Figure 5. Select Add > Path from the context menu. You can either add the CW measurement points one by one. The initial measurement data are reported in new column called (M (Initial)). Figure 5. 5. The pointer changes ( ). Select Add > Points from the context menu. When you have finished. To add a path segment to a CW measurement path: 1. 3. Right-click the CW measurement path to which you want to add points. press ESC or double-click. you can define the width of a sliding window within which. 76 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk . The pointer changes ( ). 6. 2. In other words. The Path Creation dialogue appears. click the Expand button ( The CW Measurements folder opens. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. 2. ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. Enter the width of the smoothing window (in meters) and click OK. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. On the Data tab of the Explorer window. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder. 6. you can smooth the measured signal strength by averaging them during the calibration pre-process over a sliding window with a view to minimise the errors and standard deviations.

Adding transmitters to a CW measurement path: The first step is to add additional transmitters to the CW measurement path along which you want to calculate best servers. Atoll enables you to approximate a best server coverage prediction by adding one transmitter to the CW measurement path of another one and calculating signal levels. for example.Chapter 5: Additional CW Measurement Functions Note: 5.4. See "Selecting the Propagation Model" on page 77. you can calculate the signal levels.3 Setting the Display to Best Server You must set the display properties of the CW measurement path to discrete values by best server. © Forsk AT271_MCG_E2 77 .4. See "Setting the Display to Best Server" on page 77. The context menu appears. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. 3. Calculating Best Servers Along a CW Measurement Path Under certain circumstances. 5. Defining the CW measurement path display: You must set the display of the CW measurement path in order to display the measurement points by best server. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. Select the transmitter to add from the Transmitter list and click OK. Click OK.4 Calculating Signal Levels To calculate the signal levels: 1.4 You can restore the initial values in any CW measurement path by selecting Smoothing > Restore Initial Measurements. Right-click the CW measurement path. 7. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter along whose CW measurement path you will calculate signal levels. 2.2 Selecting the Propagation Model To add a transmitter to a CW measurement path: 1. 5. 4. 6. On the Parameters tab of the Properties dialogue. 2. See "Calculating Signal Levels" on page 77. 4. Select Properties from the context menu. The context menu appears. 3. 4. 3. see the User Manual. The context menu appears. For information on changing object display properties. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter along whose CW measurement path you will calculate signal levels. 5. 2. Click the Data tab in the Explorer window. Selecting the propagation model for the CW measurement path: You must select the propagation model to be used to calculate signal levels. you might need to calculate which is the best server along the CW measurement path. 5. See "Adding Transmitters to a CW Measurement Path" on page 77. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder.1 Adding Transmitters to a CW Measurement Path To add a transmitter to a CW measurement path: 1. 2. 4. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the folder of the reference transmitter. rail lines using radio technology for communication. The process consists of the following steps: 1. This is particularly the case along. The transmitter will be added to the CW measurement path data table. 3. The Properties dialogue appears. 5. Calculating signal levels: Once you prepared the CW measurement path. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder. 5. select the Propagation Model. Click the Expand button ( ) to expand the CW Measurements folder. Right-click the CW measurement path to which you want to add points. Right-click the CW measurement path. The New Prediction dialogue appears.4. Select Calculations > Add a Transmitter from the context menu.4. 6.

SPM Calibration Guide 5. 6. The context menu appears. Atoll calculates signal levels. updating the values in the data table for that CW measurement path and updating the map according to the settings selected in "Setting the Display to Best Server" on page 77. 78 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk . Select Calculations > Calculate Signal Levels from the context menu. Right-click the CW measurement path.

CHAPTER 6 Survey Site Form Atoll RF Planning and Optimisation Software .

SPM Calibration Guide 80 AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk .

AT271_MCG_E2 81 .Chapter 6: Survey Site Form 6 Survey Site Form The survey site form should indicate: • • • © Forsk Details describing the station The locations of any spurious measurements where the physical clutter data does not coincide with the mapping data Any useful information about incidents that may have occurred.

but horizontal separation could be problematic.59358 Map GPS x Transmitters: Nominal power Cable length / type Cable losses max /UMTS location Omni Antenna 43 3 K800 1111 2 dBi On mast / tripod ? 40 20. • Site photos: Take photos of the sites both from the ground and from the site itself. Indicate where North lies in relation to the site. is not really a problem. so it should be avoided.38773 N: 50. starting from 0° (North) and moving clockwise by 45° increments. Co-ordinates: E: 26. on the roof Type Gain installation EIRP min. Ant. etc.4 dBm m Roof top General Site Comments (Enter construction details. You also need a set of panoramic photos. Number: Comments: 1 Building view 1 Rooftop 4 Panoramic AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk . You can use a laser telemeter to measure the height of the site.4 + 3 Type of site dB Outdoor. • Site Drawing: Make an accurate (as far as possible) drawing of the site. Height dBm 5m 1/4" 23.SPM Calibration Guide Survey Site Form Station Details Site ID: ZHF993 Survey Site No: 1 Address 18 Smith street Site Access Details Ask for James Brown at reception desk in regards to getting access to the site on the roof. if the antennas are aligned.) • • • • Site under construction (mast without antennas) Lift Power supply 220V available from shelter No obstruction for propagation Notes: Photos: 82 • Pay attention to the separation between the test antenna and any live antennas. Vertical separation.

Chapter 6: Survey Site Form Site Photos Global view: Rooftop: © Forsk AT271_MCG_E2 83 .

SPM Calibration Guide Panoramic Photos 84  North  East  South  West AT271_MCG_E2 © Forsk .

Keep in mind that the planning tool assumes that you are at ground level.3 Survey Comments: (Information about issues that will necessitate data filtering.Chapter 6: Survey Site Form Survey Details Measurement Files: Number: Comments: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Frequency Band Channel Used Frequency Channel Bandwidth Interference free control? TX transmitter -Before antenna- GSM Output before survey Output power after VSWR DCS UMTS 56 563 1 935. any raised or lowered areas produce errors. for example. • Measure the RF output at the antenna again after the survey drive.8 dBm 1. tunnels. bridges.200 2170 200 khz 200 khz 200 khz X X X 40 dBm 40 dBm 40 dBm 39.) Notes: © Forsk • Take note of any areas on the survey path which are not suitable data collection areas (avoid them if possible). etc. • Before making the survey drive. measure the RF output at the antenna.3 1. raised motorways.200 1815. etc. AT271_MCG_E2 85 .8 dBm 39.3 1.8 dBm 39. to ensure that the transmitter is still working. after the cable.

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: +33 (0)5 62 74 72 10 – Fax: +33 (0)5 62 74 72 11 http://www.SPM Calibration Guide Release 2.forsk.com AT271_MCG_E2 11 September 2008 .7.1 7 rue des briquetiers – 31700 – Blagnac – France Tel.