TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING

INTRODUCTION
Hardening uses heat and rapid cooling (quenching) to increase the hardness, strength and/or
durability of steel. Heating steel or iron above their upper critical temperatures modifies the
crystal structure of the metal to a form called Austenite. With this atomic arrangement the carbon
can then freely migrate to a new location. When hardening, the aim is to quickly quench the
Austenite, thus trapping the carbon atoms in their new positions in the crystalline structure. The
transformed structure, called Martensite, is extremely hard. In addition, hardening creates
important internal residual stresses that can be either beneficial or disadvantageous. Depending
on requirements, tempering can be carried out after the induction hardening process.
With induction hardening, only the material in the heating zone is heated. There’s no need to
treat the whole mass of the component, thus saving energy. The hardening result depends upon a
complex interaction of process parameters such as coil and quench design, material analysis,
component geometry, heating frequency and power and quenching cycles. At EFD Induction we
have all the expertise required in electromagnetism, power electronics, metallurgy and induction
hardening process setup. Induction has been developing induction-heating solutions for more
than 50 years. Today, we’re the world’s largest induction hardening equipment maker, with
manufacturing plants, R&D centers and sales companies around the world. Our strength is
complete, tailored systems. We usually start in the lab, with materials analysis and computerized
simulation of various solutions. We also look at coil design, and determine which quenching,
loading/unloading and control systems best suit your needs. And of course, we don’t consider our
job done until your systems and your operators are up and running 100%.
Hard-line is our complete range of heat treatment systems from vertical, horizontal, rotary table
and center less systems to customized, one-off solutions. In fact, custom-engineered solutions
account for more than half of all the hardening systems we deliver.

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TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING
Major components in our systems are EFD Induction Sinac Universal Heat Generators. Sinac is
the market’s widest range of generators, offering an unrivalled spectrum of frequencies. And of
course, we also offer tempering options, either as stand-alone options, or fully integrated into the
equipment.
The principle of induction heating by RF electric current, there an electric conductor such
as iron or steel placed in the inductor is heated rapidly by induced eddy current caused by
electromagnetic induction, and hysteretic heat loss, which is generated by vibration and friction
of each molecule in magnetic material under AC magnetic flux.
As RF frequency, which is higher than that of commercial electric power, is used for
induction heating, induced current flows only in the limited area near surface of heated material
because of skin effect and proximity effect, and heat loss occurs only there by eddy current and
hysteretic loss. The skin effect is the phenomenon, which RF electric current flows only in the
limited area near surface of conductive material, and proximity effect is the phenomenon, which
the primary current in the inductor and the secondary current in the conductive material pull each
other because the direction of current is opposite each other, and flows in the limited area near
surface where distance is nearest each other. The relation between frequency and depth of RF
electric current flow for steel material heated by induction at 1,000 degree. The depth depends
upon the frequency and as the frequency is higher, the depth becomes smaller as shown in the
curve.
Induction method of heating is wide spread used in numerous technological processes for
hot forming, surface hardening, annealing, etc. It is extremely effective because of its contactless
energy transfer, unlimited power densities and controlled temperature field in the work piece.
However, high potential of induction heating can be fully realized on the basis of numerical
simulation only. All technological processes used induction method of heating is multi physical.
Heating by induction it includes electromagnetic and thermal physics, which are strongly
coupled because of temperature dependent properties of the work piece material. Induction
heating is a process which is used to bond, harden or soften metals or other conductive materials.
For many modern manufacturing processes, induction heating offers an attractive combination of
speed, consistency and control.

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which is higher than that of commercial electric power. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. induced current flows only in the limited area near surface of heated material because of skin effect and proximity effect.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Many industries have benefited from this new breakthrough by implementing induction heating for furnacing.The principle of induction heating by RF electric current is there an electric conductor such as iron or steel placed in the inductor is heated rapidly by induced eddy current caused by electromagnetic induction. As RF frequency. which RF electric current flows only in the limited area near surface of conductive material. and proximity effect is the phenomenon. and hysteretic heat loss.PUNE Page 5 . and heat loss occurs only there by eddy current and hysteretic loss. The skin effect is the phenomenon. is used for induction heating. quenching and welding. and flows in the limited area near surface where distance is nearest each other. which is generated by vibration and friction of each molecule in magnetic material under AC magnetic flux. which the primary current in the inductor and the secondary current in the conductive material pull each other because the direction of current is opposite each other.

Pimpri-Chinchwad.com HISTORY GKN SINTER METAL is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING COMPANY PROFILE NAME OF COMPANY:.Mumbai-PuneRoad.600 (2016) DIVISIONS: . Aerospace ESTABLISHED:.1975 Pimpri Plant PRODUCTS:-Vehicle components (Powder Metallurgy) REVENUE: .GKN Driveline.www. Wales. by Thomas Lewis and Isaac Wilkinson.PUNE Page 6 .LTD.£323 million (2015) NET INCOME:.GKN Aerospace. WEBSITE:.231 million (2015) OPERATING INCOME:.GKN Powder Metallurgy.GKN SINTER METAL PVT.£7.GKN Land Systems.Public limited company ADDRESS:-No.£202 million (2015) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES:.GKN is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Merthyr Tydfil.Maharashtra-411018 TRADED AS LSE: GKN INDUSTRY:-Automotive. Keen and Nettlefolds and can trace its origins back to 1759 and the birth of the Industrial Revolution.146. TYPE:. John Guest was appointed manager of the works in 1767.Pimpri Colony. Dowlais Ironworks by George Childs (1840) The origins of GKN lie in the founding of the Dowlais Ironworks in the village of Dowlais.gkn. The company was formerly known as Guest. Worcestershire. having moved from SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

the Dowlais Ironworks gained the reputation of being "one of the World's great industrial concerns".Though the Bessemer process was licensed in 1856. By the mid-1860s. his trusteeship terminating in 1864 when ownership passed to Sir Ivor Guest.(GKN). He formally retired in 1897.T. Clark delegated day-to-day management to Menelaus. Guest introduced many innovations and the works prospered. Clark and William Menelaus. Blast-furnaces and steel melting shop at Margam. the Dowlais Iron Company and Arthur Keen's Patent Nut and Bolt Company merged to form Guest. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Under Guest's leadership.By 1857 G. which now held Baldwin’s: Coke ovens at Margay. the world's most powerful rolling mill. alongside his manager John Evans. Clark's reforms had borne fruit in renewed profitability. Cardiff Iron and Steel Works.PUNE Page 7 . forming alliances with the Consett Iron Company and Krupp. in 1937 the company fired-up the single remaining blast furnace at Dowlais. steel works and rolling mills at Port Talbot.All of the sites were heavily bombed by the Nazi Luftwaffe during the war. in 1854 and was acquired in 1902 leading to the change of name to Guest. nine years of detailed planning and project management were needed before the first steel was produced. in particular. had been established in Smethwick. the company amalgamated its steel production business with that of rival Baldwins to form Guest Keen Baldwins. blast-furnaces at Briton Ferry. coke ovens at Cwmbran. Keen & Co. who formed the Dowlais Iron Company with his son-in-law William Taitt. The company thrived with its new cost-effective production methods. Due to a resultant global shortage of pig iron. Resultantly in 1930. had constructed the "Goat Mill". John Guest was succeeded by his son. Keen and Nettlefolds . Steel production remained at the core of the company. Nettlefolds Limited. West Midlands. Thomas Guest. limestone and silica quarries In 1935 the company demolished the Cardiff works to construct a new modern production facility on the same site. but under increasing profit margin pressure. funded by an issue of debentures.In 1786. However. his manager. Clark continued to direct policy. On 9 July 1900. lime stone quarry at Cornell GKN: Dowlais Iron and Steel Works. Ltd. a leading manufacturer of fasteners.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Broseley. building a new plant at the docks at Cardiff and vetoing a joint-stock company.

which were renamed Guest Keen Iron and Steel Co.PUNE Page 8 . However. GKN were still highly reliant on the supply of good quality steel.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING and the required investment meant that all of these assets were nationalized as part of the 1951 Iron and Steel Act. and so in 1954 negotiated from the asset realization company the repurchase of key assets from ISC. resultantly becoming part of the Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. In 1961 the company's name changed again to GKN Steel Company SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

Auto structures  Cylinder liners.PUNE Page 9 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING THE COMPANY IS ORGANIZED AS FOLLOWS: 1. GKN Aerospace  Aero structures  Engine Products  Propulsion Systems 2. GKN Powder Metallurgy  Sinter Metals  Hoeganaes  References SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Sheep bridge Stokes  GKN Land Systems 4. Power Management  Power Train Systems & Services  Wheels and Structures  Struma 5. GKN Driveline  Driveshaft  Freight Services 3.

GKN is developing an innovative hydrogen storage technology on industrial scale. Special metal composites store hydrogen as metal hydrides like in a sponge. producing safe and quit-running components with a long service life. because engineers often work sequentially: first a design is completed. and then a manufacturing process is sought.  High Performance Gears As development partner of the automotive industry we are producing the widest range of sintered high performance gears from metal powder worldwide. such as additive manufacturing. By using PM technology. thanks to an increased freedom in part design and reduction of manufacturing costs.  Design for Powder Metallurgy The powder metal industry.PUNE Page 10 . We have a vision of what’s to come – advanced thinking – increased capacity – and design freedom. the limits in torque and power density can be expanded. Our processes are environmental friendly. We spark life changing technologies. high performance gears and soft magnetic composites. has historically operated in a ‘build to design’ environment. In this technology.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING OPERATIONS  Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen is emerging as an important energy vector and as a true zero-emission fuel if produced with renewable energy. In a process driven business powered by innovation we are a one-stop solution provider. hydrogen is stored with superior volumetric density and low pressure. making this technology very safe and providing a low storage footprint.  Technology & Innovation Our people are driving innovation. This method inhibits product optimization by overlooking the advantages that the collaborative ‘Design for PM’ approach delivers  Powder To Part:– Material Manufacture SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.  Soft Magnetic Composites (SMC) SMC enables entirely new approaches in electric motor design such as axial or transverse flux motors. for the most part.

PUNE Page 11 . GKN recycles scrap steel to manufacture the materials that make these parts PRODUCTS (PIMPRI PLANT):1.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Powder metal components are becoming more prevalent in automotive and other applications. PM has proven to be an ideal and competitive solution for this application due to a combination of net shape capability and excellent material performance. CLUTCH HUBS  Overview Clutch hubs are high strength products that are attached to the clutch plate and used to transmit engine output torque into the transmission. repeatable and low distortion sinter-hardening process – eliminates separate hardening step  Material: Steel  Process: Conventional PM SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.  Application Details Manual transmissions Automotive and light truck  Advantages Supplied net shape and hardened: “Ready to Install” Designs optimized for ease of attachment to clutch plate Reliable.

PUNE Page 12 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Fig:.  Application Details Automatic transmissions for front and rear driven vehicles Automotive and light truck applications  Advantages Lightweight optimized designs Net shape capability and consistent dimensional precision reliably delivers complex geometry with minimal machining SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. ONE WAY CLUTCHES  Overview One way clutches (OWC) are a key component of all automatic transmissions. and high performance materials facilitated the development of new OWC systems that are more easily integrated into compact and efficient transmission designs.Clutch Hubs 2. GKN is the market leader for PM OWC’s with an established track record of delivering optimized and competitive solutions for many customers and applications. PM’s design freedom combined with dimensional precision.

PUNE Page 13 . low distortion sinter hardening process eliminates variation inherent to competing hardening processes Option to integrate OWC into other components – such as planetary carriers  Material: Steel  Process: Conventional PM Fig:. PLANETARY CARRIERS  Overview Planetary carriers are a key component of automatic transmissions.One way clutches 3.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Consistent. competing technologies. and cost vs. PM technology has delivered an essential solution by facilitating the integration of carrier housings with one way clutches. As the demand increased for more fuel efficient vehicles with transmissions with more forward speeds. space. planetary carriers became more complex and also began to serve multiple functions. hydraulic pressure systems and clutch backing plates – resulting in unprecedented savings in weight.  Application Details SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

or assemblies  Advantages Design freedom facilitates unique designs and integrated functions Lightweight. high strength designs Sinterbonding reliably joins multiple levels and different materials Minimal machining required due to nearest to net shape capability Pinion gear contact surfaces are net shape and include geometry to optimize lubrication  Material: Steel  Process: Conventional PM SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. finish machined carriers.PUNE Page 14 . continuously variable. and hybrid transmissions Passenger car and light truck applications Supplied as blanks.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Automatic.

GKN has a proven track record of developing optimized and competitive solutions for many different customers and applications on a global basis.  Application Details Double clutch and manual transmissions Automotive and light truck applications Solutions for both highly competitive and high performance applications Torque levels up to 750Nm  Advantages Lightweight. optimized designs with integrated features to improve performance and lubricant distribution Excellent dimensional precision for improved shift feel Minimal machining is required due to nearest to net shape capability Materials matched to performance requirements In-house fatigue performance testing SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Fig:-Planetary carriers 4.PUNE Page 15 . and has facilitated improvements in performance while also reducing weight. PM has proven to be the premier solution for this component. SYNCHRONIZER HUBS  Overview Synchronizer Hubs are the core product for the shifting mechanism in all double clutch and manual transmissions.

TURBINE HUBS  Overview Automatic transmissions rely on a torque converter to engage and disengage engine power without the need for a driver-operated clutch.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Global capability: manufactured in three regions  Material: Steel  Process: Conventional PM Fig:-Synchronizer Hubs 5.PUNE Page 16 .  Application Details Automatic transmissions with wet clutch torque converter Front and rear wheel drive transmissions SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. PM technology has proven to be an highly competitive and high performance solution for many customers and applications. A turbine hub is the coupling that connects the engine to the torque converter. The main part of a torque converter is a fluid turbine which selectively transfers engine power into the transmission.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Automotive and light truck applications  Advantages Nearest to net shape solution – only minimal machining required Optimized oil flow geometry . INDUSTRIAL COMPONENTS Bicycle Hub Transmission Bicycle Hub Transmission Components for bicycles provide a great variety of applicability for Powder Metallurgy.PUNE Page 17 . SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. PM can be implemented for all components that are exposed to high stress. for example in gear hub components.with no sharp edges or loose burr risks Proven. high strength materials  Material: Steel  Process: Conventional P/M Fig:-Turbine hub 6.

CRANKSHAFTS After the First World War it became apparent that Britain was likely to follow France and more recently the United States in developing a large scale auto-industry. Star and Argyll. and iron and steel making to manufacturing finished goods. he became personal friends with Herbert Austin. These products require highly complex geometries and high performance materials that deliver corrosion resistance and strength. the company's customers for sheet steel bodies included Austin. with customers including SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. in 1919: Cotterill already owned a subsidiary named J. By 1914. resultantly becoming a supplier of sheet steel components to the industry. and artificial limbs. F. and it was the forgings produced at the Garrington Darlaston plant. 9.. connecting rods.Production started in 1908. These mergers heralded half a century in which the name GKN became synonymous with the manufacture of screws. W. The company reflected the vertical integration fashionable at the time embracing activities from coal and ore extraction. GKN purchased steel company John Lysaght and their subsidiary. later supplemented by a large plant at Bromsgrove.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING 7. that enabled GKN to become a major supplier of crankshafts. Garrington. bolts and other fasteners[according to whom?. After training as an engineer. in decorative form. PRESSED STEEL WHEELS In 1920.using his experience from tea trays Sankey developed an alternate pressed-steel wheel. FASTENERS Display showing products of Guest Keen & Nettlefold Ltd. 8. 10. nuts. Joseph Sankey and Sons Ltd.GKN acquired another fastener manufacturer. Sankey founded a major tea tray producer. Humber. A pioneer motorist.PUNE Page 18 .As a result of complaints from motor manufacturers about the propensity of the then wooden wheels on early cars to disintegrate on the slightest encounter with any roadside kerb. Rover. Cotterill Ltd. which specialised in forgings. Daimler. W. MEDICAL COMPONENTS The rapidly growing sophistication of the medical field is driving the need for surgical tooling and laboratory equipment as well as prosthetic implants. half-shafts and numerous smaller forged components to the UK auto-industry during and beyond the period of massive expansion between the two world wars.

READ MORE  Porous Metal Filters Filters and associated components based on GKN’s controlled porosity materials are depended on in a wide variety of demanding applications where traditional filters are unable to deliver the required performance. PROCESSES IN PIMPRI PLANT: PM Today The majority of PM products are manufactured using the “Conventional” method pioneered in the 1930’s. PM technology and new soft magnetic materials enable engineers to develop smaller products with improved performance. READ MORE  Surface Dandified PM A new PM technology that enables high density performance where required. Improvements in materials and processes has resulted in a new class of high performance. without the weight penalty of fully dense products. READ MORE  Soft Magnetic PM Growing demand for electric motors and electro-mechanical systems has highlighted a need for new design and material solutions. highly stressed gears requiring high performance and light weight. later. William Morris. READ MORE  Aluminum PM New PM Aluminum materials developed by GKN are challenging paradigms about material performance offering a new option to engineers when weight reduction and performance improvement are priorities.PUNE Page 19 . READ MORE  Metal Injection Molding SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. In addition to his original factory at Bilston a new plant was established near Wellington.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Herbert Austin and. competitive and creative product. consistent. This is an ideal process for complex.

 Prototyping in AM In a competitive environment. including Aluminum. Iron. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.getting your solution to the market first is a clear advantage. stainless steels and high temperature alloys. GKN's additive manufacturing capabilities are allowing us and our partners to develop products more rapidly.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Delivering the three dimensional shape capability of plastic injection molding combined with the performance of alloy steels. speed is a crucial enabler . MIM is uniquely positioned to solve extreme product challenges. Alloy and Stainless Steel.  Materials GKN Sinter Metals offers the broadest material selection in the industry to meet a wide range of needs. Composites and High Temperature alloys. Brass. Bronze.PUNE Page 20 .

(3) Asakawa Heat Treatment Co. Ltd.PUNE Page 21 . Ltd. Correctly designed. Koji Yatsushiro. Development Of Induction Surface Hardening Process For Small Diameter Carbon Steel By Specimens Daisuke Suzuki. Bonding. Induction heating system has a number of inherent benefits compared to traditional heating systems due to a non-contact heating process. choice of the plate material and different coil configurations based on application. The important investment in induction heating process is in highly qualified coil technicians and advanced coil design equipment and got benefit by having coils that are customized to their specific needs and conditions. welding.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING LITERATURE SURVEY 1.. Vijay H. the induction surface hardening process by the ultra high frequency generator of 2MHz.. the highly frequency generator make a shallow hardened zone. Ltd. under various SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. In case of induction hardening. The objective of the present work reviews different coil configurations used for the induction heating Process which is based on application such as surface hardening. Atul A.. Patil2. Motoki Saito (3). Patil3 Department Of Mechanical Engineering Godavari College Of Engineering. Jalgaon. Casting. A Critical Review On Different Coil Configurations Used For Induction Heating System By Tejas G. was developed. Katsuhiko Kubota(1) Yamanashi Industrial Technology Center (2) Ys Electronics Co. Rolling. Yoshio Sugita (2). Additionally. India. The specimen (6mm in diameter) was hardened using our developed device. Brazing. manufactured and maintained induction coils are critical to the overall efficiency of induction heating solutions. which had not used in the general conventional process. In this study. (4) Marushin Heat Treatment Co. The main interesting area of the induction heating process is the efficiency of the usage of energy. Seiji Shimizu (1). hardening for smaller diameter specimen is enabled. Post Heating and Water Heating. Patil1. 2.

National Institute of Technology. hsingh_nitk@rediffmail. The experi. rolled and normalized. central composite design (CCD).com. the best result in 3mm diameter specimen had very shallow hardened zone that depth was about 0. DAV Institute of Engineering and Technology.com. current. in the hoop direction. Moreover. Quenched specimens were evaluated by measuring residual stress distribution.e. Optimization of processing parameters in induction hardening using response surface methodology ByAMIT KOHLIa. which was compared with the present induction hardening.PUNE Page 22 .tion experiments.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING conditions of generator voltage and specimen moving speed. However. The obtained optimal process parameters have been predicted and verified by confirma. In this paper. Jalandhar City. which is measured in mm/sec). and the hardness was about 600HV near the surface. hardness distribution and distortion. This anisotropy was caused large thermal stress. As a result. 3. Kabir Nagar. one of heat treatment condition brought a good result. Punjab 144 008. an effective procedure of response surface methodology (RSM) has been utilized for finding the optimal values of process parameters while induction hardening of AISI 1040 under two different conditions of the material i.. Furthermore. India bMechanical Engineering Department. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Various process parameters. and hardness was about 600HV near the surface. cross-section observation.ment plan was based on rotatable. Hardness at two different conditions has been considered as performance characteristic. dwell time (time after which heat intensity starts to heat work piece in seconds) and gap between the work piece and induction coil have been explored by experiments. The experimental results showed that the proposed mathematical models suggested could describe the performance indicators within the limits of the factors being investigated. the depth of hardened zone was about 0.4mm. compressive residual stress was about 0MPa. India email: mechanical_amit@yahoo. such as feed rate (speed at which the induction coil moves.09mm. it was decreased slightly from surface to center.∗ and HARI SINGHbaMechanical Engineering Department. Kurukshetra 136 119. The deeper hardened zone specimens had compressive residual stress about 500MPa in the longitudinal direction at the surface.

Laukik P.PUNE Page 23 .In machining fixtures. This can be achieved by selecting the optimal location of fixturing elements such as locators and clamps. Computer and Engineering Department. frequency. Quebec. minimizing workpiece deformation due to clamping and cutting forces is essentialto maintain the machining accuracy. For that more cycle time required for loading and unloading the material. 2D axisymmetric model developed by multi-physics commercial software. Fixture is required in various industries according to their application. Noureddine Barka.By Habib Hammi. The simulation results are advantageously exploited to quantify the effects of the parameters and the interactions between them. The obtained results are very beneficial to develop other geometries with the same approach. 5. Ifmodern CAE. heating time.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Microstructure and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analyses were also done for justification of the work. This model is used to analyze quantitatively the effects of machine parameters such as imposed current density. Fixtures reduce operation time and increases productivity and high quality of operation ispossible. This process is able to produce uniform hardness profile with compressive residual stresses favorable to prevent fatigue contact failure.Pachbhai1. first.The efficiency and reliability of the fixture design has enhanced by the system and the result of the fixture designhas made more reasonable. This paper presents. 4. University of Quebec at Rimouski Rimouski. a sensitivity study is done to predict the temperatures and to create a model to follow. Mathematics. Finally. So. and some dimensional factors related to the part dimensions. there is need to develop system which canhelp in improving productivity and time. The main of this work is to study the effects of machine parameters (Heating system) on 4340 bearing seating shoulder heated by induction process.. The fixture set up for component is donemanually. To SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.Raut2[1]. Abderrazak El Ouafi. The various methodology used for clamping operation used in different application by various authors are reviewed in this paper. this approach is useful. Effects of induction heating process parameters on hardness profile of 4340 steel bearing shoulder using 2D axisymmetric model. Canada. Shailesh S. CAD are used in designing the systems then significant improvement can be assured. To reduce cycle time required for loading and unloading of part.

Part II covers spin hardening and various heating concepts used with it. 6. which was published in the September/October 2008 issue.Induction hardening of gears includes a number of process concepts that can be applied depending on the part geometry and hardness profile required. This article provides an overview of the process and special considerations for heat treating gears. wear resistance and contact fatigue strength without affecting the metallurgy of the core and other parts of the component that don’t require change. Hydraulic fixture reduces operation time and increases productivity. dwell time and gap between the work piece & induction coil. The experimental plan was based on rotatable central composite design (CCD). coil design and tooth-by-tooth induction hardening. such as the flanks.09 mm at the optimal settings of the process variables. An effective procedure of response surface methodology (RSM) has been utilized In this paper for finding optimal values of process parameters for mean effective case depth in induction hardening of AISI 1040 in rolled condition. desired microstructure. Amit Kohli and Hari Singh[3]. Fixture layout and dynamic clamping forces optimization method based on optimal fixture layout could minimize the deformation and uniform the deformation most effectively . The experimental results show that the proposed mathematical model could describe the performance indicator within the limits of the factors being investigated.PUNE Page 24 . Part I.Induction hardening is a heat treating technique that canbe used to selectively harden portions of a gear. Dr. providing improved hardness. Various process parameters such as feed rate. wherein the coil encircles the part. The results have been verified by confirmation experiments The experimental investigation shows the SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.Valery Rudnev[2].TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING fulfill the multifunctional and high performance fixturing requirements optimum design approach can be used to provide comprehensive analyses and determine an overall optimal design. reduce accidents.The proposed fixture will fulfilled researcher production target and enhanced the efficiency. roots and tips of teeth. Spin hardening techniques. high quality of operation. covered gear materials. are explored by experiments. are most often used for small and medium size gears. 7. current. The optimal value for mean effective case depth obtained was 3.

The optimal value for mean effective case depth obtained was 3.PUNE Page 25 . dwell time 5 sec. Various process parameters. Microstructure and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analyses were also done for justification of the work The experimental investigations have shown that the effect of process parameters such as feed rate. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.21 mm/s. dwell time of 5 sec. central composite design (CCD). The obtained optimal process parameters have been predicted and verified by confirmation experiments.e.17 mm as optimum values of process parameters 8.09 mm in rolled condition of the material at feed rate of 2 mm/s. rolled and normalized. The optimal values for hardness obtained were 56. current.e. current of 135 amperes and gap between material and inductor coil of 5. The experimental results showed that the proposed mathematical models suggested could describe the performance indicators within the limits of the factors being investigated. and gap between material and inductor coil. which is measured in mm/sec). dwell time (time after which heat intensity starts to heat work piece in seconds) and gap between the work piece and induction coil have been explored by experiments.29 mm as optimum value of process parameters.8 HRC respectively for rolled and normalized condition at feed rate of 3..4 HRC and 57.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING effect of process parameters such as feed rate. an effective procedure of response surface methodology (RSM) has been utilized for finding the optimal values of process parameters while induction hardening of AISI 1040 under two different conditions of the material i. Hardness at two different conditions has been considered as performance characteristic. Hence it can be concluded that for making shafts. such as feed rate (speed at which the induction coil moves. axles or automobile components from medium carbon steel. current. In this paper.. current 135 Amperes and gap between material and inductor coil 5. on the mean effective case depth of induction hardened AISI 1040 steel. dwell time. The results tabulated in table 5 show that experimental data and data obtained by regression equation closely correlate each other which validate the regression equations developed. AMIT KOHLI and HARI SINGH(4). The experiment plan was based on rotatable. current and gap between material and inductor coil on the hardness of AISI 1040 steel under two different conditions i. dwell time. rolled and normalized during induction hardening.

In this paper. Contact fatigue and bending fatigue are two main failure modes of steel gears. The results obtained by regression equations closely co relate each other which validates the regression equation developed. An orthogonal array. heating time on hardness and case depth pattern achieved on work piece.PUNE Page 26 . The experimental results shows that the predicted mathematical models suggested could describe the performance characteristics within the limits of the factors being investigated .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING raw material should be first normalized and then induction hardened so that uniform hardness of the material can be obtained. The experimental investigation shows the effects of process parameters such as power. power is the most influential parameter. Nandurkar[5 ] Mathematical modeling with computer application is becoming more and more popular in study. The optimum parameters found are 14 kw power and heating time 4 sec. N. 10. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of response variable shows a significant influence of process variables i. Kochure and K. Various parameters such as power and heating time have been explored by experimentation. demonstrate and predict the process performance of induction hardening system. Also microstructure analysis is done for justification of hardening work Taguchi method of experimental design with L9 orthogonal array has been applied for selection of optimum process parameters of induction hardening of EN8 D steel. maintenance of induction heating process. an effective Taguchi methodology has been utilized for selection of optimum process parameters of induction hardening of EN8 D steel. It can be used to explain. And micro structure analysis justified the hardening work.The results of regression equations have been verified by confirmation tests. Hardness has been considered as performance characteristic. Different methods used to solve the field problems. while surface pitting and spalling are two common contact fatigue SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 9. Dr. G. P. Further multiple regression equations are formulated for estimating predicted values of hardness of slots for a specified range. Zhichao (Charlie) Li[9]. analysis variance of ANOVA are applied study the performance characteristic of induction hardening process.e. power and heating time. development of setup. L9 .

core hardness. The application of this knowledge has resulted in quieter. And when a gear is in service under cyclic load. especially internal and external spur. For example. clean environment and improved product quality but not without issues of its own (irregular residual stresses) An innovative approach of pre-heating prior to the induction hardening process is proved to be effective in enhancing the residual compressive stresses at the root fillet of gear components. Induction hardening of gears is an important heat treating technique that can be applied to a wide range of gears and other parts. residual stress distribution. grade of steel and the prior microstructure of the steel. different inductor designs and pre-heating processes could be designed to enhance the residual compression at critical regions 11. including chemical composition and microstructure. due to its process consistency. steel grade and service condition. hardness profile. Uniform pre-heating temperature by furnace is assumed in this paper. induction hardening does not require heating the whole gear. Tooth-by-tooth (tip-by-tip SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. roots and tips of gear teeth can be selectively hardened. manufacturers must ensure the proper initial condition of the gear material. reduced energy consumption. heating can be localized to only those areas in which metallurgical changes are required.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING failures caused by alternating subsurface shear stresses from the contact load between two gear mates. helical and bevel gears. In contrast to carburizing and nitriding.VALERY RUDNEV[10].PUNE Page 27 . For best results in induction hardening. allowing manufacturers precise control over case depth and microstructure for increased load carrying capacity and other properties. DR. gear manufacturers have gained knowledge about how technology can be used to produce quality parts. The temperature distribution at the end of pre-heating doesn’t need to be uniform. With induction. but induction heating with lower frequency and lower power inductor can also be used to preheat the opposite side of gear teeth. the fl anks. Over the years. which benefits the bending fatigue performance. With different gear geometry. concentrated bending stresses exist at the root fillet the main driver of bending fatigue failures. lighter and lower cost gears that have an increased load carrying capacity to handle higher speeds and torques while generating a minimum amount of heat and noise. Gear performance characteristics (including load condition and operating environment) dictate the required surface hardness. Induction hardening is becoming an increasingly popular response to these problems.

The methods were described. along with various process and inductor design subtleties 1.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING and gap-by-gap) methods are often used for larger gears.3 Problem Definition Part No - 33362-0k050-00 SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 28 .

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Gkn Part No - 34881 Part Name - Hub. Case Depth 1 – 2mm Observed 0.PUNE Page 29 .41/0 & 0. Philippines Date - 30/07/2015 SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. No.2 Customer - M/S Toyota Kirloskar Motors Defect Details - Uneven Induction Hardening.2mm Observed Less At Tap. Surface Hardness 600-800 Hv0.70/0mm. Transmission Clutch.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 30 .

PUNE Page 31 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

Case Depth 1 – 2mm observed 0. To Reduce Uneven Induction Hardening.4 Objective 1. Jig and Fixture SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.41/0 & 0.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING 1. Develop New Design of Jig & Fixture.PUNE Page 32 .70/0mm. 2. 3.

Fixture is widely used in the industry practical production because of feature and advantages. clearly state the problem to be solved or needs to be met. positioning. chances are some design requirements were forgotten or underestimated. For supporting and clamping the work piece. Proper fixture design is crucial for developing product quality in different terms of accuracy. Clamping has to be appropriately planned at the stage of machining fixture design. The following is a detailed analysis of each step.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING The fixture is a special tool for holding a work piece in proper position during manufacturing operation. processing. Hydraulic fixture provides the manufacturer for flexibility in holding forces and to optimize design for machine operation as well as process function ability. which require knowledge. inspection. whereas clamps exert clamping forces so that the work piece is pressed firmly against locators. The design of a fixture is a highly complex and intuitive process. tooling and available machine tools may affect the extent of planning needed.PUNE Page 33 . A fixture consists of a set of locators and clamps. Frequent checking. To locate and immobilize work pieces for machining. Step 1: Define Requirements To initiate the fixture-design process. individual marking and non-uniform quality in manufacturing process is eliminated by fixture. so the aim of this project is to replace with hydraulic fixture to save time for loading and unloading of component. Fixture design plays an important role at the setup planning phase. assembly and other operations fixtures are used. but specifically enough to define the scope of the SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. This increase productivity and reduce operation time. With a complete analysis of the fixture's functional requirements. Steps of fixture design Successful fixture designs begin with a logical and systematic plan. surface finish and precision of the machined parts In existing design the fixture set up is done manually. The workpiece. Preliminary analysis may take from a few hours up to several days for more complicated fixture designs. device is provided. very few design problems occur. Locators are used to determine the position and orientation of a work piece. State these requirements as broadly as possible. Fixture design is a fivestep problem-solving process. When they do.

Each of these options has many clamping and locating options of its own. the designer's goal should be adding options. Make sure that part documents and records are current. observations. Check with the design department for pending part revisions. It is always better to have too many ideas about a particular design than too few.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING design project. and personnel. and general-purpose work holding. perhaps better solutions. and machine specifications. they should be able to fill in all items on the "Checklist for Design Considerations. Each is an integral part of the evaluation phase and must be thoroughly thought out before beginning the fixture design. are actually interdependent. An important part of the evaluation process is note taking. availability of equipment. For example. process sheets. These categories. The more standard locating and clamping devices that a designer is familiar with. not discarding them. The natural tendency is to think of one solution. The exact procedure used to construct the preliminary design sketches is not as important as the items sketched. and the processing information is up-to-date. then develop and refine it while blocking out other. Generally. Four categories of design considerations need to be taken into account at this time: workpiece specifications. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. not just choose one path right away.PUNE Page 34 . and any other data about the part or fixture are then available for later reference. modular. During this phase. Complete. cylindrical and curved exterior surfaces. operation variables." All ideas. The designer should ask some basic questions: Is the new tooling required for first-time production or to improve existing production? Step 2: Gather/Analyze Information Collect all relevant data and assemble it for evaluation. Areas for locating a part include flat exterior surfaces (machined and unmachined). In the interest of economy. thoughts. verify that the shop print is the current revision. With these notes. accurate notes allow designers to record important information. A designer should brainstorm for several good tooling alternatives. while separately covered here. A typical workpiece can be located and clamped several different ways. Step 3: Develop Several Options This phase of the fixture-design process requires the most creativity. The main sources of information are the part print. The designer usually starts with at least three options: permanent. the more creative he can be. alternative designs should be developed only far enough to make sure they are feasible and to do a cost estimate.

structural sections. the cost of buying a component is less than 20% of the cost of making it. final drawings are made. Step 4 : Implement the Design The final phase of the fixture-design process consists of turning the chosen design approach into reality. Finally. tooling plates. and common sense. Labor is usually the greatest cost element in the building of any fixture. Likewise. The first rule of economic design is: Never build any component you can buy. The required locating. Use standard components: The economies of standard parts apply to tooling components as well as to manufactured products. bolts or nuts for a fixture. cast tooling sections. readily available components include clamps. drill rod. These rules are a mix of practical considerations. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Then sketch the clamping devices. Final details are decided. locators. Sketching these items together helps identify any problem areas in the design of the complete fixture. add the machine tool and cutting tools. Commercially available tooling components are manufactured in large quantities for much greater economy. supports. should be the next items added. pins and a host of other elements. The following guidelines should be considered during the final-design process to make the fixture less costly while improving its efficiency.PUNE Page 35 . Use prefinished materials: Prefinished and preformed materials should be used where possible to lower costs and simplify construction. sound design practices. Standard. and supporting elements. Most designers would never think of having the shop make cap screws. These materials include precision-ground flat stock. and the tooling is built and tested. i.precast tooling bodies. Browse through catalogs and magazines to find new products and application ideas to make designs simpler and less expensive. Standard tooling components are one way to cut labor costs. no standard tooling components should be made inhouse. In most cases. ii. nuts. Including these materials in a design both reduces the design time and lowers the labor cost. studs. and other standard preformed materials. including a base.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING the preliminary sketch should start should start with the part to be fixtured.

c. Study of ejecting devices. i. Required level of the accuracy in the work and quality to be produced. g. Study of work piece and finished component size and geometry. Keep tolerances as liberal as possible: The most cost-effective tooling tolerance for a locator is approximately 30% to 50% of the work piece’s tolerance. Available clamping arrangements in the machine. their accuracy.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING iii. etc. Where necessary. The list of such factors is mentioned below : a. Eliminate finishing operations: Finishing operations should never be performed for cosmetic purposes. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS WHILE DESIGNING JIGS AND FIXTURES. but tighter tolerances do not necessarily result in a better fixture. Evaluation of variability in the performance results of the machine. Tighter tolerances normally add extra cost to the tooling with little benefit to the process. h. Rigidity and of the machine tool under consideration. safety devices. Provision of locating devices in the machine. only a more expensive one. Making a fixture look better often can double its cost. its extent of automation. Available indexing devices. tighter tolerances can be used. These factors are analyzed to get design inputs for jigs and fixtures. Methodology SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. d. Designing of jigs and fixtures depends upon so many factors. Here are a few suggestions to keep in mind with regard to finishing operations. b. iv. f. Type and capacity of the machine. e.PUNE Overall process Flow Page 36 .

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING

Forming

Sintering & Oil
Dipping

Sizing

Machining

Washing

Washing

Induction
Hardening

( Stansol 80 )

( Stansol 80 )

100% MPI & Oil
Dipping

100% Visual
Inspection

Dewatering

Packing

Dispatch

& Final RP Oil

Implementation On Valid Causes :1. Play in locating fixture
a) Locating fixture verified for any play,
SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,PUNE

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TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING

b)Impact on part verified Play observed in locating fixture as it is not a rigid , fixture is being
tightened with alen key & having a threaded shaft. There is chances of abnormal Induction
SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,PUNE

Page 38

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING
hardening as like reported NG part in case of fixture not tighten completely or over tightened, as
there will be axis tilt or axis of locating fixture will not remain parallel to rotating spindle axis &
there can be abnormal rotation of fixture / locator.

2. Setting & Controllable Parameters tolerance NG– Energy,
a) Setting & controllable parameters Verified

SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING,PUNE

Page 39

Uneven gap between part & coil as Heating coil & part gap setting method inadequate SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 40 . very wide tolerance observed for energy ( 48 – 80 KJ ). Modified IH Fixture. Rigid Fixture 3. Improvement required in setting of energy band. .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING b) All setting & controllable parameter s & their tolerance observed Ok except Energy.

During simulation gap increased by 0. Parts observed at lower for case depth for gap of 1.9mm is being kept between part & coil.3mm than regular gap of 0.2mm SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.8mm & 1.9mm. fig:b) As per regular process gap of 0.7 mm & observed NG for case depth ( Nill case depth ) for gap 2.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING a) Simulation Trails Conducted in presence of TKAP Team by varying gaps between part coil.PUNE Page 41 .

Modified Quenching Unit SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Fig:- c) Heating coil & part gap setting method verified.PUNE Page 42 .

PUNE Page 43 .Can be cause for Occurrence of defect. gap setting by filler gauge is planned. However. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. which is not adequate method to know within the part variation. there is no measurable method / system . This will ensure further reduction in gap variation. The master is being placed on part locating fixture & touches the coil to the top surface of master & by manual feeling he adjust the gap. New master is under manufacturing. b) Only quarter section of the part is being checked for Case depth & CD.8mm than part boss height. Operator adjust the gap as per his experience & manual feeling. This cycle repeated for each station. Fig:4.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING d) Operator set the fixture height & gap between part & coil with the help of setting master of height more than 0. Parts inspection method inadequate a) Part inspection method verified.

b) Only 1 part from all six station being checked for case depth during first off/ setting & 1 part is being checked during shift during regular production as an in process inspection which is not sufficient to identify variation during shift production.First off / in process.Checking Frequency inadequate . Final a) Inspection Frequency & records verified. Trial Change point details Qty Observations Observations Status / Remarks Produced of Parts - SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE of Parts – Page 44 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING 5. Simulation Trails & Results For Validated Causes :Sr.No.

9mm.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Visual Change in Case depth & Coil Gap ( Trial 1 Cut Check Hardness Coil Gap Changed Conducted to 2.3mm 1. Change to Coil Gap to Confirm 6 the defined standard for coil gap ( 0.5mm 06 Nos Detailed Detailed concluded that Report Report Defined Standard.5mm 0.20mm from 02 nos Visually NG in Presence 0. result to be Unable to spare compared.7mm 0. Changed to 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 1. CD – Nill & of TKAP 0. 7 SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. correct or not Trail is Pending due 5 Tilting the Coil Coil to be tilted & to dispatch urgencies. It is – 0.9mm is below below correct & gives good result. Parts observed with Nill Case depth during the trail.1mm 1.9mm )is Defined Coil Gap After this trail. Attached Attached Gap of 0.2mm Team) Gradual Defective part could simulated through the Trail. machine and parts for trials Why Why Analysis & Root Cause Identification:Factor No.9mm observed Less .PUNE Page 45 .

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Play in Part Locating Fixture WHY 1 – No Diametrical Location provided / available to fix the locating shaft WHY 2 – Threaded shaft is given WHY 3 – To use the locating fixture for multiple parts Root Cause . 9 Variation in Gap Between Part & Coil in Six station WHY 1 – Gap setting method inadequate SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 46 .Non Detection Threaded shaft is given to fixture without any diametrical location for alignment to use for multiple parts Factor No.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING WHY 2 –Gap is set by placing master on each locating fixture & touching the coil. No standard method / Measurable Method defined. Root Cause . Factor No. Root Cause .PUNE Page 47 . 11 Incorrect Checking Frequency WHY 1 – Only One part is being checked at First off & during shift for case depth & Hardness which is not sufficient frequency to identify part to part & in process variation.Non Detection SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. WHY 2 – Checking Frequency Not defined correctly.Occurrence No standard method / Measurable Method defined to ensure correct gap between part & coil at all Six stations. operator confirms the gap by manual feeling & based on experience WHY 3 –.

10 Part Inspection Method Inadequate WHY 1 – Only One Section / Quarter Section of Part is being cut & checked for case depth & Hardness which is not sufficient to identify within part variation.PUNE Page 48 . Factor No.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Checking Frequency Not defined Correctly in Control Plan. WHY 2 – Checking method not defined correctly in Control Plan Root Cause – Non Detection SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.Non Detection Checking Frequency Not defined Correctly in Control Plan.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Checking method not defined correctly in Control Plan Factor No. Root Cause . WHY 2 – Checking Frequency Not defined correctly. 11 Incorrect Checking Frequency WHY 1 – Only One part is being checked at First off & during shift for case depth & Hardness which is not sufficient frequency to identify part to part & in process variation.PUNE Page 49 .

WHY 2 – Checking method not defined correctly in Control Plan Root Cause – Non Detection Checking method not defined correctly in Control Plan SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 10 Part Inspection Method Inadequate WHY 1 – Only One Section / Quarter Section of Part is being cut & checked for case depth & Hardness which is not sufficient to identify within part variation.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Factor No.PUNE Page 50 .

PUNE Page 51 . New setting master to be made with size of part boss height & Process coil gap to be checked by filler gauge.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Shedule :No Actions Target Status 1 Part locating fixture to be made rigid to Locate the 11/08/2015 In axis of rotating shaft & to use dedicatedly for Process Toyota Part. 2 Heating coil & Part Gap setting method to be 09/07/2015 Started 22/07/2015 In modified. Hardness & soft zone.. height of other stations to be set wrt to first station with the help of dial indicator to reduce fixture to fixture variation. One station to be set with Setting Master by touching coil to master. 3 For further Improvement in setting. setting part to be produced & checked for Case depth. If part observes ok. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

9 For further effectiveness in Inspection. 6 Part inspection method to be modified. 03/07/2015 Started 8 For Effective controlling & monitoring of Energy. Parts to be cut in four sections & case depth & hardness to be checked for all four sections. Previously only 1 parts was being checked. in Two shifts. previously only one section ( quarter section ) was been cut & checked. 7 100% Check added in Visual inspection. same to be updated in setting standard. mid & end of shift for regular production. With this method all six station parts will be checked during a day i.The trials shall be taken on the coil and based on the trials they will submit the quotation.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING 4 Inspection of all six station parts for Case depth & 07/07/2015 Started 07/07/2015 Started 04/07/2015 Started Hardness started during setting / first off at four sections of single part. This will be Continue till implementation of Preventive actions. Feasibility to be checked for use of Eddy Current method for Process 100% inspection. 5 Inspection of three parts in shift started for case depth & hardness respectively start.e. Energy of all Six station parts to be recorded & Band to set considering average reading Pus Minus Three counts. For Eddy current test proposal we have given the ok and NG samples to Technofour . SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 03/07/2015 Started 22/07/2015 In Setting of Energy Band in Machine Started.PUNE Page 52 .

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING PART DIAGRAM:- SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 53 .

No Description of Tools Operation Jigs & Fixture 1 Time in minutes Clamp stock Three jaw M/c Cutting Tools Tools Lathe - Measuring Setting M/c Instrument - Time Total Time Time 20 - 20 - 10 10 chuck 2 Facing Both side Three jaw to total length chuck Lathe 82mm SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Facing Vernier tool Page 54 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING PROCESS SHEETS:SHEET 1:- PART NAME : HARDNING CAP MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : MS RAW MATERIAL SIZE:  60X 100 Sr.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING 3 Turning OD Ø Turning 53.5 mm through tool 5 15 20 Vernier - 20 20 Vernier - 20 20 length 4. StepTurning OD Centers to Ø 14.PUNE Turning tool Page 55 .5mm supports & through length carrier Lathe Turning tool Lathe SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 5.70mm supports & through length 7 carrier StepTurning OD Centers to Ø 38.

No Description of Tools Operation Jigs & Fixture 1 2.5mm Ø supports & M/c Cutting Tools Tools Lathe Turning Measuring Setting M/c Instrument Time Total Time Time Vernier - 20 20 Vernier - 20 20 tool Lathe Turning tool carrier SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Time in minutes Groving OD to Ø Centers 7mm through supports & length 9 carrier Chamfring Centers 2.PUNE Page 56 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SHEET 2:- PART NAME : HARDNING CAP MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : MS RAW MATERIAL SIZE:  60X 100 Sr.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SHEET NO 3:- PART NAME : HARDNING CAP MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : MS RAW MATERIAL SIZE:  60X 100 Sr. No Description of Tools Operation Jigs & Fixture 1 2.PUNE Page 57 . Time in minutes StepTurning OD Centers to Ø 28mm supports & through length12 carrier Turning OD Ø Centers 18.5 mm through supports & length 50mm carrier M/c Cutting Tools Tools Lathe Turning Measuring Setting M/c Instrument Time Total Time Time Vernier - 22 22 Vernier - 30 30 tool Lathe Turning tool SHEET NO 4:- SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

No Description of Tools Operation Jigs & Fixture 1 2 Time in minutes Clamp stock M/c Cutting Tools Tools Three jaw Drill - chuck m/c Drilling 4 holes 5 Centers Drill Drilling Ømm supports & m/c tool Measuring Setting M/c Instrument - Time Total Time Time 20 - 20 Vernier - 10 10 Vernier - 30 30 20 - 20 carrier 3 Drilling key hole Centers Drill Turning 2Ømm supports & m/c tool carrier 4 Clamp stock Three jaw Lathe - - chuck SHEET NO 5:- PART NAME : HARDNING CAP MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : MS RAW MATERIAL SIZE:  60X 100 SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 58 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : MS PART NAME : HARDNING CAP RAW MATERIAL SIZE:  60X 100 Sr.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Sr. No Description of Tools Operation Jigs & Fixture 1 2. No Description of Tools Time in minutes Operation SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Time in minutes StepTurning OD Centers to Ø 28mm supports & through length12 carrier Turning OD Ø Centers 18.PUNE Page 59 .5 mm through supports & length 50mm carrier M/c Cutting Tools Tools Lathe Turning Measuring Setting M/c Instrument Time Total Time Time Vernier - 22 22 Vernier - 30 30 tool Lathe Turning tool SHEET NO 6:- PART NAME : BASE HUB MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : MS RAW MATERIAL SIZE:  75X 90 Sr.

StepTurning OD Centers to Ø 50mm supports & through length 60 carrier StepTurning OD Centers to Ø28 mm supports & through length carrier Lathe Turning tool Lathe Turning tool 60mm SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 5.PUNE Page 60 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING Jigs & Fixture 1 Clamp stock Three jaw M/c Cutting Tools Tools Lathe - Measuring Setting M/c Instrument - Time Total Time Time 20 - 20 - 10 10 5 15 20 Vernier - 20 20 Vernier - 20 20 chuck 2 Facing Both side Three jaw to total length chuck Lathe Vernier tool 85mm 3 Facing Turning OD Ø 70 Turning mm through tool length 4.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SHEET NO 7:- PART NAME : BASE HUB MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : MS RAW MATERIAL SIZE:  60X 100 Sr. No Description of Tools Operation Jigs & Fixture 1 Time in minutes Clamp stock M/c Cutting Tools Tools Three jaw Drill chuck m/c SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE - Measuring Setting M/c Instrument - Time 20 Total Time Time - 20 Page 61 .

No Description of Tools Operation Jigs & Fixture 1 Time in minutes Drilling key hole Centers 2mm supports & M/c Cutting Tools Tools Lathe Turning Measuring Setting M/c Instrument Vernier Time - Total Time Time 2 2 tool carrier SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.5mm - Vernier - 10 10 Vernier - 5 5 8 - 8 carrier 4 Chamfring Three jaw Lathe - - chuck SHEET NO 8:- PART NAME : BASE HUB MATERIAL SPECIFICATION : MS RAW MATERIAL SIZE:  70X90 Sr.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING 2 Drilling holes 18 Drill Drilling m/c tool Centers Drill Boring supports & m/c tool Ømm 3 Boring 0.PUNE Page 62 .

PUNE Page 63 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING MODEL DIAGRAM:MODEL NO 1:.CAP SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 64 .

HUB SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 65 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING MODEL NO 2:.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 66 .

PUNE Page 67 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING MODEL NO 3:.PIN SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 68 .

PUNE Page 69 .TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING MODEL NO 4:-BOLT SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 70 .

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING MODEL NO 5:-ASSEMBLY SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 71 .

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 72 .

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING COST ESTIMATIONS:- SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 73 .

TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING CONCLUSSION:- SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.PUNE Page 74 .

Kosec (Received 07. 8. Semiatin -Coil design and fabrication: basic design and modifications. N.2010) Inductive heating and quenching of planetary shafts. 4.Ibrahim Unal and Furkan Katre (November 9-15. V. 3. R. Kochure and K. Patil. L. 5.. Mert Onan. Patil A Critical review on different coil configurations used for induction heating system. Nandurkar [Issue 2 (July-Aug 2012)] Mathematical modeling for selection of process parameters in induction hardening of EN8 D steel. Pachbhai and Laukik P.Tejas G. B. 2. Habib Hammi. Rudnev. 7. Patil.2010.. Vijay H.04. Licen and G.Amit kohli and Hari Singh (Received 2 Jan. B. Karpe . Accepted 15 Feb. Noureddine Barka and Abderrazak El Ouafi (7 jan 2015)Effects of Induction heating process parameters on hardness profile of 4340 steel bearing shoulder using 2D axisymmetric model SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Raut(Feb-Mar 2014)A Review on Design of Fixtures. Kosec . G. Kasim Baynal.Shailesh S. 2012) Optimization of Induction hardened AISI 1040 Steel by experimental Design Method and Material Characterization Analysis. M.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING REFERENCE 1. Loveless. 2010. Cook and M. Atul A. 9.Induction Hardening of Gears: a Review 6.PUNE Page 75 . P. Black. published in revised form 01.01. 2010) Optimizing mean effective case depth of induction hardened parts(rolled condition) using response surface methodology. D. H. Stanley Zinn and S.

Handbook of Design of Heating Coil of an Induction Heater/ Cooker 11.Amit kohli and Hari Singh(25th feb 2011) Optimization of processing parameters in induction hardening using response surface methodology. SIDDHANT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.TO REDUCE VARIATION IN INDUCTION HARDENING 10.PUNE Page 76 .