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ALAT UKUR DAN

PENGUKURAN
HENDRO DARMONO

GOAL
UNDERSTANDS

ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
UNDERSTANDS THE FUCTION AND HOW TO
OPERATE INSTRUMENTS RELATED TO
ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONIC AND
TELECOMMUNICATION INSTRUMENTS

ELECTRICAL SIGNALS
Can

be performed as current or voltage


Current relates to moving electrical
charge
Voltage close to potential charge
All measurement relates to current,
voltage, or power

EXAMPLE OF CURRENT SOURCE


HP

batteries
Etc.

EXAMPLE OF VOLTAGE SOURCE


Power
Etc.

Supply

DC AND AC
DC

stands for directional current. The


current flows in one direction only
AC stands for alternating current. The
current flows alternately in two direction.

Alternating currents and voltages vary with time and


periodically change their direction

AC Examples

AC WAVE
Amplitude
Period
Frequency
Peak

value
Root means square value
Average value
Peak to peak value

Sine

waves

by far the most important form of alternating


quantity
important

properties are shown below

Comparison AC and DC
In

general,
frequency is zero
The flow of charge
in one direction
The amplitude is
fixed for any time

Frequency

is not

zero
Amplitude vary at
any time, peak
value, rms value
etc.

Multi meter
Analogue

multi meter
Digital multi meter

NAME OF COMPONENTS

APPLICATION
Application

This instrument is portable multi tester for


measurement of weak current circuits

Measurement

Range and Accuracy

SKALA PEMBACAAN

Measuring Procedure
Preparation

for measurement

Adjustment of meter zero position.


Turn the zero position adjuster so that the
pointer may align right to the zero position

Range selection
Select a range proper for the item to be
measured set the range selector knob
accordingly

Measuring Procedure
Measuring

DCV

Set the range selector knob to an


appropriate DC range
Apply the black test pin to a minus
potential of measured circuit and the red
test pin to the plus potential
Read the move of the pointer by V and A
scale

Measuring Procedure
Measuring

ACV

Turn the range selector knob to an


appropriate ACV range
Apply the test leads to measured test
Read the move of the pointer by V and A
scale

Warning
Since the instrument employs the mean
value system for its AC voltage measurement
circuit, AC waveform other than sine wave may
cause error

How to measure resistance

Connect the black test lead to the jack marked "Common" or "-
Connect the red test lead to the jack marked with the Omega
(Ohm symbol) or letter "R" near it.
Set the range (if provided) to R x 100.
Hold the probes at the end of the test leads together. The meter
pointer should move fully to the right. Locate the "Zero Adjust" knob
and rotate so that the meter indicates "0" (or as close to "0" as
possible). Note that this position is the "short circuit" or "zero ohms"
indication for this R x 100 range of this meter. Always remember to
"zero" the meter immediately after changing resistance ranges.
(meter is ready to measure resistance)
Measure the resistance and read the resistance scale.

How to measure voltage

Set the meter for the highest range provided for


AC Volts. Many times, the voltage to be measured
has a value that is unknown. For this reason, the
highest range possible is selected so that the
meter circuitry and movement will not be
damaged by voltage greater than expected. If
the meter were set to the 50 volt range and a
common U.S. electrical outlet were to be tested,
the 120 volts present could irreparably damage
the meter. Start high, and work downward to the
lowest range that can be safely displayed.
Insert the black probe in the "COM" or "-" jack.

The range chosen the selector knob determines


which voltage scale to read. The maximum
value scale should coincide with selector knob
ranges. The voltage scales, unlike the Ohm
scales, are linear. The scale is accurate
anywhere along its length. It will of course be
much easier accurately reading 24 volts on a 50
volt scale than on a 250 volt scale, where it might
look like it is anywhere between 20 and 30 volts.

Measuring voltage and current in a circuit

Current measurement

Voltage
measurement

Voltage
source

Voltage source

load
Load and meters are
connected in parallel

load

Load and meters are


connected in serie

THANK YOU