ANOVA Examples

1.

STAT 314

If we define s = MSE , then of which parameter is s an estimate?
If we define s = MSE , then s is an estimate of the common population standard deviation,
σ, of the populations under consideration. (This presumes, of course, that the equalstandard-deviations assumption holds.)

2.

Explain the reason for the word variance in the phrase analysis of variance.
The reason for the word variance in the phrase analysis of variance is because the analysis
of variance procedure for comparing means involves analyzing the variation in the sample
data.

3.

The null and alternative hypotheses for a one-way ANOVA test are…
H 0 : µ1 = µ2 = L = µk
H a : Not all means are equal.
Suppose in reality that the null hypothesis is false. Does this mean that no two of the populations
have the same mean? If not, what does it mean?
If, in reality, the null hypothesis is false, this translates into “Not all of the means are the
same” or equivalently “At least two of the means are not the same.” (Notice that “at least
two” applies to 2 or 3 or … or k means.) This last statement in quotes is not equivalent to
saying “No two of the populations have the same mean” since this is equivalent to saying,
“All of the population means are different.”

4.

In a one-way ANOVA, identify the statistic used…
a. as a measure of variation among the sample means.

MSTr (or SSTr) is a statistic that measures the variation among the sample means for a
one-way ANOVA.
b. as a measure of variation within the samples.

MSE (or SSE) is a statistic that measures the variation within the samples for a one-way
ANOVA.
c. to compare the variation among the sample means to the variation within the samples.
The statistic that compares the variation among the sample means to the variation within
MSTr
the samples is F =
.
MSE

708 0. and y = 9. s12 = 1.880 df E SSTo = SSTr + SSE = 2.7) + 4(0. F = = = 1.8 10. ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 SSTr = n1 y1 − y + n2 y 2 − y + n3 y3 − y = 5(9.4) + 5(8.9.8 2 2 2 2 2 2 SSE = (n1 − 1)s1 + ( n2 − 1) s2 + (n 3 − 1) s3 = 4(1.6 SSTr 2.7) = 10.708 _____ F-statistic 0.124 _____ _____ MS = SS/df 0. Source Treatments Error Total df _____ 20 _____ SS 2.5556 k −1 3 −1 N − k 15 − 3 MSE 0. MSE = = = 0.75 .4 ) = 2.6 MS = SS/df 1. s32 = 0.7.004 MS = SS/df 0.7.9 Source Treatments Error Total 6.4 0.8 SSE 10.8 SSTo = SSTr + SSE = 2.9 p-value p-value > 0.708 MSTr MSTr 0.880 21.880 = 21.5556 Fill in the missing entries of the partially completed one-way ANOVA table.8 .8 − 9.4 MSTr = = = 1.6 − 9.3) + 4 (0.944(20) = 18. Here are the times.124 + 18.75 SSTr SSTr 2.6.) Construct the oneway ANOVA table for the data. df 2 12 14 SS 2.944 MSE F 0.8 + 10.8 = 13.8 − 9.4 .4 .3. s22 = 0.4) + 5(9. y 2 = 8.004 dfTo = dfTr + df E = 3 + 20 = 23 MSTr = Source Treatments Error Total df 3 20 23 SS 2.124 18.8 MSTr 1. y 3 = 9. Hank 8 10 9 11 10 Joseph 8 9 9 8 10 Susan 10 9 10 11 9 (Note: y1 = 9.8 .10 F-statistic 1.708 F= ⇒ MSE = = = 0. to the nearest minute.944 F-statistic 0. The times required by three workers to perform an assembly-line task were recorded on five randomly selected occasions. Compute SSTr and SSE using the defining formulas.8 13.75 SSE MSE = ⇒ SSE = MSE ∗ df E = 0.124 ⇒ df Tr = = =3 df Tr MSTr 0.5.

0 − 494.508.8.7.001 < p-value < 0.2 95. Compute SSTr and SSE using the defining formulas. y 2 = 478.992.508. SAT scores for randomly selected students from each of four high-school rank categories are displayed in the following table.700) + 5(4614.6 = 228.1)2 = 132.0 . s32 = 8018.400) = 95.700 .992.40 F= = = 7.169. k −1 4 −1 N−k 20 − 4 MSTr 44. Top Tenth 528 586 680 718 Second Tenth 514 457 521 370 532 Second Fifth 649 506 556 413 470 Third Fifth 372 440 495 321 424 330 ( N o t e : y1 = 628.700. y 4 = 397.2 SSE = (n1 − 1)s12 + ( n2 − 1) s22 + (n 3 − 1) s32 + (n4 − 1) s42 = 3(7522.1)2 + 5(518.37 p-value 0.1) 2 + 5(478. s12 = 7522.35 F-statistic 7.8 − 494.992.385.1.877. MSE = = = 5.400 .35.508.) Construct the one-way ANOVA table for the data. s22 = 4540.877.40.35 Source Treatments Error Total df 3 16 19 SS 132.667.667) + 4 (4540.0 − 494. y 3 = 518.40 5.877.2 SSE 95.6 MSTr = = = 44.0.6 228.2 + 95.169.8 − 494.877.385. and y •• = 494.8 . s42 = 4614. ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( SSTr = n1 y1 − y + n2 y 2 − y + n3 y3 − y + n4 y 4 − y ) 2 = 4(628.6 SSTo = SSTr + SSE = 132.700) + 4 (8018.37 MSE 5.8 MS = SS/df 44.508.169.1)2 + 6(397.8 SSTr 132.01 . Data on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores are published by the College Entrance Examination Board in National College-Bound Senior.

) Ha : Not all of the means are equal. and the total number of pieces of data is 20. fail to reject the null hypothesis. Step 2 : Significance Level Step 3 : Critical Value and Rejection Region Step 4 : Reject the null hypothesis if F ≥ 3.2 = 492.24 (P-value ≤ 0.24 (p-value > 0.( df 1 =3.10 Decision Since 0. T2 = 154 .05).05).05 Fα .410 i=1 j =1 ni SSTo = ∑ ∑ y ij − 2 i=1 j =1 2 (T ) N = 19.05.2 492. and Brand D. respectively.05.0 Source Treatments Error Total Step 5 : Step 6 : df 3 16 19 SS 68. Step 0 : Step 1 : Check Assumptions Hypotheses H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = µ 4 (The mean lifetimes are equal. Brand A 42 30 39 28 29 Brand B 28 36 31 32 27 Brand C 24 36 28 28 33 Brand D 20 32 38 28 25 Preliminary data analyses indicate that the independent samples come from normal populations with equal standard deviations.2 − 68.2 5 5 5 ⎠ 20 ⎝ 5 SSE = SSTo − SSTr = 560.7333 30.0 560.8. T3 = 149 . to the nearest hour.75 F-statistic 0. 3.410 − (614) 20 j =1 2 = 560. Brand B.( df 1 =k −1. The lifetimes of the batteries. T4 = 143 α = 0. Construct the One-way ANOVA Table T1 = 168 .( df 1 =4 −1. and 4 refer to Brand A.24 k T = 614 . Each sample size is 5. Four brands of flashlight batteries are to be compared by testing each brand in five flashlights.7393 < 3. are as follows.df 2 =16) = 3. Brand C. Then each group of flashlights uses a different brand of battery. Twenty flashlights are randomly selected and divided randomly into four groups of five flashlights each. k ni ni ni ni j =1 2 j =1 j =1 ni ∑ ∑ y ij2 = ∑ y12j + ∑ y 22j + ∑ y 23 j + ∑ y 24 j = 19.df 2 =N − k) = F0. 2.7393 p-value p-value > 0.df 2 =20 −4 ) = F0. does there appear to be a difference in mean lifetime among the four brands of batteries? Let the subscripts 1. State conclusion in words At the α = 0.05 level of significance. . At the 5% significance level. there is not enough evidence to conclude that the mean lifetimes of the brands of batteries differ.2 MS = SS/df 22.2 2 2 2 2 ⎛ (T ) T2 ) T3 ) T4 ) ⎞ (T ) ( ( ( 1 SSTr = ⎜ + + + ⎟− n2 n3 n4 ⎠ N ⎝ n1 ⎛ (168) 2 (154) 2 (149)2 (143)2 ⎞ (614) 2 ⎟− =⎜ + + + = 68.

Manufacturers of golf balls always seem to be claiming that their ball goes the farthest.( df 1 =4. A writer for a sports magazine decided to conduct an impartial test. (Note: T1 = 1. Brand 2. 4. Do the data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that a difference exists in mean weekly earnings among nonsupervisory workers in the five industries? Perform the required hypothesis test using α = 0. T4 = 1.05).05.575)2 ⎟− =⎜ + + + + = 458. and Brand 5 respectively. T3 = 1.128)2 (1.4730 < 3.625 46.142 .153.142)2 ⎞ (5. Each golfer drove the assigned brand of ball.df 2 =N − k) = F0. The driving distances. there is not enough evidence to conclude that the mean driving distances of the brands of golf balls differ.df 2 =15) = 3.5 = 695.089) 2 (1.555. State conclusion in words At the α = 0.50 695.9.185 .153.06 (P-value ≤ 0.099) 2 (1.75 2 2 2 2 2 ⎛ (T ) T2 ) T3 ) T4 ) T5 ) ⎞ (T ) ( ( ( ( 1 SSTr = ⎜ + + + + ⎟− n2 n3 n4 n5 ⎠ N ⎝ n1 ⎛ (1.117) 2 (1.) Let the subscripts 1. and 5 refer to Brand 1.10 Decision Since 2. and 4 ∑∑ y i=1 j =1 2 ij = 1.05 level of significance. are displayed in the following table.25 1. 5 T5 = 1.089 .35 F-statistic 2. and the total number of data pieces is 20.05 < p-value < 0.05.4730 p-value 0.) Ha : Not all of the means are equal. . Step 0 : Step 1 : Check Assumptions Hypotheses H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = µ 4 = µ5 (The mean driving distances are equal.25 Source Treatments Error Total Step 5 : Step 6 : df 4 15 19 SS 458. fail to reject the null hypothesis.( df 1 =5−1.575 i=1 5 4 SSTo = ∑ ∑ y − i=1 j =1 2 2 ij (T ) 2 N = 1. Construct the One-way ANOVA Table α = 0.06 5 T = ∑ Ti = 5. Step 2 : Significance Level Step 3 : Critical Value and Rejection Region Step 4 : Reject the null hypothesis if F ≥ 3. 2. Brand 1 286 276 281 274 Brand 2 279 277 284 288 Brand 3 270 262 277 280 Brand 4 284 271 269 275 Brand 5 281 293 276 292 Preliminary data analyses indicate that the independent samples come from normal populations with equal standard deviations.75 MS = SS/df 114.128 .099.( df 1 =k −1.75 − 485.5 4 4 4 4 ⎠ 20 ⎝ 4 SSE = SSTo − SSTr = 1. She randomly selected 20 golf professionals and then randomly assigned four golfers to each of five brands.117. T2 = 1.05 Fα .575) 20 2 = 1. 3.185 − (5.06 (p-value > 0. in yards.05. Each sample size is 4. Brand 3.153.555. Brand 4.05).df 2 = 20− 5) = F0.

6 11.074.01 Step 3: Critical Value and Rejection Region Fα .031. 5 T5 = n5 y 5 = 126. 3.6 4.5 3.( df 1 =4. and 5 refer to Counterfeiting. 4.6) + 10(4.df 2 =N − k) = F0. Firearms.65 (P-value ≤ 0.8 4.7 yi 14.01.83 2 2 2 2 2 i=1 SSTo = SSTr + SSE = 412.8.2 15. Forgery.5.4 18.7386 MS = SS/df 103. Bureau of Prisons publishes data in Statistical Report on the times served by prisoners released from federal institutions for the first time.65 (p-value ≤ 0. .5 3.5)2 ⎞ (1.65 Reject the null hypothesis if F ≥ 3. respectively. in months.9086 17 12 10 11 ⎠ 65 ⎝ 15 5 SSE = ∑ (ni − 1) si2 = 14 (4. T2 = n2 y 2 = 312.10.91383 F-statistic 5. Step 2: Significance Level α = 0.739 Source Treatment Error Total df 4 60 64 SS 412.0)2 (126.487.830 = 1.909 + 1.7) = 1.487.df 2 =65 −5 ) = F0.5) + 16( 3. Step 6: State conclusion in words At the α = 0.8) 2 (218.8) + 11( 4.22715 17. T = ∑ Ti = 1. there exists enough evidence to conclude that the mean times served for the crime groups do differ.df 2 = 60) = 3.5 .074. 2.01.01 level of significance.01).( df1 = 5−1.001 Step 5: Decision Since 5. Drug Laws. do the data provide sufficient evidence to conclude that a difference exists in mean time served by prisoners among the five offense groups? Let the subscripts 1.4) 2 (156. Major Counterfeiting Drug Laws Firearms Forgery Fraud ni 15 17 12 10 11 si 4.2 i=1 ⎛ ( T ) 2 (T ) 2 (T ) 2 (T )2 (T ) 2 ⎞ (T )2 SSTr = ⎜ 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 ⎟ − n2 n3 n4 n5 ⎠ N ⎝ n1 ⎛ (217.5) + 9( 3. T4 = n4 y 4 = 156.S. T3 = n3 y 3 = 218.5 At the 1% significance level.) Ha : Not all of the means are equal. Step 4: Construct the One-way ANOVA Table T1 = n1 y1 = 217. Step 0: Check Assumptions Step 1: Hypotheses H0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 = µ4 = µ 5 (The mean times served are equal. and Fraud. Independent random samples of released prisoners for five different offense categories yielded the following information on time served.01).5) 2 (312.4 .83 1.074.( df 1 =k −1.031.7656 p-value p-value < 0.0. The U. reject the null hypothesis.9086 1.7656 ≥ 3. The total number of pieces of data is 65.5 18.2) 2 ⎟− =⎜ + + + + = 412.

k ∑ i=1 (Ti ) 2 = [(3* 6) + ( 4 *14 )] ni 2 20 [(4 * 8) + (5 *12)] + [(4 *18) + (5 *2)] + 20 2 [(4 *10) + (5* 9) + (6 *1)] + 2 20 2 20 [74 ] + [82]2 + [91]2 + [92]2 = 1447.01) Step 0 : Step 1 : Check Assumptions Hypotheses Step 2 : Significance Level Step 3 : Critical Value and Rejection Region Step 4 : Construct the One-way ANOVA Table H 0 : µ A = µB = µC = µD  Ha : at least one inequality α = 0.df 2 = 60) = 4.25 = 20 20 20 20 2 2 (T ) [( 3*6) + (4 *14) + (4 *18) + (5* 2) + ( 4 *10) + (5* 9) + (6 *1) + ( 4 *8) + (5*12)] = N 80 2 [( 3*6) + (4 * 50) + (5 *23) + (6*1)] = 80 k ni ∑∑ y = (3 2 ij i=1 j =1 2 2 = [339]2 80 = 1436. In general.df 2 =76) ≈ F0. Note that the data are in the form of distributions for each group. Length of Stay 3 4 4 5 4 5 6 4 5 Group A Group B Group C Group D Number of Patients 6 14 18 2 10 9 1 8 12 a.( df1 = 3. Group B was given an epidural.( df1 = 3.01. The data are presented below. (Use α = 0. with MS addition providing additional safety.01 Critical Value: Fα .13 Reject the null hypothesis if F ≥ 4. Group D was given general anesthesia. the general anesthetic is considered to be the most dangerous. A study of the effect of different types of anesthesia on the length of post-operative hospital stay yielded the following for cesarean patients: Group A was given an epidural MS.df 2 =N − k) = F0.01.11.13.5125 *6) + (4 2 *14) + (4 2 *18) + (52 * 2) + ( 4 2 *10) + (52 * 9) + (6 2 *1) + ( 4 2 *8) + (52 *12) = 1465 . Test for the existence of an effect due to anesthesia type. and the epidural even less.( df 1 =k −1. the spinal somewhat less so. Group C was given a spinal.

0 4 4.5125 = 10. c.4875 2 = 1465 − 1447.75 MS = SS/df 3. I recommend use of the epidural MS for the patients. Does it appear that the assumptions for the analysis of variance are fulfilled? Explain.7375 k ni i=1 j =1 2 2 ij SS 10.01 level of significance. the samples seem to be independent. whose spread is close to that of the others).27 − 1436.5 6. Step 6 : State conclusion in words At the α = 0.5 5.0 2.3219 p-value p-value < 0. we shall reject the null hypothesis. d. .7500 28. 2 N (Ti ) i=1 ni SSE = ∑ ∑ y − ∑ Source Treatments Error Total Step 5 : df 3 76 79 = 1447.k (Ti ) i=1 ni SSTr = ∑ k (Y ) − . Construct side-by-side boxplots to check the assumptions. What specific recommendations can be made on the basis of these data? The epidural MS appears to have the shortest average stay.5 3. however. the variances appear to be a bit different. therefore. Do the results support your answer in (b)? Side-by-Side Boxplots 6. From the description of the problem.. there exists enough evidence to conclude that there is an effect due to anesthesia type.001 Decision Since 15.13 (p-value ≤ 0.5 Group A Group B Group C Group D Anesthetic Group The boxplots seem to be similar in shape (except for Group B.2336 F-statistic 15. and it is the safest method.5792 0.5 4. b.7375 17. so our results are acceptable.01).0 3.0 5.25 = 17.3219 ≥ 4.

6 MS = SS/df 282. there exists enough evidence to conclude that there is an effect due to door color. .01) Color Red Green Black 9 20 6 Time 10 23 8 11 21 5 Step 0 : Step 1 : Check Assumptions Hypotheses Step 2 : Significance Level Step 3 : Critical Value and Rejection Region Step 4 : 9 17 14 15 30 7 H0 : µ Red = µGreen = µBlack Ha : at least one inequality α = 0.01 Critical Value: Fα . The response is the time required to complete the maze as seen below.4 = 169. Perform the appropriate analysis to test if there is an effect due to door color.0142 p-value p-value < 0.1333 F-statistic 20.df 2 =12) = 6.6667 15 k ni ∑∑ y i=1 j =1 2 ij = 9 2 + 112 + 10 2 + 92 + 15 2 + 202 + 212 + 232 + 172 + 302 + 6 2 + 5 2 + 82 + 14 2 + 72 = 3537 2 k Ti ) ( (T ) 2 SSTr = ∑ − = 3367. Three sets of five mice were randomly selected to be placed in a standard maze but with different color doors.4 5 5 5 (T )2 (9 + 11 + 10 + 9 + 15 + 20 + 21+ 23 + 17 + 30 + 6 + 5 + 8 + 14 + 7)2 = N 15 2 (205) = = 2801. Step 6 : State conclusion in words At the α = 0.df 2 =N − k) = F0.3333 2 = 3537 − 3367.01).6667 = 565.001 Decision Since 20.( df 1 =k −1.12.6000 735. (Use α = 0. we shall reject the null hypothesis.8667 14.7333 N i=1 n i k ni k (Ti ) i=1 ni SSE = ∑ ∑ y − ∑ i=1 j =1 Source Treatments Error Total Step 5 : df 2 12 14 2 ij SS 565.93 Reject the null hypothesis if F ≥ 6.7333 169.01.( df1 = 2.4 − 2801.01 level of significance.93.0142 ≥ 6. Construct the One-way ANOVA Table k ∑ i=1 (Ti ) 2 = ni = (9 + 11+ 10 + 9 + 15) 2 + 5 (54 ) 2 (111) 2 (40) (20 + 21 + 23 + 17 + 30)2 5 + (6 + 5 + 8 + 14 + 7) 2 5 2 + + = 3367.93 (p-value ≤ 0.

95 + 4.5452 16 k ni ∑∑ y i=1 j =1 2 ij + 2 = 2.81 + 4.18 B 3. .69 + 4.18 + 3.78) = 241.95 4.69 + 4.95 + 4.) Also.86 5.3097 (Yi • ) ni 2 = 267.69 4.35 + 3.2192 30.35 2 + 3.8549 2 2 t Yi• ) Y•• ) ( ( SSB = ∑ − = 241.60 (p-value > 0.88 + 5.44 + 3.0905 1.812 + 5.95 2 + 4.df =N − k) = F0.df H 0 : µ A = µB H a : µA ≠ µ B α = 0.8728 F-statistic 2.05).05 level of significance.81 5.55 Area 1.81 + 4. State conclusion in words At the α = 0.1842 p-value p-value > 0.26 + 3.47 Step 0 : Step 1 : Check Assumptions (ANOVA Approach) Hypotheses (ANOVA Approach) Step 2 : Significance Level Step 3 : Critical Value and Rejection Region Critical Value: Fα .2192 MS = SS/df 4.26 2 + 3.55) 2 ni 8 + = (1.95 + 4. The table below shows the observed pollution indexes of air samples in two areas of a city.35 3.65) = = 237.86 2 + 5.05 1 Step 4 : 2 1 2 =14 ) = 4.26 + 3.69 + 4.1842 < 4.05.92 + 1.55 2 + 1.44 3. Test the hypothesis that the mean pollution indexes are the same for the two areas.84 0.812 + 4.84 + 0.86 + 5.35 + 3.6357 = 26.8549 − 241.69 4.6357 8 8 2 ⎛⎜ 2.92 2 + 1.882 + 5.95 4.81 A 4.86 + 5.692 + 4.88 + 5. there is not enough evidence to conclude that there is a difference in the average pollution indexes for the two areas.13.88 5.95 + 4.18 2 + 3.81+ 5.47)2 8 ( 34.55 ⎞⎟ (T )2 ⎝ + 1.87) 2 (26.952 + 4. Area 2.60 Reject the null hypothesis if F ≥ 4.472 = 267.6357 − 237.44 + 3.92 1.60.( df =k −1.92 + 1.84 + 0.81+ 5. (Use α =0.10 Decision Since 2.18 + 3.0905 26.84 2 + 0.26 3.05. Construct the One-way ANOVA Table k ∑ i=1 (Ti ) 2 = (2.69 2 + 4.69 + 4.44 2 + 3.( df =1.5452 = 4. verify that t 2 = F for the two-sample pooled case.47⎠ = N 16 2 (61.0905 ni N i=1 t ni t SSW = ∑ ∑ y − ∑ i=1 j =1 Source Treatments Error Total Step 5 : Step 6 : df 1 14 15 2 ij i=1 SS 4. we fail to reject the null hypothesis.

(Use α=0.35 3.78 = 3. Critical Values: ±tα .81 5.1 > 0.1⇒ 0.26 3.78) 2 ⎞ 165.3475 8 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟⎠ nA + nB − 2 ⎛ ( 34.1< p .4812 − ⎜⎝ ⎟⎠ 8 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 8 13.95 4. State conclusion in words At the α = 0.69 4.55 Area 1.2 sp Step 5 : Step 6 : Conclusion Since –2.145 (0.3841+ 12.value < 0.145.2 > p-value > 0.3737 − + 102.05.3685 14 8+8−2 T= ( y A − y B ) − δ 0 = ( 4.145 A B 2 Reject the null hypothesis if T≤–2.3475) − 0 = 1.) Area 2.47 Step 0 : Step 1 : Check Assumptions (Pooled. there is not enough evidence to conclude that the mean pollution indexes are the same for the two areas. we fail to reject the null hypothesis.05 < p .145 or if T ≥ 2.87 = 4.84 0.86 5.44 3.4780 ⇒ t 2 = 2. Step 4 : Test Statistic yA = sp = = ∑y A nA ⎛ ⎜ ∑ y 2A − ⎜⎝ = 34.value < 2* 0. Test the hypothesis that the mean pollution indexes are the same for the two areas.92 1. df =n + n −2 = ±t0 .1842 = F (off due to rounding error).3588 − 3.4780) ⇒ 2 *0. .95 4.88 5.The table below shows the observed pollution indexes of air samples in two areas of a city.value = 2 * P (t ≥ 1.0 2 5.87)2 ⎞ ⎛ (26.t Approach) Step 2 : Significance Level Step 3 : Critical Value(s) and Rejection Region(s) H0 : µ A − µ B = 0 Ha : µ A − µ B ≠ 0 α = 0.145 ≤ 1. *** Show t2 = F: t = 1.18 B 3.8352 = = 1.4780 1 1 1 1 1.4780 ≤ 2.3588 8 (∑ y ) A nA 2 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ + ⎜ ∑ y 2B − ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ yB = (∑ y ) B nB 2 ∑y nB B = 26.1845 ≈ 2.t Approach) Hypotheses (Pooled.81 A 4.df =1 4 = ±2.05 level of significance. we’ll use the pooled t-test.05 = α).69 4.05 Since we don’t know the population variances ( σ 2A and σ B2 ) but think that they are equal (air comes from areas of the same city).3685 + + 8 8 nA n B p .

3955 p-value p-value < 0. 15.24 (p-value ≤ 0. there exists enough evidence to conclude that there are differences in the physical fitness of engineers by time with department group. The results are listed below. Construct the One-way ANOVA Table Step 4 : k ∑ i=1 (Ti ) 2 = (56 + 55 + 62 + 59 + 60) 2 + (64 + 61+ 50 + 57 + 55) 2 ni 5 + 5 ( 45 + 46 + 45 + 39 + 43) 2 (42 + 39 + 45 + 43 + 41)2 + 5 5 2 2 2 2 (292) (287) (218) (210) = + + + = 51851. Use α=0.05 = 3.4 5 5 5 5 2 ⎛⎜ 56 + 55 + 62 + 59 + 60 + 64 + 61+ 50 + 57 + 55 ⎞ ⎟ 2 2 (T ) ⎝ + 45 + 46 + 45 + 39 + 43 + 42 + 39 + 45 + 43 + 41⎠ (1007) = = = 50702. Perform an analysis of variance to determine if there are differences in the physical fitness of engineers by time with department group.001 Decision Since 30.6 1350.( df 1 =k −1.05.( df 1 =3. and 20 years’ experience with the department.95 N i=1 n i k ni k (Ti ) i=1 ni SSE = ∑ ∑ y − ∑ i=1 j =1 Source Treatments Error Total Step 5 : Step 6 : df 3 16 19 2 ij SS 1148.05.24.14.95 201.24 Reject the null hypothesis if F ≥ 3. 10.df 2 =N − k) = F0. State conclusion in words At the α = 0.6 MS = SS/df 382.4 − 50702.05 level of significance.9833 12.df 2 =16) 15 45 46 45 39 43 20 42 39 45 43 41 H0 : µ 5 = µ10 = µ15 = µ 20 Ha : at least one inequality α = 0.45 = 1148. years 5 56 55 62 59 60 10 64 61 50 57 55 Step 0 : Step 1 : Check Assumptions Hypotheses Step 2 : Significance Level Step 3 : Critical Value and Rejection Region Critical Value: Fα . a physical therapist sampled five engineers each with 5.45 N 20 20 k ni ∑∑ y i=1 j =1 2 ij = 56 2 + 552 + 62 2 + 592 + 60 2 + 64 2 + 612 + 50 2 + 572 + 55 2 + 452 + 462 + 452 + 392 + 432 + 42 2 + 39 2 + 45 2 + 432 + 412 = 52053 2 k Ti ) ( (T ) 2 SSTr = ∑ − = 51851.4 = 201. To measure the fitness. She then recorded the number of pushups that each person could do in 60 seconds.55 2 = 52053− 51851. Time with Department. A study of firefighters in a large urban area centered on the physical fitness of the engineers employed by the Fire Department.3955 ≥ 3.05). we shall reject the null hypothesis. .600 F-statistic 30.

05). she asked each branch manager to sample employees randomly and record the number of days of sick leave taken during 1990.( df 1 =k −1.6667 140. there exists enough evidence to conclude that there are differences in the branches regarding sick leave taken during 1990. State conclusion in words At the α = 0.5 = 89.5 10 k + 2 + = 15 2 + 202 + 19 2 + 14 2 + 112 + 15 2 + 112 + 18 2 + 192 + 232 2 ij = 2863 2 Ti ) (T ) 2 ( SSTr = ∑ − = 2812. The bank has a liberal sick leave policy.3333 = 50. To see if there were differences in the time employees took for sick leave.15.6667 MS = SS/df 44.8333 N i=1 n i k k ni k (Ti ) i=1 ni SSE = ∑ ∑ y − ∑ i=1 j =1 Source Treatments Error Total Step 5 : Step 6 : df 2 7 9 2 ij SS 89. and a vice-president was concerned with employees taking advantage of this policy.df 2 =N − k) = F0.05 level of significance.2381 F-statistic 6.3333 − 2722.9167 7.74 (p-value ≤ 0. A local bank has three branch offices. She thought that the tendency to take advantage depended on the branch at which the employee worked. and the data are listed below. .( df 1 =2. Branch 1 Branch 2 Branch 3 15 11 18 20 15 19 19 11 23 Step 0 : Step 1 : Check Assumptions Hypotheses Step 2 : Significance Level Step 3 : Critical Value and Rejection Region Critical Value: Fα . we shall reject the null hypothesis.2056 ≥ 4.05 Decision Since 6. Do this data indicate a difference in branches? Use a level of significance of 0.2056 p-value 0.df 2 = 7) Step 4 : 14 H 0 : µ1 = µ2 = µ3 Ha : at least one inequality α = 0.74 Reject the null hypothesis if F ≥ 4.5000 2 = 2863− 2812. Construct the One-way ANOVA Table k ∑ i=1 (Ti ) 2 = ni = (15 + 20 + 19 + 14) 2 4 (68) 2 (37) ni ∑∑ y i=1 j =1 + (60) (11+ 15 + 11)2 3 + (18 + 19 + 23)2 3 2 = 2812.74.3333 4 3 3 (T )2 (15 + 20 + 19 + 14 + 11 + 15 + 11 + 18 + 19 + 23) 2 = N 10 2 (165) = = 2722.05.05 = 4. Ten employees were chosen.8333 50.05.01 < p-value < 0.