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AGENT BASED EFFICIENT ANOMALY INTRUSION DETECTION

SYSTEM IN AD HOC NETWORKS
ABSTRACT:
Networks are protected using many firewalls and encryption software’s. But many
of them are not sufficient and effective. Most intrusion detection systems for mobile ad
hoc networks are focusing on either routing protocols or its efficiency, but it fails to
address the security issues. Some of the nodes may be selfish, for example, by not
forwarding the packets to the destination, thereby saving the battery power. Some others
may act malicious by launching security attacks like denial of service or hack the
information. The ultimate goal of the security solutions for wireless networks is to
provide security services, such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity, anonymity,
and availability, to mobile users. This paper incorporates agents and data mining
techniques to prevent anomaly intrusion in mobile adhoc networks. Home agents present
in each system collects the data from its own system and using data mining techniques to
observed the local anomalies. The Mobile agents monitoring the neighboring nodes and
collect the information from neighboring home agents to determine the correlation among
the observed anomalous patterns before it will send the data. This system was able to stop
all of the successful attacks in an adhoc networks and reduce the false alarm positives.

INTRODUCTION:
Intrusion detection is an important part of computer security. It provides an
additional layer of defense against computer is use after physical, authentication and
access control. A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming
a dynamic network infrastructure without any standard infrastructure or centralized
administration. The flexibility in space and time induces new challenges towards the
security infrastructure. The nature of mobility creates new vulnerabilities due to the open
medium, dynamically changing network topology, cooperative algorithms, lack of
centralized monitoring and management points and yet many of the proven security
measures turn out to be ineffective.
Therefore, the traditional way of protecting wired/wireless networks with
firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient. Military, University campuses
and conference settings also gain on account of these wireless networks since they allow
easy collaboration and efficient communication on the fly without the need for costly
network infrastructure. Expectations are also high with respect to the use of these
networks in places like hotels, airports etc. But a vital problem that must be solved in
order to realize these applications of ad hoc networks is that concerning the security
aspects of such networks. Intrusion detection is used in the networks by comparing the
set of baselines of the system with the present behavior of the system.
Thus, a basic assumption is that the normal and abnormal behaviors of the system
can be characterized. The intrusion detection community has been deals mainly on wired
networks, but it is lack of security in wireless networks. Anomaly detection and misuse
detection or signature detection are the two techniques used for intrusion detection
system. Anomaly detection describes the abnormal patterns of behavior, where
"abnormal" patterns are defined beforehand. Misuse detection relies on the use of
specifically known patterns of unauthorized behavior. Thus these techniques rely on
sniffing packets and using the sniffed packets for analysis. In order to realize these ID
techniques the packets can be sniffed on each of the end hosts. This is called as host

intrusion detection (HID). n detection (HID). It is also possible to sniff these packets on
certain predetermined machines in the network. This is called as network intrusion
detection (NID). Mobile agents are a special type of agents defined as "processes capable
of roaming through large networks such as the adhoc wireless network, interacting with
machines, collecting information and returning after executing the tasks adjusted by the
user". The nature of mobility in a wireless networks creates an vulnerability due to the
open medium, dynamically changing networks. In order to avoid such circumstance, to
develop new architecture and mechanisms to protect the wireless networks and mobile
computing applications.

In this paper.SYSTEM ANALYSIS: EXISTING SYSTEM: Existing methods of intrusion detection have to be modified and new methods have to be defined in order for intrusion detection to work effectively in this new network architecture. emergency search and rescue missions. . We will then present various existing intrusion detection techniques that can be adapted to wireless ad-hoc networks and finally propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for wireless ad-hoc networks. we will first provide an introduction to wireless ad-hoc networks and thereafter an introduction to intrusion detection. Wireless ad-hoc networks are increasingly being used in the tactical battlefield. as well as civilian ad-hoc situations like conferences and classrooms due to the ease and speed in setting up such networks. As wireless ad-hoc networks have different characteristics from a wired network. the intrusion detection techniques used for wired networks may no longer be sufficient and effective when adapted directly to a wireless ad-hoc network.

authentication and access control. Anomaly detection describes the abnormal patterns of behavior. Mobile agents are a special type of agents defined as "processes capable of roaming through large networks such as the adhoc wireless network. where "abnormal" patterns are defined beforehand. It provides an additional layer of defense against computer is use after physical. .PROPOSED SYSTEM: We proposed intrusion detection community has been deals mainly on wired networks. Thus these techniques rely on sniffing packets and using the sniffed packets for analysis. interacting with machines. Intrusion detection is an important part of computer security. but it is lack of security in wireless networks. This is called as host intrusion detection (HID). Misuse detection relies on the use of specifically known patterns of unauthorized behavior. It is also possible to sniff these packets on certain predetermined machines in the network. Anomaly detection and misuse detection or signature detection are the two techniques used for intrusion detection system. In order to realize these ID techniques the packets can be sniffed on each of the end hosts. This is called as network intrusion detection (NID). collecting information and returning after executing the tasks adjusted by the user".

. Keyboard : Standard Keyboard. • Mouse.HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION: HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: • System : Pentium IV 2. • Floppy Drive : 1. • Hard Disk : 40 GB. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: • Operating system : Windows XP Professional.4 GHz. • Monitor : 15 VGA Colour. Mouse • RAM : 256 MB. • Coding Language : Java.44 Mb.

data stores. It illustrates the processes. data flows in a business or other system and the relationships between them. a data flow diagram is used for the visualization of data processing.DATA FLOW DIAGRAM: A data flow diagram (DFD) is graphic representation of the "flow" of data through business functions or processes. and external entities. Server Host Information Receive Request Send Request Receiver Send Host Identify Intruder Host Attacked Host Failure Ack Receive Data Send Data Received Host Send Ack Server Maintenance . More generally.

HOST REQUEST: Host Information Server Check Available Hosts Connect to Server Send Data Request to Neighbor Host Host Reply Host .

DATA TRANSFER: Sender Check Available Host Connect to Server Send Packets Receiver .

CLASS DIAGRAM: Find Find Status of host ( ) Receive Ack ( ) Host Find Status ( ) Message Transfer ( ) Change ( ) Update ( ) Data Receive ( ) Update ( ) Send Ack ( ) Forward ( ) Update Receive ( ) Update ( ) Attack ( ) Change Receive ( ) Sent ( ) Attack ( ) .

USE CASE DIAGRAM: Find Host Server Send Data Change status Update status .

SEQUENCE DIAGRAM: Sever Status Update Receiver Check Sts Data Sent and Received Identify Intruder Host Send Ack Send Ack Attacked Host Host Information Terminate Host Received Host .

designing of methods to achieve changeover and evaluation of changeover methods. Thus it can be considered to be the most critical stage in achieving a successful new system and in giving the user. The implementation stage involves careful planning. confidence that the new system will work and be effective. incorrect.IMPLEMENTATION: Implementation is the stage of the project when the theoretical design is turned out into a working system. Otherwise the packet will be deleted. According port no only we are going to find the path is authorized or Unauthorized. MODULE-2: In this module.Each node is connected the neighboring node and it is independently deployed in network area. And also deploy the each port no is authorized in a node. . If path is authorized the packet is send to valid destination. In this module check whether the path is authorized or unauthorized. investigation of the existing system and it’s constraints on implementation. MODULES DESCRIPTION: MODULE-1: In this module. we are going to connect the network . browse and select the source file. MODULE-3: The intrusion detection is defined as a mechanism for a WSN to detect the existence of inappropriate. And the packet is send from source to detector. or anomalous moving attackers. And selected data is converted into fixed size of packets.

MODULE-4: If the packet is received from other than the port no it will be filtered and discarded. This filter only removes the unauthorized packets and authorized packets send to destination. MODULE-5: In this module. . after filtering the invalid packets all the valid Packets will reach the destination.

SYSTEM DESIGN: DATA FLOW DIAGRAM: .

Only the customized products had to be purchased. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. . The expenditures must be justified. some understanding of the major requirements for the system is essential. Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are  ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY  TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY  SOCIAL FEASIBILITY ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY: This study is carried out to check the economic impact that the system will have on the organization. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the company. During system analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the research and development of the system is limited.SYSTEM STUDY: FEASIBILITY STUDY: The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some cost estimates. For feasibility analysis.

This will lead to high demands being placed on the client. . which is welcomed. instead must accept it as a necessity. Any system developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the methods that are employed to educate the user about the system and to make him familiar with it. His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able to make some constructive criticism. as he is the final user of the system. This includes the process of training the user to use the system efficiently. that is. SOCIAL FEASIBILITY: The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. The developed system must have a modest requirement. the technical requirements of the system. This will lead to high demands on the available technical resources. The user must not feel threatened by the system. as only minimal or null changes are required for implementing this system.TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY: This study is carried out to check the technical feasibility.

There are various types of test. Testing is event driven and is more concerned with the basic outcome of screens or fields. assemblies and/or a finished product It is the process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the Software system meets its requirements and user expectations and does not fail in an unacceptable manner. TYPES OF TESTS: Unit testing: Unit testing involves the design of test cases that validate that the internal program logic is functioning properly. as shown by successfully unit testing. and/or system configuration. Integration testing: Integration tests are designed to test integrated software components to determine if they actually run as one program. It is the testing of individual software units of the application . Integration tests demonstrate that although the components were individually satisfaction. Unit tests ensure that each unique path of a business process performs accurately to the documented specifications and contains clearly defined inputs and expected results. Each test type addresses a specific testing requirement.it is done after the completion of an individual unit before integration. This is a structural testing.SYSTEM TESTING: The purpose of testing is to discover errors. sub assemblies. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product. It provides a way to check the functionality of components. and that program inputs produce valid outputs. that relies on knowledge of its construction and is invasive. All decision branches and internal code flow should be validated. application. the . Unit tests perform basic tests at component level and test a specific business process.

additional tests are identified and the effective value of current tests is determined. An example of system testing is the configuration oriented system integration test. . Functional test: Functional tests provide systematic demonstrations that functions tested are available as specified by the business and technical requirements. Invalid Input : identified classes of invalid input must be rejected.combination of components is correct and consistent. emphasizing pre-driven process links and integration points. Functional testing is centered on the following items: Valid Input : identified classes of valid input must be accepted. System Test: System testing ensures that the entire integrated software system meets requirements. and user manuals. Functions : identified functions must be exercised. or special test cases. key functions. It tests a configuration to ensure known and predictable results. system documentation. systematic coverage pertaining to identify Business process flows. Integration testing is specifically aimed at exposing the problems that arise from the combination of components. In addition. data fields. Output : identified classes of application outputs must be exercised. Organization and preparation of functional tests is focused on requirements. predefined processes. System testing is based on process descriptions and flows. Systems/Procedures: interfacing systems or procedures must be invoked. Before functional testing is complete. and successive processes must be considered for testing.

Test strategy and approach Field testing will be performed manually and functional tests will be written in detail. Unit Testing: Unit testing is usually conducted as part of a combined code and unit test phase of the software lifecycle. It is used to test areas that cannot be reached from a black box level. such as specification or requirements document.  Pages must be activated from the identified link. The test provides inputs and responds to outputs without considering how the software works. such as specification or requirements document. messages and responses must not be delayed. structure and language of the software. It is a testing in which the software under test is treated. Black box tests.  The entry screen. although it is not uncommon for coding and unit testing to be conducted as two distinct phases. Features to be tested:  Verify that the entries are of the correct format . as a black box . must be written from a definitive source document. or at least its purpose.White Box Testing: White Box Testing is a testing in which in which the software tester has knowledge of the inner workings. as most other kinds of tests. Black Box Testing: Black Box Testing is testing the software without any knowledge of the inner workings. structure or language of the module being tested. It is purpose.you cannot “see” into it. Test objectives:  All field entries must work properly.

 No duplicate entries should be allowed  All links should take the user to the correct page. Acceptance Testing: User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any project and requires significant participation by the end user.g. . No defects encountered. components in a software system or – one step up – software applications at the company level – interact without error. Integration Testing: Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects. e. No defects encountered. Test Results: All the test cases mentioned above passed successfully. Test Results: All the test cases mentioned above passed successfully. The task of the integration test is to check that components or software applications. It also ensures that the system meets the functional requirements.

.SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT: Java Technology Java technology is both a programming language and a platform. The Java programming language is unusual in that a program is both compiled and interpreted. The following figure illustrates how this works. Compilation happens just once. you either compile or interpret a program so that you can run it on your computer. With the compiler. first you translate a program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes —the platformindependent codes interpreted by the interpreter on the Java platform. The interpreter parses and runs each Java byte code instruction on the computer. The Java Programming Language The Java programming language is a high-level language that can be characterized by all of the following buzzwords:  Simple  Architecture neutral  Object oriented  Portable  Distributed  High performance  Interpreted  Multithreaded  Robust  Dynamic  Secure With most programming languages. interpretation occurs each time the program is executed.

or on an iMac. a Solaris workstation. We’ve already mentioned some of the most popular platforms like Windows 2000. Most platforms can be described as a combination of the operating system and hardware. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that it’s a software-only platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms.You can think of Java byte codes as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). The Java Platform A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs. Every Java interpreter. That means that as long as a computer has a Java VM. Linux. The byte codes can then be run on any implementation of the Java VM. Java byte codes help make “write once. is an implementation of the Java VM. The Java platform has two components: . and MacOS. whether it’s a development tool or a Web browser that can run applets. run anywhere” possible. You can compile your program into byte codes on any platform that has a Java compiler. the same program written in the Java programming language can run on Windows 2000. Solaris.

the Java platform can be a bit slower than native code. The Java API is grouped into libraries of related classes and interfaces. Native code is code that after you compile it. What Can Java Technology Do? Highlights what functionality some of the packages in the Java API provide. As a platform-independent environment. . you’re probably already familiar with applets. As the figure shows. The following figure depicts a program that’s running on the Java platform. An applet is a program that adheres to certain conventions that allow it to run within a Java-enabled browser. It’s the base for the Java platform and is ported onto various hardware-based platforms. the Java API and the virtual machine insulate the program from the hardware. these libraries are known as packages. The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful capabilities. The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM)  The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API) You’ve already been introduced to the Java VM. such as graphical user interface (GUI) widgets. the compiled code runs on a specific hardware platform. The next section. smart compilers. What Can Java Technology Do? The most common types of programs written in the Java programming language are applets and applications. well-tuned interpreters. If you’ve surfed the Web. However. and justin-time byte code compilers can bring performance close to that of native code without threatening portability.

proxy servers. UDP (User Data gram Protocol) sockets. Java Servlets are a popular choice for building interactive web applications. input and output. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). A special kind of application known as a server serves and supports clients on a network. mail servers. entertaining applets for the Web. numbers. you can write many types of programs. including electronic signatures. Using the generous API. threads. How does the API support all these kinds of programs? It does so with packages of software components that provides a wide range of functionality. and IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. configuring or tailoring the server. Another specialized program is a servlet. and certificates.  Applets: The set of conventions used by applets.  Object serialization: Allows lightweight persistence and communication via Remote Method Invocation (RMI). system properties. public and private key management.  Internationalization: Help for writing programs that can be localized for users worldwide. . Servlets are similar to applets in that they are runtime extensions of applications. data structures. high-level Java programming language is also a powerful software platform.  Software components: Known as JavaBeansTM. A servlet can almost be thought of as an applet that runs on the server side. Instead of working in browsers. the Java programming language is not just for writing cute. Programs can automatically adapt to specific locales and be displayed in the appropriate language. servlets run within Java Web servers.  Security: Both low level and high level. access control.  Networking: URLs. can plug into existing component architectures. Every full implementation of the Java platform gives you the following features:  The essentials: Objects. An application is a standalone program that runs directly on the Java platform.However. replacing the use of CGI scripts. though. date and time. The general-purpose. and print servers. strings. Examples of servers are Web servers. and so on.

Its object orientation. Still. We believe that Java technology will help you do the following:  Get started quickly: Although the Java programming language is a powerful object-oriented language. The Java platform also has APIs for 2D and 3D graphics. and its garbage collection helps you avoid memory leaks. speech. especially for programmers already familiar with C or C++.  Write better code: The Java programming language encourages good coding practices. it is likely to make your programs better and requires less effort than other languages. and more.  Write less code: Comparisons of program metrics (class counts. Java Database Connectivity (JDBCTM): Provides uniform access to a wide range of relational databases. or even a job if you learn the Java programming language. it’s easy to learn. . collaboration. accessibility. method counts. servers. animation. fortune. telephony. and so on) suggest that a program written in the Java programming language can be four times smaller than the same program in C++. How Will Java Technology Change My Life? We can’t promise you fame. The following figure depicts what is included in the Java 2 SDK.

easily extendible API let you reuse other people’s tested code and introduce fewer bugs. and its wide-ranging. brochures. ODBC: Microsoft Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) is a standard programming interface for application developers and database systems providers.its JavaBeans component architecture.  Avoid platform dependencies with 100% Pure Java: You can keep your program portable by avoiding the use of libraries written in other languages. which is as it should be. Think of an ODBC data source as a door with a name on it. Now. Each door will lead you to a particular database. programmers had to use proprietary languages for each database they wanted to connect to. For example. run anywhere: Because 100% Pure Java programs are compiled into machine-independent byte codes. Application developers have much more important things to worry about than the syntax that is needed to port their program from one database to another when business needs suddenly change.  Develop programs more quickly: Your development time may be as much as twice as fast versus writing the same program in C++. the data source named Sales Figures might be a SQL Server database. Why? You write fewer lines of code and it is a simpler programming language than C++.” without recompiling the entire program. they run consistently on any Java platform. Before ODBC became a de facto standard for Windows programs to interface with database systems. whereas the Accounts Payable data source could refer to . The 100% Pure JavaTM Product Certification Program has a repository of historical process manuals. ODBC has made the choice of the database system almost irrelevant from a coding perspective. you can specify the particular database that is associated with a data source that an ODBC application program is written to use. Through the ODBC Administrator in Control Panel.  Distribute software more easily: You can upgrade applets easily from a central server. and similar materials online. Applets take advantage of the feature of allowing new classes to be loaded “on the fly.  Write once. white papers.

In a client/server environment. We only mention these two as an example. The source code of the application doesn’t change whether it talks to Oracle or SQL Server. this is true. Even Excel spreadsheets and plain text files can be turned into data sources. The operating system uses the Registry information written by ODBC Administrator to determine which low-level ODBC drivers are needed to talk to the data source (such as the interface to Oracle or SQL Server). ODBC has had many detractors make the charge that it is too slow. There are ODBC drivers available for several dozen popular database systems. the criticism about performance is somewhat analogous to those who said that compilers would never match the speed of pure assembly language. There is a 16-bit and a 32-bit version of this program and each maintains a separate list of ODBC data sources. The physical database referred to by a data source can reside anywhere on the LAN. It is also possible to administer your ODBC data sources through a stand-alone program called ODBCADM.EXE. Rather. regardless of the database vendor. The advantages of this scheme are so numerous that you are probably thinking there must be some catch. the ODBC API even handles many of the network issues for the application programmer. The availability of good ODBC drivers has improved a great deal recently.0. When the ODBC icon is installed in Control Panel. Microsoft has always claimed that the critical factor in performance is the quality of the driver software that is used. From a programming perspective. it uses a file called ODBCINST. the beauty of ODBC is that the application can be written to use the same set of function calls to interface with any data source.DLL. they are installed when you setup a separate database application. The only disadvantage of ODBC is that it isn’t as efficient as talking directly to the native database interface. The ODBC system files are not installed on your system by Windows 95. The loading of the ODBC drivers is transparent to the ODBC application program. In our humble opinion. such as SQL Server Client or Visual Basic 4. And anyway.an Access database. Maybe not. but the .

1996. If a database vendor wishes to have JDBC support. JDBC: In an effort to set an independent database standard API for Java. It was released for a 90 day public review that ended June 8.0 specification was released soon after.compiler (or ODBC) gives you the opportunity to write cleaner programs. JDBC offers a generic SQL database access mechanism that provides a consistent interface to a variety of RDBMSs. drove the development of the API. This consistent interface is achieved through the use of “plug-in” database connectivity modules. Because of user input. JDBC Goals: Few software packages are designed without goals in mind. computers get faster every year. This is by no means a complete overview of JDBC. Basing JDBC on ODBC will allow vendors to bring JDBC drivers to market much faster than developing a completely new connectivity solution. The remainder of this section will cover enough information about JDBC for you to know what it is about and how to use it effectively. To gain a wider acceptance of JDBC. JDBC was announced in March of 1996. These goals. he or she must provide the driver for each platform that the database and Java run on. Sun based JDBC’s framework on ODBC. JDBC is one that. That would fill an entire book. the final JDBC v1. Sun Microsystems developed Java Database Connectivity. because of its many goals. or drivers. or JDBC. As you discovered earlier in this chapter. in conjunction . Meanwhile. which means you finish sooner. ODBC has widespread support on a variety of platforms.

This goal allows JDBC to use existing ODBC level drivers by the use of a software interface. 3. 4. Conversely. Attaining this goal allows for future tool vendors to “generate” JDBC code and to hide many of JDBC’s complexities from the end user. it is at a high enough level for application programmers to use it confidently. . JDBC will allow any query statement to be passed through it to the underlying database driver. This allows the connectivity module to handle non-standard functionality in a manner that is suitable for its users. 2.with early reviewer feedback. JDBC must be implemental on top of common database interfaces The JDBC SQL API must “sit” on top of other common SQL level APIs. SQL Level API The designers felt that their main goal was to define a SQL interface for Java. The eight design goals for JDBC are as follows: 1. SQL Conformance SQL syntax varies as you move from database vendor to database vendor. it is at a low enough level for higher-level tools and APIs to be created. In an effort to support a wide variety of vendors. Provide a Java interface that is consistent with the rest of the Java system Because of Java’s acceptance in the user community thus far. This interface would translate JDBC calls to ODBC and vice versa. have finalized the JDBC class library into a solid framework for building database applications in Java. The goals that were set for JDBC are important. Although not the lowest database interface level possible. They will give you some insight as to why certain classes and functionalities behave the way they do. the designers feel that they should not stray from the current design of the core Java system.

less error appear at runtime. Use strong. However. Finally we decided to proceed the implementation using Java Networking. . also. DELETE’s and UPDATE’s. Java is a high-level programming language that is all of the following Simple Architecture-neutral Object-oriented Distributed Portable High-performance Interpreted Robust multithreaded Dynamic Secure Java is also unusual in that each Java program is both compiled and interpreted. 7. Sun felt that the design of JDBC should be very simple. more complex SQL statements should also be possible. these queries should be simple to perform with JDBC.5. Keep it simple This goal probably appears in all software design goal listings. allowing for only one method of completing a task per mechanism. static typing wherever possible Strong typing allows for more error checking to be done at compile time. Keep the common cases simple Because more often than not. Allowing duplicate functionality only serves to confuse the users of the API. 6. And for dynamically updating the cache table we go for MS Access database. INSERT’s. Java ha two things: a programming language and a platform. With a compile you translate a Java program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes the platform-independent code instruction is passed and run on the computer. JDBC is no exception. the usual SQL calls used by the programmer are simple SELECT’s.

is an implementation of the Java VM. whether it’s a Java development tool or a Web browser that can run Java applets. and Macintosh. The Java VM can also be implemented in hardware. Solaris. The figure illustrates how this works. You can compile your Java program into byte codes on my platform that has a Java compiler. Interpreter Java Program Compilers My Program You can think of Java byte codes as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). The byte codes can then be run any implementation of the Java VM. run anywhere” possible. Java byte codes help make “write once. Every Java interpreter. For example. . interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. the same Java program can run Windows NT.Compilation happens just once.

Any association between datagram must be supplied by the higher layers. The header includes the source and destination addresses. The IP layer supplies a checksum that includes its own header. It considers each datagram independently of the others. UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless protocol. IP datagram’s: The IP layer provides a connectionless and unreliable delivery system. The IP layer .Networking TCP/IP stack: The TCP/IP stack is shorter than the OSI one: TCP is a connection-oriented protocol.

handles routing through an Internet. It is also responsible for breaking up large datagram
into smaller ones for transmission and reassembling them at the other end.

UDP:
UDP is also connectionless and unreliable. What it adds to IP is a checksum for
the contents of the datagram and port numbers. These are used to give a client/server
model - see later.
TCP:
TCP supplies logic to give a reliable connection-oriented protocol above IP. It
provides a virtual circuit that two processes can use to communicate.
Internet addresses
In order to use a service, you must be able to find it. The Internet uses an address scheme
for machines so that they can be located. The address is a 32 bit integer which gives the
IP address. This encodes a network ID and more addressing. The network ID falls into
various classes according to the size of the network address.
Network address:
Class A uses 8 bits for the network address with 24 bits left over for other addressing.
Class B uses 16 bit network addressing. Class C uses 24 bit network addressing and class
D uses all 32.
Subnet address:
Internally, the UNIX network is divided into sub networks. Building 11 is currently on
one sub network and uses 10-bit addressing, allowing 1024 different hosts.

Host address:
8 bits are finally used for host addresses within our subnet. This places a limit of 256
machines that can be on the subnet.
Total address:

The 32 bit address is usually written as 4 integers separated by dots.
Port addresses
A service exists on a host, and is identified by its port. This is a 16 bit number. To send a
message to a server, you send it to the port for that service of the host that it is running
on. This is not location transparency! Certain of these ports are "well known".
Sockets:
A socket is a data structure maintained by the system to handle network
connections. A socket is created using the call socket. It returns an integer that is like a
file descriptor. In fact, under Windows, this handle can be used with Read File and Write
File functions.
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
int socket(int family, int type, int protocol);
Here "family" will be AF_INET for IP communications, protocol will be zero, and type
will depend on whether TCP or UDP is used. Two processes wishing to communicate

over a network create a socket each. These are similar to two ends of a pipe - but the
actual pipe does not yet exist.

JFree Chart:
JFreeChart is a free 100% Java chart library that makes it easy for developers to
display professional quality charts in their applications. JFreeChart's extensive feature set
includes:
A consistent and well-documented API, supporting a wide range of chart types;
A flexible design that is easy to extend, and targets both server-side and client-side
applications;
Support for many output types, including Swing components, image files
(including PNG and JPEG), and vector graphics file formats (including PDF, EPS and
SVG);
JFreeChart is "open source" or, more specifically, free software. It is distributed
under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public Licence (LGPL), which permits use in
proprietary applications.
1. Map Visualizations:
Charts showing values that relate to geographical areas. Some examples include:
(a) population density in each state of the United States, (b) income per capita for each
country in Europe, (c) life expectancy in each country of the world. The tasks in this
project include: Sourcing freely redistributable vector outlines for the countries of the
world, states/provinces in particular countries (USA in particular, but also other areas);
Creating an appropriate dataset interface (plus default implementation), a rendered, and
integrating this with the existing XYPlot class in JFreeChart;
Testing, documenting, testing some more, documenting some more.

thermometers. Extend (or reimplement) this mechanism to provide greater end-user control over the appearance of the charts. bars.2.to display a separate control that shows a small version of ALL the time series data. and lines/time series) that can be delivered easily via both Java Web Start and an applet. with a sliding "view" rectangle that allows you to select the subset of the time series data to display in the main chart. Dashboards There is currently a lot of interest in dashboard displays. 3. pies. 4. Property Editors The property editor mechanism in JFreeChart only handles a small subset of the properties that can be set for charts. . Create a flexible dashboard mechanism that supports a subset of JFreeChart chart types (dials. Time Series Chart Interactivity Implement a new (to JFreeChart) feature for interactive time series charts --.

import javax. import java. int publicMessagesCountBytes=0. import java.*.net. ServerSocket server. //system declarations int publicMessagesCount=0. ServerInterface window.*.io. //list of all client hadling threads in the server.util.Synchronized Vector handlers.*. import messages.*. public class Server { int serverPort.SAMPLE CODE: SERVER: //Server. . int privateMessagesCount=0. int serverLimit.*.java import java.swing. int onlineNodes.

clientName) !=-1) .readObject(). //if(window. this.clientName=(String)in.Socket socket) { clientInfo.size()>0 && window. //onlineNodes=0.int privateMessagesCountBytes=0.indexOf(clientInfo.clientList. protected ObjectInputStream in. //thread on which to run this handler protected Thread listener. protected Socket socket. public class Handler implements Runnable { protected ClientInfo clientInfo=new ClientInfo().socket=socket. protected ObjectOutputStream out.clientList. public Handler(int clientID.clientId=clientID. } //set up parameters and required data with the client protected boolean handShake() { try { clientInfo.

status.status=true.flush(). out.writeObject(status). socket. return false. status. } catch(IOException w) {} //add client to list and send it the complete client list .close().status=false.writeObject(status). out. out. } catch(IOException w) {} } try { ConnectionNotice status=new ConnectionNotice().if(false) { try { ConnectionNotice status=new ConnectionNotice().

newClient. } public synchronized void start() { if (listener==null) { try { //the order in whick these streams are created //is important. .clientName). } catch(Exception e) {} return true. reverse the order in client. newClient. broadcast(newClient). out.clientList.window.clientName.requestType=true.newClient=clientInfo.writeObject(window. //tell all other clients about the new client //construct an protocol object and broadcast it UpdateList newClient=new UpdateList().addElement(clientInfo.clientList). onlineNodes++.

status=false. try { status.getOutputStream()).flush(). ConnectionNotice status=new ConnectionNotice().close(). in=new ObjectInputStream(socket.txtMessages.window. socket.status=true.writeObject(status).out=new ObjectOutputStream(socket.elementAt(onlineNodes-1).getInputStream()). } catch(IOException w) {} } try { status. out. return. if (onlineNodes >=serverLimit) { //server.append(o nlineNodes+" " + //Handler client=(Handler)handlers. out. .

} catch(IOException w) {} if(!handShake()) return. . //create a new thread and start listening to the client listener=new Thread(this). listener.writeObject(status). listener=null.out. } catch(IOException ignored) { } } } public synchronized void stop() { if (listener !=null) { try { listener.start().interrupt().

txtMessages.newClient=clientInfo.showMessageDialog(window. handlers. //window. window. } } } . newClient. } catch(IOException io_ex) { JOptionPane.clientList."Termination Error".clientName.requestType=false. //close the sockets and show message in server window out."Error closing connection to client".\n").removeElement(clientInfo.append("Connection to client " + clientInfo.removeElement(this).close().ERROR_MESSAGE).clientId + " closed. UpdateList newClient=new UpdateList().//remove handler from list.JOptionPane.close(). socket. newClient.clientName). remove client from active list //notify all other nodes that this client has left. broadcast(newClient).

publicMessagesCount+=1. . } else //private message { //to Locate the intended reciever.readObject().public void run() { try { handlers. if(clientMsg instanceof Message) { if(((Message)clientMsg). //listen to input stream for messages from this client while (true) { try { Object clientMsg=in.message.length().audience==true) { broadcast(clientMsg).addElement(this). publicMessagesCountBytes+=((Message)clientMsg).

privateMessagesCountBytes+=((Message)clientMsg).recieverId))).//1) get the id of recipient (recieverId) //2) get the reference of handler //3) send message on its output stream ((Handler) (handlers. //1) get the id of recipient (recieverId) //2) get the reference of handler . privateMessagesCount+=1.writeObject(c lientMsg).length(). } updateStatus(). } else if(clientMsg instanceof Request) { //tell the intended recipient that this //client wants to start a private //to Locate the intended reciever.elementAt(((Message)clientMsg).message.out.

JOptionPane. } } catch(ClassNotFoundException cnfe) { JOptionPane. } catch(InvalidClassException ice) { JOptionPane.writeObject(c lientMsg).out."Class of a serialized object cannot be found."Termination Error".recieverId))).showMessageDialog(window.elementAt(((Request)clientMsg).println(clientMsg)."."Something is wrong with a . break. } else { //if an unknown object is recieved System.//3) send request on its output stream ((Handler) (handlers.showMessageDialog(window. } else if(clientMsg instanceof LogOut) { onlineNodes--.out. break.ERROR_MESSAGE).

ERROR_MESSAGE).".showMessageDialog(window.showMessageDialog(null ."Control information in the stream is inconsistent.JOptionPane. } catch(StreamCorruptedException sce) { JOptionPane.JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE)."Primitive data was found in the stream instead of objects."Termination Error".ERROR_MESSAGE). break. } catch(IOException ioe) { //JOptionPane."Termination Error". } } } catch (Exception ignored) .class used by serialization. break.". } catch(OptionalDataException ode) { JOptionPane."Termination Error"."Any of the usual Input/Output related exceptions."Termination Error".".showMessageDialog(window. break.JOptionPane.".ERROR_MESSAGE).JOptionPane. break.

nextElement().out.elements().writeObject(clientMsg). //loop through all the clients while (enum. } } //broadcasts a message to all clients protected void broadcast(Object clientMsg) { //object streams have to be protected synchronized (handlers) { Enumeration enum=handlers.stop(). } catch (IOException ex) { handler.{ } finally { stop(). .hasMoreElements()) { Handler handler=(Handler) enum.flush(). out. try { handler.

.txtMessages. tStr+="PublicMessagesCount: "+publicMessagesCount+"\n"..setText(tStr).} } } } } void updateStatus() { String tStr="Listening. int clientID=0. tStr+="PrivateMessagesCount: "+privateMessagesCount+"\n". } //listen to connection requests from clients protected void listenForClients(ServerSocket server) { updateStatus(). window. while (true) { try { . tStr+="PrivateMessagesCountBytes: "+privateMessagesCountBytes+"\n".\n\n". tStr+="PublicMessagesCountBytes: "+publicMessagesCountBytes+"\n\n".

handler. synchronized(handlers) { //close connection to all clients."Cannot Setup Connection".hasMoreElements()) { try { .Stop all handlers while (enum. ServerShutDown shutdown=new ServerShutDown().showMessageDialog(window.accept().client). //window.elements(). Handler handler=new Handler(++clientID.append("Connection accepted: "+ clientID + "\n").txtMessages."Client Connection Error".ERROR_MESSAGE).//listen to socket. } } } protected void shutDown() { Enumeration enum=handlers.start(). When request recieved start //a handler and start listening again Socket client=server. } catch(IOException io_ex) { JOptionPane.JOptionPane.

"+ newLimit+"."). serverLimit=newLimit.close().txt"). } catch(Exception e) {} ((Handler)(handlers.write(newPort + ". } } System.exit(0).writeObject(shutdown). } //save new configuration options to file protected synchronized void setConfiguration(int newPort . //configFile.int newLimit) { try { FileWriter configFile=new FileWriter("serverinfo.firstElement())).firstElement())).((Handler) (handlers. //configFile. configFile. configFile.out.write(newPort).stop().write(newLimit). } catch(IOException io_e) { .

"File Error".txt"). configFile.JOptionPane.out. String[] temp=value.println(temp[0]).").").out.copyValueOf(buffer))."Cannot Save Configuration File". //serverPort=Integer.parseInt(temp[0]).ERROR_MESSAGE).close().read(buffer). } } protected synchronized void getConfiguration() { try { char[] buffer=new char[15]. //System. serverLimit=Integer. serverPort=Integer.split(".copyValueOf(buffer).read(buffer).parseInt(temp[0]). //String[] temp=(String. FileReader configFile=new FileReader("serverinfo.JOptionPane.println(temp[1]).showMessageDialog(window. configFile.parseInt(temp[1]). .split(". //configFile. //System. String value=String.

showMessageDialog(null.JOptionPane."Configuration Error". serverLimit=20. serverLimit=20. serverPort=7000. try { //bind server on socket. } } Server() { getConfiguration(). } catch(IOException io_e) { JOptionPane. serverPort=7000. onlineNodes=0.Using Defaults".ERROR_MESSAGE).JOptionPane."Configuration File Missing".ERROR_MESSAGE)."Configuration File Not Found."Error Reading Configuration File.} catch(FileNotFoundException fnf_e) { JOptionPane.Using Defaults".show interface and listen for //client connection requests .showMessageDialog(null.

.close().ERROR_MESSAGE).JOptionPane. } catch(IOException io_e) { JOptionPane.exit(0).java import java.showMessageDialog(null.io. System. handlers=new Vector().*."Cannot Start Server". listenForClients(server)."ServerSocket Error". } catch(IOException e) {} } } CLIENT: //Client.server=new ServerSocket(serverPort). } finally { try { if(server !=null) server. window=new ServerInterface(this).

int serverSocketNumber. private InputListener listener. class InputListener extends Thread { //provides a way to pause the listener boolean running=false. ObjectOutputStream out. private Socket socket.net.*.*. String serverAddress.*. String Name.import java. import javax. int clientID. public void run() .swing. ClientInterface window. DefaultListModel clientList. public class Client { private boolean connected. import messages. ObjectInputStream in.

} else if(serverMsg instanceof UpdateList) { //if information is about new node logging in .senderId).showMessage((Message)serverMsg). if(serverMsg instanceof Message) { window.{ //loops forever but if listener is paused then skips code while(true) { if(running) { //detect the type of message and take appropriate action try { Object serverMsg=in. } else if(serverMsg instanceof Request) { window.openNewTab(((Request)serverMsg).readObject().

newClient).ERROR_MESSAGE).ERROR_MESSAGE). } } else if(serverMsg instanceof ServerShutDown) { disconnectFromServer(false). window.newClient). } .showMessag eDialog(window.notifyDisconnect(). clientList. JOptionPane. } //if information is about node logging out else { window.requestType==true) { clientList.newClient).showMessageDialog(window."newclient"."newclient".notifyNodeLeft(((UpdateList)serverMsg)."Server Has Been Shut Down".addElement(((UpdateList)serverMsg).if(((UpdateList)serverMsg). //scrubbing: new client added //JOptionPane."Connection Error".removeElement(((UpdateList)serverMsg).JOptionPane.JOptionPane.

shutDown().ERROR_MESSAGE). shutDown(). JOptionPane."."Connection Error".". } catch(InvalidClassException ice) { JOptionPane.else if(serverMsg instanceof KickedOutNotice) { disconnectFromServer(false). "Termination Error".JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(window. } } catch(ClassNotFoundException cnfe) { JOptionPane. } catch(StreamCorruptedException sce) { . "Something is wrong with a class used by serialization.showMessageDialog(window. JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE)."Server Kicked You Out".ERROR_MESSAGE).showMessageDialog(window. "Termination Error". window. JOptionPane. "Class of a serialized object cannot be found.notifyDisconnect().

"Any of the usual Input/Output related exceptions. } catch(IOException ioe) { //JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE).ERROR_MESSAGE). } catch(OptionalDataException ode) { JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(window.". . shutDown(). shutDown().showMessageDialog(null . "Primitive data was found in the stream instead of objects. "Termination Error".".showMessageDialog(window. //shutDown(). } } } } } //transmit the message from node to server for the main room void sendPublicMessage(String nodeMsg) throws IOException { Message msg=new Message(). "Termination Error". JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE). "Termination Error".JOptionPane. "Control information in the stream is inconsistent. JOptionPane.". JOptionPane.

out.flush().writeObject(msg).audience=true.senderId=clientID. } //transmit the message from node to server for one intended client void sendPrivateMessage(int recipient. } //transmit a request that this node wants to communicate privately with //someone on the list void sendRequest(int recieverId) { Request request=new Request(). msg.audience=false.message=nodeMsg.flush(). out. msg.writeObject(msg).msg. . msg.roomNumber=0.recieverId=recipient. msg.message=nodeMsg.senderId=clientID. msg. msg. out. msg. out. String nodeMsg) throws IOException { Message msg=new Message().

"+newPort+".close(). } catch(IOException io_e) {} } //save new configuration values to file void setConfiguration(String newServer. try { out. configFile."Cannot Save Configuration File"."File Error".ERROR_MESSAGE). configFile.recieverId=recieverId.senderId=clientID.").request. } catch(IOException io_e) { JOptionPane. request. } } //get configuration options from file and store in variables .showMessageDialog(window.write(newServer.writeObject(request).txt").JOptionPane. int newPort) { try { FileWriter configFile=new FileWriter("clientinfo.trim()+".

serverAddress=temp[0].ERROR_MESSAGE).copyValueOf(buffer)."). serverAddress=String.parseInt(temp[1]). } catch(FileNotFoundException fnf_e) { JOptionPane. FileReader configFile=new FileReader("clientinfo. configFile. Using Defaults". serverAddress="localhost". } catch(IOException io_e) { .read(buffer).txt"). serverSocketNumber=1665.void getConfiguration() { try { char[] buffer=new char[255]."Configuration File Missing". serverSocketNumber=Integer.JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(window. String[] temp=serverAddress."Configuration File Not Found.split(".

Using Defaults". } out.close().ERROR_MESSAGE). serverSocketNumber=1665.JOptionPane. //reason=true means node choice //reason=false means by server synchronized void disconnectFromServer(boolean reason) { try { if(connected) { //pause the listener thread listener."Error Reading Configuration File.writeObject(new LogOut()). serverAddress="localhost".running=false. } } //take steps to disconnect from server. . if(reason=true) { out.flush().close().showMessageDialog(window. out. socket.JOptionPane."Configuration Error".

ERROR_MESSAGE).clear(). connected=false. } catch(IOException e) { .getByName(serverAddress).". Reconfigure.JOptionPane."Host Lookup Error". try { InetAddress addr=InetAddress.showMessageDialog(window. socket=new Socket(addr.serverSocketNumber)."Host Not Found.clientList. } } catch(IOException ex) {} } //take steps to conect to the server synchronized boolean connectToServer() { getConfiguration(). } catch(UnknownHostException e) { JOptionPane. return false.

} catch(IOException e) { JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE). } catch(IOException io_e) {} return false. listener. try { socket. } if(!handShake()) return false.JOptionPane."Socket Error".". out=new ObjectOutputStream(socket.". Check If Server Exists.showMessageDialog(window. Closing Client. } try { in=new ObjectInputStream(socket.JOptionPane.close().getInputStream()).JOptionPane."Cannot Create Data Stream.ERROR_MESSAGE). return false."Server Not Found.showMessageDialog(window.getOutputStream()). .running=true."Data Stream Error".

if(((ConnectionNotice)in."Nick Error".isAlive()==false) { listener.showMessageDialog(window.//if connecting for first time start the listener object if(listener.status==false) { JOptionPane. } //set up parameters with the server private boolean handShake() { try { if(((ConnectionNotice)in.readObject().JOptionPane.readObject()).status) { out. } clientList=(DefaultListModel)in.start().ERROR_MESSAGE). return true. } connected=true."Name Already In Use. Change Client Name".readObject()). return false.writeObject(Name). .

"Maximum Node Limit Reached. } . window=new ClientInterface(this). listener=null.getSize()-1.clientID=clientList. } Client() { connected=false. } void shutDown() { disconnectFromServer(true). return true. System. } else { JOptionPane. Server Rejected Connection". listener=new InputListener(). } } catch(Exception e) {} return false.ERROR_MESSAGE).exit(0).showMessageDialog(window. "Connection Rejected". JOptionPane.

public static void main(String args[]) { new Client(). } } throws IOException .

SAMPLE OUTPUT: .

Experimental results show that detection rate is increased when compared to the other mechanism. . Traditional security mechanism such as IDS and firewall have not been sufficient to provide the security of wireless networks. This system is cooperative and distributive. an anomaly detection system comprises of detection modules for detecting anomalies in each layer.CONCLUSION: In this work. it considers the anomaly detection result from the neighbor node(s) and sends the current working node's result to its neighbor node(s). this mechanism is able to block abnormal approach to wireless networks and to detect previously unknown attacks as well as variations of known attacks. False positive rate is also reduced in this mechanism. however.

Operating System Concepts.com/ . Kurose. 5. by Abraham Silberschatz. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach. by James F.com http://www.sun.sourcefordgde. Professional Java Network Programming 2. Java Complete Reference 4. 6.com http://www.BIBLIOGRAPHY: Good Teachers are worth more than thousand books. we have them in Our Department References Made From: 1. Sites Referred: http://java. Data Communications and Networking. by Behrouz A Forouzan.networkcomputing.

2005. [4] Y. IEEE Wireless Communications. 'A Cooperative Intrusion Detection System for Ad hoc Networks'. and Animesh Patcha. 'Routing Anomaly Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks'. pp. Proceedings of the Ist ACM Workshop on Security of Ad hoc and Sensor Networks. Mobile Comp. [2] Y. 2004. Aug. June 17. no. Wu. Proceedings of the IEEE Workshopon Information Assurance. 48-60. pp.Virginia Tech 'Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks'. Proceedings of the 6th IEEE Information Assurance Workshop. Proceedings of the 12th IEEE Int'lConf.pp. WEnke Lee. Zhang. TX. Zhang and W. and Net. 9. 'Cross-Feature Analysis for Detecting AdHoc Routing Anomalies'. on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN'03). ACM J. Sun. pp. Ketan Nadkarni.REFERENCES: [1] Y. Lee. [6] B. [8] Yia-an Huang. 'Markov Chains in Network Intrusion Detection'. W. Pooch. 25-3 1. Lee.432-433. [7] Rena Hixon. A. 6th Int'l. Conf. and U. . 2003. Yang Li and Hong Man. pp. Oct. 275-83.2000. 402-409. 2003. Wireless Net. vol. Gruenbacher. pp. 2003. W. and Y. pp. 'Intrusion Detection Techniques for Mobile Wireless Networks'. Huang. K. Fan. 'Intrusion Detection in Wireless AdHoc Networks'. Don M. S.545-56. [5] Yu Liu. United States MilitaryAcademy. 478-487. 'MAC Layer Anomaly Detection in Ad Hoc Networks'. Yu. 135-147. Lee. pp. and P. Dallas. Huang. February 2004. Sept. W.Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems.. 5. [3] Amitabh Mishra. 2003.

and intrusion detection'. Proceedings of 14th IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop. Tan. pp. 2005. 206-219. Jha. Hua Chen. . Layuan Li. 'Markov chains. 358-365. pp. 2001. classifiers. [10] Baolin Sun. Maxion. Proceedings of the 1 oth IEEE International Conference on Engineering of Complex Computer Systems (ICECCS '05). and R. 'An Intrusion Detection System for AODV'. K.[9] S.