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Guiding Questions: Climate Notes

Section 14.1 What is Climate?
1.Define climatology.
Climatology is the study of Earth’s climate
and the factors that affect past, present,
and future climatic changes.
2.What factors does climate include in
addition to average weather conditions?
Along with average weather conditions, it
also describes annual variations of
temperature, precipitation, wind, and
other weather variables.
3.Give two examples of how climatic data
can be used.
It can indicate the warmest and coldest
temperatures ever recorded for a location,
this can be used by companies to decide
where to locate new facilities and by
people who have medical conditions that
require them to live in certain climates.
4.Why must we exercise caution when using
normals to predict weather?
Normals are not intended to describe
usual weather conditions, they are simply
the average values of temperature over a
long period of time. Another issue,
normals only give the information of the
origin they were gathered.

5.What factors cause climate?
Latitude, topography, closeness of lakes
and oceans, availability of moisture,
global wind patterns, ocean currents, and
air masses are all contributing factors.
6.Why are coastal areas cooler in the
summer than inland areas?
Water heats and cools more slowly than
land, so large bodies of water affect the
climates of coastal areas.
7.Describe the relationship between
temperature and altitude.
Temperatures in the lower atmosphere
generally decrease with altitude.
8.Figure 14-3 depicts what effect of
orographic lifting that we discussed last
Friday? (HINT: return to those notes!)
The air is forced upward over the
Section 14.2 Climate Classification
1.Name the system used to classify climates.
What factors does it consider?
The Koeppen classification system is based
on the average monthly values of
temperature and precipitation, and the
distinct vegetation found in different
2.List the six main climate types.

Tropical climates, mild climates, dry
climates, continental climates, polar
climates, and high elevation.
3.What climate type do we live in? List its
We live under the Mild Climate, under
Humid subtropical. They are influenced by
the subtropical high-pressure systems that
are normally found over oceans in the
summer. Warm, muggy weather prevails
during the warmer months and dry, cool
conditions in the winter.
4.What is a microclimate? Give an example.
A localized climate that differs from the
main regional climate is called a
microclimate. Climbing the top of a
mountain, you’ll experience a microclimate
due to increasing elevation.
5.What is the heat island effect and where
does it occur?
The heat-island effect occurs because large
areas of asphalt and concrete radiate far
more heat into the air than do grasslands,
wooded areas, and bodies of water. This
causes cities to become warmer.
Guiding Questions: Climate Notes