Increasing Job Satisfaction
of Service Personnel
Jerry D. Rogers, Kenneth E. Clow and Toby J. Kash
1990; Bitner et al., 1990). By understanding
and responding to the needs and concerns of
customers, customer contact personnel can
enhance the level of satisfaction customers will
experience with a firm (Zeithaml et al., 1988).
Greater customer satisfaction will in turn lead
to repeat purchases and positive word-of-mouth
communications (Bitner, 1990). Such actions
on the part of consumers should result in
greater market share and higher profits for the
service firm.
Due to the potential impact that employees
have on the business, it is imperative that
management understand the specific
dimensions that help shape employees’
attitudes toward their jobs. Over the past
several years, considerable attention has been
given to role conflict, role clarity, job tension
and job satisfaction as four very important
determinants of the performance of
individuals and their impact on the
operational effectiveness of the organization
(Kelly et al., 1981; Lusch and Serpkenci,
1990). Subsumed within these four concepts
is the necessity for effective communications
among managers, employees and customers
(Zeithaml et al., 1988). Without effective
communications, employee job satisfaction
suffers as well as the quality of the service
encounters between the firm’s employees and
the firm’s customers (Schneider and Bowen,
1985). This lack of effective communications
will potentially lead to a decrease in role
clarity, an increase in job tension and a
decrease in job satisfaction.

Management in the 1960s and 1970s was
concerned with efficiency in the use of
organizational resources. To combat the
competitive environment of business, the
buzzwords for managers were “doing the job
right”. In this sense, efforts were geared
toward “optimization”, “cost reduction”,
“work measurement” and “quality control”.
Within this context, employees were treated
as numbers rather than persons. The stiff
global competition of the 1980s led to the
realization that new strategies were needed to
compete effectively in the global arena. In
response to this realization, many wellmanaged organizations of the 1990s have
become more concerned about “doing the
right job”, thus the buzzwords have changed
to “customer satisfaction” and “employee
contentment and loyalty”. Even some new
management concepts such as TQM have
emphasized the behavioral aspects of the firm
as an important element for increased
productivity and satisfaction.
As America has become a service-oriented
economy changing its 16.5 million service jobs
of the 1960s to 85.1 million in the 1990s
(Business Week, 2 November 1992) employees
are more frequently in contact with customers
of the business. Consequently, they become an
integral part of the image that a customer has of
the business and play a pivotal role in
determining the success of the firm (Bitner,
Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 8 No. 1, 1994, pp. 14-26
© MCB University Press, 0887-6045


The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effect of empathy within the traditional framework of role clarity. in the broadest sense. role conflict. (Kimes.VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 1994 Role clarity has been defined as the degree to which individuals receive and understand information needed for them to perform their jobs. role clarity and job tension increase and job satisfaction decreases (Churchill et al. Within the retail service setting of customer care. rationalization. 1967). individuals may engage in a variety of psychological reactions such as withdrawal and avoiding contact or communications with those causing the conflict.. and between employees and customers. 1990. Redmond. 1989). In attempts to cope with this conflict. The extent to which employees are bothered by work-related matters is referred to as job tension. Job satisfaction refers to the individual’s attitude toward the various aspects of their job as well as the job in general. anger. Empathy Literature In the past few decades empathy has been defined in many ways. empathy (Berry et al. 1968). 1988. ulcers.. firm switching and negative word-of-mouth communication on the part of the customers about the employee and the firm (Bitner. in turn.. High role conflict and low role clarity contribute to low job satisfaction. it is somewhat surprising that the subject has received little empirical attention among business researchers. Kelly et al. etc... and alcoholism (Hise. individualized attention the firm provides its customers”. In the services marketing literature. and lower job satisfaction. Given the seemingly apparent need for empathetic relationships among employees of a business firm. Job performance has also been shown to suffer from role conflict (Rizzo et al. Clear job roles minimize conflicts among employees. It allows individuals to understand others and to predict how others might respond in special situations. 1981. between employees and management. Frustration. Understanding and prediction make empathy a potential tool for developing effective communications and relationships among employees. 1976. 1974. lead to increased absenteeism and turnover (Lawler and Porter. and job satisfaction. 1975). This conflict can also occur when an individual is expected to engage in inconsistent behavior resulting from contradictory demands between a firm’s customers and its management. Job Satisfaction Literature Role conflict occurs when an individual is expected to engage in inconsistent behavior as a result of receiving contradictory demands resulting from a lack of unity of command. In addition.. including withdrawal. 1990). 1977). 1990). between employees and management. which can. Studies have related job tension to various serious dysfunctional consequences. Parasuraman et al. the basis for this effective communication is. and unhappiness with the job occurs when employees are unclear as to their roles in an organization. 1985. (1988) as “caring. job tension. Previous research has empirically demonstrated that as role conflict increases. some researchers have defined empathy in cognitive terms while others have defined it 15 . empathy was found to be one of the five dimensions customers of service firms use in their evaluation of service quality and was defined by Parasuraman et al. and between employees and customers. This inferior performance will lead to customer dissatisfaction. In the psychology literature. 1970). high blood pressure. low job satisfaction has the potential of causing low quality service encounter performances on the part of the employee (Bitner et al. Walker et al..

Current Study The current study focusses on retail customer service personnel for several reasons. they are motivated by the employee’s personal ego. training and management of employees who enjoy dealing with customers and who enjoy their jobs. Customer contact personnel with clearly defined roles should experience less role conflict than those whose roles are not clearly defined. It is this latter form of empathy which is the focus of this study because in the long run. avoiding negative consequences. 1990. 1988). Second. More recently. i.e. Both surface acting and deep acting are used by employees to display emotions to customers commensurate with their job description.. Past research has indicated that role clarity should have an inverse impact on both role conflict and job tension and a positive impact on job satisfaction.. Rationale for such behavior may be to please the boss. As the level of conflict n Strong impact on the quality of the service encounter n The manner in which an individual displays emotion. 1987). this individual represents the service firm. Third. fellow employees and management. Clearer defined roles (plus good training and competence) should also decrease job tension and lead to a higher level of job satisfaction. to look good in front of the other employees. It would appear a key ingredient in increasing job productivity and reducing employee turnover and absenteeism would be the hiring. Customer contact personnel will experience varying degrees of role conflict initiated among customers. while the ability to understand another’s cognitive status or perspective has been called cognitive role taking (Eisenberg and Miller. genuine feelings of emotional concern during the service encounter. deep acting. it should produce the highest quality service encounters for the customers of the firm and the highest level of job satisfaction for the individual employees. 1988.. Such actions are egoistic based. the ability to discern and identify the affective states of another has been labeled affective role taking. it is the front-line customer contact person who usually has the first and many times the only contact with the customer. The most frequently used definition of empathy is that it is a person’s vicarious matching of another’s affective state or is a combination of emotional matching and sympathetic responding (Stiff et al. i. feelings. These individuals may not feel empathetic at all but will display such actions because it is expected of them. within the service encounter between an employee and a customer has a strong impact on the quality of the service encounter.JOURNAL OF SERVICES MARKETING as the ability to comprehend the affective or cognitive status of another. the high rate of turnover and absenteeism among service personnel has resulted in a decline of productivity.e. or just to fulfill their job specifications thereby 16 . behavior of customer contact personnel has a tremendous impact on customers’ perceptions of service and product quality. Emotions displayed during an encounter by an employee may be the result of surface acting. However.e. however. or genuine emotional concern for the customer (Ashforth and Humphrey. 1993). First. thus to the customer. Parasuraman et al. because of the dynamic interaction and the intangibility of the transaction. individuals who are highly empathetic will display altruistic behaviors. Zeithaml et al. the attractiveness of the inter-personal climate and the emotional experience itself (Bitner. 1988). It is this latter definition that will be used in this research. i.

9. Zeithaml et al. H8: Empathetic concern will have an inverse impact on role conflict. role clarity by Lyons (1971). H3: Role clarity will have a positive impact on job satisfaction. the greater the probability that customers will have a satisfactory experience with the firm (Bitner. and mean weekly income was $214. H6: Empathetic concern will have a positive impact on job satisfaction.. 1990). 1990. and job tension by Kahn et al. H4: Role clarity will have a positive impact on job tension. To maintain complete anonymity completed questionnaires were returned to the managers in sealed envelopes and picked up by research assistants. Empathy measures were taken by an instrument developed by Stiff et al. Approximately 63 percent (193) of the 300 questionnaires distributed were usable for the research. Job tension was measured with a five-point Likert scale using “nearly all of the time” to “never” as anchors. The anchors for measuring role clarity were “perfectly clear” and “not at all clear”. H1: Role clarity will have an inverse impact on role conflict. It is their responsibility not only to provide for the needs of each customer but also to resolve any problems encountered in such a way as to enhance customer satisfaction (Bitner. A five-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree was used to measure each of the six empathy indicants. These conflicts will tend to increase job tension. positive impact on job satisfaction.. role conflict by Rizzo et al. job tension should also increase. employees often encounter conflicts with other employees of the organization and with the firm’s management.9 years of school. Bitner et al. Parasuraman et al. H7: Empathetic concern will have an inverse impact on job tension.7 years of experience. In addition. Front-line employees of business organizations face numerous conflicting situations daily between customers of the firm and the firm’s management. This increase in job tension will result in a lower level of job satisfaction. resulting in lower job satisfaction. mean educational level was 12. The more empathetic employees are toward customers. 34 percent male.. Sixty-six percent of the respondents were females. 30 percent part-time. (1988). 1990. The questionnaires were left with employees of the organizations. Demographically the respondent’s mean age was 28. Understanding the views and feelings of other employees and management should have an inverse impact on the amount of role conflict and job tension experienced by employees with a direct. 17 .73. The job and role variables were measured by using index measures which have been developed and utilized by other researchers. H5: Job tension will have an inverse impact on job satisfaction. 1988. The formal hypotheses for this are: Methodology Questionnaires were hand-delivered to businesses of a medium-sized midwestern city. Job satisfaction was measured using an index developed by Izvancevich and Donnelly (1974). Responses to the job satisfaction and role conflict items were measured using a five-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. (1964). 1988). All selected employees were involved in some aspect of customer service involving frequent interaction with customers or clients. Seventy percent worked fulltime. H2: Role clarity will have an inverse impact on job tension.VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 1994 increases. (1970). The survey instrument utilized index measures developed by earlier researchers to measure each of the job related and empathy variables (see Appendix 1 for list of construct measures). with a combined average of 6.

The second step in the analyses was investigating the overall fit of the structural model. There was no direct impact on job satisfaction. Hypotheses 4 and 5 were both supported. and the χ2 statistic all indicate an adequate fit between the model and the data (see Table III for model fit statistics).e. As empathetic concern increased. model fit. This study found that employees with high customer contact experience higher job tension and higher role conflict if their job roles are not clearly defined. the less tension they experience on the job. The significant paths with corresponding MLE coefficients are illustrated in Figure 2. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were supported. only one of the three structural paths was significant. The goodness-of-fit. was utilized (Joreskog and Sorbom. As expected. 1983. job tension and role conflict increased. Table I gives the maximum likelihood coefficients and corresponding t-values of both the Λx and the Λy matrices respectively. hypothesis 3 was not. in turn. job tension declined. i. as role clarity decreased. role clarity allows them to reduce job tension and role conflict since they know what they can and cannot do to care for the customer and his or her needs. Reducing the conflict faced by front-line employees will reduce the job tension they experience. and job satisfaction. the impact of role clarity on job satisfaction only occurs through a reduction of job tension and role conflict. analysis proceeded to testing Figure 1 for an adequate Job satisfaction Empathy Job tension Role conflict Role clarity Figure 1. role conflict had a direct impact on job tension and job tension had an inverse impact on job satisfaction. hypotheses 6 and 8 were not. However. Reducing job tension. LISREL 7. Role clarity was hypothesized to have an effect on role conflict. The more empathetic employees are toward customers they serve as well as fellow employees. 1989). Since frontline service personnel are often caught in the middle between management and customers. The maximum likelihood coefficients and t-values for the structural model are also given in Table III. a simultaneous equation procedure. There were no significant effects on either job satisfaction or role conflict directly. The third step was the analysis of the theoretical linkages to determine if the hypotheses were supported by the data. Table II gives the Cronbach alpha reliability measures for each construct. will increase job satisfaction. Since results indicated valid and reliable measures of the latent constructs proposed. Structural Model Tested 18 . job tension. Results obtained were commensurate with prior research in both the empathy literature and the job satisfaction literature. the adjustedgoodness-of-fit. In terms of empathy. Results The first step in the analysis was the development of the measurement model. The first step in the analyses was a validation of the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis to verify valid measures of the variables. hypothesis 7 was supported. Figure 1 illustrates the model that was tested.JOURNAL OF SERVICES MARKETING To test the hypotheses. In terms of hypotheses.

843** 6. Measurement Model of Exogenous Variables 19 T-value a 5.862 1.05 ** Significant at p < 0.546 0.478 2.743** 2.333 2.794 0.840 0.976 1.136 0.180 1.101 1.086** 4.000 0.000 1.VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 1994 Greek letter Latent construct λx11 λx21 λx31 λx41 λx51 λx61 λx72 λx82 λx92 λx102 λx112 λy11 λy21 λy31 λy41 λy51 λy61 λy71 λy81 λy91 λy102 λy112 λy122 λy132 λy142 λy152 λy162 λy172 λy182 λy193 λy203 λy213 λy223 λy233 λy243 λy253 λy263 Empathy Empathy Empathy Empathy Empathy Empathy Role clarity Role clarity Role clarity Role clarity Role clarity Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Job satisfaction Job tension Job tension Job tension Job tension Job tension Job tension Job tension Job tension Job tension Role conflict Role conflict Role conflict Role conflict Role conflict Role conflict Role conflict Role conflict Maximum likelihood 1.380 2.179 0.660** 9.578 1.622 2.467** 2.119 0.963** 5.058 1.080 **aFixed parameters ** Significant at p < 0.256* .264** 7.344** 5.959** 2.219 1.862 0.872 1.354 2.824 1.185** 4.319 2.834** 2.232** 5.616** 6.569** 6.477** 6.582* 2.478** 6.704** a 2.202 1.892 1.736 0.850** a 4.958 0.833** 5.163** a 4.876** 2.000 1.267 0.000 0.222** 10.803 1.044** 4.342** 6.01 Table I.000 0.982** a 2.654 1.778** 10.628** 5.704** 5.950** 2.361 0.192** 6.554 1.

Job satisfaction.01 Table III. for their fellow employees and toward the management of the firm.70 0. Employees need to have a clear understanding of their role within the firm. Cronbach Alpha Reliability Scores Implications for Managers of Service Firms As already mentioned.658 1. Job satisfaction of service employees can be increased by enhancing role clarity.047 0. especially in terms of customer care.298** -0. therefore. becomes an important construct for managers of businesses since an increase in job satisfaction among a firm’s front-line employees will undoubtedly have a carry over effect on customer care.213 -8. In terms of Alpha coefficient Empathy Role clarity Job satisfaction Job tension Role conflict 0.433* . and reducing job tension. and management procedures.343 0. What can they and what cannot they do to satisfy a customer? Clear guidelines need to be given. job descriptions. Organizations with multiple front-line personnel need clear guidelines as to the responsibilities of each employee and their relationships with other employees within the organizations.JOURNAL OF SERVICES MARKETING Variable This research has indicated job satisfaction among customer contact employees is not only affected by job tension with its corollaries of role clarity and role conflict but it is also affected by the amount of empathy employees have for the customers.276 -0. the concepts of “customer satisfaction” and “employee contentment” are gaining prominence in the management of the 1990s.355 -5.83 Table II.427** 6.088 -0.991 AGFI = 0. training procedures.73 0.05 ** Significant at p < 0.80 0.472 -0.475* 0.87 0. By increasing role clarity employees will experience less conflict and less tension on the job.37 with 1 df GFI = 0.932** -2.023 -0. Structural Model Fit Statistics 20 T-6. It is very difficult to serve customers well when employees are unhappy and disgruntled about some aspect of their job. These findings impact management’s hiring policies. Greek letter value Path β12 β23 λ11 λ21 λ31 λ12 λ22 λ32 Job tension ➞ job satisfaction Role conflict ➞ job tension Empathy ➞ job satisfaction Empathy ➞ job tension Empathy ➞ role conflict Role charity ➞ job satisfaction Role clarity ➞ job tension Role clarity ➞ role conflict Maximum likelihood -0. Role clarity impacts both role conflict and job tension.488 0.173 Notes: χ2 = 4. decreasing role conflict.868 * Significant at p < 0.

If the employee can put himself or herself in the position of the customer. Job satisfaction Empathy -0. As job tension rises. Individuals of this type would experience less job tension and greater job satisfaction which should reduce absenteeism and turnover. or their boss.e. would be more willing to respond to the needs of customers and less likely to have conflicts with fellow employees and management. As employees communicate feelings of empathy to the customer. Conflict is inherent in the position of a front-line employee. their fellow employees.173* Role clarity * Significant at p < 0. job tension is reduced and job satisfaction is increased. it would appear that individuals who are highly empathetic. Management must train employees on how to respond to customer needs. Second. In hiring front-line employees. First.VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 1994 can be reduced by management and how this in turn can lead to greater job satisfaction.488** Job tension 0. With this increase in empathy will come a corresponding increase in the desire to communicate these feelings both verbally and with appropriate body language. management should hire individuals as employees who are highly empathetic. The more employees can take the viewpoint of another. Customers want answers and policies that will provide for their particular and unique needs while management sets policies that seek to protect their business and profit. Tests can be given indicating which applicants to select.05 ** Significant at p < 0. employees must have a clear chain of command that clearly delineates what decisions should be referred to management and what decisions employees are allowed to make themselves. employee turnover and absenteeism will rise and customers devaluate the quality of both the product and service experience. by nature. then the feelings of empathy for that customer will increase. job satisfaction declines. Although empathy may be more of an 21 . The front-line employee is often confronted with what appears to be unresolvable conflicts. the customer. job tension will rise.01 Figure 2. i. As the intensity and quantity of conflicts increase. The view of management and customers do not always coincide.343** -0. many front-line employees receive very little training in how to deal with customers. Structural Model with MLE Coefficients management. Diverting to the empathy construct will add insight into how job tension and role conflict n Five important management policy concerns are highlighted n Five important management policy concerns are highlighted by the findings of this research. This same scenario will occur with increased empathy toward fellow employees and with the management of the firm. the more the empathy which will be felt toward them. As job satisfaction declines.472** Role conflict -0. Although management cannot eliminate the conflicts front-line personnel face. they can take measures to reduce both the quantity and intensity of conflicts between employees and customers.276* -0.

This same training can incorporate elements that will enhance employee/ employee relations and employee/ management relations. and freedom to express empathy toward customers will experience less tension on the job which. The desire to satisfy the customer must not only be seen but be felt by the customer. Past research has indicated that customers who are dissatisfied with the outcome of a service encounter can be affected positively by post-purchase communications with a representative of the service firm (Bitner. an empathetic person. As described by Ashforth and Humphrey (1993). Both are egoistic based in that the motive behind the empathetic response is job security related rather than genuine concern for the customer. Thus. in turn. will result in higher job satisfaction. No training on how to 22 . Third. the problem may be both hiring the wrong individual as a customer contact person and the lack of training on how to communicate empathetically to customer needs. empowerment. by nature. Empowerment allows employees to be flexible and creative in arriving at decisions. such responses on the part of employees will still tend to increase customer service quality evaluations and customer satisfaction. he or she is not. In situations where the service encounter is not satisfactory. employees must be empowered by management to do whatever it takes to satisfy the customer. let us examine two possible scenarios which could occur for a business offering dry cleaning services. The affective component of customer/ employee relationships needs to be addressed not only in the training sessions but also in the job descriptions. “Service with a smile” has to be more than a motto. Unity of command is essential in reducing job tension between employees and management. Empowerment and flexibility within the job description allows employees to meet the needs of customers creatively without violating policies of the firm. training could certainly be used to enhance employee empathy. there must be clear lines of command between management and employees. However. In order to create bipolar extremes let us also assume that if this employee had been given a test. It must become a part of the front-line employees’ nature.JOURNAL OF SERVICES MARKETING management must trust that employees will arrive at solutions that not only meet customer needs but will enhance the image and profitability of the firm. an employee is selected from a pool of applicants with no testing for empathy. inherited trait rather than a learned behavior. Too often in service organizations employees have multiple bosses with conflicting demands. Job descriptions need to indicate what actions can and cannot be taken. i. Employees whose job description permits flexibility. we will further assume the position which is being considered is the front-line contact person who deals directly with the customer. trained empathy responses will tend to be the result of surface or deep acting. Clear job descriptions also reduce conflicts among employees and between employees and management. Fourth. In this illustration. job descriptions need to be clearly written and taught to front-line personnel. he or she would have scored poorly.e. To illustrate the foregoing discussion. 1990). In the first scenario. employees must have the power to arrive at solutions that will negate the negative feelings of the customers. Empowerment means n There must be clear lines of command between management and employees n Fifth. Empathetic employees must convey to customers that they do care and they do want to satisfy their needs.

in scenario two. Rather than go to management to try to find a solution. No clear line of command is established. and an employee who is angry and upset. They choose one who scores high on this factor. there is a high probability the employee will return the customer’s anger with even harsher words. This research has indicated that job satisfaction of service personnel can be increased by hiring individuals who tend to be highly empathetic. the employee has no idea of what to do and who he/she should ask. the employee experiences high role conflict and low job satisfaction. Management will stand behind the decision. diffuse the customer’s anger. However. In summary. 23 . repeat purchases by current customers. The customer immediately becomes angry and demands the dry cleaner pays $80 for the item since the dry cleaner ruined the clothing. an unhappy customer. Situations which often occur in the dry cleaning business are discussed with possible solutions pointed out. This. will cause the employee to provide lower and lower quality of service to future customers. To illustrate the bipolar reactions a customer may cause in these two scenarios let us suppose a customer comes in to pick up his/her dry cleaning. the employee has the power to make a decision. stressing the importance of showing genuine concern for the customer. by empowering employees within the customer/employee diad to make decisions that will result in higher customer satisfaction with the service. In scenario one. increasing job satisfaction among service personnel has the potential of generating higher customer satisfaction with the service. since the employee is not an empathetic person by nature and has not been trained to be empathetic toward the customer. There are no written job descriptions. by providing employees with clear job descriptions. Management does not discuss with this employee the affective component of customer service assuming he or she will somehow know what to do and how to act. the customer certainly will not be unhappy. The employee is empowered to make whatever decision is necessary to make the customer happy. Clear lines of command are established. In scenario two the same business decides to test prospective employees for empathy. in turn. As this scenario repeats itself numerous times through the week. The result. he/she notices a stain which was not on the garment before. son. On examining the item. A job description is written detailing their duties with clear instructions on what decisions they can make and what decisions must be deferred to management. He or she will discuss the situation with the customer. the customer’s anger has been diffused and although he/she may not leave happy. if the customer has become angry and hostile. This. Further. then asks the customer to offer possible solutions to the problem. Since the business is small not only does the owner work at the facility but so does his wife. The affective component of customer service is discussed. and two other employees. and in establishing a clear unity of command for each employee. The result. Only technical details of the job are explained. the employee understands why the customer is upset and through appropriate words and body language conveys to the customer that he/she has a right to be upset.VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 1994 deal empathetically with customers is given. The business then trains this new employee how to respond to customer needs in an appropriate and proper manner. in turn. and positive word-of-mouth communications to potential customers. will lead the employee to provide higher quality of service to future customers. by training current employees how to be empathetic. The employee experiences less role conflict and higher job satisfaction.

(1985). G.L. “Conflict in the Salesman’s Role”. O. SPSS. Journal of Marketing. p. Vol. J. K.A. Bitner. 88-115. empathetic concern. does the type of supervisor or manager impact employee satisfaction and should managers be highly “empathetic” individuals? Further. D. 13.. and Walker. R. 101. (1990). N. further research needs to be conducted. “The Relation of Empathy to Prosocial Behavior”. Organizational Stress: Studies in Role A major limitation of the study is the generic index measures used. Churchill.M. Vol. This research examined only empathetic concern. This study looked at employees of service retailers. 11.C. Journal of Marketing. (1976). employee contentment. Future research needs to be conducted that examines the other dimensions of empathy to uncover their relationship to the job satisfaction factors. J. 71-84. Chicago. Future research in which the indexes are modified to measure the customer/employee diad specifically may yield some interesting results. IL.. Vol. Jr.M. 323-32. Joreskog. Vol. role conflict and role ambiguity. Summer. pp.C. January.A. G. Quinn. N. (1974).JOURNAL OF SERVICES MARKETING Research Limitations Service Quality”.M. Joreskog. Academy of Management Review. pp.C.M.A. Journal of Marketing Research. May. 103-18. P. R. Ford. Zeithaml. Vol. In addition..G. and Parasuraman. Churchill. emotional contagion.E. and Tetreault. (1974). “Measuring Job Satisfaction of Industrial Salesmen”. Chicago. N.A. The general consensus among researchers is that empathy is a multidimensional concept consisting of perspective taking. Hise. what would the relationship between customer satisfaction. “The Determinants of Salesperson Performance: A Meta-Analysis”.. and Sorbom. pp.. Would the same results be obtained if employees of professional services were surveyed? In addition. “Five Imperatives for Improving 24 .G. “The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents”. and/or the unemployment rate was relatively high? Clearly. (1968). 27. 1. (1989).P. pp.S. R. Sloan Management Review. IL.. 52-62. M. R. pp. Booms. Academy of Management Journal. “A Study of Role Clarity and Need for Clarity for Three Occupational Groups”. (1964). “Organizational Climate and Job Satisfaction in the Salesforce”. Ivancevich. (1993). M. Diedrick Snoek. 28-36. M. (1987). Jr. Bitner. (1983). (1990). University of Washington Business Review. and Rosenthal. “Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses”. Vol. Journal of Marketing Research. K. Wolfe. N. Ford. pp. J. B. 54. and Humphrey. R.H. and Walker.A. 54.H. pp. and Miller. 69-82. Berry. 17.T. B. O. V. Churchill. Vol.J. and Sorbom. (1990). D. Journal of Marketing Research. Eisenberg. August. “Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The Influence of Identity”. 29-38. November. pp. and communicative responsiveness. D. Version VI. 254-60. 22. and Walker. G.. Lisrel VI. National Education Resources. Kahn. pp. Vol. n References Ashforth. L. Psychological Bulletin.J. An Analysis of Linear Structural Relations by the Method of Maximum Likelihood. Lisrel 7: A Guide to the Program and Applications. Ford. and empathy look like if the firm was operating in a monopolistic environment (for example in cable television companies). 18 No. and Donnelly.H.M. April. Jr. A.A. O.L.. measuring employee/employer diad factors at the same time may provide some indications of the source of job tension.

and Ford. 55. Appendix 1. D. J. (3) I often have tender. Spring. pp. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance.A. and procedures of your department that affect your job? Job satisfaction: (1) My job provides me with the opportunity to prepare myself for future advancement in the organization. Need for Clarity. (1988). “Personal Differences. Vol. p. Zeithaml.P. and Serpkenci. C. Vol. 64. (5) My job allows me to set goals and objectives. Vol. Management Accounting. pp. W.I. Gable. T. A. Parasuraman. L. (2) When I see someone being treated unfairly. 198-213. 54. K. January. pp. Hyun. (1985). January. Administrative Science Quarterly. (2) My work is not important to the success of the organization. Job Tension. Kelly. New York. 25 . Tension and Withdrawal”..R.. 57. Vol. and Sleight.. pp.L. Dillard. and Prosocial Behavior”.V. (1988). A. S. Jr.. pp. Lusch. procedures. Role clarity: (1) How clear are you about the limits of your authority in your present job? (2) Do you feel you are always as clear as you would like to be about what you have to do on your job? (3) Do you feel you are always as clear as you would like to be about how you are supposed to do things on your job? (4) In general. and regulations of the company that affect your job? (5) In general. R. N. Industrial Relations. J.. and Parasuraman. G. 17-23. J. (3) My job provides me with the opportunity to grow and utilize a wide range of my skills. L. pp. 7. Job Outcomes and Store Performance: A Study of Retail Store Managers”. NY. Lyons. Vol. 52. and Lirtzman. “Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Complex Organizations”. pp.M. “Handling Stress in the Accounting Profession”. House. (1977). how clearly defined are the rules. 39. “The Functions of Empathy in Human Relations”. (4) My job is not viewed as important by employees working in other areas within this organization. Vol. “Conflict. April. pp. concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me. Journal of Marketing. policies. (6) I am often touched by the things that I see happen. (1988). J. Human Relations. Satisfaction. 99-110. (5) Other people’s misfortunes do not disturb me a great deal. 3. 42. “The Effect of Performance on Job Satisfaction”. 35-48.C. Somera.P. Berry. R..W. Journal of Retailing. and Hise. pp. Walker. V. John Wiley & Sons. 32-9.. Vol. 12-40. (4) I would describe myself as a pretty softhearted person. Lawler. R. I feel kind of protective toward them. “Role Conflict. I sometimes don’t feel much pity for them.A. pp. Journal of Marketing. Vol. E. Empathy: (1) When I see someone being taken advantage of. 85-101. 423-33. 70 No. Rizzo.L. (1971). M. Journal of Marketing. Tension and Satisfaction in Chain Store Manager Roles”.D. V.VOLUME 8 NUMBER 1 1994 Conflict and Ambiguity. 27-42.. Vol. Items Used in Constructs. 150-63. 59. L. (1967). R. Journal of Retailing. M.A. 15. and Porter. 6. (1970). (1981). (1975).F. Communication Monographs.B. “Organizational Determinants of the Industrial Salesman’s Role Conflict and Ambiguity”. L. Kimes. how clearly defined are policies and the various rules. Communication. O. (1990). “Communication and Control Processes in the Delivery of Service Quality”. “SERVQUAL: A Multiple-item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perception of Service Quality”.J. Clarity. “Empathy. 20-8. Redmond. pp. Vol. Churchill.T. and Berry. Journal of Applied Psychology. (1989).R. and Bowen. Vol. Jr. J. Stiff. Schneider.E. “Employee and Customer Perceptions of Services in Banks: Replication and Extension”. Zeithaml.

(7) I receive assignments without adequate resources and materials to execute them. (2) My job requires me to do things that should be done differently. Job tension: (1) How often are you unclear on just what the scope and responsibilities of your job are? (2) How often do you know what opportunities for advancement or promotion exist for you? (3) How often do you feel that you have too heavy a work load. Kenneth E. Rogers is Associate Professor of Marketing. Kansas. one that you can’t possibly finish during an ordinary work shift? (4) How often do you think that you’ll not be able to satisfy the conflicting demands of various people you work with? (5) How often do you know what your superior thinks of you. USA. Pittsburg State University. (3) I receive work assignments without the manpower or help to complete them. (4) I work with two or more groups who operate quite differently.JOURNAL OF SERVICES MARKETING Role conflict: (1) I never have to violate a rule or policy in order to carry out a work assignment. (6) In my job I do things that are apt to be accepted by one person but not accepted by others. Kelce School of Business. and how he or she evaluates your performance? (6) How often do you feel that you can get information needed to carry out your job? (7) How often do you know just what the people you work with expect of you? (8) How often do you think that the amount of work you have to do may interfere with how well it gets done? (9) How often do you feel that you have to do things on the job that are against your better judgement? Jerry D. all in the Department of Management and Marketing at the Gladys A. and Toby J. (9) My job allows me to utilize the full range of my educational training and previous work experience. (7) My job is viewed as important by other people outside the organization. 26 . (6) My job does not provide me with a sense of accomplishment. Clow is Assistant Professor of Marketing. Pittsburg. Kash is Kelce Research Professor of Management. (5) I receive incompatible requests from two or more people. (8) I work on unnecessary things. (8) My job is not very challenging.