>Problem of order and social structure

Question: model, metaphor used by
thet ehoriests for expalinings tucutre
durkehim metapohor for modern
society, model that has influenced
other theoriests,
>Durkheim :organic analogy; society
is a living organism, what is it that
distuingus modern from traditional
cahracted by mechanical solidarity,
metaphor for dukrhiem for traditional
society, mechanical: properties of
gases in physics, each part of the gas
is reducible to individualized atoms of
the gas, modern society living
organism specialized insotitins, which
are like parts of body which has
fucnitno in mainting society as a
whole. In dividion of labor, in modern
soieyt, law comparable the nervous
system concerned with coordinating
various parts of society as a whole, to
see how durkehim applies his method,
start with his dissertation, division of
labor in society, to see how he applies
rules of socieilog method; explain
social by the social ; his goal in that
dissertation; wanted to explain
changes in social solidarity, argues
with positivistic method from otme
need to idnety socialfact that will
change as society changes overtime
social solidarty as a social fact; llook
for a empirical referent that will
indivcate changes in soicla solidarity,
durkehim selected the law as a
complete empirical, visible, social
fact to demonstrate changes in social

structre, sabi nya kahit naong lipunan
may batas, f society changes, then
types of law will also change,
following socio method ruels, explain
soicla factby sical fact, changes in law
as an empirical changes to soicla
structure;
>first law he encountered is penal law,
another law is law ith restitutieve law
>durkheims def on law: rules on
sanction ; sanctions attached to
villations of laws; sancitons attachd in
violation consist of repressive
sanctions either by deprivation of
one’s life,
> law with resutitut ve funcitons;
simple return in state of things ; if
may nakabanga sa kotse mo,
>durkhiem will ask why is criminal or
penal law a concerte indicator of
traditiona society characterize dby
mechanical solidarity? What is the
whole idea of dukrhiem on trade or
mehcnicl osicldry; def : society that is
very repressive, since people engage
in the same things, experiences,their
beliefs and outlooook are the same,
such that any violation of the common
sentiment of society, will be met with
vengeance, it is understanble why
crime requreis repressive sacnitons
because it is omehting that offends
common consiceint of society, how
can we see in his iddisrtaiotn, how he
will apply sociological method, that
we ecnoutnered earlier, he would say
that we should question common
sense notions that people have about
crime, there are various writeir who
will think there is universal def of

it is repressively punished because it is offensive to the collective consicience of the people. by virtue . duties for my own ociety. it trad society not possbielt o be an indviudal. universal model of aprticular phase of osicety. onceinsice. >organic anaogy . but because people are very peroforimg diff activiites. people think act. criminals deserving of reights and must be treated with igintiy or respect. > crime really a visible referent of trade society. a certain leve l of crime. beacsue thorught their punishment that osocial solidarity is strneghthend. > there is a collective gareemtn that indivudals are sacred. Durkheim will point out that when I carry out my duites. > only universal feature of crime. they will have diff def of what counts as a crime. we encounter idea that Durkheim. the y think tof thesleves as iniviualds who hare free to pruse their beliefs or outlooks lin life. >in traditnoal soiey because of strength of collective eocnsicnec. >for soiceyt to be unified. there is a new scared object of society is the individual. > organs of society—instituitons not ividuals. nothing to do with universal morality. to understand insituteions. people who beling in the same . because nay deviation from collective econsicne wis met with repression. any violation of it is met with venagance or represeev sanctions. the kidn of scantions applied to crininals also changes in modern society > hallmark in modrns ocety. having a more complex division of labor ins oicety that allows people to thin of theseves as inidivudals. Totehnism : plant/ animal symboliszes a clan. in diviosn of labor. Society not aggreagate of individuals. which is an outcome of changes in structure itsef. if you look at soiceitie siidff period of time. universal feature. objectivist account of society also. adentifiy set of deviance > law with reparati vefunction sor restutituiev functions that corresponds to modern society . but killing a prso not a crime in all times and places. given by strucuture by the instiution to which they belong.at a certain poin tin time. society will have a divison of labor an dsince people are engaged in diff activities. in modrn society. it will lead to integeration in society. change in social structure. as a ___. strucutarl mdel o society. > for us to meet everyday needs we are dependen ton oether people. starting point use objective maining rather than subjective meaning. which is why in his writings. it leads to a paradoxical effect because of differences. modern society.cirime. Iis necessary for noral or healty functinos os oicetys. > organic anlaoogy: to remember that Durkheim was ery critical fo oscieal contract and ultiltiarn. > at a eratin pint div of labor will give rise to a new notion of collective.

re lgions-distinctino between sacred and profane. in economic base.Basics >dialectecil method. ---new dolidarty . Identity of a clan depends on diffefernces on totems. reconciling irereconclialb eto explain universal pattern in history which will involve huankind as a thinking sujbjec graduatlly getting nkowldge of what is necessary to free itself from constarisnts by treating itself as its object of knowledge. >Society an organism made up of sepcialez parts. marx verion of history of history focus on conflict of classes.. free to purse acitivities different from others. contraty to argument is social contract ehoriests. productive forces and relations of production. >later marx. 2 component parts which at a certain point explains basis of social change. Marx >base and superstructure . what allows people to be diffeen tin doern society . method of odialcetic. they become very dependent on other people even if they think they are indivdiuals who are free and separate from others. -capitalism and crituqe of classical econocmis > Hegelian interpretation of marx. part . something become a scrime because it is defined by society as a crime : what is now the sacred of society I moder nsodicety. people are not aware of it but when they partiicpiat ein religious __. Totem. but ehgel focuses on conflict on ideas. >Crimes-violations of collective sentiments >Because people are engaged in different occupoations. the wriitngs of marx which clearch show depbts to hegel. to maintain social equlialibrium >Notion of idniviudality itself. their common sense idea is that they are free idniduals. toetem stands dfor a clan because it differs from other totems of clans. where dow eseee aprpiapr prdarfrm nature. To understand history history of class struggle.family. if one examines day-t-day expreinces of peole who are part of clan. question common sense prenotions. marx aprpaprir atfrom ehgel. >Durkheim considered an ancestor of later sturctuarlist constantly employed sturutrual thinking in his work . >objective and submective maning: to explain organic analagoy Durkheim makes use of objectivist starting point in explaining insituitustions. if you thin at economic base parts. agreemtn to respect differences or repsect individual. works on the bais of differences . It becomes sacred because oscieyt defines as sacred. eoncomci base and superstructe. functional equlaitlvalen of religion in modern osiceties. in the course of producing for own exisitence. they will dney that marx was a simply concerned with how stuructur determines agency of han beings. they celebrate power society ahs over them -modern functionslit. soeicty can be understood in line witih diealiectic. dveops ideas that even criminals deserve respect. Traditoinal sicoetiy-trad religion. Religion: means people dramatize the power that society has over individuals. huans need to apppripriate sources from nature. recognizes sanctity of individual. product of change in structure of society. deny marx as a ecnonomic determinist or explaining ting is terms of calss >staring point of marx. that is why idivudal is new sacred object in society such that even in the case of criminal law even in kind of penaltiy attached evolves or changes. through philosophy and socience. crime is not about an act that is universally reprehesnicle. people with recover knowelelg to get knowledge to free itself at the ne do fh istoryy. > hegelina Marxists. unity of apparent contradicitons l one hand.represatnin of the clain itself. entitle to dignities. the flag-totemic symbol. humankind as w hole has the capacity to change its nature to develop more skills and talent sthoughout society by meeting aterial needs. Hegelian. it is treated with awe and reverence Totem-symbol of the clan. or deifning what crime us.

his startiin gpoint. the nees to explain how it cam to be that some people are able to appropripaite means of production while otherds do not. >capitalism dapt may surplus value r diff between exahcange value of wages and exchange of value of good > good and services pordocus for profit. machienryy even the from of patented invientsin een siceit and technology is itself property > there are prople who are preorpeptiless. in the case of capitalism when iwe exaine class and property relations it is the case that while capitalist class owns the means of production. land.it has bee nther since time in memorial : social contract theorist-tate exsts to protect natural rights : marx-ther is a need to question unviersalim of private prorpety.science-part of productive forces. means of production I nclapitalism-money Money-universal ediuum of exchang. forces and relation of production or property of relations : huan beings exert labor power to obtain resources from nature so part of economic base.>common sense idea: man people think that a fairdays work equal faoir days pay Marx >labor or praxis : part of the economic base. they have labor power . science and technology .of productive forces includes labor power or exert by hunas to meet their needs. has to do with structure of capitalism itself. 2 parts pf-productive and loabor power. to surivive. examining 2 comonepnt poarts. : property relatins. . to memet their needs. : means of production-change overtime. for dominalnt class to be able to produce profit or surplus claue they must buy labor pwer of working class and pay them wages or exchange value of lablro. siceince and technology also means of production. we cannot accept anlaysis of dieas because ideas in society are influence dby the dominant ways ain which goodds are produced and distributed : productive forces-labor power nd means of production . facotires. >when we get to next floor of society > law and state. one important part of means of mproduction si moey itself or capital > financial capital as a eas o procution. idealogy-forms of ideas that are based on mode of production. can be owned by I ntellectual property. >marx often says that market involves exhcnage of goods but a necessary component of osicety would be the dpendicuter of labor power which is the epparopraiton of resources coming from environment > antoher part of productive forces include manis of production. and use labor power of prletatrairt to produce good and srvices which the domincnat class will sell in the open market for a higher value. --ntellectual property law -there are some peol who wm enas of prdocution -class or proety relations-ownershiop or nonsoernshio pof means of production Capitslim-remiani proepytof reworking class is labor power. to understand society.rlations of conflict . they weill selel their ownly proepty that htye have which is thyeir labor power in exchange of meeoney : relation of clalses is exploitative. part of enas of prducion to e ngage in productive aciivites Means of production changes overtime : domintnat ways by which goods reproduced an idsitubte which will determine ____ : important means of production in capitalism : finaincila capital : first act of human itosry act by which they produced for their own exisitence—history making acvitit : humanity as a whole produces history : Marxist theory sociologyical theory because is cfoucs on social relationships that are produced as huan beinngs make history : they will enter relaitnos with other of human being hich serves a foundation of human society : private property is a uneirvsal feature of society. > in common sense terms there is no such thing a fair days work for fair days power. means that are necessary to meet needs. doinat ways by swhich people product and distirubte goods > capitalists own means of production like capital. heart of capitalism is exploitaition.

and : crises for capitalism-why are relationships between working and upper class exploitative. working classes see each other as competiteors for scarce jobs beccaseu there is a threat that the can be easil replaced : they are alientated from the goods that they produced: this is what elads to think of the world in binary oppositontins . we must examine ways by which goods are produced and sidibsiirubed : base determines superstructure : why marx will einsist that astarint apintdominat ways by which goods are pdocured in and distributed : we cannot start with intereptations of peple about social world : because in many weays their perception of realtioy is mistaken byecause te are influenced by idealolgy : variety of interperation so fiddealoyg (onesided set of ideas which are related to dmonant ways by which good are produced and distributed : dominat ideas are by worling lcass : althuser : pcapitalism-perfect societ because freeom. treat it as a false consciousness : ideas-relate them to mode of production of society . capiltism works on appropaioiatn of working class of the .: how doid it come to be that som eopeole own means of production. basis is everyday activities of people. ideaology-not something that falls forom the same thin gneeds a basis. many ideas based on experience of people : since it capitalism it is the case that for pduction to become efficient. it is the case that values of goods higher than wages given to them. natural right to private prrpet : utlilaitiran theory and social contract-idealogy produced by capitalism. labor or praxis is what makes us human. given that in their everda ylives. isit is throught labor that we must needs and increase our talents and skills Capitalism as mode of pdouion generates idea that eductation itselt Is to be proided by the state it is a right becaue capitalism requires labor force that is literate : Superstructure : ideas in society. what they experience is lack of capacity to use labor to be free. they see a clear cut ospartaio of : idealogy –subejctiv meaning. there is a need of a complex division of labor. ideas iin ruling class : result of beougeouoi idealogy that people thik that religonis. formally free labor-they can alwas resign from their jobs. because the hae the right ot decide to look for other employment : illlusin of freedom becaseuthose who don town means of pfprduction are forced to sell their labor. as a reulst they become alienated from the product Workers also alienteated from their humanity because they only perform sam kind of tasks . exchange value of labor and goods that show the exploiatiiave nature of capitalism : state-excute commitiet of boeugoieosie :: needs to capitlsi mitself which will give rise to a legistlation that will prodide for social welfare : capitalism-subejct tod contradiction : to udnerstan law and state. grants all sorts of rights : certainly as a mode of production grants grater reedom for majority of peole because eoffapearance of equal rights : how is it tha tsurplus si aprpoiarped from working class. faily are separate from society. how is it it psosbile that wer are able to aprpiaprite labors of othehr people even if they don not themsees produce and expend labor power : class relaiotns logically realted to means of production in that there are people who control means ofproduction and there are people who do on ot oanything except their labor poepwer : acnetin mode of production : slaves subject to maltreatment : in capitalist mode: diffent method of appropairiatoin goods and seriec sby the wokrin glcass. peoplw will feel free. working class will sell the only property they have which is their labor ower— and important point remember staritn igpoint. .instrument of ruling class : if it is the case that base affect sstuperstutcutre. or divide acitivity into minute tasks. divide by public and private effect of idealogy for althouser : law and state.

penal law or criminal law. not possbiel to apprehend tyes of social oolidariy. rests odifreences idoen by people .educaitn al institution. but because they ar eegnaged in highly specialized aciiviites. associates with organic solidarity. in division o f labor. mkes use of unviaesalims and : asosociates organic solslary with crimail alw with resititutive sanctions. at paritucal points in time. >analysis of penal law. associated with law with represeive santions. > durkheims. starting point. universal laws relationship between social facts in lign with empiricism of comte.lead to soicla soldriary because : although they feel lke thei rindiviudals. natural rig tto provate property : idioealogy –prodcut not of human beings. there will come about a form of solidrity which he terms orgnic. maximize pleasure over pain. organic analogy >method in dividion of labor. enaged in rational calculation. so theyw ill value the same things. and outlook in life. leads to collecitive consicenes. crimes are punished because people wtnt o sta away from pain. such as a thing as crime that is unerslaly a crime. which perform fucntions for mantiatin gsociety as a totality > if you look at depictin of modern society. necessary to look for (unviersalim patiualrim) look at nivueal phenomenon that exist in society that will embody changes in society. reprseiisve natur of the sanciotnso associated with penal law.which serves to reproduce loabr power and reproduced submission to the rulin gidealogy of capitalism as a mode of production Durkheim >model of society: organism > society is composed of different organs. they have o epend on so mnay strangers to meet their needs=organic >sturucture and action : univeesl-organic analogy : method of pvoing organic and solidary. argue with relationship with law with criminal santions in tradinoal society > in traidional societies. >traidiontal society. basis for socilidary of societyl mehcnaicla soldiariy rests in sameness doeond by bpeople. you will have the rise of law with reparative sanctions or restitiuutve sancntions. . > criminal law. . nol it is the csee that something become a crime because society will define something asa crime > he will refute arugment of utilitran phiosopehrs that represeiv sacnitons thare attached to ivolation ofc riinal laws because inteintions is to prevent peoplfrom commiting crimes because of the santions attached to the vilations : characterisit co cohuman beings. >indiivudlism is a product of divison of labor > argument of durkhim: why are sacnitons in cinrimal law so coervic has to do with the fact that people belive in values or sentiments because of their smaness in activiites and experiences in traidonioal society : his eecripit no oftrad soicet is that I tis i represeive o rocoercive : for dukrhiem. with diivosn of lablor . .:even dinatn cass. encounter idea of dukrhit that to be scienteisitc.they thik it is natural thatthye have the right to appropriate to appriato surplus money because hits how the system works. utcoe of structure of capiltistm an drequreiments of mode of production : dominnat idealogicl state apparatus. : organic solidarity. auge: universal phenomenon is law. Engaged in different activiites therefore sma experiences. if violated will leadsociety to ask for veangeance . thus the . universal model of development of society. common sense prenontions or subjective maning. they ar no longer suelf succiicent. argument of dukrheim .

one example to illsutreate structe fo ddukrie.. using soiclogay s a science. imdoenrity. : quesiotn ocomon sense prenontison. supersturutre . criminal is treated as a sared object because it crinal is bested with reights : so penailaties attached to crimes changes : it is structure that produces freedom or oagency : organic analogy: organs ofo society. uvnieslalim and praiuclirm. weber-aside fom class it is im priotant to examine social esteem as an idnepnetndent dionsoni iof peower. it is thorugh the punishment of crime that social soicldary is mainitined. soiceity of chage in structure. theory of religion. it is their relations to the mode of prudciot kild determine their lif chances : change ins tructurthat prouddces agency Marx : detemrinaint is class as basis of inqueality . argued aaitinst that society is aggregate eof individulas that individuals just raitnolaly ecided to form a societ though a social contrat : structure and agency. marx owed intllecutal debts to hegel : society is made up of bas-foudnation of oiety. Durkheim: crime iis about puishet collective ecosentincments held by community : it is entire community that carires out the sanction . contrary to common sense assumptions that religion is the wokrhsip of a being. not indivudals but insitutiaont s that perfroma functions : functions of insiutitons go against common sense. crime is all about. religion is about the worhio pfof the power societ has over indiviulais : elelntary forms of religious life. colletive socnsoncien baed on tradinoal religion : structure na action . organs in dividon oof blabor are insitutituions. cirmanlmodertnity ives rise to a new rielgion in humanity . crime is puished because it is offensive to collective consiceincee of society which are strong held sentimes which arise from samesness in acitivities : utilitarian: crime is punished to scare people. therefore all normal or healthy societies need crimes to be puihed : crime is necessary for nthe ufnciton of society to strengthen soloraidaites of society. one casn see that it is csoicety that deifnies what is a crime : objective meaning-quesiotnion iof common sense prenontions. they are dependent on somany strngers for the meting of their needs : give examples of how Durkheim deals with crime . dukrhiem will oin tout that tometm sypliblises the clan : new relgion sof modern osiceity is the indiviula who nw becomes the sacred object of osicety : even pealiteis associeated with crimes changes I modern society. treated with awe an reerence In trad society. law with represiv sianciton : it is ociety that deifnes what counts a s crime : objective and subjective meaing : many moral philsosphers will think that amre man acts tha are acrime.: basis of u nity is difference because peole ar no longer self-sucfficeint. we have to ake use of . : structure and action: especially for oganic analogy. not deterrent for individuals to prevent them from commiting crimes. for us tot analyze any feature of osicety. and pure power. ulitimately. een if they feel individuals. crinal-ensure social solidarity so it is a nompart of osicety Rights. regliosn—unconsoincss. strucue and action : relgion-sacred because it is iteratedscaredly. marx made egel stand on hiw head : do not start with ideas. give the illusion that peoplare free.

: class conflict. we have to question common snese notion so orsubjectie maningl wehich are contained in idealogy. hisutaite isoity within orld histoy : cannotstart with ideas. : mtao nalysze society using base and stuperstructe. to answer problem of. lay don ideal ypical sontcuts. conflict in work of dukrhiem : conflicts take place in societies transition tt o organic osldiray beause there is a forced divion of labor : som epeola are able to occupy positions in sicety no tecause of sill and talent but because the have inherited statuses. at by which theybean to produce tofo their own dsruvival. Durkheim: did not neglect fonclif in the anlaysis of mechanical and organic osldriaty. peole think that they have common values. know dominant way s by wwhich propel procue and disturbute goods : state and idealogy: actios of hnan beings shaps by dstrucure : exisitn grelaiotn os production swill shape agency. natural form of amily is na s product in the change in made of odouctio Which empahixes in thte monogamy onf women because men had to be balbe to ass on their private property tolegitime offspring : consensus/conflict . in line with new-ka . to understand ideas in society. : iron cage. it ist heri posioin in threlation of production that will etermine ones life changces : not conisciuoness that determines soicla being but other say around : cannot start iwht anlaysis of ideas or consicnes of people first. lack oregulaitn gnorms in society. because it is mode of prdution wthat will lead tod evelpmetn of instiuations an ideas : how peopt hink. he has to make use of general/ u niersal ideal tpical contstucts consiintent with neokantian philosophy. we have to take into accutn the interpretative account of hua beings in the stud of oosciety. life chances. working class only know labor power which tey are compleled to sell in thoee laobor pmarket in exhage of wages : universal model-base and sourpersturcte : problem of heistoyr. in a ssne that it misrepresents the objective ralities of affecting hunan beings.due to anomie. rsts on base.unierasl model oso ciceit of marx. we cannot start wit hidas . Weber : debt to neokantian philosophy.model for western society at acetian poin tin time. so labor power is : : prpety relaitons. : preodinat form of action-tradition : to dienty iron cage as a model for society. world of meainig given by balues. base and upserstructur emtapohor highlights. in capitalism stoicety. capitalist wo means of production. ubt there is a falso concsnuss thorugh iealogy . idealogy s form of falsoe cnocnisouness. counterpat to aprirori categoires is thte ideal typical sontiucts of weber. doknow dominant ways which gooda re produced and disturubuted : society made up of unity of oppositions. identification of ideal thpicsl soicontsruc os ooscial action. and ideas. we have to examine the ojectie structure of society which his the base and stuperstrucre . conflit as basis ofociety. because of intellectual debt to kant. for social soceintsts to apprehend facts. hat makes us hauman is that we live for alues.economic base made oup of productive and realotins of production : component parts—labor and means of production : first act of history. socielaogy is a social action. religion opium of the poele Laws be analyzed thoruhg mode of production . freedoms exieiced by people are affected by the structure of society as givn by class relationins.

are themselves prions. what peolt hink as tradion as someitng that is constraining or cfinig by applying objective manign. predicticabality. based on existin aws. weber came up with iron cage. beuraucry becomes dominiat form of social organizintio oin the west because it it sht e most effeiient form of organiziton. hallmarks oare instrumtan lraiton al citons. : if we loka t webers accotn of precondiont sfor makrekt to : we see that market is an illustration of effects of iron cage . his sitarint point issiein of osocial action: he shows that isnturental rational action isthhe unitineted consesnquence fot h earlier form sof social action. not ton the base on the whim of traidiotnal or charamistiac leaders. just s tradionti sered a a caacage or prions of earlier soceites.ntainism . deciosno made on the basis of laws. calculability. : we ca : .