International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology

(IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 2 Issue 12, December 2013

Planning A Strategic Tool to Power System Management
M, Olubiwe,
Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal University of Technology
Owerri,
Nigeria

The following steps are involved in the planning
process:
Abstract
(i) Feasibility studies are carried out to
identify, evaluate and finalize the best
The major part of the energy which human society
plan. Define the problem  Find the
requires today is handled in the form of electrical
alternative  Evaluate the alternative 
energy and the system which generates, control,
select the best one.
dispatches and finally consumes the energy is
(ii) A project report for long, medium and
known as the electrical power system. The most
short term works along with the action
important characteristics of power system is that it
plan/pert chart/bar chart for each
can neither store energy nor is it the ultimate
activity/work is prepared. Dates are set for
source of energy. It simply converts the energy
mile stones i.e important events
available from natural sources into the electrical
measurable along the path to the
form and then handles it in an efficient manner.
fulfillment of the plan.
The stages of these conversion are complex and as
(iii) Final approval is accorded after financial
a result need adequate planning. This paper covers
and economic appraisal.
the basic principles in power system planning,
(iv) Once the best plan has been selected, the
planning methods, planning criteria and standards,
next process of implementation begins.
system development and distribution, system
In executing the plan, monitoring is important to
economics and finance. Since energy demand and
developing a detail task list that supports the
need is increasing on daily basis, there is need to
milestones. Without detailing who will do what and
have a good planning system in place. Included in
when, the plan may not be successfully
the paper is also strategies for action plan.
implemented. The planning action is shown in
KEYWORDS: Power system, planning methods,
figure 1 [1]
development, energy demand.
1.0

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NEW
PLANS

Introduction
Planning is defined as the process of taking a
careful decision. The main input in planning is
quality systematic thought. It involves selecting the
vision, values, mission and objectives and deciding
NO
what should be done to attain them. Basically, the
UNDESIRABL
E DEVIATION
objective of power system planning is to provide
FROM
PLANS
satisfactory service at the lowest possible cost. In a
www.ijert.orgIJERTV2IS120672
Figure
1:
Planning
Actions
power
schedule
Planning
Time
master
determines
optimum
would
maximum
covers
years
of
current
the
network
type
ahorizon.
utility
toas
long
of
utility,
be
plan.
individual
benefits.
investments
fulfill
network
component,
or
of
is
arequired
term
next
‟future
the
medium-term
sdriven
Long
This
goals.
plans.
power
the
arrangements.
year
these
time
covers
and
Network
investments
resources
smaller
by
process
for
i.e
energy
Athe
two
needs
planning
short
system
engineering
annual
timing
/power
inputs:
and
seeks
with
forecasts
and
What
term
in
more
improvements.
within
plan
(5
actions
planning
one
to
defined
of
Future
investment
plan

common
identify
these
or
for
design
10
and
the
covers
two
each
needs
priorities
years)
totoperiod
of
achieve
the
obtain
year
the
each
andbest
onin PLANNIN
G IMPLEMENTATI
MONITORING,
ON
DEVIATION
PLANS
COMPARING
RESULTS
CORRECTIV
UNDESIRABLE
OF
E PLANS
ACTION
WITH 1741

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
(IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 2 Issue 12, December 2013

2.0

Basic Principles of Power System
Planning (Distribution at focus)

Deciding
Forecast
Spartial
primary
of
& forecast
energy
secondary
and
of
network
energy
power
(location
and
Any distribution system planned, is used to
&demand
capacity)
power
for
transport a certain amount of power to maximum
Existing
demand
periodsystem
with
year
capability from the source point at one location toimprovement
wise
specific
and
another location with certain consequences. In
growth
or
expansion
rates
programme.
and
essence, sub transmission and distribution line
Deciding
characteristic
sub transmission
transport power from one bulk power location Deciding
to
s
and
distribution
generation
capacity,
and
the consumer site, and transformers change the
energy
existing
purchase
system
voltage level of the power, considering the
improvement
and demand
and or
following basic principles:
expansion
management
program.
and
 It is economical to transport power at a
transmission
2: Steps
for power
planning
high voltage. TheFigure
higher
the voltage,
thesystem
programme

lower the cost/kw to transport power to a
distant point.
3.0
Planning Methods
 Electricity travels Planning
as per Kirchoffs
current
of integrated resources
and voltage requires
laws. It follows
least
two methods:
the the following
resistant path.
 Power must be delivered
3.1 in relatively
Traditional Least Cost Planning:
small quantities at
a
lowavoltage
This is
process(e.g.
by which utilities
400/230the
V)
level
minimizes
cost of supplying a given amount of electricity.
 Voltage drops It
occurs
from
the source
is the
method
of acquiring resources at the lowest
point to
the
end
location.
cost, taking into account all possible means of
 Losses in power
are incurred,
creating
meeting
electricity
needs aand all resource costs
cost
including construction, operation, sub-trans
 Equipment and mission,
labour come
at a cost, consumer and environmental
distribution,
 Operation and maintenance add to service
costs.
cost
Firstly the existing system inadequacies are
 Future growth accounting is survival.
identified as :
 When power is used for any purpose by
I. Poor voltage regulation
the consumer, the responsibility
II.lies
Higher
on the
system losses
consumer III.
to share
Higher
theequipment
degradation
failures/break
of
down and
environment on this account.
or higher line break down/ tripping.
 Nominal rated system voltage IV.
is the
Bad most
quality of power supply
efficient voltage for
V. equipment
No scope for
operation.
future load growth.
A rise above
The initial
this voltage
system tends
improvement
to reduce
can be very costthe power
effective
factor in
of equipment.
removing the above inadequacies as
to of
theagriculture
other alternative of laying a new
 Segregation andcompared
restoring
extended
Thus
are two options:
supply on a feeder
is system.
a step in
thethere
direction
(a)
System
improvement:
Augmentation
and
www.ijert.orgIJERTV2IS120672
of
economy
and
to
supply
power
at
low
 Electricity
The
shown
electricity
the
main
lowest
in and
lost
retail,
cost
steps
figure
possible
at
grid
to
of
market:
in
(b)
3supply
agricultural
bilateral
links
planning
below.
Expansion
economic
Wholesale,
if
strengthening
alternative
generation
are
Improving
cost
life
involved,
considering
proposed
strengthening
(KW
supply;
KW
network.
due
after
The
contracts
adequate
and
power
available.
and
to
optimal
of
of
and
goal
consumers.
adjusting
energy
additional
equipment
energy),
reduction
existing
works
When
select
social
distribution
the
reliability
is
of
schemes
power
the
will
solution
to
of
additional
benefits
of
the
losses
and
capital
the
provide
cost.
the
existing
net
network:
surplus
cut
in
augmentation
sale
present
of
may
expenditure
existing
case
revenues
over
down
and
from
commercial
are
of
of
be
cost
technical
energy.
saving
quality
of
system
the
power
The
worked
the
various
values
expansion
of
system;
increase
expected
least
and
the
and
incurred
The
in
are
and
out
of
losses
losses
energy
net
the
of1742
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International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
(IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 2 Issue 12, December 2013

present values of alternate
are
3.3. plans
Conservation
Programs
compared to choose Reduce
the least
costuse
solution.
energy
with programmes to
Also financial
of the of
chosen
improve analysis
the efficiency
equipment (like lighting
scheme is
done
to
satisfy
the
funding
and motors), building and industrial processes as
organization.[2]
per the energy conservation
3.2

Demand Side3.4Planning
(DSP)
Load
Management Programs
It is the process
by which
powerdemands
utilities
Redistribute
energy
to spread it
quantify and asses
programme
to
alter
the
more evenly throughout the day. Some of the ways
pattern and level
their
consumer
‟s demand
for progrmmes
of of
doing
this
are, load
shifting
electricity. This
is planning
at the consumers
(reducing
air conditioning
loadslevel
during periods of
and often has apeak
longdemand
planning
period,
much
longer
and shifting these loads to less critical
than distribution
planning
and often
as long
that
periods), time-of
–use
ratesas(charging
more for
of generation. electricity
It can take during
years of
slow
progress
peak
demand
) andtointerruptible
obtain meaningful
levels
of participation.
rates
(providing
rate discounts in exchange for the
According to a study,
the
low-cost
demand
right to reduce consumer
‟s side
electricity allocation
options can be each year during a few hours when electricity
Item
demand is the highest)
Approximate cost (2000)
Implementing energy 3.5
Strategic Load Growth Programs
RS 1500/Kw
Increase
energy use during some periods
Conservation programs
e.g encouraging cost- effective electrical
Providing vigilance
and detection
technologies
that operate primarily during periods
Rs 50/Kw
of low electricity demand
energy theft Within these categories, the following approaches
Providing metering
can be used :
Rs 300/kw
i) General information programmes to
Demand side planning (DSM)
measures,
require
inform
consumers
about generic energy
special programs that try to mobilize cost-effective
efficient options.
savings in electricity
and
peak
demand.
Numerous
ii) Site specific information programmes that
studies in India, china and
otherinformation
countries about
have specific DSM
provide
found that cost effective
DSM programmes
can for a particular
measures
appropriate
reduce electricity use and peak demand
by and home agriculture.
industry
approximately 20iii)
to 40
percent,
DSM
benefits
Financing progrmmes to assist consumers
households, industry, agriculture,
utilities
andincluding loans
to pay for DSM
measures
society in the following ways:
rebates and shared-saving programmes
(i) Reduces consumer
energyinstallation
bills
iv) Direct
programmes that
(ii) Reduces the need forprovide
power plant,
complete services to design,
transmission andfinance
distribution
construction.
and install
a package of efficiency
(iii) Stimulates economic development.
measures
(iv) Creates longv)term
jobs
that
benefits
the
Alternative tariff programmes including
economy.
www.ijert.orgIJERTV2IS120672
1743
time-of
–use
tariffs,
interruptible
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
Utility
main
Increases
Can
Can
Enhances
categories.
Reduces
Reduces
increase
reduce
DSM
enterprise
replacement
national
problems
warning.
dependence
work
worker
programes
the
local
national
spaces.
emissions
‟maintenance
svii)
vi)
viii)
the
competitiveness
and
such
productivity.
air
in
Bidding
comfort
costs
Load
international
Which
Market
security
as
foreign
pollution
generally
substantial
and
supply.
to
generally
power
effective
solicits
service
consumer
that
management,
for
acid
limiters
change
and
distribution
in
load
programmes
and
low
transformation
contribute
that
turn
rain
energy
equipment
by
Wide
companies
quality
shifty
consumption
bids
instead
of
the
do
ways
easing
fall
are
the
saving
can
and
environmental
local
as
spread
not
resources.
market
from
effective
in
consumer
to
into
increase
global
tariff.
they
to
the
of
and
save
of
which
to
shift
on
consumers
use
programs
meters
utility
three
generating
rural/urban
limit
for
promote
transmission,
energy
These
of
draws
aloads
ainutility
the
particular
load
can
‟demand
sbut
that
energy
and
programmes
from
to
service
maximum
result
equipment.
periods.
limiters
slum
they
energy
off-peak
seek
side
the
intariff
are
in
area.

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International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
(IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 2 Issue 12, December 2013

technology or
iii)
service
in case
so that
of important
the efficient
or essential low
technology is in wide
voltage
spreadconsumers,
use without
altemate supply
continued utility intervention.
arrangement from adjacent
The process of designing and distribution
implementing transformer
DSM
be provided.
programmes generallyiv)
consists
Separate
of independent
the following
feeders be laid
steps:
down for major industrial consumers.
 Identifying
v) Incase
sectors,
ofend
rural
uses
areas,
and separate feeder
efficiency measures to target;
be provided.
 Developing
e. The programme
following designs;
voltage levels be used for
 Conduct cost effective
release of
screening
power connection to consumer:
 Preparing an implementation
i. connectedplan
load upto 10KW to be
 Implementing programmes
supplied at 230V single phase,
 Evaluating programmes
[1]
two wire.
ii. connected load between 10 kw
50kw
to be supplied at
4.0
Planning Criteriaand
and
Standards
415/230 V, three phase, four
wire
Criteria and standards form a set of
iii.
Load
demand
between
50kw
and
requirements against which the planning process
5MW to be
can compare alternatives in the evaluation
andsupplied
final at 11kv.
Load
demandgood
between 30MW
choice. A distribution planiv.
must
provide
50MW toand
be supplied at
economy and also satisfy variousand
criteria
33kv or 66kv
standards. Criteria are rules or procedures.
demand
30MW
Standards are specificationsv.toLoad
ensure
thatbetween
the
50MW tothat
be supplied
at
system is built with compatible and
equipment
will
132kv
fit and function together when installed and
vi. manner.
Load demand
above 50MW to
maintained in an economical
Standards
supplied at 220kv
and criteria and their applications to the be
planning
f. Economic
of the
alternate
process depend upon
vision, appraisal
mission and
value plans be
done
on
least
net present values.
system of the utility. Criteria and standards covey
g. master
Power utility
would create and use load
directions in the
plan.
research
facilities
in order to identify
The following are the typical
criteria
for planning:
consumer
load
a. A perspective plan for
the next
15 profiles
years to in the respective
geographical
area
meet the anticipated load growth of
andthe system to forecast
in the load.
forecast load centers. The plan will change
be
h. yearly
The distribution
system
for historical
reviewed
on the basis
of annual
buildings
of
national
importance be
plans with respect to targets achieved.
underground
b. Detailed project reports be framed to
i. the
The system
number strengthening
of 11 KV outgoing
identify
worksfeeders at
distribution
substation should not be
on long term andthe
short
term basis:
more
than
15.
The
length of 11 KV out
i) Feeders having poor
going re-configuration
feeder. Emanating from the
performance:
substation
should
not
be
more
than
12Km.
www.ijert.orgIJERTV2IS120672
1744
(L)
Total
harmonic
distortion
at
any
voltage
c. Security:
d.
Demand
i) Inin
ii)
ii)
iii)
be
financial
reduction
consumption
supply
subtransimission
66
11Kv
side
industrial
undertaken
or
all
New
Loss
open
132
management
be
urban
(k)
j.
technology
(bifurcation
of
conductors
transformers:
system
provided
or
in
minimization
analysis
Loss
ring
feeder
Three
in
cities,
220
demand
estates.
onequipment
the
2000MVA
(b)
250MVA
convenience
66
level
standards
achieve
main
improvement
minimization
Kv.
pay-back
open
phase
project
or
and
by
planned
deployment
to
and
Improved
(a)
and
alternative
system
augmentation
or
should
using
achieve
ring
in
33
and
plan.
distribution
fault
provided
the
LT
that
energy
trifurcation,
design,
urban
KV
exist
reports
period
line
750
horizon
circuit
e.g
greatest
be
metering,
be
not
electronic
levels
could
for
tangible
provided
MVA
aand
within
for
for
the
not
to
source
layout,
code
of
respectively
of
year.
rural
be
reasons
should
all
following
economy
line
exceeding
33
of
this
etc)
achieved
5more
meters
of
types
percent.
loading,
or
practice
areas
respectively.
means
not
of
than
consumers
or
measures
of
efficiency,
be
exceed
by
utility
0.8km
at
350
Planning
for
and
to

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International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
(IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 2 Issue 12, December 2013

performance,
The objective
voltage and
of distribution
service quality
planning is to ensure
standards,
thatlocation
the growing
of substation
demand forand
electricity, with
methodsgrowing
of economic
rates, evaluation
can be satisfy
assures
in an optimum way,
the electrical
mainly to
needs
achieve
of its
minimum
consumers.
total cost
The of the
system may
distribution
conform tosystem
various
expansion.
standards.
Therefore, the
distribution system
planner partitions the problem
Rural electrification
corporation
of planning
the total
standard,
IEC, ISO,
IEEEdistribution
and the system into a set
of sub problems that can be handled by using
electricity
Act 2003. Better,
available, usually heuristic methods and
improved or additional criteria and
techniques. [4]

standard may be required by a
5.1their
SubTtransmission
power utility to achieve
The sub-transmission designates the circuits
objectives.

which deliver
the transmission system
The planning standards
could beenergy
of thefrom
following
to the primary distribution system. Usually the sub
types:
transmission
system
is structure
supplied by the transmission
(i) Development
of standard
cost
sub-stations
stillrates
referred
FOR material and
and is
labour
for to as the sub
transmission.
Many sub
transmission
systems were
different voltage
system
to be
previously
transmission lines local growth and
used in thethe
estimation.
demand
for
more
the
(ii) The load growth for atpower
leastresulted
10 yearsinwill
transmission
voltage
being
low. As a result,
be taken into
account
to too
prepare
voltage
220Kv
down to 33KV are found in
new orfrom
system
improvement
sub-transmission system
schemes.
ison
considered
as consisting of four
(iii) FixedDistribution
LT capacitors
the
elements.
Its sub-transmission,
the substation itself,
distribution
transformers shall
thebefeeder
system and the consumers. A substation
installed.
contains
all
equipment involved in the switching or
(iv) Shunt capacitor fixed/switched
regulating
of be
electricity.
Substations
can be large or
type shall
installed in
the
small. Their system
controlatcan be automatic or manual.
distribution
Power
transformers
constitute
substations to improve
the an important part of
thepower
sub-station.
Thevoltage
transformer
is a static device
factor and
profile
which
electrical energy from one circuit
and transfer
reduce transmission
magnetically
coupled
with
and transforms
distribution
losses.
Theanother
size and
voltage
levels.
On-load
tap
changing
transformers
location will be determined by
areload
usedflow
to regulate
voltages.
studies for
maximumSwitch gear
constitutes
an essential component of the
load conditions.[3]
substation. Under normal operating conditions, it
the means to perform routine switching
5.0
System provides
Development
operations, e.g. disconnecting and isolating various
Large amount of power are generated at
equipment for maintenance, inspection or
power plants and sent to a network of high voltage
replacement, transferring load, isolating regulators,
(220,110, 66 or 33KV) sub-transmission lines. This
etc.
Under
abnormal
conditions,
witch
gear
provide
www.ijert.orgIJERTV2IS120672
1745
distribution
feeding
secondary
complex
This
power
consumption.
investment
through
investment.
transmission
made
studies
system
utility
consumer
network
after
requirements.
to
from
deals
is
grid
annual
of
distribution
for
the
and
particularly
system.
programme
carrying
various
the
The
two
with
has
lower
Power
lines
its
of
centers
point
plans
worked
the
system
For
demands
gear
switches,
connections,
existing
The
well
route
reasons:
interconnected
the
high
Thus,
longer
voltage
utilities
alternatives.
and
the
means
problem.
existing
These
the
include
as
function
5of
with
primary
(distribution
and
investment
out
in
to
important
distribution
are
development
to
the
computer
generation
system,
its
distances
for
trouble
fuse
location
10
lines
ato
identify
(0.415KV)
worked
detailed
system
The
supporting
augmentation/strengthening
circuit
total
years
system,
proximity
should
meet
automatically
control
of
instrument
lines
supply
in
main
to
The
cost.
based
transmitting
to
the
out
network
of
to
and
substations)
in
of
order
the
an
substation
plan
prevent
breakers,
distribution
which
.list
relays
components
meet
the
sub
advance
proposed
the
and
electrical
to
increased
load
power
insulators,
constraints
system.
their
to
transformers,
the
point
of
system,
imposed
is
the
supply
isolating
flow
damage
and
assess
toultimate
adisconnecting
demand
is
demand
of
The
control
ofon
the
and
the
protective
in
options
parts
the
in
and
spatial
the
to
switch
inadequacy
buses
are
switches.
the
as
localize
back
of
then
are:
year.
and
the
load
and
up

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International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
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ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 2 Issue 12, December 2013

(i) Augmentation of power transformer at
5.3
Size
capacity at the existing distribution
substation (66 or 33kv).
As a rule, the minimum economical
(ii) Re-arranging or reconfiguring the subcapacity
a substation
is
transmission
(66 (MVA)
or 33kv)for
feeders
from the
approximately
equal
to one-fourth of high
new transmission
substation
(e.g
220/66kV)
augmenting
line can serve about
sidenearby,
voltage
(Kv). Athe66KV
conductors.
16MVA [5].
(iii) Establishing new 66/11 or 33/11kv
substation nearer to the load centres and
5.4
Service
redistributing the load
between
the Area Location
Theand
service
area for aas
substation
should be as far as
existing
new substations
also
is practical,
circular.
consumer should be
strengthening
the existing
11kV The
feeders
served
from
the
nearest
substation.
This will make
and adding new 11kv feeders.
theenable
supplythe
line
distance as
Load flow studies
computation
of short
lossesas possible to
reduce losses,
costs cost
and service
for various alternatives.
The least
optimal interruption
exposure.
apply thisthe
concept,
solution is worked
out by To
considering
capitalthe best
approximation
is
made
by
the
perpendicular
cost of the proposed works and the present values
bisectors
rule.
It consists
of the following steps
of peak demand KW
losses and
energy
losses over
[6].
(a)ofDraw
straight line between a proposed
the expected life
the aequipment.
substation
of the substations
Power utilities should prepare as asite
codeand
of each
practice
surrounding it.
for Network expansion and a demand side
(b) the
Thenincreasing
draw a perpendicular
bisect of each
management to meet
demand and to
of these lines.
improve the reliability and quality of supply. This
(c)
The
area
enclosed
by
the
perpendicular
includes determining planning standards, criteria
bisectors for
around
proposed
and strategies. System expansion
the the
purpose
of substation
will be is
thedone
service
area.
releasing of power connections
as per
the See the figure 4
below.
distribution code. The other consideration could be
design as regard the design code and construction
B
standards.

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Distribution Substations Sitting

AC

Planning of substation is best done by
considering the impact of any sitting or sizing
decision on all four levels. The main criteria for
substatio
selecting a substation site are:
n Figure
(a) Proximity of load: Some sites are close to
3:
existing transmission lines or can be
reached at low cost. Other sites require
Process
D
E
lengthily or underground access, thus
of
adding to cost.
Substatio
(b)
Outgoing
feeder
space:
Getting
a
feeder
www.ijert.orgIJERTV2IS120672
(f)
Weather
exposure:
Sites
on
hill
tops
Existing
are
Proposed
station
Subn the
Sitting
(c) Cost
(d)
(e)
Geographic:
Site
out
facilities
raise
underlying
cost
and
others.
more
weather,
maintenance
of
preparation:
land:
of
building
exposed
of
costs.
a(e)
(d)
Nearby
preparing
substation
increasing
some
The
soil
may
costs.
to
the
The
sites
substation
terrain
optimal
constrain
shifting
substations
the
closer
area
then
lightening
and
foundation.
slope
the
purpose
required
rock
some
the
falling
cost
site
to
or
site
determine
drainage
of
proposed
determines
feeder
operation
that
“C”.
more
public
and
for
the
can
is
for
right
within
substation
to
than
adverse
aload
be
routing
If
and
asubstation
shift
site
by
determined
new
of
and
this
the
of
the
an
above
way.
should
substation
nearby
the
iterative
and
polygon.
is
and
specific
not
three
repeat
from
be
accomplished,
moved
Let
process.
steps.
is
the
load
us1746
say
of a

International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
(IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 2 Issue 12, December 2013

5.4 Feeder System
6.0
Distribution System Economics &
Feeder is part of the distribution system
Finance

tailored to load locations
and analysis
needs. Voltage
Economic
is carried out to determine
drop, powertheflow,
power
quality
and
cost
low cost plan among various are
alternatives.
important points
of
consideration.
More
than
Financial analysis determines the rate of return and
80% of the distribution
is
risk involved worldwide
on the investment
to be made on the
accomplished using a radial feeder in which
plan.
there is only
one
path
between
any
consumer
The finance to carryout the planned distribution
and substation. In most cases,
the feeder
projects
are tied to the following.
system is physically
interlinked
with
normally
 Annual expenses: this
is obtained from
open switches at suitable points, which
the operating revenue
are operated as radial.
The
various
types
 Capital Expenditure thisofis obtained from
feeds are:
financing, reinvested reserves, reinvested
(i) Radial feeder: Theseearnings,
are low cost
circuits
consumer
‟s, contribution for
and easy to analyze and operate though
service connections
reliability is
Both
low.
annual
Any equipment
expenses and
failure
capital
will interrupt service to at least all the expenditure.
consumers down
Investment
stream decisions
from it. is made on alternative
proposals with
(ii) Loop feeder: Two feeders
can the
be following methods.
constructed and operated as loop feeder
6.1 Economic
Analysis
circuits and are tapped for consumers
in
Minimum
Revenue
Requirement;
which the power
flows
into each
end of a A choice is
madeisona the
the present
feeder. There
nullbasis
pointofsomewhere
on value of all
future
annualflows.
costs.This
Thatisis the economic
the loop where
no power
choice
is
the
one
with
present value
basically a dynamic radial circuit the
withlowest
an
of allpoint)
futureshifting
costs. The
open point (null
as economic
the load comparison
between alternatives
involves two steps:
changes, when constructed
and
i. For each alternative, estimate the annual
properly protected, it provides a
cost each year
high level
of
reliability
for
the
ii. If the annual cost are not uniform,
consumer.
calculate their present value.
(iii) Feeder network: This consist of a group
of feeders which are interconnected
so that
6.2
Time
value of money
there is always more
than
one
route
Money has time value and interest on
between its
any
two
points
feeder
usebe paid. in
has to
Thethe
rate
of interest is determined by
network.the
It reserve
is designed
sufficient
bank with
of Nigeria
or the country in
capacityquestion.
protectorAtthroughout.
This
systemthere is a machine
international level,
gives a very high level of reliable
powerthe
to interest rate.
to determine
the consumer.
The cost
is requires
very highthe least expenditure
Alternative
which
compared to the radial system.
Voltagewould be the best.
immediately
The and
total
revenue
requirement of
drop, fault
behavior
load
flow
studies
The process of taking money and
finding its
www.ijert.orgIJERTV2IS120672
1747
6.3
Revenue
Loop
LT
of
investment
are4:some
program
studies
equivalent
value
is
equivalent
value
is
[7].
what
the
e)calculation.
calculation.
complicated.
Interest
key
d)
sum
value
value
Operating
aid
of the
to
on
at
atrequirement
carry
The
loan
earlier
Present
annual
Computer
some
and
the
a)
process
future
capital
c)
out
future
maintenance
Return
charges
service
time
value
Insurance
such
b)
of
value
date
and
is
on
Depreciation
is
finding
extending
life.
called
investment
working
the
f)
is
calculations.
expenses
expenses
capital
Taxes
called
reverse
Itthe
present
includes
over
future
of
bus
Substation
12
FEEDER
Figure
HTinvestment
and
LT
loop
feeders
Moving
HT
loop
Null
point

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International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology
(IJERT)
ISSN: 2278-0181
Vol. 2 Issue 12, December 2013

The above charges can be conveniently estimated
as a percentage of the original investment
.

7.0

Conclusion

The objective of power system planning is
to provide satisfactory service at the lowest
possible cost. In a power utility, the process seeks
to identify the best schedule of future resources and
actions to achieve the utility‟s goals. System
planning is essential in power systems to ensure
that future expansion is carried out without creating
problems to the consumers during the period of the
expansion. As a result of this, the paper has treated
the principle of power system planning, planning
methods, demand side planning and system
development.
This is to ensure that all critical aspect of planning
is treated and to ensure that effective planning
culture is carried out to ameliorate the problems in
our power systems,

REFERENCES
[1] Pabla, A.S „Electric Power Distribution‟‟ Tata
McGrow-Hill publishing company Ltd
New
Delhi. Fifth edition 2006
[2 Guidelines for development of sub-transmission
and distribution systems volume
1, central
electricity authority, ministry of power, New Delhi,
November 2001
[3] Willis .H., L, „Power distribution planning
Reference Book‟ Marcel Dekker,
Inc.NT1997, page 209
[4] Jennings.B.B., Richard D.M, and James .E. W
“Distribution Systems Integrated Voltage and
Reaction Power Control” IEEE Transac, PAS-101
Feb,
1982,PP 284- 286.
[5] Pabla A.S., „Electrical Power systems
planning‟, Macmillan India limited 1998, PP 284286
[6] Stevenson, William .D., „Elements of Power
System
Analysis,
‟www.ijert.orgIJERTV2IS120672
MNew
C Graw
Hill
Kogakusha,
Tokyo,
John
[7] Wiley
Still
3rd
edition,
&Harry
sons,
.G.,
1975
York,1989,
„Least
cost
p.74
Electric Utility,‟

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