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..,.

THE PEOPLE-'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA


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THE FIRST NINISTRY OF NACHINE - BUILDING.


NINISTRY SPECIFIED STANDARDS

STlLNDARD OF

RliDIOGRl:..PHY

OF \'JELDS

.JB928-67

,.

1968
"'-"-D-"-Cl-Q

This standard of radiography applies to the butt-welded joints


prol.~uced

by arc

gas or shield gas welding on carbon, alloy or

stainless steel plates in thickness of 2-200 mm.


I. T'echnical Requirements for \veld Radiography ...

1..

Requirements for weld surface:

1:/eL'.. shall be radiographed only after its surface has been inspected ..
Wel~

surface irregularities cannot interfere with interpretation of

disc~ntinuities

on the film. Otherwise surface finish is required prior to

radi..)graphy~

2~

Identification of films:

A film identification shall be used to serve as an identification on


the film traceable to the component number, number of film, location
marks and identification of penetrameters.
plac0d at least

These identifications shall be

5 mm from/weld seam and be conformed with the one on

com!,onent.

3.

CiS:ssification of Radiography:

A - X-ray radiography for special requirements,

Class

Very low

grainess non-intensifying film and lead foil technique are used.


Class B.- X ray radiography for general requirements. Non-intensifying
film may be used.

Intensifying or lead foil technique may not

be used. The use of intensifying film and high definition


fluorrescent screens will

~lso

be permitted.

Class C - '{-ray radiography. Non...,intensifying film and lead foil technique


are

4.

used~.

Geometric unsharpness:

GeoLlc'tric unsharpness Ug shall not exceed 0.2mm for Class. __A and 0 . 4mm
for Class B

& Class

C.

Ug can be calculated by the formula:


Ug

Wher,~:

5.

. d

=---b

source - film distance, mm

surface of specimen to film distance, mm

effective diameter of the radiating source,. mm

Film Density:

Film density for weld ( including fogging density of film) shall be


kept within the following range:
Class A

Class B

Class C
1 .. 5-2.5

1.0-2.0

The fogging density of film shall not exceed 0 3 for Class Band 6.2.f?~
0

--

Class A and Class C.

1 ::-

6.

Penetrameter and sensitivity:

(f)

Steel \vire penetrameter as specified in Fig. 1 and Table 1 may be used,

Fig. 1
mm
No. of Thickness
Penet- of Steel
ramet- Plate.
erg
1

20 and
smaller

~
2

5-50

v-'

Table 1

Diameter of Steel Wire.


d

0.1j 0.15; 0.20*;0.25;

Steel Wire
Tolerance.

+ 0.01

35

2-5

0.02

40

3-5

Lead Pain
Identification.

0.30;0.35; 0.40
On 1 ; 0.2;

o 0':;

0.4* ;

0.5; 0.6;

O~7;

0 ... 8;

~*.,

.0

...

0.9; 1.0

50-100

l--

0 ... 8; 1.0; 1.2* ;

4-7

+ 0.03

1 . 4* ; 1 .6* ; 1 .8; 2.,0

100

1.0;

1.5;

2.5*; 3.0"';
4.0;

..

...

2.0*;
3.05*;

+ 0.05

50

5-8

~.5

6
Note: Lead point identification is placed on those wire bearing the mark*.
(2)

Placement of penetrameters:
-or

Penetrameters shall be placed on the source side part of the object being

examined and this part is adjacent to the film side...


~,

If this is not

placement of penetramete~the film side is acceptab12. In

this case the radiographic tEchnique shall be demonstrated with the applica~penetrameter

~he

placed on the s~ce side and the penetrameter placed on

film side, and required sensitivity is obtained.

In principle, one penotrameter per radiograph shall be used.

\vhen source is

placed at center of part 8xpos8d simultaneously under the same distance in a


360-deg radiation beam~ a minimum of one penetrameter shall be required in
each 90 ..

(3)

Viewing 'of penetrameter:~

Viewing of the finest wire is described as follows:


Make an opening on black paper cover sheet.
shall be smaller than that of weld seam.

The width of this opening

\-Ihen viewing move, continuously

the cover sheet little by little from finer penetrameter wire side to
greaterpenetrameter wire side, as shown in Fig. 2, until the finest wire
has been just visible ...

-.~'

~G~-r':'Y-~H~ND P~=""
Fig. 2

(4)

Calculation

of film sensitivity:

To find the film sensitivity, the following computation may be used:


d

x 100 '}6
T

':lhere: T -- mnximum thickness of material to be radiographed by source


( including average thickness of w0ld reinforcement).
d -- finest wire diameter indicated in point
(5)

(3).

Film sensitivity:-

Requirements for sensitivity shall be adhered to as specified in Table 2.


Table 2
Maximum thickness of material to be radiographed by source
Classification.

6-15

15
V

Class A

0.1mm Steel \'lire

2 . 0

Class B

0 .. 15mm Steel wire

2 .. 5

Class C

0 .. 2mm

3",0%

~~~

2.0

~/

7.

Steel wire

2,.096

105

2,5%

)-

5;,6

2.5%

==

Records.~-

The radiographic record shall include part number, number of films, area
radiographed ( a sketch may bo prepared instead) and the radiographic
procedure.

This record she.ll b8 in sufficient detail so that any radiogra-

phic techniques may be

duplicat~d roadily~

-: 3 .-

8~

It is necessary to explain the conditions when any of the

requirements in the report listed above is not obtained~

11#

Radiographic Quality Standard.

9.

Held quality level:-

Five weld quality levels are available.

For each discontinuity type, the

levels or classes are numbered in sequence of increasing severity; the


severity level (or class 1) is the least severe.

If the number of discontin-

uities exceeds the limit for Class IV such welds shall be judged in Class V.
10 A

Determination of discontinuities:-

(1)

Unallowable

a.

Absence of cracks, lack of fusion inclusion,incomplete penetration and

defects~

slag in line shall be made certain for Class Ie \.-b.

Cracks, lack of fusion and incomplete penetratiQJ1 (in double \oJeldE,;d

j~ts or in single welded joints with backing)

are not acceptable for Classes

II, II 1."
(2)

Allowable voids (including scattered slag inclusions):-

as

For Classes I, II, III and IV, allowable number of voids per any weld
2
area of 10x50mm on radiograph is shown in Table 3~ The width of weld may be
taken as

5/1mm if less than 10mm"

The greater number is for maximum thickness,

the smallest number is for minimum

thickness~

The numb&r of voids for plate in

thickness between the maximum and minimum may be determined by interpolation


method, and then be rounded.
Table 3

- ',-".-

Plate
thickness,mm 2 .. 0-5,,0

5 0-10 . 0

10..,0-20,.0

20.0-50,,0

100..,0-20

50,,0-100 .. 0

Classification
(19 )

0-2

2-3

3-4

~6

Class II (I)

2-4

4-6

6-8

8-12

12-16

16-24

(c)

3-6

6-9

9-12

12-18

18-24

24-36

Class IV {J;)

4-8

8-12

12-16

16-24

24-32

32-48

Class I

Class III

Class V (e)

b...

8,..12

6-8

More voids than that given in Class IV

Conversion factor for various diameter of voids is shown in Table

-. 4 .-

4...

The depth of incomplete penetration of single welded joints for Class II


and Class III should not exceed

157&

of wall thickness, not be greater than

2mm, whereas for Class IV ::..-:; should not exceed 20% of vmll thickness, at
most not be greater than

3mm~

The length of incomplete penetration of-

single welded joints for each class should not be greater than aggregate
length of slag inclusions specified by requirements for corresponding class.
The length of incomplete penetration of single welded joints is not limited
\.,rhen the design \-lelded joint efficiency is eqmtl to or less than 709&.
In case measurement of the discontinuity depth is impracticable, it is
necessary to apply effective method (for instance j a depth gauge with notch
may be placed adjacent to the weld seam) to show the film densitYt and
discontinuity depth is determined by comparison between the film density and
discon~inuity
11~

density.

Determination of discontinuity

Classific~ation:

\vhen several types of discontinuities are present in a weld length of 12


(if this length exceeds that of the film, then take the film1s length as its
limitation)~

The severity level for each class of discontinuity category

should be clearly specified.

\"/hen two tn,_c

~::

c:i.3continui ties are present t

final weld quality level is determined by subtracting 1 from the sum for leve
of three types of discontinuitiesD

The weld quality levels and sampling percentage specified in this standard
should be selected and agreed

upo~

by the designer, manufacturer

and user

according to the actual conditions I or designated by specific code in conform


with this standard.

0-

,
01

EXPLANli!IONS FOR I\.PPLICATIQN OF STiLNDfl.RD OF THE \vELD RflDIOGR~.

For 1 -- requirements for weld surface.


1 ..
The weld ripples or weld surface irregularities, if any, on the weld surface
to be radiographed shall be removed.

The" ,'lsld "surface shall be finished to

such a degree that the resulting radiographic image due to any irregularities
j-.-

cannot mask or be confused with the image or any discontinuity.


2..

For 3 -- c12_ssification of ::."adiography.

The various sensitivity obtained by given radiographic technique will depend


on the difference

i~

use of apparatus and materials as well as in concrete

We divide the radiography into 3 classes, i.e. class A, class B

conditions.

I~

and class C.

selecting classification of radiography? the sensitivity as

'veIl as the ability of apparatus 7 conditions for apparatus and materials and
economic index must be taken into

consideration~

Films* used for radiography are divided into two types: intensifying and nonintensifying.

These two types of film may also be divided into three types

according to their speed: low speed? medium speed and high speed.
techniques may be divided into

3 kinds: lead

screens and technique without screens.

iO~~

Intensifyi

intensification, fluroscent

The fluorescent screens may be divide

into two kinds: high difini tion (low speed) and low definition (high spee"d)"
Low graininess (low speed) non-intensifying film and lead foil intensificatio:
technique are used for class A. When geometric unsharpness, density and other
conditions prove satisfactorYl a greater sensitivity will be obtained.
~onger

'case, the exposure time is

and the voltage is higher.

In th:

In general, the

X-ray machine iG able to radiograph thinner part, for example, its thiclGless
is about 10mm..

The thicker pa::."t may be radiograpllGd when induction electron

accelerator is used.

Technique (class A) is suitable for radiography of thin

part which will meet special requirements.


re~iograph

arG

Q~Rct

and

t~:

Since the requirements for

oQuinl~n5[~yin~

fil~

is not yet produced nON iu

our country 1 the technique (Class lJ is to be used '!.Ls less as possible~

"
For technique Class B: in principle 1 the non-intensifying
filQ and lead foil
intensification or technique without intensification are used.

In this case

the intensifying film and high definition fluo~escent screen may also be used.
the use of high speed fluorescent screen is permitted if thickness of part is
greater or the apparatus is not ablo to realize the desired purpose, or by
some other reasonSD
(At present
country)

In that case; the sensitivity may very likely be lowered.

the high spe.:;d medical fluore"ceL'': ~::;:-~eI\.-is v/idely used in our

Technique cl.<;,o,oo

requirementso

"R

i.c:

."ui table for x-::'C"cy-ridiogr:J.':""-- of Gencl"o.l

Example of cooparision of results for 10mm thick part obtained

b) techniques class A and class B in use of different apparatus and materials


is given below:

.. : 7 : ,.

Photog:::'aphic
Film

Level.

Belgium D4
Lead foil front
non-intensifying? screen:
10'., "speed
0 .. 04mm.
rear screen:
0 .. 15mm

Class A

High speed
medical
flt:orescent
screen

Shanghai. L>F

intensifying']

Class B

high speed
~',
_------o~--.-""~-"

Notes:

Technique of
intensification

_"

~_-~~~"

For

Wire penetrameter sensitivity

15KV
15ma
1;50 sec.

80KV
15ma
45 sec ..

___ _____ ___________

,.~

*In this staEdard the undeveloped film is called film and the
developed film is called

3.

Exposure
condition

4 --

negati~e

film.

geometric unsharpness.

Because any sou::'s,= size is fixed? the radiation source \Vi th diameter d,
as shown in Fig"" v!ill give a radiation which can strike the film around
the forders of

di2cc~~inuity

within an object, and the enlarged radio-

graphic image Ug of an objpc+: is obtained.


geometric unsharpnesso
definite graininess

As a macter of

\Vhi~h

r~t,

f.Llm and screen have their

gives a limitation of interpretation.

limitation is called inner unsharpness Ufo


.,'

The ,vidth of Ug is called

This

When Us is less than Uf the

geometric unsharpness Ug is of less consequence, therefore taking Ug to

I,.

very sma"ll value is not necessa::."y and its taking to very greater value is
not permitted eitha::'.

;.'

.....

Permitted by thi:,: l;-t;a!ldDrd. ~e.orne.t't:"L(? un.sha'Cpnes Ug is

&

p . 2mm

for class A,

and O.4m~ foy classes Band C.. f, obtained by the equation Ug = b .. d

is the

r:b
minimum focal distance for desired Ug. Certainly, the greater focal distance
may be adopted.

If the focal distance is not guaranteed to meet.

t~

.:'0.-

~for
~nd

geometric unsharpness by reasons of irregularity of object

ability of apparatus, it should be noted in report.

-'. 8

4~

For 5 -- film density.

The film density is a density on welds (including fogging density of


film).

Subject density may be defined as the logarithm of the ratio

of light intensity incident on the film 10 and light intensity transmitted I~


Density D = 10g10

10

1
When D=1, radiation intensity I is 1/10 of 10

When D=2, radiation intensity I is 1/100 of 10


Density is determined by de~itometer
spectrometry).

(or by micro photometer used in

In routine radiographic wcrk, density may be measured by

a visual comparision of the known accuracy.

6 -- penetrameter and sensitivityo

5.

For

(1)

Permitted by this standard, wire penetrameters shall be used owing

to their better sensitivity (in comparision with notch type penetrameters)


e~d

conv'enience for use.

There are

4 types of penetrameters in Table 1,

No. 1 is used for pipe connection welds in thickness up to 20mm. Its


.,'.;-

minimum wire diameter is 0.1mm, making in 0.05mm increments, and the tolerancE
is exact.

This penetrameter is suitable for radiography of object in

thickness up to 20mm by technique class A.


No.4 are used for general weld radiography.

Penetrameters No.2, No.3 and


When desired sensitivity range

for radiography of thicker part is not obtained by penetrameter No.4, a wire


penetrameter with greater diameter may be made accordingly,
..

' ..

hll of these four types penetrameters shall be identified with the number of
lead-made point.

One such point

i~

attached to the penetrameter No. 1 on the

place nearby the wire with a diameter of 0.25mm.

Viewing the number of lead

points, we shall know that this penetrameter used is penetrameter No. 1 and
this is then followed by a quick knowing of the diameter of the wire placed
nearby.

Thus, we are able to be quick at figures of the sensitivity.

The

function of the lead points for other penetrameters is just the same as for
penetrameter No.1.
(2)

Penetrameters are usually placed on the film'side of the part being

examined, where the density is lower and tho geometric unsharpness is the
maximum.

In this case, if the required sensitivity is obtained, the

sensitivities on the whole film shall be guaranteed.

When placement of the

penotrameter inside the vessel or piping is imprRcticable, the radiographic


technique sh~ll be demonstrated with one penetrameter placed inside on the
weld surface of the source side and another penetrametor placed outside on
the weld surf~ce of the film side of a like pipe or vessel section.

This

section is eXposed simultaneously so as to have image Gf the penetrameters


on the film (the images shall not be overlapped), then inspect sensitivities
:.:

of penetrameters pl~ced both ~nside and outside.

~ should be similar.

These values of sensitivi-

If the penetrameter on the inside indicates the

-. 9

required sensitivity of 2% and the penetrameter on the outside indicates


1.8%, the 1.8% sensitivity of penetramcter on the film side shall be
used in practical work to determine the penetrameter and penetrameter wire.
When examining double-walled parts, the sensitivity shall be based on the
total thickness T, that is, blice the wall thickness plus the average weld
-

reinforcement th1ckness.

(3)

When viewing the image of penetrameter on the film various results

of the smallest wire of penetrameter are obtained by each observer due


to the influence of the nearest pcnetrameter wires.

Permitted by this

standard, the subjectivity of observer mo.y be minimized.

Experiments show

that the method, specified in this standard"affords same results for


various observers.

The sensitivity values obtained by the method specified

in this standard will be increased by 0 .. ~-:-19~ with the decreasing of visible


number of the penetrameter wires by 1 or 2 although the sensitivity itself

f --

is unchanged.

(4)

The sensitivity values listed in Table 2 of this standard are based

on the previously mentioned method.

The film sensitivity is not lowered

although the sensitivity values arc greater.

The minimum values for

materials in total thickness up to 6mm are provided in consideration of


.'".1

limitations of the film graininess

In r-ray radiography, if material thickness is small, the softer source


shall be used for obtaining the required sensitivity.

6.

For

7 -- records.

It is not necessary to note all tho data in the report but all original
data should be maintained together with films for future reference.

7"

For 8

I,ll requirements of this standard are specified c.learly.


requirements have been met, the film quality cap

~e

If these

guaranteed.

In some

cases, obtaining the desired requirements is difficult, for example, when


examining with a r-ray radiation source inside the vessel, the focal spot
size is insufficient, required geometric unsharpness is not obtained or the
requirements for apparatus and materials used are not mGt.

All these

difficulties should be explained in the report.

84

For 10 -- determination of discontinuities:-

(1)

In this standard the point-by-point method is used for calculation

of the voids, that is, the maximum diameter of each void accurred in any

seri~s 10 by 50mm weld area is covered into the number of points according
to Table

4,

and then sum up all the numbers of points.

The welds shall be

acceptable whefi the greatest summation of all the points does not exceed the
number of points specified in Table 3 in accordance with thickness and weld

10 .-

...
.is ta k en for each void) and 1 'FJid of 2 .. 1-3.0mm (5 po;i.nts)occur
the total number of points is 10..

Therefore,

If this steel plate thickness is 32mm and

qUD.lity class B is required,. the void number mc.y be calculated nnd rounded
as specified in Table 3.

First, we know that the plate thickness of 32mm

the order 20-50mm and in this case, 8-12 points is permitted for
is of
CID.SS B. Difference in thickness is 30mm, and in number of points is 4. As
J

each point is equal to 7.5mmin thickness, 9 points c.re equal to 27.5 and
10 points 1 to 35mm.

Now the prCl.ctical plate thickness is 32mm, which is

approaching to 35mm, thus 10 points is taken"

The weld is acceptable because

the summation of all defect point number is 10 as well.

In practicc.l \'lOrk, calculation of the point number of the voids may be made
by viewing film in the following way: make a block in 10 by 50mm area on the
glass side of the illuminator or make a 10x50mm opening on the block paper,
then move the most defective portion into the block or the opening for
accurate interpretation.
(2)

For slag inclusion in line there are three requirements: length of

single slag inclusion, aggregate length of inclusions ~d distance between


the inclusions.

For

examp~e,

for welds in class B the requirements are as

follows:
For single slag, the length of single slag is allowable to exceed 1/3

a.

of plate thickness.
'. .

.! :.

When the plate thickness is less than 12mm, the length

of tho smallest single slag inclusion may be 4mm.

When the plate thickness

is greater thnn 60mm, the length o,f single slag inclusion cannot exceed 20mm.

....

The aggregate length of inclusions t should not exceed a length of 1 in

b.

any weld length of 12

During rc.diographing a length of 12

is often

greater than that of film, or weld length is less than a longth of 12


In this case, aggregate length of inclusions is determined in proper
propo!tion.

Value converted m2.y be less than length of single slag inclusion,


~

The requirement of "Aggregate length of slag incJ"usions in any of length


should not exceed a length of single inclusion in line" serves as a basis for
judging the acceptability of the welds.
c.

For distance between the sIng inclusions:-

\'fhen two or more types of discontinuities 2,re present and L is the length
of the longest inclusion in the group, the distance between these inclusions
should not be less than 6L.
11

length of single inclusion.

If less, the agregate length should not exceed


This rules are applied to wsld of class C or

class D.
(3)

When the welded joint efficiency (equal to or less than 70%) is not

noted on the drmving or in other documents by the design dep2.rtment the


length of incomplete p8netration of single welded joints should meet the
requirements of aggregate length of inclusions for specified class.

When in

~' ~

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64 )80-126
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40)

2-16

III
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2-16

40)

2)
Q

16 )

Q
Q25-26.6 )20-98

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15)'

III

70? III)

)
)

10 )

washed gas~

III

)})
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\
) )))))

Q16.1-

I)

2 26-29
Q

II)

))))

24 )

27-281
250 ~ I I )
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27 28 )400-450) I )
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3-13)N-100)III) III
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50 ,
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24 )120-160; III) III
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Q)

II

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8-145
)

50~)
35

35
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III ) III )
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-: 2 :-

----2- -SECTioN~-------T---T---- --~T- --T-- - r----Q----T---Y--y- -"


Q---------~l-------i

~ Pressure ~ Temp.

643

643

~ Pipe

667 Q 670

Q
Q

671 Q 836 Q 837 Q 83 Q 271


681 Q
Q
Q
Q

--------{-~~~~~=llJ--~~---~----!)~~~~~:!~----~----~----J----~----~---Jl---17
17

Q
Q
Q

) 1 00-1 25)
) 100 150)

16
17

Q
Q
Q

)
~
) II ')
)
) II)
)
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)
~
) III )
)
) II )

)
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) 100-150)
\
45)

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16

40)

~
Q

80 5

150)

33
12

400)

Q.

Q
Q

II)

~~

~~: ~:::

10

N.

l
)

II

)
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~ tit )

1 50
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l l

III
III

)III~

l l l
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~?)?
,
~
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)

",~,-------------,-------,----------)------,--------'~---~----,-----)...---)----,---------

Notes:utili~ies

Classifications for
light of this form.

2.

No inspection s::lOuld be carried out for those vent pipe


and valves.

shall be made

i~

1.

the

In.~ voiltili ;4.d/"!-

---------

IF====================================================jf

~
a

EXAHINATION REQUIREJ.'1ENTS FOR


\;TELDERS PERFORMING THE WELDHG ON STEEL PIPES.

~
~

2
116-SA-19

========================================================

-:t

Examination Requirements for

~~~:~~-~:~!~~~~~~-~~~-~:~~~_~~_~~==_~!E~~~
E~~M~natiori requi~ements for welder~ ~i~~6~~i~~ \k~
weldine on high pressure steel pipes:

!.

Only the experienced Cln,:l ~l:d.11ea

~re

weiders
..
:

'

)..

expected to take part in the ex"mina tion of' \.1ell:H.ng,- cHi..


.

H.P. steel pipes.

Besides the

~ol16wing

'~.......

'

sho~~d

points

also be observed.
(1)

Selection of welding rods used :.'or

h~nli-operated el!;!~tric

arc welding:
a.

When the base metal is Nco 20

S'~eei

, welding rod type

507 will be used; 2.5mm rod" are for the welding of


the first pass and 302 mm rodE, or 4 rom rods are for

the second pass as well as the lasses after the

secon~.

Have these rods first baked under a temperature of


400

c for as long as two hours dnd then kept in an

ov~n

with a temperature of 150 C fo~ insulation, getting them


ready for use.

The se rods she ,'ld be kept dry all the' way

through when they are


b.

p~t

under application.

When the base metal is Cr18Ni 1 ;~Ho2Ti, argon arc welding


will be adopted for the weldin 5 of the first pass and the
inside of the Steel pipes to oe welded should be filled with

(2)

argon gas for protection purrose.

Beginning from the

second pass, welding rod tYPE A212

will~be

Dimensions of the test piece qnd the

,.

way

used.
,

of,joining

~re

shown in Fig.1.
Welding is performed when the pipe is fixe~ i~ such a

(3)

position as formiLg a 45

angle with the horizontal.

After the completion of the first pass.

(4)

Visual ins.pe,ctiQn

,I.

inspection should be made for ":he internal surface of" the


steel pipe to see whether

t~e

following requirements. are

satisfied.
a.

The surface is smooth and free from overlaps'.

b..

The ridR'es or valleys, if any, on the surface dQ not


exceed 2mm.

(5)

For the qualification requi::-ementsof welderS., see


116-SA-05, division

!I.

6, sub-division 5.

Examina tion requirements fc.r welders par-forming th.e -weld.ing


on medium and low pressure steel p'ipes:

For the selaction of welding rods, see Table 3 of

(1)

116-SA-006~

Th~ idw~h~d~ogen type welding ~odi sho~l4 b~ baked Uh~er

a temperature of 4000 for 2 h)urs and then kept in art


oven of 150C for insulation.

Keep the welding rods dry

when it is used.
(2)

The dimensions of the test piece and the way of joining


are shown in

(3)

Fig.1~

Welding is performed when the pipe is fixed in a position


forming an angle of 45

with tre horizontal.

When the base metal is 13CrH04 L or 1Cr18:1i9Ti or

(4)

Cr18Ni12Ho2Ti, the argon arc WElding is adopted for the


first pass and in case of 1Cr1E1i9Ti and Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti,
the inside of the steel pipes tJ be welded should be
,

filled with argon gas for protp.'tion.

Aft2r the completion of the first pass, the internal


surface of the steal pipe

shor.~.d

tn Gee whether the following

be inspected visually

.;quirements are satisfied:

a.

The surface is smooth and free from

b.

The ridges or valleys, if any, on the surface do not

ovarlaps~

exceed 2mm.

(5)

13CrM044 steel pipes should :~ preheated to a temperature


a
of 200 250 C before being w~lded and for the post-welding
heat treatment of it, see table 5 of 116-SA-06.

(6)

Qualification requirements.
"
The result of the X-ray examination
of the test

piece should not be inferior to grade

JB

928-67~

3 as specified in

The mechanical property test is made in

conformity with 4.21 of 111;-SA-006 ..

The intercrystallinG

corrosion test is made in ':"Jnformity with 4.22 Gf 116-8.11.-06.

-.-.-0-11-.-

.,

I'

i-----------------\
I

PL flo T E

i
!
I

\
'rL----; -)

,
__I

.1____'__ -...:....

~\
-- :--- 7

i_~-~J"

'" '.-i-t..

~~_

;.'

-',

l~ P-IEC E'S.

,r

,'!'"',

"~f

'I

'.~

",t.

J~q

20
1110

~8

2.."

13 ell 00

Lf'i

s-q

)(

x
x

2.8
10

I ("12,8 NI q /I'

108 X

171/ 05

f>CJ x

it'S-

t-<,l

hI

'1

,.,.

II

il

I~

'l.

Ii
Iii'.,
'(

mYClVNCL'S

,qO/~

====-=====_

,-.-.-.-.-.-.-,
:
I::,

116-SA-05

., ....
-

TECHNICAL REqUIREMENTS FOR,


ERECTION

AND ACCEPT ANCE


OF

HIGH PRESSURE STEEL PIPIN3.

-.-

_,

=;I

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1

GENERALS

CHAPTER 2

INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE STEEL PIPING

CHAPTER 3

INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE PIPE FITTINGS,


FASTENERS AND VALVES

CHAPTER 4

FABRICATION OF HIGH PRESSURE STEEL PIPING

CHAPTER 5

ERECTION OF HISH PRESSURE STEEL PIPING

CHAPTER 6

WELDING OF HIGH PRESSURE STEEL PIPING

CHAPTER 7

TESTING ;~URG~I\Jr_~AND ACCEPT ANCE OF HIGH


PRESSURE STEEL PIPING

ANNEX-I

LOCATION, NUMBER AN;] SIZE OF SAMPLES FOR


MECHANICAL PROPERTY TEST OF WELDED JOINTS

ANNEX-II

RECORD FORMS FOR ERECTION AND ACCEPT ANCE


OF HI3H PRESSURE STEEL PIPING

01
CHAPTER -1
1.1

GENERAL::;

The technical requir-ementB-dascribedhe-re- for the HUFPL


Project are only applicable to the erection and acceptance
of high pressure steel pipes with nominal pressures ranging
2
from 100-320kg!cm

'i.2.

Erection of the ,high pressure steel pipes mu st follow the


designed requirements. Revisions, if any, can be made
only after the acknowledgement of the

1.3

design81~.

Erection of the high pressure steel pipes should be done in


conformity with the designed reqUirements or some other
special reqUirements.
CHAPTER-2
INSPECTION OF HIGH PRESSURE STEEL PIPE.3

2.1

Certificate of material provided for the high prGssure steel


pipes should specify the contract No, size, quantity and
weight, grade, heat No. chemical composition and mechanical
property and also the standE?rd No. When thG pipes aI'S delivered
to the stoe house, they should be checked for the conformity
with the items specified in the certificatG.

2.2

In case that the pipes are found not in conformity with the
specified grade or the certificats is found not giving the
full information of thGchemical composition aoo mechanical
(

property, such piplJs should be checklJd as described under:


"'"'.
-0

Have all the pipes numbered serially anld checked for hardness.
PIel< up from each batch two pipes, one with the greatest
hardness and the othe I" with the smallest hardness. Out of each
pipe, five test specimens are taken; two for tension test, two
for impact test and one for flatening or cold bending test.

c.

Samples are to be prepared from tf':le above stated specimens for

chemical analysis.
:J.

In case of incompletion of certain items of chemical composition


or mechanical property, those items in question shou!d be checked
to complete the certificate. ThG chemical composition and
mechanical-prop~l"'l'Lof-..htgh--pressure

steel pipes must satisfy the,

requirements given in the attached tables 1 & 2.


When a sample fails to satisfy the requirement for a certain item, the
number of sample should be doubled for recheck. If an\} one of the
additional samples fails again ,all the steel pipes should be checked
one by one.
2.3

When the result of intercrystalline corrosion tendency test is absent


. in the certificate of an acid-resisting stainless steel pipe, the said
pipe should be testEld for intercrystalline corrosion tendency by
method 118 11 as specifiGd inthe

II

Intercrystalline Corrosio ll Tendency

Test For Austenite And AustenitG- Ferrite Typo 5.5 11 Method Y8-44-f2iL /
2.4

Each pipe should be measured at its both ends for its outside diameter
as well as its wall thickness. The allowance is given in Table-3 .

2.5

Sandblast and magnetic particle examinations should be made on the


exterior surfacEls of magnetic pipes with a nominal diameter greater
than 6mrn . An\} crack.s, knots, creases, slag inclusions J scratches and
other such like defGcts should be removed by grinding.

2.6

After the removal of all defects, the actual wall thickness of a pipe
should not bEl less than 90% of 'the nominal thickness. The actual wall
thickness is to bG calculated by the fallowing formulas:

A.

When the defect is located at the end of a pipe:

B.

When the defect is located in the middle of a pip:;r:

r; - SJ t S1-

,~

'-'a

:6

The measurGment of

SI 52

(3nd(a~ should be made on the samG straight

line.
LJ.

In case of spiral - shaped defect, the minimum wall thickness : .


at both ends be taken as that of
WherD

actual wall thickness in mm ~


wall thickness of the end nearer to the
defect in mm.

S2.
CC

wall thickness of the other end in mm

maximum grinding depth in mm

Non-magnetic high pressure stElel pipes 8re prerOf'?ble to be


examined by fluoroscopy or dyeing method.
After baing examined by magnetic particlc, fluoroscopy or dlJeing
method, the steel pipes should be further exained interiorly as
peru Ultrasonic Examination for' High Pressure Seamless Steei PipGls
1\

Standard No. YB 1151730

Any portion that fails to pass the examination should be rejected


by cutting. In no case should ".r'epaired welding be acoeptable.
After examinations, have tliG qualified pipes entered into the
11

RGoord of Examination of High Pressure Steel Pipes it and those

qualified should be stor'od and protected properly whereas those


unqualified should be markod with certain colour so as to avoid
confusIon.
Table -1

Grade

Mechanical Properties of High Pressure Steel Pipes

Tensile
Yield
strength strongth
(Kg/mm 2 ) (Kg/mm 2

Elongation Impact
toughness
5%
Kg-M/cm 2

".-

Cr1BNi12M ~54
o'
2Ti

"-:::

5
;;10

?; 55

~24

:;. 20
>40
..;.-

~55

~156
140-170

~22

~ 40

::;;'10

~ 55

~22

20
)40
1Cr18Ni9Ti,{" 56

Har'dness
Reduction
(HB)
of sectional
area

Table 2 =::hemical composition of High Pressure Steel Pipes

Grade
20

~'i'

,-,
.....

Si

Mn

.3

0.17-

0.1'7-

0.35-

0.24

0.37

0.65

1Cr1BNi9Ti
0.12
-.;;

<..

~0.80 ~2"O

.r::::.

-.;

0.04

Cr

Ni

Ti

jVl
0

~
0 . 04

LO.03

6: 0 ,035

-rf. O. 03

~O"

5x(C%-0.o2)0,8

17.019.0

8.011.0

16.0-:19.0

11.0- 0.314.0 0.8

Cr18Ni12M 2Ti
0

0.12 .f;. 0.80 L2.00

035

1.8-

2.5

'

04

..

Table 3 Allowance for El.O and wall Thickness of


High Pressure Steel Pipes

Allowance for 0.0.


O. iJ.
(mm)

Cold
drawn

35
35-57

Allowance for Wall Thickness


Allowance

Wall Thickness
( mm )

+ 0.2 mm

- + 0.3 mm

Allowance
0/

{fJ

+ 12
- 10
+ 10

57

+ 0.8%

20

+ 15
- 10

Hot

159

+ 1.00%

20

+ 10 When 0,0
-<JEiB

ro1l8d

150

+ 1.25%
- 1.00%

+ 15 When B.D
- 10

~168

06

~j. 15

qualified when il.pops at a pressure of 1. 05-

times of tho

working prossur3 and closes at a ;JleSSUrEJ of 0.9 time the


working pr88ElU''-O, Aftar hljdro static tost, thE: valves should
be free fr~m acct.:mulatad water, groased agaInst rust and than
cl::JsRd, r-:ave both the inlet and outlot of th8 valve stopp8d~
After' dll thoso have :. l8en dono, have tho
the

II

t~~t result entered into

TEST CERTIrICATE Of HIGH PRES3URE VALVES"

(See Table 2 of Annex-II).


3.5

The higr. pressure pi;Je fitti~gs should tie checkod one blj one
with their certificates.

3.5

After test, the qualifiod pipe fittillgs, fC'stonors and valves should
ho marked and properllj stored whereas thLJSO unqualified and not
being able to bG ropairad should be marked with certain colour
for diE1tinction.
CHAPTER 4 FABRICATION OF HI r..3H PRESSURE PIPES

4.1

Pipes to be fabricatod f:::Jr high pros9uro 90['vico must be qualified


by strict examinations and provi. ded with th8

il

RECORD OF EXAM-

INATIONS OF HIGH PRESSURE STEEL PIPE'::;:I.

4.2

Before making tho fabrication drawings,

careful study of tho

working drawings of tho piping should bu mado. All tho dimensions


given in the fabrication drawings shc.Jl.Jld bu obtained either from the
actual measurement at the sitD or fr'Jm colculatioI18
on the basis
'r
of the informations givl3n blj thl3 work inq drawIngs. But the
dimensions of those portions with

fiy';.:;d

l:Jng th 3r8 to be givDn

blj actual measurement only.

4.3

In finalising the dimensions in the f8brlcatirJn drawings the


foll:Jwing requirements should be :Jb:J:Jr\f::;d:

,0.,

The location of flange and joint to b;::; wUld8d should be made


with considerations to the conveniE:rlC:J
repairing and maintonanc8.

i'j;-

nl3chining, fixing,

07
8.

In general, the bending radius R and the minimum length of


straight side should be in conformity with Fig. 1

~/f/~~;~;t:;;'r~~~ c~~~:~~'."i:,.~~,jU~;
;,' '-j};-'?: " ;.:' ~~

C.

:" -~: 60' n1.;~;j

The outer surfaces (including the insulation cCJvering ) of any


two adjacent:pipes shCJuld not be in touch with Gach other, with a
clearance not less than 50 mm.

4.4.

Cutting of alloy steel pipes and stainless steel pipes will


preferably be done by mechanical means. After

El

pipeCincluding

grade No, 2 0 steel pipe) is cut, the portion of pipe with no grade
mark should be immediatellj stampod with the original grade mark.
:".5,

The center of threads made on': a pipe,is 'the 'centBr of the' insttli:t t:::itr;::le
of tha pi;=l8f ,Tha dim8(1sions of the threads should bEl guaranteed.

4.6.

Dimensions of threads arB expressed in metric system with the


b3sic dimensions based on
COMMON

THREf~DS

II

THE BASIC DIMENSIONS OF ill 1-600 mm

(G8196-63) II, ToierEmc8 ;]f threads is in confarmitlj


''1'

with finenoss Class 2

of the

TOLERANCE OFz\ 1-300 mm COMMON


a

THREALJS ( GB197-63):I, Tho battom of grCJave is arc -shaped. The taper '.:;-;,,:
H

end ovality should be kept within the talerance range. Throad end
will follow ll size of chamfer of bol withdr.awal groove for thread end
GB3-5B II.

4. 7,

LLlh,3n machining the throads at the ends of a pipe, checks arB


made eithGr by measuring with tho throad plug guage or blj fitting with
a qualified flange. In case of fitting ( a flange for the checking) have
tha flange screwod in blj hand but not 'co'] 100so,

4,8. The-;i~.irfBTr.:::lss class of finishing of threads should not be less than


"'75, loaving no cracks, valleljs, grits and burrs or other such
like defects on tho surface" Minor mechanical damages and incomp18te section on the threads should not be totalled more than 1/3 of a
circle, RBd.uction in tooth height of thread should not be greater

08
than 1/5 :Jf Us nominal w::Jrking height.
4.9

Fineness class of finishing of the tapered sealing face at the


ends of a pipe shauld not b8 18ss thanv5 frae fr'Jrn scratches, scales
valloys etc. Deviati:m fr::Jm tapernes should n:Jt be mora than
-: 0.50. Light penetrating and dYEling checks arGk to be made.
No intermittence or displacement or the contactod line on the
finishing surfaca Is found.

4.10

The finishing finoness class of the sealing face of flat gasket at


pipG Gnd is not to be lass than <:J 4, ThG end surface should bG
parpendicular to torn center line :::Jf pipo.

4.11

The machined sGaling face of pipe end should be kept 3-4mm


insido the flange. If th8 pipo is nat to be erected for thG time being,

-".

itsmachined saaling facG should be graElsGd against rusting and


'

well protected.
4.12

,o..t tho time of bending, care should be taken to the machined


threads, if any, and sealing face of the pipe.

4.13

C:::Jld bend is preforabla f:::Jr high prossuro stoel pipes, and in


genoral hoat treatman.t will not be rsquimd thorGafter.

4.14

iJJhen hot bund is parformad :::m N::J. 20 stGBI pipes 7 th5 tCJmperature
for banding is prElferabl y kept within a range :Jf 850 DC_gOO DC.
The hoating does nat 8xce8d 1000 DC and aft~r bd'nding, the
temperature is n:::Jt to be below 700 DC.

4.15

Whon hot bElnd is performGd on Austenile stainless stGel pipes


kElep the tamperature at 900-1000 DC f:Jr bonding and the heating
does not Elxca8d 1100 DC. After bElnding the temperature is not
to b8 below 850 DC. The pipes ore to be hardened ther8sfter by
water guenching at 1050-1100 DC. From among the pipes of eElch
batch, two will bo picked up for the interarystalling corrosion
test blj mGthod B8 1l as specified in YB44-54. If anyone of the
samples fail in the intercrljstalline corrosion tendElncy test, the
w,hole batch if ropresents has to be heat-treated aain. aut such
repitition is not to be more than 3 times.

09
Pi~8s

should be heated unif:Jrmlv. The rising :Jf tampGrature is

t:::J be so sl:Jw that

[3

thorough heating is Elnsured whilo overheating

mav be aV::Jided. When bending, measures are V:J be taken t:J protect
thtJ pipes against lOC3t pr3ssing.
4. 17

4.13

L:..19

,~ll:Jwable

GrCJr in thG length of pipes after fabrication:

;::.,.

F::Jr pipes ta bG srected in pClrtL::ms with fixed length: + 3mm

D.

F:Jr pipes to bG er2ct13d in p;Jrticms with frG8 length: + 5mm.

Bending 'Jf pipes should f::Jllow the ri3quir8ments given under:


,0-,.

Qvalitv: not gf'i3ater than 5%

3.

Deviation of banding angle ::'1.5 mm/m

w.

["Hnimum walL thicknfJss: not loss than 90% of the nominal


wall thickn8s'8-..-

FurthGr nLlndestructivG examination is to bt] made after bending or


h23t treatmt:mt of pip5s.

1;.2J

Strict qualitv control is n8c8ssarv in thG CLlurse of fabrication of


~ipGs.

,::,ft8r the completion of fabrication, have the rGsult entered

irlt'J th;:;

~1

FABRICP,TICN C::;C:RTI,FICATE OF HI3H PRESSLURE STEEL

PIPES;j (S8G table 3 uf AnnGx-II).

'-':;H;:PTEK 5 ERECnDrJ OF HI3H PRESSURE STEEL PI PES

.s. -:

~pwn

d;:;liv8rV to thG job sita, tho high pressure ste31 pipes,


~'i'

;Jip2 fittings and fast3nGrs, 'Jalves h::Juld b3 chGckEld f'Jr cElrtificatc:lS and

b2
:3. Z

WGll

protocted.

32f:Jre erecti::m, have the inside of pipes cleaned and chockBd for
st:Jr:3ga. The pipe fittings, fasteners and valvos should also bo
::122nt3d. The thf'Gadad part sh:Juld be coated with
~ixturG

rJ] 52 'greaso or

o
:Jf graphit\3 powder and machine oil. ;:::;heck all the sElaling

ree3S and saaling g8skats for their surfacG finsnmg.


5.3 .:Juring Gf'Bction care should b8 taken that pipes should b8 well
supp::Jrted blj certain pGrmanont supports as sh:>Jwn in the drawings.
Some Gdditional wooden pad or mild metal sheot or asbestos rubber
sheet shou ld bo pmvided at that portion of pipo and pipo fittings to
be in c:Jntact with th8 pip8 support. 8esidos, the contactod aroa
shGuld be given a paint coating beforohand.
:;. [.

~h8n iJ

piping runs through wall, floDr or rODf, providod holDS,

10
sleeve pipes Or supports should be prepared as specified PV

the design.
5.5

Prior to the commencement of erection of pipes, the equipments,


valt:ies and operating steering wheels should be properllj alligned
and fixed.

5.5

:=are should be taken to have the chamfered threads at the pipe


and exposed aftar flange is fitted.

5.7

Before seating the sealing gasket, have the sealing gasket and
pipe end greased and then have the gasket seated into the socket
exactllj ;

5.:3

Tightening of bolts is done in such a walj that the tension is equal


on opposite bolts. Excess tightening is not expected. iCl.fter all the
bolts are tightened, the two flang8s in pair should be kept concentric
and parrallel. Not less than two threads on the bolt are to be
exposed outside the nut and the length of the exposed part of each
bolt is preferabllj the same.

5. :3

:Juring installation in no case should anI} installation error be

re!T1ediEl:tli:b1j wav of forcible pulling, forcible pushing or forcible


twisting or reducing the thickness of sealing gasket.
5.10

'-Llhen the installation work is interrupted, have the pipe ends


closed in time

5.11

The inlinasampliilg parts of instrument should be mounted simultaneousllj with the erection of piping.

'')'

::::::HAPTER 6 L.JJEL:JINu OF HIGH PRESSURE STEEL PIPE

::. ~i.

The following tvpes of welding ara adopted for the joining of high
pressure steel pipes:
A.

Manual electric arc welding (this is n3commendable for the


present project).

8.

Oxv-acetljlena walding is

permissibl~r~

for No. 20 steel pipes

with a wall thickness of 6mm.


;~

'-'

Manual argon arc walding malj be performed on

stainles~

steel pipes.
6.2

TVp8 and basic properties of electrodes for manual electric


sOrc welding are given in the table under:-

11
Table 4

62se mGtal

IType of

Properties of MGlted; Metal

Iwelding rod

ry

Tensile strength

1Cr18Ni9Ti

50
50

i T507 (Finishing)

-JIo.,

16
20

;:\ 132

!
I

,::1,212

65

Impact tough
2
ness Kg-M/c m

Elongation
55

T,

1"'~02 ( pnmm
. . . lq)
'I:J

2 un

6
13

25

25

=r18Ni12M 2T0
o

55

I
~

Mn

.~

~J

Sf

c'

Mo

Cr

0/

10

Ni

.:::J

01
10

ot
,0

%.

1.0

18-21

Nb+Ti
= 8xc
-1.0

J.081:::: 2 . 5
L

.s 2.5

J.08

":;1.0

17-20

2-3

S
I

I
:;.3.

Nb

Nb+Tl
=8xc
,-1.2

,~

~-. O. 035

A~JJ,

:I

8-11 :::;. 0.025

040
:I

<.. 0.035
........

!
10:~

I
~

0.025

~0.035

13

i
Before use, the Glectrodes should be baked as described in

from beginning to the end.


The weldl3rs who am to perform the welding on high pr8ssure
stael pipes shall be qualified by examination for which tho following
regulations are laid.
A.

Type of WElding and material adopted for the examination should


bo the same

B.

B8

what shall be actually used for the project.

According to the actual condition, the items for examination


may be the rotating flat welding, fix8d horizontalwGlding or
comprehonsive fixed spot welding.

the INSTRUCTIONS Booklet and when used, they should be kept dry

E.4

'.,

'

12
'-'.

4 specimens are t~ bG prGpared for the welding of pipes with


an outside diametGr ~ 35mm, and for pipes with an outside diameter

?- 42

mm onl y one specimen will do. Tho length of specimens is to be

determined as required by thG size of the machine employed for


testing,
O.

l.1..lelders shall only l.LJork on such welding job. as they have been
qualified for it by examination. But those who have been Ejualified for
comprehensive fixed spot welding can also work on rotating flat walding.

6. 5

R8(~uiromorjs

A.

for qualificc:tIon e)<aminGtian:

Welds should show good appGarance free from cracks, air


porosities, slag inclusions and insufficient fusions. The undGrcut
depth is not to be mom than O. Smm.

B.

The reinforced heiGlht of welds will be 1. 5-2mm whGn the wall


-'

thickness of;: wGldment is loss taall 10 mm and it will be 2. 5mm


when the wall thickness of weldment is more than or equal to
l"-\'1

VV\

10mm. The width of welds should COVGr an arGa about 2-3i \of the
bevel at each side,
C.

The joint of samples E!ho!-lld bG chGcked by radiographic examination in conformity with stBndard

,I

J8928-67;1 finish Class being

not less tsan Class" 2


0.

IV1echanical

oo

property test will include tension test, bending tGst

and impact test. The ti3st result should satisfy the mquiromonts
specified in the attachGd TablG-5. ThG locatTon, number and siZ8
of thG sample aro given in Annex-I.
Tabla-5
standald of mechanical propGrty
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~q:;.::u:..:a::..:l:..:.i.:...:fi:..::c:..::a:...;:t~io=n of we I de d s amp Iss.
I

~ TensilG strongth 10=2 fJ


: Impact
: \-<-'3 /C.~Y1L
:L:rack-fnm bending :toughnoss
:_
.;angle( degree)
._ :K-M/cm 2

Grade

40

100

1Cr18Ni9ri

55

120

Cr18Ni2M02Ti

55

120

20

Note"

:J-Bend diameter

b -Thickness of Bending Sample

13

E.

Intercrystallino corrosion tendency test is to bo made for


stainless steel samples in conformity with "8 II rrJuthod as
specified in standard" YB-44-54 H.

5.5.

The groove on the pipes to be welded should be muchlnod bymechanical


means. tJimensions of the groove are given in the attLJch8d toble. 5.

~l.E';r ft:~~

,)

cf!>: t.;

/,'

-.,-:-.

_.-/> ~7
",1,-

)--r-)

= .. 7 r,
..':J

_~

~.~';.

,'.:

...
- - '-:':''''-;9
.---~

-.'~l:)

.-

b
"r

}-(
. -.-:':Z,-/

j
I

~'-"

II
i
i

C--'

.. L

i
I
'/ '" /
___

/
O'''.z

---t--"-----~----.

..;:'
-I,

,~J

2 --...

-~

'~---i

6 0 - 7 ",

z.J

~'

"'.;.....:,.,

\r(~L
i
, c.:t__ ":)

--,-----

,
,

! .25~3'::

;? -;6

C' ,.- i

-' (::;

f--~

;-

~::A;,~
~.

'-~

'

.:}

,"--

'7-34

A c.... , I, ,

'\. .-', ';,"


_L-J~
'~

C.

'J.

.3

5 ,--

olj

Jf.

S-o-Ss

J/~D

"'~

-.J:

,-~""--

(;-FkR,~:/;'::
!

-L..L./.~

.'"

a JI

-:.=-: r-

/7--34-

''-Q

~-~---

5.7.

2 -5/'-'4

, I

I
I 30~4o I
13'~4'
I
I

---:::-:.-.,

;.' ','

---;-, -- -----,I,

,),--- 2.

-'- I

-~

uJhen welding 7 haVE] the parts to be joined placed in

.,

'iJrB

I "-

I ,
!

alignment.

Displacemont of the parts will be ~ O. 5mm for pipm, '.LJith u wall


thicknr:ss

-~

1Smm

C'1nri /

1mm f~,., ni""," ",i+h '" ,

'ilir::knBss --::> 15!T'm,

14

Whon the: part!.' are placed in alignment the axis of thE] two pipes
sh::Juld be on the same straight line with a deviation not morG than

"

1/1000.
6.3

32fora walding, remove all the dirts, greBse, moisturo and rusts
fnm the groove and its surrounding surface within

i3

br83dth of

10-20mm.
5.9

T::J guarantGe thG welding quality, both ends of the flux deposit
::Jf spot welding are prefBr.abl y inclined a little bit by way of grinding.

rifter spot w8lding, cracks, if any; must be removed.


S.10

::Ji::mati:::r of wi3lding r::Jds and number of passes of wGlding iJro


given in Table-7.
T5bl2 7

.-:..;::11 thickness
::If pipe(;7lm)

4-12

13-22

23-32

Diameter of wGlding rod and


number of passes of welding
Number of
paSSGS

2-4

5-7

8-12

Serial No .
of passes

Dia of wolding rod


(mm)

2-4

2.5
3.2-4

1-2

2.5-3.2

3-7

3.2-4

1-2

3.2-4

3-12

~'r

S. '1 ~~=quirgments for praheating and post wGlding heat troatmcnt for
'..-l:=ld2d joints 3ra given in Table-B.

Contd .. on page- 1S

15
Tco12 8 RequiremGnt for preheating & post welding h80 t
Treatmcmt.

Post w31ding heat treatment

Prsn85ting
=:;r::::dc

~:::ll
~I-.

!.oj

ilCKnBSS

(mm)

Surr:Junding temprature(oc)

z."r

!O

-10

L....10
7 10

1S-25

PreLJall
thickheating
tempera- ness
ture(o ) (mm)
c
Not preheated

100-200
Not pr8heated

20

20

2~

---/

c..~5

=t=:inI===
=:::::::1
/"

~ 12

7- 10

2E

~ r

>.(

150-250

Tljpe ::If
welding

Manual
electric
arc walding
II

Condition of
Haat treatment

N'J treatment

To be insulated
for gradual cooling
down after welding

OXY-:Jcdyll3nG Heated to
welding
850-900 DC insulatGd for a period
of every o-5-1mm.
flJr 1mm in wall
thickness of pipe
and coolGd in
natural air.

'",

-5
-5

30-100

Not tr::1'ltud

Ie

=':xc:::ssivG high tsmperaturG is to be avoid8d b:..;tL0uLJn the passes


i.c..:h2n w21dinQ the 1C:r18Ni9Ji and Cr18Ni12 M_/Ti st3inless steel.
;:=st wGlding trG8tment is not to be made, but ;:Jickllng and pass iva-

ting tr2atGment are required.


E.12.i

ih;:; preparation :Jf solution USGd for pickling:

I\lilrie acid (specific gr3vity being 1.42 ) _____ -----------20%


Hyd rClflu:Jric acid _________________________ ------------5%
weter , for rest
Temperatur8 fClr pickling ---.:.--------------rrJCJrn tomperature
5.12.2

Th2 proparation of solution used for passiuati'Jn trootment:


:\Jltric acid ( specific gravity bGing 1.42) _____ ---------- 5%
~"I

16
w2tar , for tho rest
Tamp:3roture for passivation treat mGnt ---------room temperature

5.13.

.0.,ftar thG C:Jmp13tion of Gach weld, the welder has to made cGrtain
st221 st2mp f::Jr eoslj distinction. The n Rocord of welding of high

pr232ura piping" sh::Juld elso ba kept in time ( Scm Table 4 of Annex-II).


,:'11 thG walds sh::Juld be checkGd by visual inspection and radiographic

5.14.

cX2minctL:m.

~L)lding

quality is to satisflj the requirements specified

in 5.5. The parc;:mt2g8 ::Jf w81d to

ce

examined radiographicl y is

5LJ% f:]r r:Jtatin,] fI2t walding and 100% for fixed welding.

...:Jhan a wald fails t::J pass the visual inspection and radiographic

:;.15

2x2minati:m , r2poin.::id welding is to ba made. For each weld the


r2~2irmant

sh::Juld be more than tW8 times EJnd tho repoir8d wald

should ba r8ch8ckcd as sp8cifi8d by 6.14.


CHAPTER 7 TESTING, PURGING AND ACCEPT PNCE OF
HISH PRESSURE PIPING

7.

,il'J high prcSSU,2 piping is tested aftor instCJllaticm but before

~r:Jc'.1cti::m.

Tho tasts include tho following items.:

;-:V::r:Jst2tic tast of the sljstem


:::'...l:--::;fn: :;f th3 SVSt2lT1
C::l~!J;";l2tic

t::::st ':Jr tha system

=-ic::!j inspection

-or

::>::::'iin:::ti::m :Jf kchnic:Jl d:::Jcumant s


~

-.

!2cnnic<31 d:Jcum2nts includo:

- ..

=c::rtiric2ta :JT m:::teri21 r:Jr fabricati:::Jn of high pressure steol pipes.


=2::::::::rd f::Jrm :Jf inspactL::m ::Jf high prGssura stoel pipGs(Toble 1 of.~nn2x-II

'=2rtificat2 ::Jf fabricati::Jn of high pr8ssure steGI pipGsCTable 3 of


;:::,nn2x-II) .
~.

=2rtificat2 of pipG fittings, fastenGrs and valves, inspection


c2:-tificato of fasiEmClrs.

c.

T2st cGrtificato :Jf high prGssure valves( Table 2 of Annex-II).

E.

Oasign revisions 2nd substitution for moterials

~.

Rec::Jrd ':If wtJlding performance on high prGssure steel piping


( Teble 4 of Annex-II).

.'

7 ~ 3 . Besides the .

, field .inspection .'

A.- conformity.,wlttl;drawlngs;"

B.,

Completion of pipe fittings; tightness of bolts.

c.

Existance of additional load'~pon, running equipment


.

'

7.4 'Before the hydrostatic test of the higb pressure Sljfl tem ,
the high pressure piping should b!'l separated fr'om the low pressure
systemand equipments that ~re not to

be

tested hljdrostaticly .

Mark the place w here blind, flange is to bs provided and keep 'a
record for it. Meanwhile, open

ai! the val ves

in tho system.

Wetar is filled into the system in such a wal} that air is expelled
from the: piping thoroughly.
7.5

Hydrostatic test of the system is made [it a pressurEJ of 1.5 times


.

'

the w8rking pressure. When the working temperature exceeds 200 C,


tha tasting pressure is worked out by the following formula:

p ~\.50pL6J\
.

Where
,

(6)2.

P -

testing pressup3 at no;mal temper21ture, kg/cm

p-

working pressure, kg/cm 2

-,

lG J1 \ .-:;J

allowable stress of material at normal temperature,


kg/cm 2

... 1..:.' ~

allowable stress of material Elt working temperature


.".~

The testing pressure ,fhoUld be first kept for 10.li11nu~es, thel-feducBd


to the working pr,essure, The whole system will be qualified when no
laakag8 or sWBElting is found.
7.6

Proper measur8 is to be taken for freeze- resistancu when hydrostatic


test is made at an ambient temperature below

7.7

DC.

Pressure gauge employed for jJmssure test should be checked


. and calibrated to high accuracy. The nu mber CJf such prl;3 ssu r:'e gauge
should not- be less than 2 pieces and they
are to be ve'rt~calllj
mounted
- "
.
in visible' iocahons.

7.8 The hljdrostat'ic test w'ill be followed by purging whIch is perform~d .


~'1 gas conipre'ssorprov'id8dforth~ system in ci speoified way,.'
.7;. 9

...

~~

After purging, 'pneumEltic' testis c:arr'~e,d out for the' high pre~sur8
'piping,

Mak~

it 8urethSlt high, Pf~ssu~e.pipin~ Is


:'.

pressure system before. pneumatic test.

~'~peratecjJroITlJhe 'lOW.,.~(

. ' ; " <

. "

<
.'-.

'

18 .
7.10

Pneumatic test is made Elt the sama pmssure as wCJrkingpressu ra.


But whe;n air is empl::Jyed as th'G testing medium, the testing pressure

sh::Juld not.8xDeed 250 kg/cm The piping will bG

~ualified

if there is

s::Jme leakage, dCJ nCJt mak8 uny repair when the piping is still
7.11
7.12

under pressure.
0..G'!l:::Jvo the tempprury blind p'latas after pne~matic test.
i-Ift.er hydrost3 ... C tGst, purging and pneumatic test, have the
tast r5sult Emterad int'J the" RECORLJ OF TESTING AND PURGING OF
HI-=OH PRE3SURE STEEL PIPING~'(5e8 Table 5 of Annax II)~which bgether
with tho tGchnical d::Jcumants specifi8d in 7.2, will servo as tho
t::st

C2 rtificate.

P3inting and insulation c::JVaring arB to be given to the piping


3cc:::Jrding

to th8 dosigned r-Gquiremants. Flangos, bolts, etc.

On Clutd::JCJr piping should be proporly protected against r-usting

.~nn2~ I

';.

LOCATION, NUMBER I-='INO SIZE OF SAMPLE3 FOR


MECHANICr'lL P;:{OPERTY TEST OF LLlEL8EO JOINTS

~h2n the Clutside diamatar of pipe is {35mm:


Two welded joints r::Jr- tonsiCJn test and two for bending test are
t:::kGn t:::Jgeth8r with thE! pipe as a whCJlo f::Jr the tasting of welded
5::ints. 88f::1ra tGsting, have thG minfor-cGd heigint of weld removed

by turning to mi3ke the weld flush with tho pipe surfoce, In bending
'c.::;st, th3 bond diamGter sh::Juld bo equalt< to two times tho outside

::a2r.lc:;t2r- Clr pipe.


~.

'..!..:ho:n :Jutsid;::; diametGr- :Jf pipe is in th8 r-ange Gf 42-83mm.


TW:::J samples for tension tast, two f:lf' bGndin<g test ar-e token

rnm a waldod joint. The lClcations of thGse somplcm are shown


~",l'Jw:

/~
-\ .~4
--\J 20'1 ~#

(~O-~~

~/J
-s-

3.

-1 ~~'

,1:J

I~'..!~)r:

i.1~:i.j~

;1# .; i\- I~t.

~)!:!,;

l " '.:: ,,-,it};;.,: -",'.'::1/ /,',;

:~.~).~~.'c::'/'")

"",

~\:::'f)cl

.~':/7S':_'::'I:;

~1/eCJ!"'"

. ~.' .

-"'

'.

,r-,?<:./ n'){:- / )

\t-;':::~C,

",",,_-,,)

when CJutsidG diameter is~89mm.


TW:J s3mple8 for- tension tGst, two for- bending tGst and two for
impact tast are taken from a welded jClint. The locotions of these
samples arG given below:
t:::;ontd on p/i9

19

.
~

4.

1: . ,' ;-;'I~..f.~

..::=.~ :;/~~f_>

,"~~""E:: ,;.!l,).-:-/~

Whcm tho Dutsida diamot.Jr of pipe is?-- 42mm:


Tljpe and size of samplt"::!s

for mochanical proportlj test are

given in tho Tablo 1,2,3 and Figs. 1,2,3.


TElbie .1 Tljpi3 of samples for mochElnical proPGrtlj test of
pipos with differont size.
(outsido dis: 42 mm )

=utsida dia. x wall thicknoss


(iTlmx mm )

43x7.

43x40.

49x10

63x10

58x13.

83x11

102x14. 102x17

TVpo of
samples
felr tension
test

Tljpe of
sampiGs
for bending
tost

11

II

II

II

III

III

IV

IV

Tljpe of samples
for Impact test.

~f<

127x14, 127x17,
1S9xZ3,

127x21

180x3o

Tabio 2. sizo of sampios for tEm si'Jn test


Tlj8p :Jr st3rnpios
f::;r tt3nsi::m tost

II

III
IV

(mrn)

b
(mm)

4 + 0.5
50+0.5
10 + 0.5
15+0.5

15 +0.5
20+0.5
20: 0.5
25+ 0.5

(mm)
20
25
25
30

(mm)
50 +
50 +
80 +
100 +

21
21
21
21

f\pb: The vEllve twillb8 d8tarminod blj the distance between clt3mps of the

tension - test machine.

CO'

,co

!D
N

'C

01
C
Ll
C
Gl
D

r-..

.....

1:.

. C:~=-J

:;:..-,

~I

ill

E
.....,

L.

1\,':

rE

"I

ill

CJ
......

).:
.,~

D-

1..""

',d

_J

'.

'I

I'

.-

"

,I

\.,

j
!

"
,)\

.'~
"<\

1\

Ie"

'.,\\;
'

\l I

,II,

1\

..\

(fJ

L.

.~
I

~'

II

lJ

...:tUJ

'1-

I, fl,

I.

. . . '-.. 1

II

E
r,J

1,

'.1

I1J
N
[J)

r'\
\\~l
T(~'"

t,

\;"

l'

lJ

.
"'

'-,

, .'

~\\ ~

':1

,\

",

(~
......

.0
r:1
fL.

o
"-

In

1:1
'\

'. .1"\

1.1 ....

I.

E
III
(I)

It-

I-I

IJJ
1:1

......1

en

.5

1:1 1.:1
1:1. C

;:-., III
1- 1]

21:

~t;7'

<:~;~~;./-A

r.-';
. .:': . -'~cT.
=...JL

i
\

i"
L

".:~;;~r,'

':-:-~ f\':T

~EJ~

'. :~;~-'f;~~/'

A ;~./

'~li---

V,

5":" f.2

r-"

~.

:.:, ~--;'.

~{

~j. :-,
.'l.

.j(;c/,

*.., .~_.~ ;: /~/)'='"

..-/{:, .

.,Cl,nnax-II. Roc::Jrd FCirms for ErBction and Acceptance of H.P.Piping


T:::bla 1 RGcClrd:Jf Examinations of H.P. Pipes.
Shop Test Certific'3to No. - - - - - - -

Nr::;m=:; :Jf f'.!Jc:mufactur;]r


Spcc:ificati:Jn

HeEJt NCI. -----------------

Grode

l,s.ctual 0.0 I Actual walll Length Har


thickness
31. [\J:J

IlL

IT

Result Of\:RO suit of Exanlf.


1a gnOti ultra IRMKCompos i- particle sonic
b
tion and test
test
1Mechanical pro- .
port\} tost

nes~ Chemic31

-or

H220 Clf qualit\} control uepartmont

Inspected
Date'

b\}_ _ _ _ __

----------

22:

TablE 2 TEst L:ertificate of H.P. VBlves

No

Name

Specificatian

Tljpe

--

H23d :If qualitlj control

--

~8ptt.

Nominal Testing Pressure


Remarks
Kg/cm2
pressure
Kg/cm 2
strength Tightness

-~-

--------------

---

--

--------

Inspected blj _______________


UCJt8

------------

Table 3 Fabrication Certificate of H, P Pipes


:::nSLlG2r Unit
-

I _

.:~C:tC:l1 ~r3Wlng

i~~=.

~J:J.

=;
Fi;::in;

Grod8

Specificati:::Jn

--------

Flange iJimen- Bend Angle Ovalitlj HEat


ing
fitting sian
err:::Jr
treat%
mm/M~
orror Radimont &
sealing
,
mm
us
and
flow
mm
detection

S1. No. Throad


CJf pip8 and

Remar ks

~her8Bfter
,

Ht2ad :Jf qual itlj control department

--

------

Inspocted blj

-~----

d3to_______

23
T:::blG 4 Rec~rd of wGlding performoncG ::m H.P.Piping
=~nSUr7lar

3arl.

Unit

Welding Unit

No.

P,mbi- Result of
Welding Pr8Nome &
ant
Examinaname
MatGrial hesting
& post
tGmp.
tiun & Nu. .' sign uf
. :::Jf IdGntifiwGldar
walding
heat
catiun.
treatment

welding

I
J

H::2C :f :.:..::=ltin; :.Jnit

-----

3 eaCi-lMata- Ty",a of

rJ'J .~f fic2ti'J . rial


;:Jipa
f

OatG

InspactGd bV _ _ _ _ _ _ __

~~

2~

. '-.
......

Table 5 Record of Pressur-e Test and Purging of H.P.Piping.


::::;onsum8r unit

Erection unit

Hvdraul ic Test I
P
LJCIrking :
CJur-Tssp.
:PreP
ation ult : ssure 2 ium
0
:ssure
e
II-"ig/cm
Kg/em h

No "_ _ _ _ _ _ __

. Air- Pr-essur-G Test

IRemar-ks

"88- : "B- fMBd- R88-: P "888-/ MBd-/R88-

ult

: ur-e
? ium
Kg/cm-

H=2C of Technical ::Jepartment

Inspecto r fi''flm
Technical_ Oeptt.

~=== of =:r::::c:isn ~nit.

Inspector- fr-om
Emction Unit

-------

------------.

;Jate:

ult

--------------

RE~UIRC:;j\1;':';N'rS

TECHN ICAL

F'OR t:RECTION

AND ACCEPTANCE OF 1'1E:DIUM AND LOVJ


PRESSUR~

STE~L

PIPING

1/6 ..,- 5A- 06


CONTENTS
1

CHApr~R

GENSRALS

CHAPT8R 2

PIPES, PIPE FITTINGS AND VALVES

CHAPTER 3

FA81UCATION OF PIPES AND PIPE fITTINGS

CHAPTER 4

~~LDING

CHAPTSR 5

SRECTION OF PIPING AND PIPE FITTINGS

CHAPTSR 6

TESTING, PURGING AND

OF PIPING

ACCEPTANC~

OF

PIPING
ANNSX I

GENSRAL CHc;fvlICAL COloJjPOSITION ANu


MCHANICAL PROP~RTIC:;S OF 3TE8L pIPES

AImSx II
~~N~X

III

TYPE OF' BEVSL AND RSQUIRI:;JI.'i":;NT fOR JOINT


CLA~SI?ICATION

<::::::::.

;;,??cr//d)'

_/."c
~
a,7rc::<l./cr

OF PIPING

dC//:?o
.

.?'7??;;/'

,.

'"

CHAPTSR 1

GSN~RALS

The technical requirements described here are only applicable to the


ssure steel

~rection

~ipings

and acceptance of medium and low pre-

for the HUFPL project. The nominal pre-

ssure in the pipings is assumed to be not greater than


100Kg/cm 2 and material of piping will be carbon steel, alloy
steel or stainless steel.
Erection of the medium and low pressure steel pipings must
follow the de..siyned requirements. Revisions, if any, can be
made only after the acknowledgement of the designer.
Insulation, corrosion-prevention,

d~S~cuse

and lining of the

pipings should be made in conformity with the designed requirernents or certain special requirementse
~:

,
CHAPT~R

PIPBS,

PIP~

FITTINGS AND

VALV~S

Certificates from the manufacturer should be provided for


;ipes, pipe fittings and valves. When required, random chec~s

are

to be made on alloy steel and stainless steel for

exarnination of component elements. For chern"ical composition.


mechanical

2.2.

prop~rty

of st2el pipes, see Annex I.

Before application of pipes and pipe fittings, visual examination should be

~ade

opon them. Their surfaces should be

free from cracks, skins or severe wearings, valleys, rusts


and other such like defects. The surfaces of gasket should
show no signs of cracks, creases and other such like defects
that will affect the sealing.

2.3.

Valves are visually examined before use. Their gasket and


packing are checked at random for conformity with requirehlents.

2.4.

Valves are hydrostatically tested one by one for strength


-

1 -

and tightriess. Strength test pressure for the valve body


shall be 1.5 times the nominal pressure. The pressure i~
first boosted steadily to the test pressure and then a duration of 5 minutes is kepts The valve body and packing will
be qualified when no leakage is found. Tightness test press~re

is the same as nominal pressure. The valve is quilified

for tightness when no leakage is found on the sealing face


of valve boreo
For gate valve with a nominal pressure of,
... 6Kg/cm 2 and nominal

diameter~400mm,

tightness test may be made by dyeing

method~

~eore

erection, safety valves should be rated to meet the

required design pressure.


After testing, the qualified valVeS should be free from
accu~ulated

watero Its sealing face should be greased for

rust-resistance o Close the

va~ve,

stop its openings, keep

a record of the test result and the valve should be well

protected ready for service.

CHAPTER 3

FAURICATION OF

PIP~~

AND
PIPE
~~

i"ITTINGS

3.1.
3.1.1.

3ending of pipes
Carbon st2el pipes may either be hot-bent or cold-bent,
but stainless steel pipes and alloy steel pipes are preferably cold-bent. iihen hot bend is performed, the pipes
are heated g=adually and uniformly. Temperature for bending and conditions of heat treatment should follow Table 1
..Jhen heating stainless steel pipes, diffusion of carbon
should be avoided

:'lIhen Cr-Mo steel pipes are hot-bent,

no watering is permitted.

.. ".){~
';',

...

TABLe.; 1

Tt:]\IPE;RATURE FOR HOT BENDING ufo"' PIPC;S

AND CONOITIONS FOR

Material

Temp. for:
hot bend
(OC)

Carbon
steel

900-850

12C r rii o
15C r 1'1o

900-850

H~AT

TREATI"j;:;NT

Conditions for heat treatment


Temp. for heat
treatment(OC)

Constant tempo
duration

Cooling
mode

Normalization
920-900

2 minutes for
every mm in
wall thickness

Natural
air cooling above
+5 0 C

1C r 18Ni9Ti
,.\"..r..!.
::; 8"!-l i 1-. 2'1'.10
~
ni
Cr 25Ni20

1000-900

Quenching

"

1100-1050

0.8 minute for


every rnm in
\,rall thickness

Sudden
cooling
in water

"

In general, heat treatment is not required for the cold-bent pipes.

3.:.2.

The Dinimum bending radius for bending of various pipes

will satisfy the following requirements:


A.

The Dir.imuffi oending radius is 3.5 times the outside diar.1eter of a pipe wi th a nominal diameter~ 100mm, and 4 times
the outside diameter of a pipe with a nominal diameter

> l~OrTi"'.
3.

The minimum bending radius is 1-1.5 times the outside diaI


meter of hot-bent or press-bent elbows with small bending
radius (supplied by China Side) and welded elbows.

~.1.3.

After bending, pipes should follow the requirements given


oelo'.1:

A.

?i~e

wall surfaces are free from cracks, segregations,

over heating or other


3.

suc~

like

ti2[~C~So

The reduction in thickness of pipe wall at bending curvature should not exceed 15% of wall thicknessD

Co

',
Ova I ~~y

C'1 . e
Maxo.O.Do
of pipe-Nino ood. of .'Jipe)
d oes
.
.
--'-"---i12:';~o 000. of pipe
-

not exceed 8%.


D.

Divia':ion of tlle bending engle $G does not exceed 3mm/M o

Diviation of straight portion of pipe from the center line


of pipe should not exceed! 10mm as shown in Fig. 1

>~"'"

~ ...

""~.o<
"

/"

<

; .4d.

. __._

_ _ ,. .60.

"""0-~~~,'~~~~~~ J
b
~.

'"
,__",[

}.-:::

_ir,'//
"..

..::.7."'~

,:...:...

;:"/;e

-__~,-

t;7r~~'

C /'.~ --/

~hen

bending

with seam, have the longitudinal seam

~ipes

located at "A" as shown in Fig .. 2


/'-~'-'"

....(.

,4.,

,:0
;

't~\ ,

f""J
,
-' \

\'

.'c- .

,'..,~~/.,./'.~\

-,~

:~

::~ 1. :J

-;:[ '; -

'~~~.

~::.

delded elbows will be used in piping uncler a pressure of


/

~ 25Kg/cm 2 and a telllperature ~ 200 o C .. The [[fake-up of welded

elbow is shown in Fig. 3

''',

"""
\,
::: \,.----__ "_i~..::~
,!~:

-'-"-

'!"-"~!',:"~@j

6::'

.9c:

5~-.f")e J71 af,"c d "CI~'-i/U1'


IN'e1deci e / bow
!.l

The component pieces may be increased in case of elbows with


a nominal diameter of ~400mm, but the minimum width of a
piece should not be less than SOmm. Tolerance for welded
bend will be
A.

Tolerance for circumference

3.

Ova11 ty

c.

3ending angle :
I~

~ + 4mm.
'"'
-

1%.
~

5mm!r1.

-shaped expansion joint may be made from elbow with small

bending radius if no special

reguire~ent

is given. Sxpansion

joint with greater curvature as specified by design should


!

~.

made from bent pipe, but the

je

lo~ation

of the joint should

be 200mm from the bending point. No welds are permitted on


~he

horizontal arm. Have welds located on the cantilever arm.

Difference in length of the cantilever arms should not be


more than .: 10mm. t:;rror due to twisting should not be greater

than 3mm on every meter and not greater than 10mm on the
'i::Jtal length.
3.3.

Pipes rolled from

st~el

plates.

For the technical requirements for the rolled pipes I1sed in


'::-11s )roj ect, see llTechnical specification fir steel pipe
fabrication"(ll6-;;iA-02).

3.4.
;.4."1..

?refabricated piping
-.hen pipings are prefabricated, considerations should be
;iven to the teansportation and installation facilities.
3esides, appropriate union

~pening

should be provided for

adjustment. The inside of tile already

complc~ted

section

should be cleaned and well protected against entrance of


foreign natters.
3.4.2.

Allowable errors in size of prefabricated pipeline are


given in 1"i9o 4

...-J

J_(:o~-)--

(:~~cc
,N,
a;

.G"',-

-,

--

~llowable

,,'

." ;;:.;

:-.

s.:..~/, c.r...,.:::J..-;r'-/c

,:.-1,',:; "j,-,':J;-r;,)"

(f/~,iQr/':Jr;':i

c..';i--

F':.:,':.-?

L
~

. :

~.

1,..:

--;

,-.'7r:_-

.~.;- '~7-

-!fIe.

of

;::JrT7f'a,;r,.::a;1cr/

/1:rJC

~!

error for len]th L

3.

h.llowCl-ole error for distance N

C.

Kllowable error for angle

3mm.

~ j;

+ 3mrn.

3rnm/t'l.

The max. error b on the full length of pipeline does not


exceed + 10mm

~ 1.. 5mm.

D.

E.:rror in concentricity C on tee

~.

During installation, be SJre to have t~le bolt holes in


flange aligned symmetricaily to the center llries.
Devia ticn d is

F.

<. lmm.

~'r

<

The sealing face of flange should be perpendicular to


the center line of piping. Deviation e from the length
that equals to the outside diameter of flange, will be

<lmm when Og ~ 300mrn, and <2rnm when [)g~ 30Urnm.

CHAPTER 4

\J':':LDING OF PIPHJG

Slectric arc welding is performed on carbon steel pipes and


alloy steel pipes. Gas welding is permissible for pipes with
a nominal diameter of
80mm and
a wall thickness of ~ 3.5rn:n. Stainless steel pipes are vJE:lded
by electric arc welding or argon-shielded arc welding
.ielding material for COmInon steel pipes is shown in 'Table 3

~elding

Table 3

Grade

Material for Common Steel Pipes

',lelcJlnrJ t{od

,Jelding ,1ire
for Gas ;,'elolng

v~elding

'.viie

for Ar90n-Shi
elded Arc welding

-Carbon steel
(C ~O. 2%)

T422

H 08
H 08A

T4~6

T427
12Crf-'l0

TH2-7

d12Crf-10

15CrNo

TX]-7

H15CrfiJo

lCr18Ni9Ti

/\132
A.137

H1Cr18Ni9N6

Cr18Ni 12i"i02Ti

;~212

Cr25Ni20

A4U2
A407

HCr25Ni20

AG07

T1G-82

Cr16Ni36

18-12-f-'i 0 2 v.Ji th
Nb contained

Notes
1)

Par welding of carbon steel to low alloy steel pipes


or welding between different low alloy steel pipes,
welding rod~ of corresponding steel with ~ood crackresistance are to be used,.but the preheating is to
~

be made following the requirement fQr that type of


st<=el ,,;lith 11i lJi1er
2)

require;!1(.:::nt~

.Jhen stainless steel is to be v.lelcled \vith carbon


steel, low ~lloy steel or heat-resisting steel, welding rods Tyr~ A132 or ~13S are used.

;Jelding material sil/luld be stored in dry places with good


ventilation. Weldin0 rods are to be baked as specified in
the Instruction aoak before use, and kept dry all the way
through.

In gas welding, sp~cial welding wire or welding rods of the


same material as th~ wire should be used. The surface of
W~lcjing

wire

shOLl 1d

lie

c12aned.

Welders a~Bigned to pipin) welding shall have passed the

performed carefully \Vith mi'nor-sized IrJelding rods and should


have complete joint .?enetration on yuard against cracks. If
preh::::ating is rey':..lired, hc:!.ve the pi;::e strictly tJ!""eh'2!2.ted
be:: fore 'o'ielding. During vr.olding,

temperature :Jeb'!een passes

should not ;)e less than that for preheating. t;ach pac.is should
71cr-'

be done continuou;:;ly and the:: joints should be sta'Tj2red. '


:.-.::;....-~-----=--

4. 1 1.\ielding of stainless steel pipes is p!..-efe:rably made by short


betwe~n

arc and narrow pass with a temperature

very high. DeC. po;tler :3ource is p.:eif,ra01e


~----------

~.-.-

co~itive
--...:.'-

torch connected to the

-----

'J~th

- ---

passes not
the welding

-----_.- - - - -

~ole.

----

'

'In,;-;o \.;eldiog stainless steel pipes Idith an odtside diameter


less than 57mm and a wall thickness less than 3mm, the diameter of 'c-Jeld1ng rods used should not be L~ss than 3. 2rnm ,,_

'Z

If argon-shielded circ welding is to be p2rformed for the


first

pa~~s,

the pipeS should be filled \vith argon gas for

!;)rotectlon.
4.13.

~henever

out door

w~ldimg

is

p~rformed,

the welded joints

should be well protected against wind or rain.


~equirements

for preheating of pipes before welding are

given in Table 4. The preheated area at each side of the

--

joint to be welded should not be less than a 40mm band.


Preheatinl] should be nade uniformly avoiding local
__ over
..- ..
..
----....=-..=..~=-----"""~

~.~

''i'

hee ling

Table 4

Requirement for Preheating of Pipes Before 'Neldiog

------------------------------------------------------------------------Grade

Temp_ of Preheating(OC)

----------

CClrbon

No prehea.ting

~tGel

12Crl":0

200-250

15Cri'io

250-300

1Cr18Ni9Ti

No preheating

Crl8!H 12ho2l'i

No preheating

Cr25Ni20

j\jO preheating

--.-

Cr-16,H36
'. ----------~-

['<0

._------ 9 -

preheating

After the completion of welding stainless steel pipes, the


welded joints should be pickled for inactivating_ The pickling solutIon is prepared as follows
20%

Nitric acid (specific gravity being 1.12)

5'/0
"

Dichromate
,Ja t,:':r, for the res t
Tempdrature for pickling

room temperature.

The inactivating solution is prepared as follows


Nitric acid (specific gravity being 1.42) -------

5%

Bichrome ---- -----------------------------_.------

2%

\~a'cer,

for the

r<-~.st

Tecnp<2rature ror inactivating: room temperature.


Heat creat:.-Ient of -Aeld::; on piPl=!S Silould i:Je in conformity
'.'lith [::1e requir,..:ments given in Table 5. hethods sl;ch as
electric

re~istance,

circular gas flame, etc. that can

guardnee a uniform heating of the welds are adopted for


heat treat:ncnt. The band area to be heat-treated should be
4-5 times the wid til of Hcld. 2;'e sure to
tm~..,nt

immediately after the

:J~ke

the heat trea-

conl1:)1_..:.~J.9n__Qi___ we1_..9_:h~.

temp0rature measuring instrument to be

u~cd

The

should be che-

eked and calibrated dnd its contact point is in good condition. Finally, have the result entered int~ the record.
- Table 5

i-\equircrnent for deat-Treat;T1E:::nt of vJelds on Piping

Grade

Condition of Heat-Treatment

~arbon steel
Stainless steel

,.;.

Not treated
For electric welding: Gradual heating at a
rate of <250 o C/hr, upto 680-7100C. Keep
this temp .:rature for 3 [l;inutes for every
mm in wall thickness. Then gradual cooling at a rate of 2.5-30C/~in. down to
300 o C o Finally, cooling in natural air.
For gas welding: Gradual heatin'J upto 930-950 o C. Keep this temperature for 1-1.5
rninu tes i or every !:Im in wall thickness.
Then gra~ual cooling to 300 o C. Further
cooling is done in nutural air.

~------

----~-------------.----

10 -

tl'"re

\vl~lds

on a piping are subj ect to visual inspect ion


requirements are as follows

ence of cracks.
and slag inclusion.
ercut depth does not exceed 10% of the wall thickness
and

t.;e 1','Ii.lX.

undercut depth is not to be :;jrea ter t:lan lmm.


of pipe is le55 thaa 5mm, It may be

e reiniorced height of weld is l-2mm when wall thickness

is lesS theln Sr.lm, 1.5-2. SEmi when wall thickness is greater


than 5-10r11111 and 2-3rnm vJl,en wall

thickness is greater than

lOrllm. The widtn of w.:=ld is to cover about 2::lm over the \iJeld-

lng bevel. The welds should ~e given good appearance,

too.

of random radiographic examination for welded


joint done by each welder should be

(The criteria for

classification of pipings is given in Annex III).


For class I

and class I I piping

25% Zor fixed

>felding b~it the joints to he exarilined

are not less than 3. 15% for rotary welding and the
joints to be examined will not be less than 2.
For class I I I piping

15% for fixed welding and 10% for rotary \,"jelding.


Joints to be examined in both cases will not be less
than 2.
For class IV piping
Not cX;.\l11ined.
C:xarninati.on of welds will follow the "STAi\i;)l\RD OF ,~i... DIO""
':";i~Al?HIC SAIIYINATION FOH ;-i;:;LD.:.J(JB928-67)

rt.

Class I piping

will be qualified when it Cdn satisfy the calss 2 of the


standard wh,~reas pi{Jin'.;J of other classes will be qualified
when they can satisfy class 3 of the standard.
Remedies for defects found by radiographic examination
Will Jepend on tile ptTCentage

'I -l

'?/C7

n the percentage is below 30% and the defect is found


~t\~een

tr1e qualification standard and the standard one

class inferior to the qualification standard.


~hen

p~rc2ntage

the

porlIon to

In

Cd~e

~e

is aoove 30%, have the len0th of the

examined doubled.

it fails again in the examination on doubled length


m~de

further examination should be

on full length.

For alloy steel pipes the numDer of repairment on a certain


portion of })int should not
The specill-,en '!,'hich is

tion is

SU~)j

..s:~ceed

to Jje used

~-or

times~

the welders

examina-

ect to t:=nsion, bend ing and impact (under room

templ~rature)

tests as per H;',Ii::CilA.NICi\L ;?;WPl";RTY

Ti'~::;T

JC:I:O.:>IT'::D ,,'::LD i:STAL I'\,\;D ',jL;LOC;D JCHi',T (J ":'303-62) ".

FOR

The qua-

1i'.:y requirements are given in Table 6. v'Jhen bending test


is not convenient to make, flatening test may be performed
instead. In flatening test, when the first crack is found,
the

distan~e

from the outer surface of pipe should not be

less than H, which is

cacul~ted

by the following formula,

but the Max. distance will be not exceeding 50% of the outstde diameter of the pipe.
'",

( 1 + a

..:>

..:>

a + -13-

iJhere

S - nominal wall thickness of pipe in mm.


D -

nominal outside diamet2r in mm.

a - coefficient of

defor~ation

on unit length

which is 0.07 for No. 10 and No. 20 fine


carbon steel, 0.08 for 12Crho and 15CrMo
steel and 0.09 for lCr18Ni9Ti, Cr18Ni12M02Ti,

Table 6

~r25Ni20

~ualifi~ation

on Piping

and Cr16Ni36.

Standard of Welded Joints

Bending angle
(d-bend diaD a-thickness
of the specimen)
~lectric arc
Oxy-acetywelding(aryon 1ene we1darc welding)
ing

'rensile strength
( Kg/mm 2 )

Not less than the


10vl/er lim! t of
base metal strength

d .. 2a J!- 100 0

d==2a
a <10mm

It

d==2a

70 0

d=2a,;i!t 30 0

:;.. 80 0

Impact
strength
at room
temperature
( K~

i<i'iI cm 2 )

Not less
than 6

Not less
than 5

a? 10mm
;? 50 0

d=2.5a

11

160 0

Welded joints on stainless steel piping for delivering


corrosive medium are not only subject to mechanical prointerc~ystalline

perty test but also to

corrosion tenden-

cy test as per the "INTERCHY;';TALLINt: COi'\H.03ION TE:NOi;:;NCY


'l~;:;~T

FOR AU.3TJ:::fUTL-l'lE:GIT;;; TYP:::; :"TAINLGS.::; JTG:SL"

l'-'1ethod

YB14-64o
Convenient random check for hardness Qf the welded joint
~~-------~--.

of alloy steel piping after heat treabnen~ ~ill be made


with a percentage

of_~

of the whole joint, but number of

joint wlll not be less than

CHAPT~R

5.1.

~.

ERECTION OF PIPING AND PIPE FITTINGS

Srection of piping

5.1.1.

ilefore erection of piping, the following preparations


should be got ready

A.

Construction of buildings and structures concerned should


be basically completed and equipments are seated in place,

- 13 -

properly aligned and fixed.


That part of corrosion resisting and lining of piping
which requires to be made before erection of piping must
be completed.
Inside of pipes, valves and pipe fittings to be installed
has been cleaned.
Location of welds on piping should follow the requirement
given below
A. Two adjacent butt welds on straight section of piping
should be kept at least 200mm apart in general.
8. Longitudinal welds on plate-rolled pipes should be located
at places convenient for maintenance.

c.

Distance between circumference weld on piping and pipe


support is not less than 100mm. Besides, such circumference weld is not to be made at wall or floor. surroundings.

D. No openings or connecting branch pipes are to be made on


longitudinal or circumference' weld of piping.
Inclination of piping should meet the design requ.ircH1t2nts.
If no design requirement is given, the inclination of piping
will be 2/1000 in general as required by processing.
l"letal filler plate J:lay be provided undernea1th the base of
support for the adjustment of inclination, but never have
it provided just inbetween the piping and the support.
Piping running through wall, floor or roof should be provided with sleeve pipe, raised rims and hood to

st~p

entrance

of rain water as specified by design.


No additional stress should be delivered to the nearby rotary
machinaries owing to erection of piping.
Threaded part of bolt should be coated with MoS2 grease or
mixture of graphite powder with machine oil when working
temperature is above 100 0 e or below OoC.
In-line sampling part of instrument should be mounted simuItaneously with erection of piping.

Valves are installed in locations as specified by design.


During installation" of valVes keep the valves closed.
Type, number and specification of steam tracing should
follow the

desig~

requirement. Steam tracing for horizontal

piping is provided under the main piping or closely sticked onto the main piping.
means of

stea~

should De free

~hen

pipings are insulated by

jacket, the main pipe inside the jacket


fro~

welds.

8rection error of piping should not exceed what is specified in 3.4.2.


Installation of expansion joint and support
Before installation, expansion joints are pre-elongated
or pre-compressed as specified by design. The elongated
part or the compressed part should be 50-100% of the thermal expansion (or contraction) of the piping.
At the same time of erection of piping, care is taken to
the fixing and adjustment of

~ipe

support. The stationary

support should be fixed before the pre-elongation of expansion joint. Number of stationary support on the same
straight section of
two

~Jhen

p~ping

should not be two or more than

installing sl ip-support, no incl i~ation or blo-

ckage is permitted. It is located at half'way of the length of thermal expansion of piping but opposite in direction.
Once the piping is fixed to the slip-support, no relative
displacement should be found.
[{ang~~r

for hanging support should be v(":rtivally installed ..

Two pipings in apposite

t~ermal

expansion direction should

not share one hanging support.


Compression ratio of spring of spring support or spring
hanging support should be adjusted as specified by design.

CHAPTER 6

TESTING, PURGING AND


ACCEPTANCE

pressure test and purging

o~

O~

PIPING

piping are made after insta-

llation but before putting into uperation for strength and


tightness test and for cleaning the inside of piping.
Sefore pressure test, piping is to be

check~d

for confor-

mity with design requirements and requirements described


in this booklet.
Welds on piping are not painted or insblated before pressure test.
Hydraulic test
A test program should be made for hydraulic test of piping.

The ilydraulic L.est 'dill be pc,ri:"or'dcd in a :;equence according


to the diifer,:.;nce in operating p.\:"essure of piping
equipment that.

ar~

Tho5:e

not to be test hydraulically should be

separated by means of blind plates.


Testing pressure will be
.'\. [o'or piping under ',vorkin,] tenperature of -~ 200 o C, the testing pressure is 1.25 times the working pre~~ure when the
1

working pre~sure is> O.7Kg/cm 2 (gauge). aut the testing preSsure is not to be l~ss than 2Kg/cm 2 (gauge). ~hen working
pressure is less than O.7Kg/cm 2 , testing pressure will be
th~

working pressure plus O.lKg/cm 2 For piping under a

working temperature of above 200 0 C, the testing pressure


should be calculated am the basis of allowable stress of
pip~

under working temperature.

3. For piping under vacuum,

testing pressure is 2Kg/cm 2 (gaugel.

6.2.3. When working with the hydraulic test, have th~ pressure
gradually boosted to the testing pressure which is kept
for 10 minutes, and meanwhile, check the
and packing of valves for

t:i.~~htness

w~lds,

flanges

They will be qualified

No hydraulic test is modu for pressure-free piping.


Precautions for hydraulic test :
A. Any defect found durinq l:he period of testin<; will not be
repaired when the"pipin~ is still under pressure.
]3 . . .lhen

filling water into t:he system to be tested, open t:1e

highest vent valve (or :l')llle other removable part) so as


to huve air expell:::d

t:10t:l)U(j~11yo

C. Two pressure gauges witlli ~n accuracy of class 1.5 and qualified after calibration ~hould be provided for the testing.
D. For piping with gn~ater IJotential difference, beside the
testing pressure the st~tic pressure of testing medium
should also be taken into consideration.

s.

J\fter hydraulic test, cl.L:lcharge the water in the whole


system.

6.3. In case that htdraulic test is not convenient to make and


pneumatic test Hill be Illdlie in the stead, special measures
should be made

accordin~ly.

6.4. for piping delivering fLlli1mable or hazardous medium, airtightness test i.:5 to bt::~ Illdde at a pressure of 1.05 ti!iles
the working pressure af t:'T ble said pipinC;j has been qualified by hydraulic te~t dnd purging but b~!ore putting
into operation. For pip.i!),] \'Jorking under a pressure of

~ O.7Kg/cm?'(qauge) Pl:-e~':;llre testing is to be made at a


pressure equal to the ""\l')~in,::z pressure plus O.1Kg/cm 2 For
vacuum piping, air tigh tn(:ss test is to be made at a pressure of lKg/cm 2 Leaka~~ ~mount test is required for piping delivering hazardou~ or explosive medium. Air-tightness
test and leakage illnount tust should" follow the special requirements for them.
6.5. Purging and flushing
~o clean the inside of

~lping,

17 -

it should be done by washing

with water or

pu~ging

with air or steam before it

i ,.

--">

put

into operat':"on.
A working schedule should be made for the purging and

flushing of piping so that the cleaning of piping is done


section by section for each system.
Technical documents expected upon completion of the whole
job
Certificate of material
Design revisions and SUbstitution of material
Record of pre-elongation (or pre-compression) of expansion
joint
Record of pressure test of piping system
Record of purging, washing(flushing) and sealing of piping
Record of examination of welding, heat treatment and flaw
detection of piping
~ecord

of consealed word.

'"

- 18 -

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i:

ANNEX

Class

II

IV

CLASSIFICATION OF PIPINGS

Working Temperature
( oC )

vvorking Pressure
(Kg/cm 2 )

>

orLl_

.>

40-64

:>

III

III

> 450
-1..40- -45

> 350-450

> -45-

-30

> 200-350

16-40

> -30-

.::.:; '16

-20

) -20-200

Notes :
1)

Pipings are classified on the basis of the


upper limit of parameter concerning their
respective working pressure and working
temperature. In case that both the working
pressure and the working temperature of a
pipin~

are quite high, haue them first con-

1"

verted into the norninaLR-Lessu.re which is


-"---~

:;.;--

then converted into

~!,::in5~1?~s_~':IE~. _again.

Thus, the piping is classified.


2)

Piping delive~ing flammable or explosive


medium is to be classified as one class
higher than the original.

'f

!'iCN;;

21

-----

'~ft?

/J,'e 'Sen t:

./ ') ."':' . .,,' .

J/i)r~ f r ~..

(r'

('1

;171, YcJVNc.tS

.~

'.LD.::,.I'Ii',~

1'1E'T''HnI'

'116-SA-08

r9,8/,tJ

~
J

..J.!:'sTr:::C'f;P'I'IBILITY

TO
INTERGRANULAR CO:'1ROSION IN AUSTENITIC AND AUSTENITIC-FEB.RITIC
STAINLESS

STEEL.

'or

...... ~~.

",
''.i.,

. - '.

:: :::.. '

...;.~.

1
SCOPE
This standard recommended practices for detecting
susceptibility to intergranular corrosion in rolling

material~

forging material, forging, steel pipe, steel wire, welding.wire,


casting, weld metal and welded product of sustenitic and austenitic
ferritic acid-heat-resistant stainless steels of those grades
specified as follows.

The steel grades are:

Cr18Ni 19, 1Cr18Ni9 1 2Cr18Ni9, OCr1BNi9Ti, 1Cr18Ni9Ti.,


1Cr18Ni12Ti, Cr23Ni18, Cr22Ni6Ti, Cr13Ni4"Mn9, Cr14Nn14Ni3 T i,
Cr18Ni11Nb, Cr18Ni12H02Ti, Cr18Ni12M03Ti, Cr23Ni27H02Ti, Cr18Ni9Cu3Ti,
Cr18Ni18M02Cu2Ti, OCr23Ni28Jvi03Cu3Ti: Cr23Ni28H03Cu3Ti, Cr20Ni14si2,
1Cr13Ni16Nb, Cr14Ni18vIsNb and others ,.,rhich is similar to composition
of above grades.
Note.

1)

The necessity and testing conditions for intergranular


corrosion in each steel grade and its product should
be prescribed in standard technical requirements or
agreement of two sides.

27:

This standard recommended also prastices in other


steel grades not listed in the standard by the mutual
agreement.

1.

SPEC HIE!') CONDI TI ON

The specimen should be heat treated selectively according


to their chemical composition, service; proceas as 'dell as servicing
conditions, etc. of steel for obtaining
1.

nec~ssary

structure conditions.

Manufacturer performs test under the conditions

specified as follows:
1)

The condition of specimen for instable steel (free

of titanium or niobium) delivered at heat treated condition (to be


quenched into austenite) should be that of delivery.
For hot-rolled and cold-deformed instable steel, its
specimen should be quenched into austenite prior to testing.

For steel delivered at cold-deformed condition, for which


additional heat vlOrk and heat-treatment should not be performed by

2
pnrchaser, the condition of its specimen should be that of
delivery.

But these instances stated above should be specified

in the technical requirements or in mutual agreement.


Note:

The meaning of "quenching the steels into austenite"


is that the steels of grades listed in scope are
qUenched to e.usteni tic-ferritic structure I s.

2.

The specimens for stable steels (containing titanium

or niobium) delivered in heat treateu condition (to be quenched into


austenite), should be performed to test after relative s0nsilization
according to the standard listed in table 1.

The specimens for

stable steels delivered in hot-rolled or cold-deformed condition


should be quenched into austenite and then performed to test after
relative sensitization according to the standard listed in table 1.
For stable steel delivered in cold-deformed condition for
which additional heat-work

~nd

heat-treatment should not be

performed by purchasec, its specimen should be tosted under the


condition of supply, but those instance stated above should be
specified in the mutual agreement or in technical requirements.
Table 1
Conditions of heat treatment.
Steel grade

Heating Insulating
tempera- time
ture c

Cooling
type

-~

Cr18Ni9Ti, 1Cr18Ni9Ti,Cr18Ni11Nb,
1Cr18Ni12Ti, Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti, Cr18Ni12Mo3Ti,
Cr18Ni9Cu3Ti, Cr18Ni 18Mo2Cu2Ti,

650

2 hours

1Cr13Ni16Hb, Cr14Ni18\'12Nb

Air
cooling

Cr23Ni27Mo2TiIO~r23Ni28Mo3Cu3Ti,

700

10 Minutes

Air
cooling

Cr23Ni28Ho3Cu3Ti

700

10 Hinutes

Air
cooling

Note: 1)

For stool grades not listed in the

tabl~,

the necessity of heating of shor~ dura~ion


(sensitization) as well as the heating rules should
be prescribed in the mutual agreement or in the
tcchnic~l

requirements.

3
2)

For products of special manufacturing and servicing

conditions, changing the insulating time and temperature of steel


is allowed) but these instance stated above should be sPecified in
mutual agreement or in relative technical requirements.

3)

The heating method for sensitization is to fed material

to furnace heated to the rated temperature, and then begin to record


the insulating time as the temperature of

:~rnace

rises to that rated

after feeding.

F.

Before putting the

ste~l

to production, the purchaser

should perform the inspections of specimens of the following


conditions:
1)

If the steel is used to manufacture the product, of which

of which the servicing temperature is lower than

0
350 C and in

manufacturing process it is not heated at dangerous temperature zone

(450_850 0 C): the specimens of steel plate. steel pipe, steel tape
as well as other semi-products may be tested under the delivered
condition.
For hot-rolled steel pipe

forging, flate steel, round steel,

iron plate etc.) as well as casting, if the steel or casting is used


at the condition of heat-treatment the specimen should be quenched into
austenite prior to test, if the steel or casting is used directly at
the delivered condition, tha specimen may be tested at the delivered
condition.
2)

If the steels are performed to heating of short duration

at dangerous temperatur.:; zone

(450-850 0 C) during the process of

production 1 the specimens of them should be test ad at the condition


of sensitation.

3)

If the intent of inspection is to determine the

welding process of welding rod 1 flux and steels, the inspection


shall be performed according to the specification of item 12.

4)

If the steels are used to manufacture the product

working at a temperature higher than

3500C1 the specimens of the

steels should be that of sensitizative condition.

The heating

rules of sensitization shall discussed by both sides and specified


in technical requirements.

:::'

II. PREP ARli. TI ON OF SPEC U1EN S

3.

The specimens should be selectively taken from

each of steel; for cold-deformed metals the: intent of "batch"


means that tho steels ara of
and ore-smelting furnace No.

s~mG

hoat-treatment rules, dimension,

For hot-rolling steel pipes the

intents of batch means that the steel pipes are of same oresmelting furnace No and dimensions.

The blanks used to make

specimens should be cut along rolling direction; and the sampling


method and location specified in the mutual agreement or in the
technical requirements.
Note:

For steels of special requirements, sample may be


taken from each steel or blank by the mutual
agreement or spccifidation of technical requirements.

4.

The standard dimensions of plate shaped specimens

are as follows:
80mm (length)x20mm (\.ridth)x3-5mm (thickness).
5.

Steel plates and llat steels:

1)

If the thickness of materials is

length and width of the specimens should be

th~t

dimensions, and the thickness as the materials.


be performed with two pieces of specimen.
2)

If the thickness of materials

3mm, the
as the standard
The test should

'~

3mm, four pieces

of specimen should be taken, the length and width of specimens


should be that as the standard dimensions, two pieces of specimen
among them should be machined to 3-5mm in thickness at one surface and
other two pieces to same thickness at another surface.
Note:

The welding specimens of steel plates and flat


steels are different in dimension in the following
cases:

For specimens which contains a weld, the

lengths and width of them are as the standard


dimensions and for that which contains a cross
weld, 80x30mm.

6.

Shape steel:

For test, two pieces of longitudinal

specimens should be cut from the middle part of the section of the
shap steel, the thickness of the specimen is 3-5cm, the length
~~v

not

h0

R~ccifi0d.

70

For test of steel ingot, the specimens should

be taken during the period of smelting inspection.

The length

and width of spi'cimen should be 80x20mm, and the thickness 3-5mm.


Note:

If necessary it is allowed to select the specimens


of other

or to cut from the pointed

specificatio~s

location of steels
.~

8.

For tc:st of casting, the specimens should be cut

from the machining allowance of it or casted seperately with same


heat of steel.

There should be 6 pieces of specimens for test,

three of them are used for 90

bend test directly and other three

for test of intergranular corrosion.


9.

Fer test of welding specimens, the quantities of

specimen which contains a single weld should not be loss than 2


pieces and of that which contains a cross weld. not less than

pieces.

For test of susceptibility to intergranular corrosion

in weld metal 1 the quantities of specimen should be more than

4 pieces, two of them are used for 90 0 bend test directly and
the rest for test of intergranular corrosion.
10.

The dimensions of bars and wires are specified

as follows (two pieces of specimen for each batch).


1)

For wires and bars less than 10mm in diameter, the

diameters of specimens should be that of

th~

wires! or bars' and

the length not be less than 80mm.

'"
2)

10m~ in diameter,

For wires and bars

cut a"

blank of 80mm in length firstly and then from it cut a


longitudial rectangUlar specimen, of which the thickness is
3-5mm and width not greater than 20mm.
11.

The dimensions of steel

pi~es

are specified

as follows (two pieces of specimen for each batch of steel pipe).


1)

For steel pipes

3mm in outer diameter, take

the tubular specim~ns of 80cm in length along the rolling


direction of the pipes, the test may be performed with uncut
tubular specimens.
2)

For steel pipes from

in outer diameter l
the rolling

3mm to

15mm

take sampling blanks of SOmm in length along

~irection

of the pipes.

thicy~ess

If the

of the pipe wall is

develop the pipe for test is allowed.


pipe wall is from

1mm to

1mm, cut and


If the thickness of the

3mmj the test should be

performed with the cut semitubular specimen (ship shaped).


When the thickness of the pipe wall is

3mmj the outer surface

of the pipe should be machined to 3-5mm in thickness.

3)

For steel pipes

15mm in outer diameter; take

the sampling blank of 80mm in length at first, and from it then


to cut the longitudinal specimen of 10-20mm in width, the thickness
of the specimen may equal to that of tha pipe wall, but it
should not be greater than 5mm.

If the thickness of the pipe

wall is greater than 5mm, the outer surface of the pipe wall
should be machined to 3-5mm in thickness.
Note: 1)The specimens cut from the steel pipes should
maintain their original structure conditionsj even thought the
specimen-is the cut and developed steel pipe as per 2) of this
item, any quenching-treatment for it is not allowed.
2)

If the semi-tu,bular specimen of steel pipe, of which

the wall thickness is

1mm, is requested to be developped flat

for test, it must be prescribed in agreement by both aides and also


in technical requirements.

The specimen should be performed to

to additional quenching after being developped flat.


12.

Welding specimen for evaluatio~.

This specimen is

usually practiced to ~xamine the quality &f welding rods and the
correction of welding process.

The specimen should be cut from

the sampling plate which is the steel of same furnace No with


the welding piece and has been welded by same \Velding process.
1)

For detecting the butt-cross welds of one side

or both sides welding in steels of 10mm in thicknessf the


sampling location and specification are specified in Fig. 1.
The specimen should be cut by mechanical method,
and the length and width of it in accordance with the note of
item 5.

The specimen should be machined by shaping 1cm from

the surface (surface contracted with corrosion mediurn)to be

7.

inspected, and the surface machined in


of ste81s is

If the thickness

1.5mm, non-machined surface is allowed.


For detecting the butt weld of both side welding

2)

in steels

10mm in thickness,

the location and specification

for sampling are specified as Fig. 2.

--:...

-t;.-,_~

:...,::

p?

':-.!r(~::"f:!!?";::""'

5c:."'Z" 5'rL=i.'!;-,.'/{ ~-.:(, 7//~: '-~-

;.~"".-:-.::,.,~

L,~~~~~"," '\
<',

~~~~
/

/ )

/~?'<./J/

r",.,"TiT"'< -1.;

,/-/~~\~f'~~;'/~~~'

//

,t/ ./~

. ',>,

-:

f }~ -,'"
//
~"

>

r---"\c<:;r----r' / '
l-l""\
,/,/

l~'~~~)

I
I

','

",. ~-:

',~

!~~7t
'/j

."/-,-,'",",..,:

..v,:....;

! ,,:'

/=;?1;
.....,--J/

.~

/~~?J~~::~'

,/,'

;:""'"

:-, ,'---:..-

',,:,",.

"

r; '/
~
I _.
~

f-:-.,-"

a-,..
(

The specimen should be cut by mechanical method, and


the width of it is equal to that of the thickness of sampling
plate but not

10mm.

Notes: 1)

For specimens of multi-pass weld (more than


2 passes), the evaluation of quality should
only be based on the conditions of outer
pass after corrosion test.

2)

In test of detecting the quality of welding


rod the specimen for corrosion test may also
be cut from the welded plate of qualified

8
13.

Welding specimen for acceptance.

is used for acceptance of welding.

This specimen

It should be cut frum the

sampling plate, which is the steel of same furnace No Ylith the


welding piece and has been welded by same welding process, it
also may be cut from other specially welded sampling plates
which are used for receptive test.
of sampling specified as Fig.

3.

For location and specification


Machining requirements are all
12~

the same with each subdivision of item

.::._,;r .-

-0~_;r

_~{;'c,:

/1 :

'-

---

'.)

;--7;1.-

1--

I----{.-L'
.-1
L_ \ ! _._-f- \
_ ' - - . . ! __ ~._.~,f

. ; --,~'

-:

For detecting the not ever laying welded location


on the back of one-side weld of welding

piece,~f

that facing the

corrosion medium is the surface of not overla"ying welded l'leld of


welding piece this surface should be machined by shaping with a
depth equal to not penetration welding depth untill the clearance
of weld is machined flat.

During examination of intergranular

corrosion, this surface should be as the detecting surface.


If the welding piece is required to at last the process
treatment (for example, hot impacting, bending etc.) N which will
enough bring about the quality change of welding part, so the
specimen should be performed to the same process treatment prior to
test~

14.

For inspection of welded pipe or of welding piece

made of steel pipe, the cutting of specimen shall conform to the


requirements of item 11, the welds should be located in the middle
of the specimen.
wall thickness and

For steel pipes, which is not more than 3mm in


~ontains

transverse welds,

pieces of ring type

'"

9
specimens of which the welds locate in the middle of the
ring and the length is not less than 30mm should be prepared.
Amony them 2 pioce should be taken to compression test prior
to intergranular corrosion test as per item 29, and other 2
pieces to intergranular test prior to compression test.
15.

The preparation of welded pipe containing cross weld.

1)

For inspection of transverse weld, longitudinal


specimens containing transverse weld in the middle o

it should be prepared cccording to the requirements of item 11


and item 14 of this standard.
2)

For inspection of longitudinal weld', prepare tubular

specimens which are 35mm in length and contain transverse weld or


make longitudinal specimen containing weld along length direction
according to the requirements of item 11 of this standard.
16.

For inspection of components with complex geometric

shape (such as the component of pipe and flange), the specimens


should be cut from the component submitted for

inspettion~

and

the specification of it according to the actual condition; but


the metals in the connection of two parts should be with a distance
not less 10mm from the edge of weld respectively.
For inspection of butt joint; with washers, of welded
steel pipe, the test should be performed tog~her with the washers.
17.

7.

The surface finishing should not be lower than

If the machining is performed by grinding wheel, overheating should


be avoided.

The edges of specimen must be refinished for removing

rags and burrs.

Note:

Each specimen should be degreased and dried.

For titamiumed and niobiumed stable stainless

steel,

if necessary it is allowed to remove the scale by


etching, the etching solution should be 2-2.5% HF +
7-9% HN0
of it

3
50

(calculated in weight), the temperature


0

and etching time not exceed 30 minutes

for cleaning scale only but avoiding cerrosion owing


to excessive etching.

10

III.

DETECTING HETHODS
(Abstracted)

18 ~

Detecting methods for intergranular corrosion

are specified as follows:


Practice B -

Copper sulfate-sulfuric acid-copper test


To detect the test specimen in solution of
copper sulfate

a.

~Dd

sulfuric acid with coppar.

20.

Practice B (copper sulfate-sulfuric acid-copper test)

1.

Scope,

The test detects rapidly susceptibility to intergranular


attack in material.

b.

This test is used for detecting the following steel grades:

OCr18Ni9,

1Cr18Ni9,

Cr23Ni18, OCr1BNi9Ti, 1 Cr1BNi9Ti, 1Cr18Ni12Ti,

Cr10Ni11J1Tb,Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti, Cr18Ni12M03Ti, Cr18Ni18H02Cu2Ti as well as


their weldod components.
2.

Apparatus:

A conical glass flask, month

ground~ih,

\vi th coiled return condenser, the volume of which is determinGd by


the quantity of specimens, or a reaction tank with cover and 1-3
pieces of coiled return condenser, which is made of nicket-chremium
st~el

stabilized by titanium or niobium.

.p

3.

Preparation of test solution and specimens

a~

Test solution:

It consists of 160 mg CuS04-5H20

(HGB3030-59, 2nd grade) + 100ml H -S0 (gravity 1.835) (HGB2003-59,


2 4
1st grade) + 11 distilled water + copper scraps.
Note:

The copper scraps shall be made of Cu-4 of which the


purity not lower than that specified by YB75-60.

It is

not allowed to use copper powder,


b.

Test specimen: The preparation of test specimen should be

in accordance with the requirements of item 3 - item 17 t and of


mutual agreement or technical requirements under special conditions.
But the convenience of operation shall be considered during the
preparation of test specimens.

11
c.

For structure conditions of specimens should be

in accordance with the specifications of items 1 and 2 in this


standard.
4)

Procedure

a.

After a layer of copper scraps about 5mm have been

laid on the bottoill on the reaction

test specimens of same

t2~k,

steel grade should be placed do not come in contact with each other and
then covered with a layer of copper scraps of 10mm.
Note:

For large number of specimens, under the


circumstance of complete contacting between
specimens and copper scraps, the specimens may
be placed in serval layers, but not more than 5
layers.

b.

Pouring of solution:

The quantity of solution should

be that the solution level 20mm higher than the layer of copper
scraps.
c.

Connect

solution to boilgingo
test period.

cooli~g

water and simultaneously heat the

Thon keep the middle boiling throughout the

Heating of the condenser is not allowed.

If boiling

is broken during test period, boiling time should be relatively


elongated so that the total boiling time

is~constant

value.
~

d.

Total boiling time is 24h.

'",

If the test is forced to be interrupted, the specimen should


be rinsed and then dried after it has been taken from the reactor

If

specimens are to be replaced into original solution, it should be


performed in accordance with this item.

Boiling time is calculated

accumulatively.
Note:

For steels of special servicing conditions, total


heating time may be prolonged to 48 hs. by mutual
agreement,

e.

After test the specimens should be taken from the

reactor, then rinsed and dried for bending test in accordance with
items 25-29.
Notes:
1) If a layer of copper settled on the specimens can't
be cleaned by water, it maybe rinsed with 20-30%
(calculated in weight) nitric acid solution for

12
2)

Submit the copper scraps for the next test is

allowed, if the copper has been darkled, it should be washed by


10% (calculated in weight) nitric acid solution for 0.5-2 mins,
then rinsed by flmving \'later aIld alchol, at last dried.
3)

Follbwing steel grades in same group may be tested

in the same flask:


Group a:.

OCr18Ni9,

1Cr18Ni9

Group b:

GC~18Ni9Ti,

1Cr18Ni9Ti, 1Cr18Ni12Ti,

Group c:

Cr18Ni12No2Ti,

IV.

Cr18Ni11Nb

Cr18Ni12t-103Ti

EVALUATION OF SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
INTERGRA.NULAR CORROSION

24.

The specimens having been tested according to the

items 19-21, should be removed from the reactor for rinsing and
subsequent drying.

Then it should be bent through 90

in such a

cranner: It should be bent by holding in a vise (or other clamping


apparatus of flat nose).

The radius of round anguler of vise nose

(or of noze of clamping apparat~s)

should not be less than 3 times


.. il,~

thickness of specimen, but not greater than 10mm.

Pre~~"'or hard

wooden hammer may be used for the bend test of specimen.


25.

Both sides of the plate shaped specimen, the

thickness of which does not exceed 3-5mm, should be detected, i.e,


bet\ding the specimen to
Note:

HZH

shape.

'",

If it is defficult to pend the specimen into

HZH

shape, detect the both sides with duplicate specimens


respectively,
26.
1)

Tubular specimens:
Cut specimens from the pipe of

3mm in diameter for

est, bend examination for outer wall surface and metallographic


examination for inner wall surface (performed in accordance with
items 32-)3).
2)

The specimen out from the pipe of

should be bent to

HZH

3mm in diameter

shape for bending examination of both inner

and outer wall surfaces.

13
Note:

If it is difficult to bend the specimen into

HZ" shape, the inner and outer wall surface


of samples should be detected with duplicate
s~ecimens

which are bent along concave surface

and convex surface respectively.

3.

For specimen out from the pipes hot rolled in

continuQus mill, .its inner wall surface uncleaned should be detected


in accordance with items 31-33.
Note:

If the customer doesn't know the manufacturing


method of hot rolled pipes, prior to sampling the XHHHX
inner surface of the pipe may be slightly etched
with 50% nitric acid solution. The solution
o
temperature should be 70-80 Ci and etching time
1-3 mins.

If the pipe is ro-lled in autometic

rolling mill, after etching the inner surface of it


should be smooth and bright without defect. If
the.pipe is rolled in continuous mill, after etching
the inner surface of it should be grey and dark,
not smooth and with hair marks on it.

27.

Welding Specimens.

1.

For specimens containing a transverse weld, two

pieces of speCiDGn should all be bent along walding fusion zone


I

(bend location includs weld metal and metal~f heat affected zone).

2.

For specimens

containing~corss

welds, two 9ieces

of specimens should be bent along transverse weld, other two pieces


along longitudinal weld, and bend location at welding fusion zone.

3.

For specimens welded with steels of different furnace

No.-, two pieces of specimen should be bent along the length direction
of weld, and other two pieces from both sides of the weld and along
the fusion zone.
Note:

For exposure of weld boundary, the specimen after


intergranular corrosion test may be slightly etched
'I,i th the solution consisting of

4 grams of

CuS04ft5H20 (HGB3030-59,2 grade) + 20 ml of HCl


(chemical purity) + 20 ml of distilled water.
~~tching time should be 0.5-1 min.).

14
28.
1)

Welding tubular specimens


Specimens containing transverse weld:
The developed specimen should be bent along weld

fusion zone in accordance with item 27 in this standard.


The tubular specimen should be fer formed to flattening
test~

i3e. detecting it as it has been flattened to eval with outer

radius rate of 2:1.


2)

Specimens containing longitudinal weld

a.

The developed specimen should be bent along the length

direction of weld and it is completed by bringing the two edges


together.

Then examine the outer surface, at last the inner surface

should be performed to metallographic examination specified in items

31-33.
b~

The tubular specimen should be performed to flattening test

and examined as it is to be flattened to oval with outer radius rate


of 2:1, the compressed location should be that the weld metal and
metal of heat affective zone are included in extention zone of metal.
Note: Tubular specimen should be flattened by static pressure.
For flattening or bending test of longitudinal weld in
welded steel pipe which containing cross welds, the cross
welds
29.

shou~d

always be included in

~esto

The surface of bent specimen should be examined at a

magnifier of not greater than 10 x.

30.

If transversal cracking originates on the surface of the

specimen which has been bent,;the materials should fail to pass the
intergranual corrosion (cracking that originates at the edges of the
specimen should be disregarded.
If transversal cracking originates on the surface of the
specimen which has been bent, duplicate specimens shall be tested
repeatedly, thus appearance of transversal cracking on anyone of the
specimens, the materials will fail to pass the intergranual corrosion.
If the above specified unqualified steels have been performed
again to heat treatment or selection" they should be sampled for test
repeatedly.

In casting or welding metal the transverse


,.

'.::<~'-"

which is the marker for evaluation of intergranular corf~ki,


be differen~ with that originated in th-e specimen.s which have been
bent and not corrosiQn tested according to the items 19-21 in this
standard, but the ~ppearahce of knife~line attack in welded specimen
unqualified.
If the specimen can't be bent, it should be performed

31.
.~~

to metal"lographic examination (Ground piece should be cut from the


specimen for corrosion test.

During cutting it should

that the side surface to be measured is perpendicular


surface of the groun
Note~

be guaranteed
t~

corrosion

piece).

Before cutting and grinding the specimen may be slightly


oent (10-15

),

or not bent to cut directly.

The ground piece should be observed or photographed .at a


microscope with 500 x
32.

magnification~

The degree of intergranular corrosion should be determined

by measuring

the depth of the intergranular cracking appeared in

ground piece (The ground

piece may be corroded if necessary).

~ch

of the following two cases may be as the base of unqualification.

1)

Along the whole boundary of ground piece the corrosion

depth is greater than 30

o
~'T'

2)

The corrosion depth in individual grain boundary along

the boundary of ground piece is greater than 50U.


Note~1)

The measurement of depth


as follows:

of grain boundary should be

The perpendicular distance on the ground piece

between the location where the intergranhlar corrosion is


found and the location where the grain boundary is not
corroded.
2)

The evaluation should be in accordance with the


tpch~ic~l

33-

requirements or with the mutual agreement if any.

Duplicate specimens should be used for arbitral

test~The

evaluation is based on the result of observation on the surface of


specimen, which has been bent; at a magnification of not greater than
10

X~

If testing

result~ a~e

diffe~eht

between seller and

arbitral test should be done according to this standard.

purchaser~

;?t. yovNVJ

116 - SA - 11

Technical
0;,

Requirements

For
Installation And Acceptance
Of

Reactors, Heat Exchangers And Vessels

""

1979

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Generals:

1.

The technical requirements mentioned here

1.1

for the HUFPL Project are only applied to the installation and acceptance of the reactors, heat exchangers and vessels made of carbon steel, low alloy
steel and stainless steel with a design pressure <..._----2
0
40 kg/cm (g) and a design tempo ranging from 0 to
0

200 C ..

1.2

Inst~11ation

will be performed in

~ccordance

with the special requirements specified in the design


drawingso

103

Insulation and corrosion resistance for the

equipments should be carried out according to the


specificaticn~

qiven in special documents.


-~

1.4

Manufacturing and quality certificates must

be provided with equipments, materials and fittings.

1.5

~h~

onuipreant~

~hnuld

be

t~~~~~arted

to the

suitable locations at the site with the consideration


to the direction while placing the equipments.
tho::

;:}11'

t-",h1 ""

Select

clJp;::>orting points for the wood sleepers ..

Disassemble the

easilY-~~~2~~rl

J. --

~~rts

Rnd indivicual

parts and have them properly stored.


manholes.

Close the noz-

Additional pairrt is required for

the spot where the original paint has been stripped

off.

1.6

The equipment, which is delivered to the site

in a complete piece, should be


ad at the site.

~hen

hydrosta~ically

test-

filling the equipment with

water, air should be exr~lled from the equipment~


Boost the

pressur~

inside the equipment gradually up

to the specified test pressure and then keep the pressure for 20 minutes to check all welds and connections for leakage.

It will be qualified if no leak-

age is found ..

1.7

L p e1(3.'=!'" +-"",1-

<:h':'111

ri

hp

""""'''''"''"'''-'''<>0 fnt'

the welds

on base plates of large atmospheric vessels which


~

will be assembled and welded at the site.

After as-

sembly and welding, the vessels should be filled with


water for leakage test.

1.8

'rr

:1-.",:-'0

~,.."" 1'")0 "'n<>cj;;11 r:-2'"'!.llircmt=>n+-", fer the

equipments and vessels operated under vacuum, the


tests should .be carried out as follows:

1.8.1 'The hydrostatic test should be performed


at a pressure of 2 kg/cm 2 (g).

Keep the pressure

for 10 minutes for inspection of welds and then


2

reduce the pressure to 1 kg/cm (g);

1.8.2

Sufficient time interval should be kept


?

under the pressure of lkg/cm-Cg) in order to check the tightness of the vessel

1.8 6 3

If the hydrostatic test can not be car-

ried out,
instead.

test will be performed

pneumatic

The sequence for. the latter is the same

as that for the former.

The only difference be-

tween these two tests is that soap water is to be


brushed on the welds to check whether leakage
occurs from weL;s under the operating pressure"

1.8.4

Tightness test is to be

perfo~ed

at a

2
pressure of lkg/cm (g) with a duration of 24 hrs.
The amount of leakage should not exceed Oe2%.

1.9

The corrosion resistance and insulation for the

equipments will not be done till the successful completion of hydrostatic test and all the welding work
{including having the platforms, supporting members

3 -

welded to the shell of equipment).

2.

Acceptance of foundation:

2.1

Only after the concrete strength of

found~-

tion has been up to the design requirement, back


filling and levelling have been completed around
the foundation and the corresponding quality
certificates have been

~hecked

is it permissible

to start installation of equiprnentsa

2.2

Before installation of the equipment, mark

the reference lines of the elevation and center


on the foundation in a~cordance with the drawings.
According to the said reference lines the foundation should

~e

in conformity with the following

..

requirements:

Ao

Allowable deViation of the center line:


+ 15mm.

B.

Allowable deviation of the outer dimensions: + 30mm ..

Ce

The space for final concrete grouting layer should be provided from the elevation in
accordance with the design requirements.

D.

Allowable deviation of the center line of

- 4

the embedded foundation bolts to the reference line: + 5mm.


Allowable deviation of the elevation of the
bolt head:
2.3

+ 20 mm
;0

Cleaning, levelling and roughening are re-

quired for the foundation sur-face before insta1lation of the equipment.

Where the iron pads are

placed should be chiselled for levelling.

The

provided holes of foundation bolt should be free


from foreign matters9

2.4

The foundation bolts should be provided with

nuts with a moderate matching and complete threads.


Before pouring the concrete into the holes, the
protion of the foundation bolts to be grouted
should be free from grease and dirts.
'or

2.5

For the equipments to be installed on the

steel supports or steel platforms, check the steel


beam position of the supports and elevation of the
top face for conformity with the design require.,J

ments before installation o

~
~

1
.1

3.

Installation of equipment;

3.1

Before installation of equipment, check the

I
.~

_ s __

main technical data of the manufacturer's


quality certificates and reinspect the
equipment.

3.1.1

Check the center line on the wall of the

equipment for clearness and correctness.

Make

the clear marks, which will be used as the basis


for alignment in installation, at both the top and
the bottom.

If the center line is not clear eno-

ugh, draw fou~ reference lines in the direction


I

of the axis of ordinate on the exterior surface of


the equipment shell according to the axis of the
nozzle orientation drawing of the equipment.

The

included angle of the two adjacent rererence lines


is 90 .

3.1.2

Check the outer dimensions and openings of


-'"Sf

the: equipmen t and the locations of nO,zzles for


conformity with the design requirements.

3.1.3

Check the size and dlstanC2 Or the found a-

tion bolts and the dimensions qf the equipment


supports to see whether they are suitable to the
equipment foundation.
:~~

3.2

Vihen installing the equipment, the flat and wed-

- 6 -

ged iron pads with certain specifications should be


availabe on both sides of the foundation bolt holes.
The distance of the two adjacent groups of the iron
pads will depend on the rigidity of the equipment
base plate.

The number of iron pads for each group

should not exceed four pieces.

After alignment of

the equipment, tighten the nuts of the foundation


bolts symmetrically with equal tension.
groutin~

The final

should be performed after the iron pads are

fixed by spot welding.

3.3

The equipment, which is provided with linings,

should be lined according to the design requirement


usually after the installation? alignment and fixing
of the

equi~mento

am~leJ

the three-way

A number of equipments, for expipe~

at the bottom of the se~~

condary reformer, the waste heat boiler 01 the reforming gas and its connection pipe lines must be
lined before installation.
stallation should

~ot

Transpo~tation

be carried out until the cur-

ing of the linings is qualified.


ping are

str~~tlv

and in-

~o~birlrlen

Knocking and bum-

so as to avoid breaking

of linings.

I
j

3.4

After installation and alignment of the equipment f

the requirements should be met as follows:

Allowable deviation of the base ele-

3.401

vation
3.4.2

+ 5mm o

Allowable deviation of the location


of the center

3 0 4.3

line~

+ 5mm6

Allowable deviation of the perpendicularity is 1/1000 of the equipment


hei'jht, not exceeding 20mm in max ...

.--

3 .. 5

For the equipment provided with internals

such foam catchers and fillers such as catalysts,


the installation .of .interfW.ls, charging of catalysts and loading of fillers should be done in
accordance with the design

3 6
Q

requireme~tsQ

Aftar installation of the ejector, the per-

formance test must be performedo


meet the

d=-5~n

7equirements, necessary adjust-

ment should be carried outo

4:

If it fails to

~'I<

Inspection and acceptance:


~

4.1

---------

After installation of the equ!pment and in-

te=~al~

rln~

~nspection

r~mnlotion

of the linings and after

for qualification, select the sealing

gaskets tQ.close the


openings for

m~nholcs,

ch~rqin.q __ and

- 8 -

handholes and the

discharging. in acr::::i='d-

.......

_-

ance with the design specification.

Before they

are closBe, the inside of the equipment should be


thoroughtly cleaned and the inspection of concealed
work should be entered into the record.

1.2
air

After installation of equipments, if necessary,


tij~tness

test may be performed in connection

with pipe lines according to tlTechnical Requirements For Erection And Acceptance Of MP And LP Steel
Pipes" (116-SA-06)"

4.3

Documents for completion of equipments:


a.

Manufacturer's qualification certificate,


quality

certifi~ate

and technical informa-

tion on packing.
b.

Records on

Co

Records on installat5.on and


ec:1uipments

stren~th

and air tightness testso


i~pecti<.:m

of

do

Records on inspection of concealed work.

e.

Records on construction of the inner 1inlngs for equipments.

fo

Notification on design revision.

The following additIonal documents should


be supplemented for the equipments which are
delivered in sections and which should be as-

9 -

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CONTi::.:NTS

10

GE:NL.RALS

2..

ACCEPTANCE OF VE:.3SL:;L, fOUNDAT"IONS

3.

CLEANING Of' THE VE.,sSSL Si-J.LL ,\:'!!:' V::S.::;:ZL. INTE:RNAL$

4.

PRESSURE TEST

5.

IN,STALLATION OF HIGH PR8SSURE VSSSSLS

Co

PURGING AND AIR-TIGHTNESS TEST OF HIGH PRESSURE


VESSELS
'i-'

7"

ACCEPTANCE

-,..

;.

1.

GE:NSRALS

The technical requirements described here are only applicable to the installation and acceptance of high pressure vessels with a design pressure of 1GO-320Kg/cm 2 (gauge) and a
design temperature of. -50 SC~G

200C.

other special requirements 1 if any, given in the

wo~k-

lng drawings should be followed.


1.3.

Certain
veGse~s,

1.4.

qu~l2.fication

certificate." :":-ic:.;loi be provided for

materials and

fittin~sD

When delivered to the jobsite, the high pressure vessels


should be placed at appropriate locations- avoiding further
rehandling. Proper wooden supports should be provided as
padding so as:i~o aVoid deformatj.on due to unproper placing.

2.

ACCS~7~NC~

G~

VSSS~L

FOUNDATIONs

'"
2.1. ' The foundation concrete should be able to reach the design
strength. The surrounding area of foundation should be backfilled, levelled and well compacted. The civil construction
co~pa!1~'

2.2.

~-'::':;';-::;i1~i ,,1

to>

::lll?

4=nr-

r:1Jalifi~ation

certificate.

The center line and the elevation of the foundation should


be in conformity with the following requirements
~15mmo

1)

Allowable deviation of center line:

2)

Allowable deviation in oV6raii dimensions:

31

Allowable deviation of elevation

.,

~30mm.

t15mm(with consideration

to the space left for findl groutiny of conc.ceteo)


Allowable deviation of the center line of the embedded
foundation bolts:

~5mmo

Allowable deviation of the top elevation of the embedded


foundation bolts

+20mrn.
- 0

Before the concrete pouring, make it sure that the surface


of the foundation bolts are free from grease and foreign
matters and that the bolt and nut are well fitted by

COffi-

plete threads.
Before

inst21]~~i0n

of a high pressure vessel,

the foundation

surface should be roughened and the area to receive shim


plates should be levelled.(The levelled area ~hould be bigger than the surface area of the shim plate.) The provided
bolt holes should be cleaned.

3.

3.1.

Hav::>

t-.h8

CL2>:J..l\.ll:NG OF -.-",r-,...:~. ;::~-'~:1.]. .::,:-:':1 ,12:::"""1. internal:;:

cylindrilil!al shell suppor-:::ed by wood sleepers on

appropriate supporting points to avoid fef"irmationo


3.2.

Before cleaning, j;1ark \vi th steel stamp those parts and fi ttings that are required to be

~isassembled

so that after

cleaning they can be assembled to the exact location again


without making any confusion. In doing so, the following precautions should be observed
1)

All the bolts. nut~ ~nd gaskets of bigger diameter are not

2 -

exchangable.
Sealing gaskets
are not exchangable.
In case,a steel stamp mark is, n'ot
ing sUJ::face of a certain high pressure'ves:s'el, other, marks
.
'-'"
"."

such as additional lebels may be


After the

completionofcle~nin~;
~

~,

the centl:'al oil holes of the. bi"gger~bolfs.


should,.b~r:
.
..-.-,.
",-.'

'

'"

and f;:-eed from mechanicaL mattc~rs.Then-trlese parts;.and bo],ts'


.' ,

. ,.

~.

- ,-.'

.. -' <.-' ':-.:

should be 'tiell kept to avdidbeing.rustedor'lost ..


The alr2ady cleaned parts and, fitt"in:gsare then subject '. to

visual

inspe~.ticn

. ", I ,

' " , ,~ " .

",

Dimensions of the . critical

int:~;nals. shbuld.

be checked.
T.he"__~ealing face of

should be checked with great

'."-::::::::;'::

care to ensuri the sealing performance. If any uniatis~actary


sealing is found, have i t made good.
Big-85.:::,: p d sealing gaskets

provid~d

sels must be subjected to heat


Correct the existing defect
fa be

heat-treated~

After

~
treatmen~.

~nd

a)

,.'

deformatior."

anneal~ng,

ground smooth by means of sand


'.

for the,. high pre!:lsure ves-

have the gaskets

clo~h .
".

"

",".

Temj)"' .... "-!::l':..- .r=~_ "!~:1"'=>l,iW:r~;f .coppe~g':ls~etr

. (jO'Q-:].OpoC!,
"

immeadiate water coglingo


.
'.,":'
.,'

bl

Temperature fOr
insulated
.
. gradual
.

~ ~

After h~~t treatment, the~~


....
."
,~,

groov~s;

sandh61e~~

"

----.

~:'"'-~

<~

'4.

PR~SSUHE

T~~T

Before fitting the bolts to the cover and flange connection


of a vessel, have the bolts lubricated with a mixture of
graphite powder and mechine oil so as to reduce friction
when disassemblfung them.
Tightening of bolts is done in such a way that the tension
is equal on opposite bolts,i.eo if there are altogether 8
bolts, the tightening should be done in the order of 1-5,
2-6, 3-7, 4-8. Besides, the tightening of each bolt should
be done in ~ lot of operations. Aliowable deviation of paralel between the cover and shell of a vessel and between
the flanges in pair should be less than O.30mm after fitting.
4.30

stop the pipe connections on the vessel ,by meass of blind


flanges. Reis one end of the vessel and fill water into it
to expel air.

4.4.

Two calibrated pressure gauges should be provided on each


~

end of

~he

vessel. (Have one end of

th~

vessel located

near~

by the pressure testing pump.)


. 4.5.

Hydraulic test should be made in different pressure stages,

i. e. 50Kg/ cm 2 1 100Kg/ cm 2 , 130 (or 150) Kg/ cm 2 ,- (\Ji th or without


the pressure ~t~ge of 165Kg/cm 2 ), 250Kg/cm 2 , 320Kg/cm 2 and

.,

400!<g/cm"-. Have the

pre-s-suj,~8

boc.::;ted from one pressure stage

to a higher one as rated above. Testing pressure for high preBSllre vessels should be 1.25 times the worJ<ing pressure. ',lihen

-, 4 -

the testing pressure reaches this value, have it first maintalned' for a: period of 10-'15 minutes and then. reduced to
the working pressure. Now knock the welds with a hammer.
weighing

0.5Kg~

The welds will be qualified when leakage,

sweating and pressure are fotind. Finally, have the testing


result entered into the record on which signatures of responsible persons will be given.
After the completion of the test, drain the water from the.
vessel but do not drain the water to places nearby buildings
/

or foundations. Then the vessel sho~ld be made dry, cleaned


and protested from

5.

CA)
5.1.

Inst~llation

~sting.

INSTALLATION OF HIGH PRE:SSURE VE;SSELS

of vessel shell

Before lifting, a working program fbr lifting should be


.prepared in accordance with the requiremrnts given by the
.,~

working drawings.
5.2.

The longitudinal and transverse cooodinates should be marked


on the base plate of the vessel in accodance with the informations given by the process drawings and nozzle sketches.

5.3.

The follo',."ing requirements should be followed during the


installation of a high pressure vessel

1)

Allowable deviation of centerline of vessel

2) . 'Allowabledev.iatibn of elevation of vessel

.... 5 . .:.;.

'.

less than 5mm.

Allowable deviation of

perp'ef1dicul~ritY;:
.

.'than
.
,

:",--

."

..,...

but the Max. deviation will.be le~~'th~n 15iTim .


/'

Before the installation of ,a vess~l~ hi3:ve"'tl1e support, if any,


seated in accordance with respective draw:ings.
Thickness of the final gr.outing layer of vessel foundation
is .25-60mm. If the space left for finsl'pouring is less thah'
that the'unwanted part should be removed by way of ~hipprng
;

and j,f' it is more than the require'ment, fill in cement mortar


or

~9ncrete

upto the required level but the strength of the

cement mortar or

concret~used

gre~terthan

must be

the

original concrete of foundation.


Ajustment of the space between the vessel and the foundation is
~roup

made with the help of a

of shim

plate~.

On the foundation, the are~ to receive the shim plate should


be very close to the foundation ,bblt9 The bearing load of

-.: ~. :~~

shimmed area on the foundation should be less than 12Kg/cm 2


After the foundation bolts

aretightened;~the

,,'

shim plate should not shpw any movement when

load bearing
knoc~ing

with

a small hammer.
5.8.

After the completion of installation, have the result entered


irito the record on which s.ignatures are made by responsible
persons. Then, the grol.:lP of shi!u pI a tes are fixed by electric
, sPQt.weld;i.ng <;l.nrd :final grQuting of coi:lcrete. or cement mortar

-~

is carried"out.

::th~ta
.: ....ila.. tion.
<: '." '~f-:.
~

619

.'"

...
I,

.Instaltation of vessel internals will be done as described

in the working program preparedb.eforehand.


Pressure test, cleaning and visual inspection are to be made
for vessel internals as required by their service. Slectric
fittings are subject to tests for insulation performance
and voltage

rating~

onlyaft~r

They are to be installed

being

qualified.
The packing and internals are installed in such a way as
specified in tha drawings.
o

During installation, care should be taken that the aliowable


deviation of perpendicularity of the inner cylindrical shell
or parts of some other shape should be less tran h/1000,
but the Max. deviation shopld not be more than 10mm unless
otherwise. specified

bJ'

the drawing.

The internals of ammonia converter are subjec~ to pressure


test or examination of welds.
"'t

>"
6.

PURGING AND AIR-TIGHTNESS


HIGH PRSSSUHC

After

tho "::C'':''':' 1

are to be. purg""r:!

T~ST

OF

V~SSELS

on of installation, the high pressure veSsels


?r:~

::':::-+-"'0

:fn~

"I i r--H ..,h+-npc:;c:;

proeess pipings. Then, they are loaded with

.- 7 -

alont; with the

catal~st.

7.,

ACCEPTANCE
if;

A.fter the completion

ofinstal~tion

of high pressure ves-

sels, the following documents should be available for acceptance :


~hop

test certificate, qualification certificate and

technical documentations packed in case.


Record of strength.test and

test.

air~tightness

3)

Record of installation abd inspecc5.:J,"

4)

Record of inspection of consealed work.

5)

Design revision notices.

'-'.I.

the vessel

....

-"

8 -

..,

<
"

>-

f;j

f2

s::

rf.l

c.!J

lit
0

~
:3
i::iI
tIl

':'-!
p:j

0
i::q
8
'~

rq

r,a
P

rl.
p:j

'\

C'-

<tj
rf.l

1.0
'\
'\

l.
'\

"~

,.

~,
~I

".

Req~~rements

for the weldlng'o~ Spheres


11 h-RlI..-17

To guarantee the welding quality, the following requirements


should be observed:Weather protection.
Wel~ing

shall not be permitted when:

It is rainingo

f'

The relative humidity of air is more than or equal to

9~~,

or

ThE:) wind velocity is greater than 10m/sec. Unless the we.lding


operators an~ work are properly protected~ It is therefore
advisable to prepare a humidity measuring gauge in job site and
proper protective devices against wind and raino
Preservation of Electrodes:
One person will be assigned to take care of tre electrodes
specially for:
~
The baking of the electrodeso All the elBctrodes shall be first
bakeJ. for as long as two hours under 4-09 c, ready for use.
1J)he dis.tribution as well as recovery of the electrodes.
The amount of distribution of electrodes to one welder at
one time is no more than 2 Kg, and make sure they are kept
inside a dQ2~-proof bag. Generally, when the relative humidity
is under 80%, once the electrodes are taken out of the baking
oven, they are expected to be consumed within 4- hours and
within 2 hours when the relative humidity is 80 ....... 90%.
If the specifieJ. period of time is exceede, the un-used electrodes
should be collected and rebaked but such repetition should not'
be more than 4- times~
~,.

Preparations for welding:


~

Number the weld seams on each sphere and keep tmrecord. Get the
welders, scaffo~ing ready.
Remove the rust, greaseancl. moisture fr"'m tm 'jevel and from an
3r88 of 30mm on both sides of each seam.
For liquid ammonia sphere, the bevels should 1e checked by
dyeing method on ground.
Preheating will beup to. 100c for N2 Sphere and 1.909 c f.:>r liquid
ammonia sphere~ Preheating shoul~ be uniformly made from the
back side of the seam and the temperature- measuring point will be
locat0d at the front side of seam keeping a distance of
50 mm from the seam. In the d.ur3tion of welding, this preheatei'.
temperature should 1. e maintained a.ll th8 way through. A certain
device should be prepared fot this ~urpose.
For liquid. amIDQuia sphere, insulation material shall be prepared
~efore welding so that tm completed weld seams may be timely
insulated_for grad1lal cooling ..

17

- 2 -

Procedure and requi C'AmAn t.R f'nT' wAldiilg.


In case o N2 sphere and ammonia liquor Sphere:
Ater the completion o assembling, spot welding shall be
pBrormed on all the longitudinal seams in the ollowing order:
equator zone
the south temperate zone the north temperate zone.
For spot wel,.-l; ng the requirements are the same as the ormal
i?olding. Spot welding should be made symmetrically. At both ends
o a longitudinal seam, a length o 100mm spot welding is
required and then 100mm spot welding or every 250mm. The weld '\
t.eight is 6 V"'f) mm 8nd th0 spacing is shown below:

~50

~~i""rr

F-- 100----,.\'

'1
~"...~

Wel~ing o the equator longitudinal seam should be made symmetrically. This will be cllowed hy theweldingo trnsyuth
temperat'-; zone and then the north temperate zone.

Remov""e tho clamps beforG welding a lon$i tudinnl seam'. Grind the
initial part o a spot weld into cone to acilitate the
joining o u~ther welding.
~r.J.(~n weld.ing a longitudinal seam. The first :md the second passes
will be done in sections backwards. The length of each section
is 250 mm for the irst pass and 500 mm or the second pass.

For longitudinal seams)


be done upwardsn

ate~

the second pass, each pass will

After the completion of the third pass on a longitudinal seam, the


back side should be clean.~d, ground and then visually inspected.
If every thing is OaK, the b.:.lCk side may be",welded8

,.

Ater the compltltion of the welding of thed:i'ack side, welli the


out side (the front'~iQe)o
The order o welding the circumerence seams.is first the one
between the equator and the south temperate zone9.lld then the one
bwtween the equator and the north temperate zoneD
</i1

When welding a circumference seam, the first pnss will be done


in sectiop.s 1::o.ckwards Gnd symmetrically. The length of each
section is 250 mm. Befor~ welding remove the clamps. Grind the
initial part o n spot weld into cone < The second pass will '"J_sob e
done in sections b~JCkw8rds7 but the length of each section is
600mmo After the s6cond pass the welding is pororme~
cont:nuously around. thG seamo
Ater thecomplGtion of th8 third pass on a longitudinal seam,
the b3ck side should be cleaned and visually inspected. If no
~Gfe~t is there;weld the back si~e"
".Aft.:::r the back side is welded, resume the welding on the front
side and complete it.
Tl'.e manhole connections on the end pieces shoulct be assemtled
and welded on groundD

.,....

..edt tlr thG cOluj,lletit..n U.L auu'-lll.bljT of ct."" c'-,d pl8c.es, t::.:w.:-:;c.: .J...J3.J,-,,-,
of l1felding on the front side will be performed and then the roo':~:Y
of back sid,s is cleomed 8.Ud grotilld and visua:ly inspected. If '
no defect is found. Iveld:- :, :..:'~ '~" c i } ' ~:: ::-'l:~ and then the
front siee e
'

For welding the sphere s;:"pports, the first pass is done in s<$oti0T
interrdttentlyo Begining f::':-om tha second pass, the welding is
performed up"rards from both sic-les till the it7clld. height and angle
are satisfactory:
The reinf0rced itleld height of the 10:>J.gitudinal and circumference
seams on the spheres is' 2 ......... 3 mmo
X-ray exam::'nation 1I/ill be 25% for am.;:nonia liquor sphere and 1UD%
for N2 sphere following the reg;':.liroments specified by .JB928-67"
The stundarc. of radiographic examination of welc'~s", grade 30
-When the se2ms are qualified ~W this examina+;ion} hydrostatic tssr
be made o

In case of

liQ~id

ammonia sphore:

After the 'completio:>J. of assembly of the liquid ammonia sphere,


the longitudinal Semns of the equator zon8 should 1,e welded in
a symmetrical way and the Iollowing requiremGn-iJ3 should be
observ@ri
Prellieat the' back side of \veld upt.o 150,-"
Measure the temperature wi thin an, ar"w of 5-9mm on coth sides of
:bevel to see whether the required ~temperature is reachedo
The first and second pe<38s are performed. in seations backwards
and the longtl:_ 0= each "section is ;'l~ rum for the first pass o.nd
60)rum for the second.pass. After till completion of the second
pass., remove the cJaIJ.ps. The third pass is done upwards and.
it is closely f~11oW8d by far air gouging.oThe~,- Dost-heat
for one nnd hal~ hours (~Ik hours) upto 200 O""""::;''i),oc, keep tL
temperature for a cer-cai2J. i2J.'cerval CLl1d it is insulatel~, then
cool down graduall:,! Aft er that 1 the weld. is groun,l nnd
(lye- inspe ctef:',
r,

~,.

When the weld. is ;,,)J,alii'ied by dyeing insJ)ection, it is regrcund


ar:u1 preheat8!l to the specified temperstu::'e and then its back
side is- welded in a contiuliouS wayo After the completion of
weldirc.g, the weld is post--heat~d for 105 hours, insulated and.
then gradually cooled ~lmm~
Make sure that th0 temperature bet"reen the fasses of welding
.
'1
;", 1
1 .J'en a Co,lS no-c _t')SS TlaD.

The 10rigitudir.Jal se::uns of the tempel~ate zunes should be made


in conformity with the a~,ove mentiona.t points i~ iVn
~lelding

of circumference Se8228 "I~ll st:,..,~+- from the one between


the equator ::;one and the south temperato zone a.~d then the, !dne
l)etw-een the equ3tor and the nor'th temperate zoneo The first
pass of the circumference seams should r~e made in 15,, co The
length of each sdction is 250mmo The second pass will be made
in the same way but the length of each section is GOOrruno After
the second pass" the clamps nre remover:";. and welding may -De
ce.rri8d out aroun':' the circle_ After the!.C::Q-~etion 'of the
third pass the wi:.l:l roof is clel.lled. and :?ost=-he'ated

....

.- 4

d}.

0
ul,tG 200 c c5a o C ~or' 1.5 :u.vurs and l0 is ins.llated, 'i;llen
gradually cooled down 1 ground and dye-inspected.', If no defect
is -!::here, regrind the weld anq. preheat it uptu the specified ~;.' 7'
temperature Welding o~the internal seams should be done
continuously to the end. Tb.en, the welds are post ....heated for
1.5 hours, insulatad and cooled down graduallyo The temperature
between the passes should not be less than 150 c during welding.
0

Manhole Donnection8 on the end Pleces shoulu be assembled and


welded on the g'-;:\;;'t1ndo The way of weH'_ing will be the same
as that of the circumference seamo
Welding Qf the end pieces will be done after the completion
of assembly in the samewBy as the circumference seams.
Welding of sphere supports will start after preheating upto

150 0 0. The first pass is made in sections intermittently.

Beginning from the second passe Welding is done upwards from


b.61th sides Aft er the compl stion of; wel&.ing, the weld is
post-heated for 1.5 hours, insulated and then cooled dow:t:r
gradttallYe
0

Liqnid ammonia sphere should Q8 10~fo x-ray examined as per


lithe staniard of radiographic examination of welds" (JB 928-6),
grade. 3~
Heat treatment fa: t he liquid ammonia sphere should be made
iromediatly after the completion of welding performon.ce as
well as t:p.e. x ..... ray examination.
i1
<
..
,,~.

"

,1

Heat treatment. will be follow0d Jy hydrostatic test. Then,


magnetic particle examination will be made for all the
welds on the sphereD
T~e reinforced weld height of the longitudinal and circumference seams on the sphere is 2~3mmc

.r,.

Oil

./

3i;~~~

... _/"

. 11
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CON

I.

T E

S.

FLOi'i DIAGRAM OF ANNEALING AND LIST OF NECESSARY

EQUIPHENT AND }Ll\.TERIALS.


dJ

FLOW DIAGRAM OF ANNEALING.

2.

LIST OF NECESSARY EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS.

3.
4.

DETAIL DRA\VINGS OF BURNNER ATTACHEMENT.


CHIMNEY AND BUTTERFLY VALVE.

II.

ARRANGEMENT OF Tm-1PERATURE MEASUING POINTS.

III.

LAYING OF INSULATION.

IV.

MOVENENT OF SUPPORTING LEGS.

V.

OPERATION PROCEDURE OF ANNEALING.

VI.

INSPECTIONS.

VII"

PRECAUTIONS.

'"

",.

3
I.

FLO\J DIAGRAH OF llJ'!NEALING AND LIST OF

NECESSARY

EQUIPHEW1' AND HATERIALS.

1.

Flow diagram of annealing.


For the flow

diagr~m

of annealing, see the attached

drawing.
2.

List of necessary equipment

N A 11 E

~nd

materials.

(~UANTITY

SPECIFICATIONS.

Valve

}11i

- 2" Pg16

Steel Pipe.

$21;'2"

Cloth-inserted
rubber hose.

Wl, '}4I', 1;i. 1I

Thermocouple.

OO_BOOo, WREU-100

20

tj.;.'l, .01"

( NiCr-NiSi 1=1~2m .0 3mm)


Extension Ii ire.

Eu-2x2.5mm-, Double (ore wire

Gas distribution Pipe.

159x1000

Pressure gauge.

Lf rl

Floater-type
floi'! meter.
Strip-Chart recorder.
Gear Pump.
Air Compressor.

UNIT

Pee

100

200

16

600

Pee.
M

Pee.

Pee.

LEB-25

Pee.

0_800C
2
2Kg/Crri , 125Kg/hr.
2
2Kg/cm j125Kg/hr.
2
BKg/cm , 3.0m 3 /min.

Set.

Set.

Set.

(0_10Kg/Cm )

Set.

55

M3

Liquified gas cylinder. Sufiicient for supply of


11m3x 3
Insulation material

Vermiculite.

Diesel OiL

1 D6x3 T

Oil Storage tnnk.

3
2M

Air buffer tank.

1l"l3

Set.

Set.

Pee.

Set.

Burner attachement.

Set.

Chimney and butterfly valve.

Set.

~.

Oil Filter.
3urner and iEnitorD

To be supplied by China Side.

4
II.

ARHANGENENT OF TEHPERATlJl1E HEASURING POINTS.

The arj:angement of the ter.Jperature measuring points


on the sphere is shown below:
ELEVATION

~...----c- ___

PLAN

__

,/'

ii"

1//

-"'--'>,

~J

/~

;:.~

...

\ "

iI ! . . /'
( I ":!-! (
!I

-6

!/ :

~ -,

{I

1\

?J

---'

:_"'~----,-----,

~-

\-,-

--{
!

:
II,

.\

'"",.,

-"- !--_.

'._.

".----~ /~/

~I

''-----~

IS

~
,.--.....
t
.6 :

......

,;~,/

\.

'---'/

,.0:,-..

.:!:~)

",'. . _:;.>

.~

',,,B_J.. ~-

/ - - -"-

1---,

(12)'/

\",;3:

..'

._----...--"'- ~--

;-;""-.-'

Notes:
1.

The No.8 and No.9 points are intended for hanging the
test plates.

20

The numbers given in

c~rcles

indicate that the these

temperature measuring points are located at the back side.


The fixing of the thermocouple is done in such a way as shown in
the following diagrams:
T"

,-

~ -.~----

:::-

-1". _

?,~--7.::-;.-

____ \

r
.

~ ~ .-~.,:",

'"

.--

~~."

,">.' _\(:

5
III.

LAYING OF INSULATION.
Vermiculite is used as the insulation material
of the spheres.

A steel hoop is to be made around

the circumference of the sphere, using flat steel


of 3mm thick.

Certain T-shaped nails which may be

made from steel bars are welded to the hoop.

The

Gxternal of the vermiculite inLulation is provided


with tin sheet and wire mesh for fixing purpose.
IV.

I:OV:KSNT OF

SUPPO~TING

LEGS.

To facilitate the movement of the supporting legs


during the annealing performance, two channels
are chipped in the concrete
depth as required for the

fo~ndation

embed~ent

to a certain

of 5 steel

channels, which should be embe{led as shown in the


diagram.

In the course of annealing, every time

when a temperature rise of 100C is fulfilled, the


eight supporting legs should

~ll

be shifted 5mm

outwardly along the radial direction simultaneously.


This shifting may be done with the help of jacks
or levers.

Similarly, every time when the temperature


o
of sphere drops 100 C down, these legs should be
shifted 5mm also, but inwardly.
V.

OPl::HATION PROCEDURE OF ANNEkC,IHG

'~

~r- ;-:-f7i

--

Get ready all the necessary apparatus

.....

and devices and have checkef before

j-,-,-t--__-

application.
2.

The operating staff should be given full understanding


of the job and the safety factor as well.

3.

Fully open the butterfly

v~lve

of the chimney and

maintain this position.

4.

5.

Connect to the power suppl:,'"


Start the air compressor and have the pressure
in the air storage tank mai~tained at 8Kg/cm 2 (g).
Control, through thG valve, the amount of air supply
to the burner.

2
The air pressure is to be kept at O.5Kg/Cm

10.

Temperature drop:
Close the baffle,
heat die out.

Stop oil and air supply to let the

Close the manhole at the lower part to

leave the sphere for natural cooling.

Meanwhile, observe

the speed of the temperature drop as indicated by the


recorder.

In the course of temperature drop, do not

forget the shifting of the supporting legs as specified


~

before.

The annealing is coming to the end when the


o
temperature drops to 300 C.

"-'.

The annealing curve:


~

~ HeLJ;~

un-I

~i

'"~<,\,

..;..,

,0'' '

<:";.1.1:'1

-',

;..1

s:

.,
I

''0''

'"

'-

~srJ-

"
.~~.

.5,::, :...

:'

30 0

dj~

.....
..\.,"

o
Before the temperature reacheR 315 C, the speed of

temperature rise may be made free and this speed


0

should be governed as 40_60 C/hr when the temperature is


within a range of 315-6oooc~

The difference in

temperature should not exceed 84c irr~the heat maintenance


period.

The speed of

temper~ture

drop in the course of


o

cooling down is governed as .50_40 C/hr when the sphere


temperature is 600-315C, and when it is below 315C, it
is left for natural cooling,
VI.

nrSPECTIONS

The following inspections shO"tld be made after the


completion of annealing:
1.

Elongation, bendinf and impact tests of the


weld specimens.

2.

Metallurgical examination.

-i

~!>

VII.

PRECAUTIONS.

1.

In the annealing period,

car~

should be taken to the

fire extinquishing and the first-aid facilities for the


burned men, if any.

The

workin~

of all the flaQwable articles.


gas apparatus must be kept

fa~

field should be cleared


Oil and the liquified

apart from the fire and

coyered to protect against sunshine.


2.

Oil and the liquified gas

sho~ld

be prepared in sufficient

quantity. Power supply should be reliable and safe.


~.

During annearling, loose all

~he

nuts on the sphere so as

to avoid possible damages.

4.

Annealing is not to be perfor:led in rainy days or


windy days.

It is advisable

~o

provide a weather

protection shield.

-,,-g-g-"-O-

, 'i'

~jid/"

/J';" VPWV U-l /9;{3I.tJ.

--116-SA-18

~=====================================================

"

_!:;_!!_~_~_!:;_!:_~_!!_~ ______ 9_~_

1 I ~ U I DAM H 0 N I A S P HER E.

--------------------------------------------

Q
Q
Q

===~=============~=======================~============

'~

-.

CON

1.

TEN

S.

FLmi DIAGRAH OF ANNEALII:G AND LIST OF NEC;S3SARY


:SQUIPN:::;HT AND W,TEItIAL.:3.

'1

FLmJ DIAGR.itH Of ANNEALING.

2.

LIST OF NECESSARY EQrIPMENT AND MATERIALS.

3.
4.

D3TAIL DRA\'iINGS OF BLRNNER ATTACHEHENT.


CHIl1NEY AND BUTTERFLY VALVE.

II.

AHRANGEHEN'r OF TI:HPEltATURE HEASUING POINTS.

III.

LAYING OF H1SULATION.

;)

IV.

HOVEllENT OF SUPPORTING LEGS.

V.

OPERATION PROCEDURE OF ANn:::.ALlHG.

VI.

INSPECTIONS.

VII.

PRECAUTIONS.

, 'i-

I.

FLO\J DIAGRAH Ojr- Am'mALING AND LIST OF

NECESSARY

EQUIPHENT AND HATERIALS.


1.

Flow diagram of annealing.


For the flow diagram of annealing, see the attached
drawing.

2.

List of necessary equipmentlnd materials.

N A H E

}2tl - 2"

Steel Pipe.

,0)';~II, '~'i,

Thermocouple.
!/

20

Pg16

Valve
Cloth-inserted
rubber hose.

QUANTITY.

SPECIFICATIONS.

.01"
,0W', ,0}4", .01;4"
0 _800 0 , \OlREU-100
( NiCr-NiSi 1=1.2m
?

Pce.

100

200

]vI

16

3mm)

UNIT

600

Pce.

Extension liire.

Eu-2x205mm~,

Gas distribution Pipe.

,0159x1000

Pee.

Pressure gauge.

2
Lfn (0-1 OKg/Cm ).

Pce.

Floa ter-t;nJe
flow meter.

LEB-25

Pee.

Strip-Chart recorder.

00_80o o c
2Kg/Clli 2 ; 125Kg/hr.

Set.

Set.

Set.

Gear Pump.
Air Compressor.

Double c o:::"e v!il"e

2Kg/cm ,125Kg/hr.
2
~
BKs/cm , 3.om.J/min.

Liquified gas cylinder. Sufficient for


11m 3 x3
Insulation material

sup~ly

Set.

of

Vermiculite.

Diesel Oil.

',,

r1 3
55
1.6x3 T

Oil Storage tank.

3
2M

Set.

Air buffer tank.

1I'l 3

Set.

Pee.

Set.

Burner attaehement.

Set.

Chimney and butterfly valve.

Set.

Oil Filter.
Burner and ignitor.

To be supplied by Chine Side.

4
II.

ARRANGEMENT OF TEMPER.;l..TtJRE NEASUHING POINTS.

The arTangement of the temperature measuring points


on the

spher~is

shown below:

ELEVATION

PLAN

,?2~.~----~
/

f~-.

/.~'

,.-

,;

!If

(t

- ~:-----

L
\

.....

------.,

L.

~ ~

d.
--~---.j-

,tt

"~~':"__~7;/

~~-------

...."

"----.-.:--------

i;'

-'

.a!

Notes:
1.

The No.8 and No.9 points are intended for hanging the
test plates.

20

The numbers given in circles indIcate that the these


temperature measuring points are located at the back side.

The fixing of the thermocouple is done in such a way as shown in


the following diagrams:
-'"'r'

,.. ~

..?-....~.

!:] ,.)(

...-'.

.--,~,

:'f~.:

',--

Ii

I',

I;

I --:---.--,-- ......

"---f'"

(~~..,..-""\
I

.L

~>__ ._L--~::~=-

F--=~~:~~~~---'"';'/'

f'

".r/

'11__

,oj lC"'

5
III.

LAYING OF INSULATION.

Vermiculite is used as the insulation material


of the spheres.

A steel hoop is to be made around


,

the circumference'of the sphere, using flat steel


of 3mm thick.

Certain T-shaped nails which may be

made from steel bars are welded to the hoop.

The

external of the vermiculite inGulation is provided


with tin sheet and wire m,=sh ror fixing purpose.
IV.

HOVEr-::CNT OF SUPPORTING LEGS.

To facilitate the movement of the supporting legs


during the annealing performance, two channels
are chipped in the concrete

fo~ndation

to a certain

depth as required for the embedment of 5 steel


channels, which should be embedled as shown in the
diagram.

In the course of annealing, every time

when a temperature rise of 100C is fulfilled, the


eight supporting legs should

~ll

be shifted 5mm

outwardly along the radiardirection simultaneously.


Th~s shifting may be done with the help of jacks

or levers.

Similarly~

every time when the temperature

of sphere drops 100 C down, these legs should be


shifted 5mm also, but inwardly.
V.

OPBBATION PIWCEDURE OF

Ai'mEjd~IIiG.

+r
1

Get ready all the necessary apparatus

~ -r~ ,--1"~'
:>7"

and devices and have checkef before

I'

application.
2.

The

ope~ating

staff should be given full understanding

of the job and the safety factor as well.

3.

Fully open the butterfly valve of the chimney and


maintain this position.

4.

Connect to the power suppl::-

5.

Start the air compressor and have the pressure


in the air storage tank maintained at 8Kg!cm 2 (g).

Control, through the valve, the amount of air supply


to the burner.

The air pressure is to be kept at 0.5Kg!Cm 2

Open the valve of theliquif~e.d;

6.
-

gas cylinder to supply

gas to the ignitor. , Light the 'ignitor and


'-

7.

Ignition:
'1

...
Once the air pressure is stabilized, the gear pump may
~

started to supply oil.

~e

The oil supply will be controlled at

a rate of less than 1001/hr.

Ignition \vill be' carried out

as soon as the burner produces oil.

In case the ignition

fails after 1-2 minutes' try, stop oil supply to air the
minute~

oily gas for 2-3


interruption of

bl~ning

and then try

again~

If any
fo~,

occurs, adjustment should be made

the decrease of air pressure or the

increas~

of the amount

of oil supply.

8.

Temperature rise:
When the burner is giving stable flame,

t~mperature

rise

may be obtained by increasing the supplying amount of


C~re

oil and air step by step as specified.

should be taken

that the increase in the amount of both the oil and the air
is gradual and in pro-portion with each other ~ince the
flame will likely die out when the air pressure in the
amount of both the oil and the air is gradual and in proportion with each other since the flame will likely die
out when the air pressure is greater than necessary. When
2
air pressure reaches 3Kg/Cm , have the flame stabilized for
a certain period to observe the speed
as indicated by the recorder, which
0

exceeding 40 _60 C/hr.

of~

i~

temperature rise

6xpected not

In case the flame is not stable and

it will be interrupted from time to time, the ignitor may be


lit to help it from the lower portion of the inner sleeve.

In

the course of the temperature rise the operating personnel


must be very careful, very attentive and cooperative.
to have the supporting iegs shifted as specified above.

Be sure
If

the heating stops suddenly due to power failure or some other

""

accirdents, switch off all the power eqUipment and close the
valve.s and the baffle immediately.

9.

'

"

When the temperature reaches 580 C, decrease-the amount


of oil supply to 60;.;801/hr and reduce the air pressure
.
. 2'
. c',
. . .c'
"
'
0
.
. "
to 0.5Kg/Cm. When'thetemperature re~6hes 600 C, close"the
baffle a little bit and stop heating or. intermittently

.;.-

the oil and air ,supply soasto maintaiuthe


temperaturei
~.

7
10.

Temperature- drop:
Close the baffle,
heat die

~ut.

Stop oil and air supply to let the

Close the manhole at the lower part to

leave the sphere for natural cooling.

MeanWhile, observe

the speed of the temperature drop as indicated by the


recorder.

In the course of temperature drop, do not

~ forget the shifting of the supporting legs as spedified


before.

The annealing is coming to the end when the


a
temperature drops to 300 C~

The annealing curve:

o
Before the temperature reacheR 315 0, the speed of

temperature rise may be made free and this speed


o
should be governed as 40-60 '::;/hr whert',.the temperature is
within a range of 315-600 0c

The d~fference in

temperature should not exceed

84 0 0 in the heat maintenance

period v

The speed of temperature drop in the course' of


0

cooling down is governed as 30-40 0!hr \'i'hen the sphere


temperature is 600-315C, and when it is below 315C, it

is left for natural cooling.


VI.

INSPECTIONS.
The following inspections should be made after the
complet~on

1.

of annealing:

Elongation, bendinE and impact tests of the


weld specimens.

2.

...

Metallurgical examination.

C>

VII.

PRECAUTIONS.

1.

In the annealing period, care should be taken to the


fire extinquishing and the first-aid facilities for the
burned men, if any.

The working field should be cleared

of all the flammable articles.


gas apparatus must be kept

fa~

Oil and the liquified


apart from the fire and

cO:!7ered to protect against sunshine.


2.

Oil and the liquified gas should be prepared in sufficient


quantity. Power supply should be reliable and safe.

3.

During annearling, loose all the nuts on the sphere so as


to avoid possible damages.

4.

Annealing is not to be perforned in rainy days or


windy days.

It is advisable to provide a weather

protection shield.

-.-0-0-0-0-

",.
~

Sajid/"
iO!-

i)

--.

Ill. YC1/NtU t9JJIj)

p:===

IF====================================================jf
~

EXAMINATION REQUIREMENTS FOR


WELDERS PERFORMING THE WELDI~G ON STEEL PIPES.
.

116-SA-19

..

~
~
~

=====================;==========~=======================

",.

Examina tion Requirements for


Welders Performing the Welding on Steel Pipes~
----------------------------------------------

I.

Examination requirements for welders performing

the

welding on high pressure steel pipes:


Only the experienced and skilled welders

~e

expected to take part in the examination of welding on


H.P. steel pipes.

Besides the following points should

also be observed.
(1)

Selection of welding rods used for

hand~operated

electric

arc welding:
a.

When the base metal is No. 20 Steel, welding rod type


T 507 will be used;
the first pa~s and

2.5mm
3.2 mm

rods are for the welding of

rods or

4 mm roda are for

the second pass as well as the passes after the second.


Have these rods first baked under a temperature of
4000 C for as long as two hours and then kept in an oven
0
with a temperature of 150 C for insulation, getting them
ready for use.

These rods should be kept dry all the way

through when they are put under applicationft


b.

When the base metal is Cr18Ni12M02Ti, argon arc welding


will be adopted for the welding of the first pass and the
inside qf the Steel pipes to be welded should be filled with
argon gas for protection purpose.

Beginning from

th~

second pass, welding rod type A212 will be used

,.

....

(2)

Dimensions of the test piece and the

~ay

of joining are

shown in Fig.1.
(3)

Welding is performed when the pipe is fixed in such a


position as forming a 45

(4)

angle with the horizontal.

After the completion of the first pass.

Visual inspection

inspection should be made for the internal surface of the


steel pipe to see whether the following requirements are
satisfied.
a.

The surface is smooth and free from overlaps.

b.

The ridges or valleys, if any, on the surface do not


exceed 2mm.

(5)

For the" qualification requirements of welders, see


116-SA-05, division 6, sub-division 5.

II.

Examination requirements for welders performing the welding


on medium and low pressure steel

pip~s:

(1)

For the selection of welding rods, see Table 3 of


116-SA-006~

Thb low-hydiogen ty~e welding rods should be baked under


"

a temperature of 400 C for 2 hours and then kept in an


oven of 150C for insulation.

Keep the welding, rods dry

when it is used.
(2)

The dimensions of the test piece and the way of joining


are shown in Fig.1.
Welding is performed when the pipe is fixed in ~ position

(3)

forming an angle of 45 with the horizontal.


When the base metai is 13CrM04~ or 1Cr18Ni9Ti or

(4)

Cr18Ni1~402Ti,

the argon arc welding is adopted for the

first pass and in case of 1Cr1E~i9Ti and Cr18Ni12Mo2Ti,


the inside of the steel pipes tJ be welded should be
filled with argon gas for

protq~tion.

After the completion of the first pass, the internal


surface of the steel pipe should be inspected visually
to Gee whether the following J'oquirements are satisfied:
a.

The surface is smooth and free from overlaps.

bo

The ridges or valleys, if any: on the surface do not


exceed 2mm.

(5)

13CrMo44 steel pipes should


of 200

')8

preheated to a temperature

250C before being \nlded and for the post-W:~lding

heat treatment of it, see table 5 of 116-SA-06.


( 6)

"',.

Qualification requirements.
~

The result of the Xray examination of the test


piece should not be inferior to grade

JB 928-67.

3 as specified in

The mechanical property test is made in

conformity with 4.21 of 11h-SA-006.

The intercrystalling

corrosion test is made in c;rmformity with 4.22 of 116-SA-06.

-.-.-.-.- ....

Sajji/*

/Tl

Yptl.tVJtS

/98/LJ

..

...
INSTRUCTION MANUAL

Fon
FOJ-['l'ABLE

BH.INEL

HARDNESS

TEs'rEH

Type
HEX - O.~,
,

(f!.HINt4-)

~,.

.;~

,I

CON'rENTS

GERNERAL INTRODUCTION

II

APPLICATIONS

III BRIEF INTRODUCTION ON THE STRUCTURE

IV

PRECAUTIONS ON Ol)ERA'rION AND MAINTENACE

.~,.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION :-

The present tester is a

portab~e

Brinel hardness tester designed

on the basis of dynamic hardness testing method. Compared with


static 10ac1stationary Brinel hardness tester, it features in
the following

advanta~e8:

Small Hnd exrp1lsite(with a net weight of '-'j.T3 kg), eMY to


operate, convenient in handling and capable to test heavy

...

duty machine parts as wellas metal materials.


2

Simple in construction, easy to manufacture and low in


production cost.

III

AHLICATION

t-

The present hardness tester is

suit~ble

in metallurgy

industry and machinery manufactureD,etc. for testing the


Brinal hardness off!lrrouB and non-ferrous metals wi th an
elastic modulus equal or approximately to 2.
The finess class of the indicating value of the tester is
8::&, with a measuring range

of HB 100 - 400. Approximate

ul til.a.te tensile strength value (6b = 0.3, HE) of the stee 1 can
be found out in the attached table 3.

BRfEF IN'fRODUCTION ON CONS'rH.UC'l' ION :-

III

;,.
,

Conssruction of this tester is as shown in fig.1.


steel pipe
~

---i.e. the body, serves to join each part.

P7essing head __ for fixing the steel ball and to prevent it


from loosening during performance

Pyessing rod ___ for transferring the

punchi~~

force to the

staHl ball
4

Punching hammer __ iu combination with worr.ing epring,


it gives a pun~ing force of O.5kg/m.

5 WClrling epring _
6

Hook

mainly for producing punc.hing force.


for holding the working spring eo

Il.S

to

prodmce the punc.h ing force. .

Hook sea.t

Connecting threaded sleeve __ for adjusting the punchin~

__ for supporting the hook and the prssing rod.


forco a.nd supporting equare-toothed
thiloaded sleeve.

@
9

Square-toothed threaded sleeve ___ fitted in the, .. connectlng


thrtaed sleeve for regulating
the elastic coefficient of the
working spring and supporting
the contactor

10

To be lap-fitted mtth the hook in the

contact or

square-toothed threaed sleeve so aa to


enable the two hooks to stretch out

...

simultaneously during working time.


Other parts not mentioned here are just the accessarmea to the
above ones.

IV

PRECAUTIONS ON OPERATION AND HAIN/rENANCE

t-

Methods for operation:


1) Prtor to operation, clean the grease off from the steel ball,
preeaing head fixing nut, check nut and the body proper, then

.\

fix the steel ball pressing head and the steel ball to the
!'

preBsing rod.

2) The surface of the testpiece should be smooth and plain, free


of any fire coats, decarbonized layer or hardening, etc. 'i're
surfaCQ finish should be so satisfactory

that it ensures the

figure of the impressed edge to be distinctly visible.


j,
~,.

3) The thic mess of the testpil~ce must be 10 times larger than


{

the impr~Bsion depth of the steel ball lsee attached table 1).
However

10

elastic part can be used as testpiece). The adjoining

distance from the center of two impressions should not be lesB


than 10 ;imss of the impresflj)on diamster, while the distance
from the impression center to the edge of the teDtpiece is not
allowed

be smaller than 2.5 times of the impression diameter.

4) It is aCI ~ptable to fix a small size testpiece on a large


platform. but cares should be taken to keep it from any
diaplacerent during punhhing.

5) Firat POl'rOrm a trial punching at several points to remove the,


contact clearance between the steel ball and the praeang rod.
During operation, be aure to keep

the planes of the steel ball

and the teatpiece perpendicular to each other. When punching,


hold the steel pipe with one hand and the back cover with the '
other

flO

thll.t\the Rtoel ball nrnn:11n('

h n nr1

""i"j- . . . ,--0-"-'-_ _ .\.

.... 1 _

@)
tho toutpiec8, by now the preosing rod woulJ move into the
~ontactor,

steel pipe till the hook, as is presed by the


apens for punching.

6)

Moasure the diametern or the irnprel3l.lion from t>10 diroctiollB


perpenuicular tn etich other, take tho tiri tliruf:Jtic menn

'rl1 iii

a ciifferel1ce not more tlwn 2~-b in between. 'l'110 irnpreBoion diameter


obtuinad~

from the test shoulci be wi thin the range defined in

attached table 2.

7)

Punch three points at the tostpieco, then measuro tho iIilprODSiol1


diameter. take the aritJunetic mean, and filld the correspondirl{':

?).

hardness value in the dafineu table (l3ee table

Should tho

difference exceods 0.1 mm, a second punching must bo conducted.


2

on maintenunce

Precau~ion6

1)

Hegularly fill the moving part or' the tester wi th thin lubricating
oil (spindle oil NO.1 or DewinG mad'ine oil).Oil filling can

be performed without liiurnantling further part o1;her than


opening tbe back

COl;.zer.

In

CtWG

of Jumllgt} of

internnl part.

any

tak,) o.\t intogrclllly the w(lrking Spr::.I:g 'j, connectin15 threa.derl

slellvo 8, uquare-tbotheJ throaded Gleevo9 and the contnctor 10,


but 'lever dismantle thelll into four iudi vidual piecGS for fear
of

l.

sturbance to the elcwtic coerJticient of t11<1 working opring.

If t:.B four tlre found perfect. rel3tore tlw orifillal IlGBolubly.

\1hil,

the

dll.ma{~eu

one rnuut be roplliced Ilnd rH-wl,justed and

put. nto service only upon authorized. papprovu'l.


Q

2) W11Cln the tester ia to be kApt for a long puriod, it io mast

udvi( 9.ble to take JO\ffi the

)Jrelllling hcud. und the ot(:ol

ball, and. puckeli in One CUlIG ufter properly cleaned. WId.


duely gTA&SGJ.
'fable 1

Solection or' Brinel hurlineuu, 6teol bull din


Wld ttJutl!1:_ece __tlll~k!lO~D__ _

]( 8J1/~G

ot' B ri n81

Hardnooo vu1ue(HB)

:)L"ol bllil diu

'l'(j~ltpitJco

("J-i~:

(ll:.m)
;,. 1.1

1 Ull

'fJ{j

: i.U

)- ~!(jl..'

-SUD

1 \ j . I)

>yJu

t Ul;

, . Ij

L -

.~~

tlliclcneu6

.. ,:-.., ....... :

Table 2

"

,;(f)" ,

Impression dia of steel ball againot


Brinel hardness value

Irnpreosion
HE
dia
d
epl0
----

._-

I~

\.

\:

'.'"
"" I

dia

-'--

,--"

410

2.68

-" - - - - - - ,,-Impression
HE
dia
d
10

HB
10

,.

2.66

-"

248

3.50

149

427

308
3.10

;-:A2

).5~

145

2.70

415

3. J,?

2:;6

3. ')'f

HI

2.72

404

:3. i 1

;:')0

3.56

2.74
?
.76

393
382

316
3818

~ ~~I:~

35(3

1'57
1 y)

220

3.hO

1)0

'2.78
2.80
2.82

371

3.20

215

127

361

3. ~:2

~10

362
3.64

351
341

3. :24

205
,200

121

331

3.;:>8

3.66
3.68
3.70

2.88

7?'"l

2.90

313

3.3 0
3.32

2.84
2.86

....

Impr"""ion

297

331
3.36

17il

28~i

3.38

173

' '5. AO

10<1

282

310
311 It '1

Hi9

3.82

102

16')

100

294
296
2.98

187

161

i 261

34 /J.
3.46

3.81
3. n 6

157

3.RE3

3.48

153

390

3.02

275
268

3.04

3.00

1-- -----,-------,

116

1- P?
,J._

(~

305

'

196
1 nl

118

3.7?
37,t
3.76
3.78

.J L.

2.92

3.06

3?!}

124

254

113
110
lOR

106
""-~

98
86

1-,-----/
94

rTensile stren6th value against Brinel

Table 3

hardnoss vRluo

__

- .

...

~"~

."

HB

33HB

HB
6,

~O;~3jm

I,::

6h~.

33 RIl

217

272
,'266 --

98

211
205

76

,150

54

71

1.41)

,_52

96

56

94
92

~'oo

72

1139.

19,1-

,',;)

250

90

189

70
6n

')0
48

l?B

4G

,24t1.
!:239

68

113'5

66

.12?

-1 'J"'

86

178

64

117

tl-?

84

172

62

111

40

S2

167

60

106

38;'

80

161

5B

100

36

261
'., \:255 .

<

;:<~o.

100

II'

iX':',:.~'

fSh

278

r.
( '.

--

I~.

'

\-_ .',. I"'; 233,t,

. "'. itt .' . .


. "''''f.F?8
, '.'--..
i .222',~

.~
1":