Nile River

By: Djj Pride, Tiarra Braggs, Nikala Rolle, Janara Harrison,
Tiandi McLendon

Government Expert
Ancient Egypt
They Monarchy in ancient Egypt. They were ruled by a pharaoh's that came into power. They thought that
when you became a pharaoh that you became a god as well. Important people take direct orders from the
pharaoh if they are needed. Pharaoh’s had direct power over everything most pharaoh’s were very young. To
make sure that they keep the bloodline pure they married with there brothers and sister or any other
family members to keep the bloodline pure.
Cleopatra had an effect on the Egypt empire. Actually she was the one who lost the Egypt empire and
committed suicide. When she realized that she would lose Egypt and told her servants to go get a
poisonous snake and she let it crawl up her dress. it then bit her and she died a little time later. Another
was King Tut he was a prince at first but his father became ill and passed away. He took control at the age
of 13 and ruled over Egypt pretty well. He does die at a very young age and was mummified everyone knows
of his story as the youngest pharaoh. His body was found in one of the pyramids and scientist were able to
grab info off of him. he is now one of the greatest attractions at many museums which is really cool!!!!
Thier government is said to be chosen by the gods. They say that when you then become a pharaoh. They
soon came up with mummification it was meant to save the body. They believed that when you died you
went down to the underworld and that you need to be able to recognize that your body. They don’t go by
military at all egyptians mostly believe in gods they follow anything that the gods told them. That the only
way you became a pharaohs. They made grain turn into bread and beer while they made pyramid so that
they can bury everyone. The pyramid is protected by the sphinx they are usually right in front of the
pyramids.

Government Expert
Aksum
Aksum was ruled by a Monarchy. under the command of King Erza they
came up with the currency Mani. The king and the queen had the most
power. No one helped out around them their tile was passed down
through there families. Zoskales were the original rulers over Aksum
putting them to the top of their game.They called their rulers negus. The
last negus was Dil Na’od known in the Aksum’s history.

Government Expert
Kush
Kush had government system of kings and queens but it was sort of a
democracy but mainly called a Monarchy. They could be mostly a
figurehead but they did inforce all the laws that were passed down to
them by the priests. Kings are elected by all the nobles. They were a
very advanced group. They were the first empire and they could have
queens instead of kings. All that matters is what the nobles thing some
people even thought that the women had more control than the men.

Government Expert
References
Ancient-egypt-online.com,. 'The Ancient Egyptian Gods'. N.p., 2015. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.
Www2.rcscsd.org,. 'Ancient Egypt'. N.p., 2015. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Aksumhttp://kingdom-of-kush.blogspot.com/2012/11/governmen
t.html?_sm_au_=iVV1Ps45NfMfqvQF Mon. 8 Sept 2015

A /A

E

In a narrow sense, Ancient Egyptian art refers to the canonical 2D and 3D art developed in Egypt
from 3000 BC and used until the 3rd century. It is to be noted that most elements of Egyptian art
remained remarkably stable over the 3000 year period that represents the ancient civilization without strong
outside influence. The same basic conventions and quality of observation started at a high level and
remained near that level over the period.
Ancient Egyptian art forms are characterized by regularity and detailed depiction of human beings and
the nature, and, were intended to provide company to the deceased in the 'other world'. Artists' endeavored
to preserve everything of the present time as clearly and permanently as possible. Completeness took
precedence over prettiness. Some art forms present an extraordinarily vivid representation of the time and
the life, as the ancient Egyptian life was lived thousand of years before.Egyptian art in all forms obeyed one
law: the mode of representing man, nature and the environment remained almost the same for thousands
of years and the most admired artists were those who replicated most admired styles of the past.

A / A

E

The ancient architectural monuments, sculptures, paintings, and decorative crafts
produced mainly during the dynastic periods of the first three millennia BCE in the Nile
valley regions of Egypt and Nubia. The course of art in Egypt paralleled to a large extent
the country’s political history, but it depended as well on the entrenched belief in the
permanence of the natural, divinely ordained order. Artistic achievement in both
architecture and representational art aimed at the preservation of forms and
conventions that were held to reflect the perfection of the world at the primordial
moment of creation and to embody the correct relationship between humankind, the king,
and the pantheon of the gods. For this reason, Egyptian art appears outwardly resistant
to development and the exercise of individual artistic judgment, but Egyptian artisans of
every historical period found different solutions for the conceptual challenges posed to
them.

A /A

E

Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in the world, the
pyramids—especially the Great Pyramids of Giza—are some of the most magnificent man-made structures
in history. Their massive scale reflects the unique role that the pharaoh, or king, played in ancient Egyptian
society. Though pyramids were built from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic
period in the fourth century A.D., the peak of pyramid building began with the late third dynasty and
continued until roughly the sixth (c. 2325 B.C.). More than 4,000 years later, the Egyptian pyramids still retain
much of their majesty, providing a glimpse into the country’s rich and glorious past. They had the slaves help
build them. It helped people make better homes and better places for people to be buried and for the
pharaohs to be able to rule.
During the third and fourth dynasties of the Old Kingdom, Egypt enjoyed tremendous economic
prosperity and stability. Kings held a unique position in Egyptian society. Somewhere in between human and
divine, they were believed to have been chosen by the gods to serve as mediators between them and the
people on earth. Because of this, it was in everyone’s interest to keep the king’s majesty intact even after
his death, when he was believed to become Osiris, god of the dead. The new pharaoh, in turn, became
Horus, the falcon-god who served as protector of the sun-god, Ra.
References
Crystalinks.com,. 'Ancient Egyptian Art, Painting, Sculpture - Crystalinks'. N.p., 2015. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.
Encyclopedia Britannica,. 'Egyptian Art And Architecture'. N.p., 2015. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.
Pyramid, Deconstructing. 'Egyptian Pyramids - Ancient History - HISTORY.Com'. HISTORY.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.

Culture
What type of inventions and technologies did the people of your river valley culture create? Things that they invented and the type of
technology used were, Papyrus Sheets, Medicine, Makeup, Shipmaking, Toothpaste, Mathematics, Writing, & Maks.
What kinds of art were made? THe types of arts that were made were things like sculptures, pyramids, paintings, and statues.
Sources :
http://www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_egypt/inventions_and_technology.php
http://mentalfloss.com/article/12884/7-ancient-writing-systems-havent-been-deciphered-yet
http://www.technologystudent.com/culture1/egypt2.htm

Culture
What kind of a writing system did they have? The Egyptians thought that it was
important to record and communicate info about religion and government.
They mainly wrote in hieroglyphics & drew pictures.

Has the writing system been decoded by today's archaeologist?
They writing that the Egyptians used has not yet been decoded by archaeologist.
It has been so hard because most of the hieroglyphics are mistakes.

Culture
What materials and technology did the civilization use for their
buildings?
They Egyptians used mainly four elements for their buildings and
sculptures. Those four elements were limestone, pink granite,
basalt, and alabaster. They also used a mechanical crane that
lifted the heavy blocks above the base when it was completed.

Religion
There were many different types of cultures along the Nile River, with it being different cultures
there were different religions. All of the religions around the Nile River were polytheistic, they
believed in more than 2,000 Gods. They also believed that the Pharaohs were Gods.
All the civilizations believed in the afterlife. So they preserved people in mummies, so their body
would not decay by the time they got to the underworld and came back to take back over their body.
Mummies were buried with things that the Ancient Egyptians thought they would need in the
afterlife.
Honoring the deities were a major thing in all the people’s religion in Ancient Egypt. Some Gods
and Goddesses were worshipped by the pharaoh and priest in large temples. Gods like Amun,
Horus, and Bastet. Other Gods like Bes and Tawaret were worshipped individually in their homes.
Temples are places where Ancient Egyptians would believe were the homes of Ancient Egyptians

Story about the Gods
At first, there was only Nun. Nun was the dark waters of chaos. One day, a hill rose up out of the waters.
This hill was called Ben-Ben. On this hill stood Atum, the first god. Atum coughed and spat out Shu, the
god of the air, and Tefnut, the goddess of moisture. Shu and Tefnut had two children. First, there was
Geb, the god of the earth. Then, there was Nut, the goddess of the sky. Shu lifted Nut up so that she
became a canopy over Geb. Nut and Geb had four children named Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys. Osiris
was the king of the earth and Isis was the queen. Osiris was a good king, and he ruled over the earth for
many years. However, everything was not well. Seth was jealous of Osiris because he wanted to be the
ruler of the earth. He grew angrier and angrier until one day he killed Osiris. Osiris went down into the
underworld and Seth remained on earth and became king. Osiris and Isis had one son called Horus. Horus
battled against Seth and regained the throne. After that, Horus was the king of the earth and Osiris was
the king of the underworld.

Religion
Some gods that the Ancient Egyptians believed in:
-

Amun (King of the gods)
Anubis (god of embalming and the dead)
Atum ( god of Creations)
Bastet (goddess of Protection)
Bes (god of pregnant women, newborn babies)
Geb (god of Earth)
Hapy god of inundation)
Hathor (goddess of love and joy)
Horus (god of Sky)
Isis (goddess of Magic for the good)
Ma’at (goddess of truth, justice, and harmony)
Nephthys (goddess of Protection of the dead)
Nun (Creator of myth)
Osiris (god of the dead, and god of the Underworld)
Ptah (god of craftsmen)
Ra (Sun god, of Ancient Egyptians)

Religion
-

Ra-Horakhty (god of Sun, and sun)
Sekhmet (goddess of War)
Seshat (goddess of writing and measurements)
Seth (god of chaos)
Shu (god of Air)
Sobek (god of the Nile)
Tawaret (goddess of pregnancy and childbirth)
Tefnut (goddess of moisture)
Thoth (God of writing and knowledge)

References
Ancientegypt.co.uk,. 'Beit El-Wali Cast'. N.p., 2015. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.
Ancientegypt.co.uk,. 'Gods And Goddesses'. N.p., 2015. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.
Ancientegypt.co.uk,. 'Temples'. N.p., 2015. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.

Social Expert
KUSH
THE PHARAOHS OF COURSE WERE AT THE TOP OF THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE, AFTER
THEM WAS THE PRIEST ( THEY MADE LAWS AND COMMUNICATED WITH THE
GODS), BELOW THE PRIESTS WERE THE ARTISANS AND SCRIBES, (THE ARTISANS
WORKED THE GOLD AND IRON) FARMERS WERE NEXT BECAUSE THEY PROVIDED
THE FOOD FOR THE COUNTRY. AND THEN THERE WAS THE SERVANTS LABORERS
AND SLAVES.
MEN DEPENDED ON WOMEN TO TAKE CARE OF THE FAMILY AND THE HOME. BUT
WOMEN DEPENDED ON MEN FOr MONEY AND SUPPORT
WOMAN WERE VERY IMPORTANT AND COULD BE LEADERS. MANY OF THE
KUSHITES LEADERS WERE QUEENS
THE KUSHITES WERE ABLE TO PLANT MANY PLANTS BECAUSE THEY COULD
IRRIGATE THEIR LAND WITH ALL THE MANY WATER SOURCES SURROUNDING
THEM5
THEY GREW MANY CROPS BUT MOSTLY WHEAT AND BARLEY AND COTTON FOR
CLOTHING.
THE COMMONERS LIVED IN VILLAGES (MOST WERE FARMERS) WERE THEY HAD A
LEADER THAT DID NOT TELL THEM WHAT TO DO BUT MADE SUGGESTIONS.
JOBS IN THE KINGDOM OF KUSH WERE, BEING A MINER, TRADESMAN, PRIEST OR
BLACKSMITH.

Social Expert
AKSUM

AKSUM WAS THE CENTER OF TRADE BECAUSE OF ITS
LOCATION.
AXUM CULTURE WAS A BLEND OF OTHER CULTURES
BECAUSE OF ALL THE TRADING THEY WERE DOING.
THEY WERE INFLUENCED BY THE EGYPTIANS, THE
GREEKS, THE ROMANS AND ARABS.
THEY DEVELOPED TERRACE FARMING AND IRRIGATION
WHICH MADE THEM MORE PRODUCTIVE BECAUSE THEY
COULD FARM ON HILLS AND MOUNTAINS.
THE AKSUMITES MOST PLANTED CROPS WERE
WHEAT AND BARLEY. THEY ALSO HAD CATTLE, SHEEP
AND, CAMELS.
SOCIAL STRUCTURE WAS SAME AS KUSH
THEY WORKED AS MERCHANTS, FARMERS, BUILDERS,
ARCHITECTS, AND MONKS.

Social Expert
Ancient Egypt

AT THE TOP OF THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE LIKE
MANY OTHERS WAS THE PHAROAH, THAN THE
NOBLE,, SCRIBES, GOVERNMENT WORKERS,
WORKERS, FARMERS, PEASANTS AND SLAVES.
FOOD WAS EATEN WITH HAND BECAUSE THEY
HAD NO SILVERWARE
WEALTHY PEOPLE HAD MORE CHOICES FOR FOOD
(OVER FIFTEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF BREAD AND
MANY VEGETABLES) WHILE THE POOR HAD A
BASIC MENU ( UNLEAVENED BREAD, ONIONS, AND
SOMETIMES FISH. BEEF WAS ONLY ON SPECIAL
OCCASIONS.)
WOMEN WERE NOT PROPERTY TO MEN IN
ANCIENT EGYPT, BUT THEY WERE NOT
EDUCATED TO READ OR WRITE

Social Expert Citations
"Ancient Kingdomof Kush (Nubia)." The Kingdom of Kush / Nubia. Web. 6 Sept. 2015.
<http://africa.mrdonn.org/kush.html>.
""Ancient Africa." For Kids: Kingdom of Askum (Axum). Web. 6 Sept. 2015.
<http://www.ducksters.com/history/africa/kingdom_of_aksum_axum.php>.
"Ancient Kingdomof Kush (Nubia)." The Kingdom of Kush / Nubia. Web. 6 Sept. 2015.
<http://africa.mrdonn.org/kush.html>.
"The Kingdom of Kush." Prezi.com. Web. 6 Sept. 2015. <https://prezi.com/pzazu_3b0r2h/the-kingdom-of-kush/>.
"Kingdom of Aksum - Boundless Open Textbook." Boundless. Web. 6 Sept. 2015.
<https://www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-i-ancient-1600-textbook/precolonial-and-c
olonial-africa-10/east-african-empires-50/kingdom-of-aksum-190-13313/>.
"Ancient Egypt Culture." Ancient Egypt. Web. 6 Sept. 2015. <http://historylink101.com/n/egypt_1/>.