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Principles of Teaching 1

1. 1. •Control the knowledge and learning and use of hisknowledge to guide the science and art
of his/herteaching practice.•Disposition and skills to approach all aspects ofhis/her work in a
perfectives, collegial and problem– solving manner.•View of learning to teach as lifelong
process anddisposition and skills for working towardsimproving his/her own teaching as well
asimproving schools.
2. 2. 1. Sense of efficacy – give effect to his/her learner2. Subject matter knowledge –
knowledge equipped3. Pedagogical knowledge – have skills in teaching that considers
teaching style, methodology, techniques4. Sense of service – dedicated and committed to
teach as their badge ; valuated
3. 3. 1. PASSION – the intimate desire tosacrifice2. HUMOR – different ways to makestudents
not to bore3. VALUES AND ATTITUDES –Open mindednessImpartiality and fairness4.
PATIENCE – a virtue (genuine)5. ENTHUSIASM – eagerness(commitment is a strong
4. 4. 1. Verbal linguistic2. Logical mathematical3. Spatial4. Bodily kinesthetic5. Musical6.
Interpersonal7. Intrapersonal8. Naturalist9. Existentialist
5. 5. 1.Learning is an experience which occurs inside the learner and is activated by the
learner.2.Learning is the discovery of person meaning and relevance of ideas.3.Learning
(behavioral change) is a consequence of experience.4. Learning is a cooperative and
collaborative process.5. Learning is a evolutionary process.6. Learning is sometimes is a
painful process.7. Learning : one of the richest resources of learning is thelearner himself.8.
The process of learning is emotional as well asintellectual.9. The process of problem solving
and learning are highlyunique and individual.
6. 6. 1. MASTERY – sensing – thinking2. UNDERSTANDING – intuitive – thinking3. SELF –
EXPRESSIVE – intuitive – feeling4. INTERPERSONAL – sensing - feeling
7. 7. 1. LEARNING IS AN ACTIVE PROCESS -This means that we have to actively engage the
learners in learning activities if we want them to learn what we intend to teach. We have to
give our students opportunities to participate in classroom activities. We have to give varied
activities to our students for “hands – on – minds – on” learning. Danielson, 2002; 75% and
90% retention rates are learning by doing. What I hear, I forget. What I see, I remember.
What I do, I understand.2. The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and he
better the learning“Humans are intensely visual animals. The eyes contain nearly 70 percent
of thebody’s receptors and send millions of signals along the optic nerves to the
visualprocessing centers of the brain…we take in more information visually than throughany
of the other senses” (Wolfe,2001).
8. 8. 3. A non – threatening atmosphere enhances learningA non – threatening and conducive
classroomatmosphere is not only a function of physical conditionof the classroom but more a
function of a psychologicalclimate that prevails in the classroom.4. Emotion has the power to
increase retention andlearningLet us not feel afraid to bring in emotion into ourclassroom. Let
us add an emotional touch to learning.Without the emotional dimension, our subject

5. 13.3.2. Nature of subject matter3. Guiding Principles in the Selection and Organization ofContent1. 14. The eyes contain nearly 70% of the body’s sensory receptorsand send millions of signals every second along the opticnerves to the visual processing of the brain. and affective elements . hencemeaningful and significant.4.Good thinking concerns itself with HOTS to developcreative and critical thinking. 12. Balance – Content includes not only facts but also concepts and values. Utility – Will this content be of use to the learners? It is not meant onlyto be memorized for test and grade purposes. Self-sufficiency – Content fully covers the essentials. At the base of the structure of cognitive subject matter content arefacts. 14. 1. We can’t do away with facts but be sure to go beyond facts byconstructing an increasingly richer and more sophisticated knowledgebase and by working out a process of conceptual understanding. 11.e. 1. An integrated approach incorporates successful. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective than teaching isolated bits of information It considers multiple intelligences and varied learning style of students. Significance – respond to the needs and interest of the learner. This question implies that students hardly see the relevance and the practical application of what they taught in school. 15. Writing Strategy 7. theirdevelopmental stages and cultural and ethnic background. Learning s meaningful when it is connected tostudent’s everyday life. 7. psychomotor and affective lesson content. Interest – Teacher considers the interest of the learners. and laws. Information is embedded I music or rhyme. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information. Without rehearsal or constant attention. principles. 1. .This implies the need for memory aids. Teacher5. 9. Hands – on Activity 12. This is a case of “less is more”. Learning is a process of building neural networks.2. its recall iseasier than when it is in prose. 10. Simulations and Role plays and Meaning Makers is an integration of facts. d.5. Involving Students in Real – life or Authentic Problem Solving. School policies 13. 11. Instructional objectives2. 6. theories. One guiding principle related to subject matter content is to observethe following qualities in the selection and organization of content:a. A.c.The use of the three-level approach ensures a balance ofcognitive. it alsomeans teaching the content in order to realize the goals and objectives ofthe course as laid down in the basic education curriculumb. 10. skills. explicit in the Basic Education Curriculum. Our brains have difficulty comprehending very largenumbers because we have nothing in our experience to“hook” them to.g. hypotheses. Learningcontent is not “milewide-and-inch-deep”. concepts. informationremains in working memory for only about 15 – 20 seconds. Classroom Strategies Using Visual Processing 5. matterwill remain cold and lifeless. 8.f. Nature of the learners4. Student asks us when and where they need this and that they are learning in school. Feasibility – feasible in the sense that the essential content can becovered in the amount of time available for instruction.2.based and brain – based instructional strategies . Give sufficient examplesrelating to student’s experiences. Subject matter content is an integration of cognitive. Mnemonic Strategy 6. What is learned has afunction even after examinations are over. 3. thinking skills. 15. Active Review 8. 3. Validity – teaching are the content that we ought to teach according tonational standard. The essentials are sufficientlycovered and are treated in depth.9. research.

Disadvantages of the Deductive Method1. 17. it ensures thelearning of the entire procedure with no step missed. Demonstration MethodDemonstration. skill (psychomotor) and values(affective). The emphasis is on the teaching of skill. Instructional Characteristics1. Benjamin Bloom’s Cognitive domain Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis EvaluationAnita Harlow’s psychomotor domain Imitation Manipulation Precision Articulation Naturalization 18. agroup of 3 to 4 members or a teacher while the rest become observers. 20.planned in advance. 17. 19. For the accountability of learning. 21. It requires more time and so less subject matter will becovered. This is a form of learning throughimitation. We must begin our lesson with a clearly defined lesson objective. It is not supportive of the principle that learning is an activeprocess. It will not result to trial-and-error learning as what happens . 16.5.Inductive Method-starts from the specific to generalAdvantages of the Inductive Method1. Coverage of a wider scope of subject matter. Measurable.. Lesson appears uninteresting at first. Result o orientedand Relevant. sometimes termed “behavioral modeling”. lesson objectives must beSMART.6. Attainable. “begin with the end in mind” a.4. It helps the development of our learner’s higher-order-thinking skills. Characterization Different Approaches and Methods Direct/ Expositive Instruction ApproachDirect Instruction. how the students is and ought to be concerned with it. Learning becomes more interesting at the outset becausewe begin with the experiences of our students. A lesson is worthwhile if it gets connected to everyday life.3. values and attitudes. a learning activity which is performed by a student. Share lesson objective with studentsa. Lesson objective must be aligned with the aims ofeducational as embodied in the Philippine Constitution andother laws and on the vision – mission statements of theeducational institution of which you are part. Make known to our students our instructional objective and encourage them to make the lesson objective their own.3.Aim at the development of critical and creative thinking. Possible wastage of time. 21.16. what difference it makes for a fuller existence4. i.5. Time bound and Terminal. 1.2.Advantages of Demonstration Method1.2. Lesson objectives must be in the two or three domainsknowledge (cognitive).3. Lesson objectives include easily observedbehaviors that can be measured accurately. No bother on the part of the teacher to lead learners to the formulation of the generalization or rule.4. Specific. It follows a systematic procedure. The learners are more engaged in the teaching-learningprocess.3.2.Deductive Method-starts from the general to specificAdvantages of the Deductive Method1.2.2. 20. Taught in a step-by-step fashion. effort and resources will be avoided since thedemonstration is supposed to be well.2. The strategy is teacher.directed. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized.2.7. It demands expert facilitating skills on the part of theteacher.Disadvantages of the Inductive Method1. hence students will be able to learnfrom a well-tried procedure since the demonstrators are selected andadjudged to be skilled. a way of teaching which is aimed athelping students acquire some basic skills and “proceduralknowledge”Organization Valuing Responding Receiving  19. manipulated skills.Work on significant and relevant lesson objectives.e.

This approach is most effective in developing skill in employing the science processes. 23. 24.3. Instructional Characteristics 1. Constructing projects develops the students’ manipulative skills. It instills the values of initiative. principle or innovation. hence activeparticipation is the best indicator or inquisitiveness.22. 4. Critical thinking. CHARACTERISTICS 1. withunplanned learning activities. 5 Basic Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Formulating conclusion Advantages of Problem Solving Method 1.An ethic of . 7. interpretation and evaluation of evidence 5. The findings are reliable and accurate since the procedure has beentried before. Reflective Teaching •Is anchored on the ability of the teacher to guide students to reflect on their own experiences in order to arrive at new understanding and meanings. thus motivating students to continue constructing new projectsin school and at home. Investigative processes such as inferring. It can be employed among students who are weak in oral communication5. Focused questions before. 25. industry and creativity. Formulating hypothesis 3.6. 5. during and after are criticalingredients that provide direction and sustain action. 2.6. measuring. ADVANTAGES1. originality andresourcefulness are developed. which are much-needed ingredients for independent study.4. Sensing and defining the problem 2. 22.8. In addition to learning a concept.5. 26. The answers arrived at are genuine products of their ownefforts.4. The scientific method can likewise be used effectively in other nonscience subjects. classifying. 8. A keen sense of responsibility.7. Testing the likely hypothesis 4. Metacognitve Approach -“meta” means beyond• An approach that goes beyond cognition that makes students think about theirthinking and think it aloud. 23.Project Method-is a teaching method that requires the students to presentin concrete form the results of information gathered abouta concept. “heuristic” and “problem solving” is simply a teaching method which is “modeled after the investigative processes of scientists. The children are highly motivated to search. open-mindedness and wise judgment are among scientific attitudes and values inculcated through competence in the scientific method. 3. formulating conclusions and generalizations are employed. Analysis. 24. students become productive andenterprising 26.The Constructivist Approach•Is anchored on the belief that every individual constructs and reconstructmeanings depending on past experiences and continue reflecting and evaluatingaccumulated knowledge with an end in view of constructing new meaning.5. Working on a project in groups develops the spirit of cooperation andsharing of ideas. 2. The students become appreciative and grateful forthe achievement of scientists. It is a teaching strategy that emphasizes “learning by doing”2. The planned design of the project tests the students’ originality in choosing thematerials to be used. Guided/ Expository Approach Inquiry Approach -sometimes termed “discovery”. The students learn to accept the opinions and evidence shared by others. The student’s active involvement resulting in meaningful experiences serves as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure in future undertaking. The completed project adds to one’s feeling of accomplishment andsatisfaction. Problem solving develops higher level thinking skills. They become resourceful and innovative. predicting.3. Problem Solving MethodProblem Solving is a teaching strategy that employsthe scientific method in searching for information. The procedure in gathering information is not prescribed by the teachers. 25. analyzing and experimenting.

let thelearners assess their performance on their own against a certain criteria. The test/quiz or anyassessment techniques must be in line with the objectives.•Introductory activities•Developmental activities•Concluding activities•GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING•These principles "adapted" from Corpus and Salandanan.An approach makes use of classroom organization where students work in groups or teams to help each other learn. or to just inform the grade/score thestudents acquired. It is wise to give some positive feedback as well as constructive criticisms. STRATEGIES1. Let thembe aware of and reflect on their own progress. 30. Build the culture of success in the classroom. 5.TUTORING ARRANGEMENTSa. Monitoriald. that is. This can boost their morale tostudy and appreciate the value of success. tests. 29. etc yetthey fail to return these to the students. Observation of students’ responses5. Dontforget to praise the students on a job well done. or let them sing the anthem?3. lets give them someconstructive criticisms on the areas they need to improve. Structurale. We need to test how far the learners have learned. in line with our objectives. A student chooses partner fromamong his/her classmates. Semi – structured 28. Which ismore appropriate assessment tool: let the student write down completely theanthem. Teaching and learning is never complete without assessment. They will give quizzes. 2. In short. caring • Confirmation • Dialogue • Cooperative process 2. 2007)•1. brighter and more cooperative member of the class to tutor other classmates. Remember that thebiggest room in the world is the room for improvement. projects. How will the learners learn this if the teacher wont give their scoresor return their papers?4. either before. to check how far they have learned. This also includes thetype of assessment appropriate for a certain objective. Writing journals3. consider learners multiple intelligences and learning styles.8. Assessment must be intracomparative rather thanintercomparative. Same agec. 28. Thus.6. 30. Keeping a portfolio4. negative attitudes about assessment will be minimized since the quizzes and tests will be just "usual" to them. orthe belief that it is normal that some students pass while some fail. This is like a teacher whohas an objective about "Singing the Philippine National Anthem".APPROPRIATE LEARNING ACTIVITIES IN THE DIFFERENT PHASESOF THE LESSON. -method implies. Self – analysis2.PEER TUTORING -Is commonly employed when the teacher requests the older. This may also means assigning “study habit”. This is one of themortal sins of some of the teachers.The purpose of assessment is to give learners a feedback to what extent theirlearning is. Avoid the bell curve mentality. then. Instructionalb. Assessment results should be fed back to the students. this learning with a partner. Constructivist approach 3. if learners are made to realize about this. during or afterinstruction. Have thatmentality that ALL learners can achieve. Tactful problem solving 27. They will come to realize the purpose of assessment. 29.7. Never use assessment as a disciplinary action . Assessment tool and objectives must be collinear.27. Emphasize self-assessment. Further. Questions at the end of every lessonCOOPERATIVE LEARNING APPROACH . In assessment. This means thatassessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process.The traditional paper and pencil test puts verbally and linguistically intelligentstudents at the advantage. if learning is as well a personal process.

may be in form of maps. concept (altruism).Video Tapes/Films. 35.Chalkboard.a transparencycan show pictures. MANAGING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Furniture Arrangement The physical features in the classroom must be located in areaswhere the contents could be viewed well and be made available for use. 40. or thegoals. 35. This will enkindle the negative attitudes towardassessment.12.2. and outcomes of a historicalfigure or character.Choose the instructional material that best suits your instructional objectives. photographs. 9. Graphic Organizers . 32.3.There is a need to summarize or review the experience.For results. Series of Events ChainUsed to describe the stages of something(the life cycle of a primate). Paragraph Graphic Organizer 36.stands for the real thing that is to studied like using real insects andplants. 41. Emphasize on real world application that favors realistic performances over out ofcontext drill items. questions or initial comments you may need. they make the room look spacious and . abide by the general utilization guide on the use of media given:a.d.f. opaque and still pictures. diagrams and sketches at a time when they are needed in adiscussion.8. 39.scaled replicas of a real object. LANGUAGE Graphic Organizers 40. the steps in alinear procedure (how to neutralize an acid). actions.g.10.5. Sandwich Graphic Organizer 41. process(meiosis).4. 33.3. 37. Take notehowever the importance of form of 8 mm and 16 mm.2. graphs. transparency and confidentiality.Stress what to be watch or listened to carefully. 33. 32. 1.6. DVD. assessment must focus on real life application. use a variety of a replica of an object that may be larger or smaller in scale.Realia. 34.All instructional materials are aids to instruction.Spider MapUsed to describe a central idea: a thing (ageographic region). and cut-outs.Bulletin boards.e. Explain the objectives of the lesson. can be purchased orrented.7. as well asdeveloping higher ordered thinking skills such as an instructional tool used to illustrate a student or classs prior knowledge about a topic or section of text.textbooks and all kinds of books are also classified as media or sub-strategies. record and compact disc.Mock-ups.Overhead Transparencies and Overhead Projector (OPH).10. Story Film Sequencing Organizer 38.usually stationary on a wall or it can be removable. Assessment should be communicated regularly and clearly to parents. 31.Charts.31. Hence.Pictures.Audio-recordings Includes Tapes.these include flat. They do not replace the teacher. KWL Graphic Organizer 39. Inferencing Writing Graphic Organizers 37.Check out your instructional materials before class starts to be sure it is workingproperly.9. This distortsthe true purpose of assessment.Models.Selection and Use of Instructional MaterialsPRINCIPLES1. Learn how to use the instructional materialsb. CD-ROMS and the internet.CD. 36. or a punishment. or proposition 34.c.a sequence of events (how feudalism led tothe formation of nation states).If possible. 38.Well – arranged. State what they will be expected to do with the information they will learn.5. Provide a conducive environment. evaluating and most of allcreating.this includes not only those with flat and wide surfaces but alsothe portable types which can be moved or even serve as dividers.11. Prepare introductory remarks.Electronic Materials.4.

42. Avoid slipperyfloors. “Getting out of the way”. Be aware of course objectives. 42. such as the need toreview assignment requirements. It also lets you seewhere there are ‘lighter’ weeks in the syllabus.Seating Arrangement It deserves foremost consideration since the students stay in eachat the longest time during the day. This will allow you toidentify potential problem areas and plan your lesson accordingly. and the time availableversus the number of tasks that need to be accomplished. 44. •Assess what your students already know. Be flexible. Sufficient space isallotted in the aisles and in – between the seats for ease in moving around. as well as divide other tasks such as preparingfor assignments into more manageable ‘units’.•Keep the classroom dynamic in mind. the chairs are organized in groups of fouror five facing each other for fast exchange of communication.For a lively and freshlook. torespond to the demands of different groups. Teaching assistants always have a long list of things we need toaccomplish – and generally. too little time in which to do them. overactive andenergetic children are always on the go. not just class objectives. rickety chairs and old furniture. hallways and surroundings arewholesome places to stay in. Is the . Estimate the time each task will take. Match the seating arrangement with theformat and activities of your lesson plan. Clean rooms. Be able to reshape your lesson plan on the fly. if is the psychologicalatmosphere that reigns in the classroom. art and illustrations. Become comfortable early on with compromise. 43.Noise and disciplineproblems in the physical environment can be avoided in anorderly and well – managed classroom. Review the assigned material. may sacrificemore critical discussion or activities.If the activities need groupings.BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLASSROOM TIME MANAGEMENT Define your objectives for each class and try to remain focused onthem. be responsive to the classroom dynamic. make sure you do the problem sets yourself first. are available for posting important messages andoutstanding pieces of students work. Allow for time for questions on difficult topics/concepts. The semi – permanent arrangement of the chairs is one where theyare arranged in four rows with six to eight in a row. Allowing the class to digress too far. 45. even if you’ve taught thematerial before. Also thechairs and tables must be positions appropriately. Here aresome helpful hints on how to make the best of your classroom time whilemaintaining a realistic approach to how much you can accomplish. Take into account other time demands. Usedinstruments and devices must be returned to their properplaces.•Prioritize your established tasks to ensure that you cover themost important concepts/subjects. It must be a safe place where curious. or for too long. 45. Always erase the board after use. 44. orderly.Let us not forget that equally important. Workthrough any exercises yourself first. Proper lightning and ventilation must be provided andmaintained for everybody’s comfort. etc.Build time for questions into your lesson plan. You’ll rarelyaccomplish everything you ideally would like to accomplish. togetherwith bulletin boards. the teacher should schedule whois responsible for their neatness on a regular basis. and be prepared to findout that your estimate is low. If you’re working through problem sets withstudents. Recognize when you should step asideand let the students take over. White board for writing and clarifying lesson discussions. potted indoor plants can be p[laced at the corners andflowers on the teachers table. 43.Longer-term planning allows you to make connections betweenmaterial across weeks.

Transitions can either be anticipated or unanticipated. rearranging the room. 50.2. Routines have to be learned. the use ofthe pencil sharpener.TRANSITIONSManagement of most instructional interruptions is fully within the teacher’scontrol.•Always keep an eye on the passage of time duringclass. Unfavorable . It is sometimes helpful to put anoutline for that day’s class on an overheadtransparency or in one corner of the board. students’ desk and storage areas. We get used to doing them in order for themto become reutilized.•Be aware of hidden time demands (administrativeissues. setting up technology. in-class writing. individual presentations. group fond ofdebates (allow more time) or do they have difficulty participatingin discussion? The extra time it takes to get a discussion going willaffect your planning for the class.GROUP WORK Research shows that group work like cooperative learninghas a positive impact on student achievement. the teacher’sdesk and storage areas.EXAMPLES OF ANTICIPATED INTERRUPTIONS ARE:• Beginning of an instructional episode• Between instructional episodes• After an instructional episode• Equipment set up and take-down• Material distribution/ collection• From teacher-tostudent-centered activity• Beginning/ end of class or school day 48. questionsfrom lectures. roleplaying. students will occasionally misbehave. 48. It is. 49.4. •Make students aware of your learning objectivesfor the day. storage of common materials. therefore. but how much time you’ll be allotting eachpart of the class. It constitutes the next important concernof teachers as part of good management. Teacher’s hand signal means:• Freeze (Stop what you are doing)• Gently tap on your neighbor’s arm to get his/her attention to freeze• Face the teacher and listen to instructionsDISCIPLINE -is a controlled behavior. interpersonalrelationships and attitudes about learning.CAUSES OF DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS1. AREAS:• Movement in and out of the group• Expected behaviors of students in the group• Expected behaviors of students not in the group• Group communication with the teacher 49.). etc). • To obtain teacher’s attention: One finger= I need to sharpen my pencil Two fingers= I need a tissue Three fingers= I need your help 50. The first days ofschool will be most timely. 46. Make clear your rules and procedures on the distribution andcollection of materials. Indicate what the overall goal isfor that day. explanation of test procedures or assignments. 47. RULES AND PROCEDURES IN THESE AREAS PERTAIN TO:• Student attention during presentations• Student participation• Talking among students• Obtaining help• Out-of-seat behavior• Behavior when work has been completed. etc.•Assess the success of the lesson plan aftereach class and adapt for the next week. necessary that we identify andexplain specific rules and procedures in our classrooms. 47.•Consider making use of time-controlled activities (groupwork. Teachersmust be ready to deal with them with utmost care and consideration. Try to experiment with allowingtime for individual writing in response to a question instead ofalways running a discussion.1 countdown 5 for freeze 4 for quiet 3 for eyes on the teacher 2 for hands free (put things down) 1 for listen for instructions • Raise you hand if you wish to participate.46.•Indicate not only what activities you’ll be doingand what exercises/problems you’ll be workingon. No matter how well managed alearning environment is.3.RULES AND PROCEDURES ON GROUP WORKADDRESS THE FF. HERE ARE SOME EFFECTIVE SIGNALS USED BY NEW AND EXPERIENCED TEACHERS: • 5.

Student’s varied background•Family background•Physical and mental capacities•Emotional traits among others 51.2.•Can face a class with varied behavior tendencies•Know your students•Show sincere concern for their welfare•Commendable behavior is reciprocal•Calm. 52. learning conditions•Overcrowded with more than the regular number of students to a class.•Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.•Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.51.•Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make themdislike the subject. genuine respect and care for your students. Acceptable and effective•Use verbal reinforces that encourage good behaviorand discourage bad tendencies. The shamefulexperience is not easy to forget.•Give students the freedom to express or explainagitated feeling and misgivings rather than censurethem right away.•Use non verbal gestures.•Award merits for good behavior and demerits for cconsistencies and lapses. 54.•Dialogues can help in discovering problems andagreeing on mutually beneficial solution. Teacher’s poor management skills•Knowledge and skill in employing a wide range of classroomstrategies and procedures•Personal and emotional attributes3. 53. To establish discipline.•Poor lightning facilities and inadequate ventilation.•Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make themdislike the subject.Various modes of establishing discipline/classroom control•student’s responsibility•teachers exclusive responsibilities•a result of effective teaching strategies•an effect of group dynamics on behaviorARE YOU A GOOD DISCIPLINARIAN?Tips that can make a teacher a good disciplinarian. Lead him/her to a secluded areaand nicely convince him/her to be quiet. poised and tactful•Are firm and consistent•Enthusiastic•Have a sense of humor•Have a well – modulated voice•Humble. It refers to the teacher’s and thestudent’ rationale or purpose .•Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a for mentor. 52. •Scolding and harsh words as a reprimand will have a negative effect on theentire class. together with long “sermons” are repugnant andnasty. 54.•Nagging and faultfinding. frown or a hard look todissuade them from mischief.•Keeping a student in a “detention area” during or after classes as a penalty formisbehavior is a waste of time and occasion for learning.•Denying a student some privileges due to unnecessary hyperactivity can all themore encourage repetition. 53. compassion. use acceptable ways of dealing with discipline problemsand avoid the unacceptable measures by all means.MotivationHighly Motivated Students•Actively participates in every class activity•Often seen procuring over additional references•Curiously examining the proboscis of a butterfly•Volunteers to borrow and return materials used Poorly motivated Students•Passively stuck to the seat during discussions•Uninterested look and facial expression•Endlessly bother neither rather than listen•Unable to follow simple instructions•Leaves learning task half done Meaning of MotivationMotivation is a driving force that impels one to react. •Employ more group – oriented methodologies•Use varied teaching techniques•Develop patience.•Focus attention on one who is unruly and is about todisturb the neighbors.•A private one – on – one brief conference can lead to abetter understanding of mistakes that need to beremedied or improved.•Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a for mentor.

This will encourage the slowthinkers to participate freely. It analyzes facts. recognizespatterns or trends and invokes memory and recallMotivating – a number of questions about the topic can serve to arouse their interestand focus attentionInstructing – directs. Her questions can serves as good examples•Attend to their questions. 55. It develops confidence and makesknowledge search easy and satisfying.Effective Questioning and Reacting TechniquesTypes of Questions According to PurposeAssessing Cognition – used to determine one’s knowledge in understanding.Creative thinking. probes into one’s originalityEvaluating – it elicits responses that include judgments. Productive thinking – it includes cognitive reasoning. Theypromote high level of thinking.Extrinsic Motivationis also called external motivation. 57.Function of Homework•Extend of practice•Is advance preparation for the nextlesson•Help cultivate good study habit•Is an assessment tool . It takes the form of rewards or incentives orrecognitions.•Allot an appropriate time slot for open questioning. Intrinsic Motivation – is also called internal motivation. value and choice 56. •Know your own style of questioning•Request colleague to critique your own style•Increase your own repertoire of type of questions•Consider the individual abilities and interests of the students•Spend time reflecting on the type of question you askEncourage Questions from StudentsThe teacher’s questioning technique is the key in encouraging students to askcorrect.Handling Pupil’s Responses•Providing feedback on the correctness or incorrectness of a response•Giving appropriate praise to high quality responses•Making follow up questions 58. It originates from thestudents’ learning environment or from factors external to the students andunrelated to the task at hand.Intrinsic Motivation is greatly influenced by the innate values and attitudespossessed by the students. 58. Avoid dismissing irrelevant questions. Assist in clarifyingor refocusing in order to solicit correct responses•Praise the correctly formulated questions. guides and advise on what and how to do an activityTypes of Questions According to Level / Answer•Low Level Question•High Level Question•Convergent Question•Divergent QuestionQuestioning Skill•Varying type of question•Asking non.55. relevant and high level questions. •Redirecting questions•Following up a student’s response with related questions•Rephrasing the seemingly unclear questions•Showing non-verbal encouragement•Encouraging learners to ask questions HomeworkAway of extending the school day by providing students the opportunity torefine and extend their knowledge.Verification – determines the exactness or accuracy of the results of anactivity or performance. It originates fromthe students’ inner selves or from factors inherent in the task beingperformed.directed question•Calling on non-volunteers•Rephrasing•Sequencing logically•Requiring abstract thinking•Asking openended question•Allowing sufficient wait time•Assessing comprehension•Involving as many as possible 57.