OF PARTIALLY CONCRETEFILLED STEEL BRIDGE
PIERS UNDER BIDIRECTIONAL DYNAMIC LOADING
September, 2013
Huihui Yuan
ABSTRACT
From past large earthquake, it has been recognized that the highway steel bridge piers in urban
areas play a very important role in the social lifeline system. The seismic design specification of
steel bridge piers introduced in the current Japan allows independent, longitudinal, and
transverse forces. To date the seismic performance of steel bridge piers has been widely studied
through static cyclic loading tests, pseudodynamic loading tests, and numerical analysis in a
single lateral direction under constant axial force. However, the actual seismic waves consist of
threedirectional components and the seismic response of bridge piers is simultaneously affected
by the two horizontal components. It is difficult to properly evaluate the seismic performance of
bidirectional horizontal seismic motions through singledirectional loading tests because of the
complex behavior of local buckling and inelastic behavior caused in the component plates of the
pier at the ultimate state.
To clarify the seismic performance of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers subjected to
bidirectional seismic loading, the performance of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers
under actual earthquake conditions was investigated using 20 square section specimens through
cyclic static loading tests and single and bi directional hybrid loading tests in this study. Three
acceleration records of two horizontal NS and EW direction components in three different
ground types, obtained during the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, were adopted during the dynamic
tests. The experimental results clarified that the maximum displacement and residual
displacement under actual earthquake conditions cannot be correctly estimated by conventional
singledirectional loading test results in medium and soft ground types, and the filledin
concrete can effectively improve the seismic resistance performance in sufficiently high
i
ii . By comparison.and bidirectional hybrid tests. In this study. an analytical model consisting of a concentrated mass and a rigid bar with multiple springs located at the base was developed to simulate the hysteretic behavior of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers subjected to single. a series of approximate curves whose parameters were determined by results of singledirectional static cyclic loading tests had been adopted.or bidirectional ground motions. it is demonstrated that the proposed multiplespring model can predict well the hysteretic behavior of partially concretefilled thinwalled steel bridge piers with square crosssection. single. In order to describe the complicated nonlinear behavior of each spring element accurately. the results due to the simulation were compared with those of static cyclic tests. To examine the validity of the proposed model.concrete filled steel bridge piers.
for his valuable instruction in the field of seismic performance study on structures and his great patience in the past three years. I wish to thank my profound and respectable academic advisor. My special thanks go to technician Mr. Moriaki Suzuki. Takahito Mizutani. This report is gratefully acknowledged. and all the students from Structural Laboratory. and Hiroki Nagasaka. I want to thank my parents. iii . my wife. I'm also grateful to him for his suggestions and encouragement and all the efforts he has made to help me complete the paper. Aoki’s retirement so I can successfully get my PHD degree.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis is part of a larger study on the seismic behavior of steel bridge piers supported by Grant 21560508 from the GrantsinAid for Scientific Research with respect to highway structures. Above all. who continues to guide my courses after Prof. I would like to thank Researcher J. who have participated in my research for their invaluable contribution to my data collection. Tetsuhiko Aoki. Takuya Ozawa. such as Yoshiyuki Shimaguchi. Any opinions expressed in this report are those of the author and do not reflect the views of the sponsoring agency. Hiroshi Suzuki of Seismic Research Center for providing me with the great help in the operation of experimental equipment. Prof. And I am also very grateful to the help of Prof. and my younger sister for their support and encouragement during the course of the accomplishment of this thesis. Dang of the Saitama University for fruitful discussions during the course of this study. Hikari Kishita.
iv .
.... .......... ...............2........................AND BI......................2..DIRECTIONAL HYBRID TEST...................................................................................21 2............2 Horizontal Load versus Horizontal Displacement Hysteretic Curves ................................. ... .....22  2....................................................... ...................... .........38  2................................................ .................................................................................................................................................................... ...4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF UNSTIFFENED CIRCULAR PIERS................4............. .41  3.........................3........................5  1.................................................................................. ................................................ ...................................................... ........3...........................................3 Ductility Factor .........................................................44  v ........29  2............................ III TABLE OF CONTENTS ..........................................................................................................1 GENERAL ...3 OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE ................................................ V CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ............1  1............3 Load Sequence ...................................................41 3........................... .. ...........................2....................22  2...............2........................................35  2.................... .............3 Ductility Factor .................................................2.......1 Experimental Studies .................28  2........................................................2 LITERATURE SURVEY OF STUDIES ON BIDIRECTIONAL LOADING ...................... ...........2 Concretefilled Ratio............................ ............... ..30  2.............................4....................................... ...........................................................................1  1................26  2......2 Analytical Studies............................................................... ..................... I ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .........................17  CHAPTER 2 BEHAVIOR OF PARTIALLY CONCRETEFILLED STEEL BRIDGE PIERS UNDER STATIC CYCLIC LOADING TEST ............................35  2.....................3........... ...........33  2..................................2 OUTLINE OF EXPERIMENT ..........1 Collapse Modes ........1 GENERAL .......... ........5 CONCLUSIONS ...........1 Test Specimen ......1 GENERAL .............................1 Collapse Modes ........................................10  1.3 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF STIFFENED RECTANGULAR PIERS .........................................TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ....4  1.........................................35  2.........29  2...........................................2 Horizontal Load versus Horizontal Displacement Hysteretic Curves ............................... .............................. ....................................21  2.........................................39  CHAPTER 3 BEHAVIOR OF PARTIALLY CONCRETEFILLED STEEL BRIDGE PIERS UNDER SINGLE................................2 OUTLINE OF EXPERIMENT ..........................................................................................4....
..............5............ ............4 CONCLUSIONS .6...........131  REFERENCES ..1 GENERAL ............................................................6.............................................................6 SEISMIC DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ......................................1 Test System Setup .......82  3................................ .....................................................6.................... .......141  vi .............2 Effect of Bidirectional Loading ..........................103  4................................... .............3......................49  3..................................................3... ...............1 Collapse Modes ......................................46  3.......................................1 MultipleSpring Model for ThinWalled Steel Piers ................................... .........................................................3..........................................2................................. .. .........49  3...........................3 Comparison with BiDirectional Hybrid Loading Test .................................. ....................1 Maximum Displacement ...................................3......................3.129  CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS ...............90  3.............3..........71  3..... ...1 Collapse Modes ..................................... .91  3..........2............ ......................................................101  4...............44  3........................3 Hysteretic Rule of Constitutive Model ..... ...............2 Experimental Program ................. ..............82  3................ ...............71  3............................................3 Maximum Horizontal Load ...........3 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON STIFFENED RECTANGULAR PIERS.2 Comparison with SingleDirectional Hybrid Loading Test ............................................2 Effect of Bidirectional Loading and Filledin Concrete ......... ..........3..........97 4.2..........113  4................. .....................85  3................................................................................ ....................................................................................91  3............................................97  4.......137 LIST OF PUBLICATIONS.5 A NEW EVALUATION METHOD FOR PIERS UNDER BIDIRECTIONAL LOADING .......5....................4 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON CIRCULAR PIERS .............. ..... ...........................101  4.............................4.........92  3........................................52  3...................122  4.............................1 Principal Component Analysis of Ground Motion Data ................... ..................72  3..............114  4..........3 EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION ........2... .........................90  3...................................................................................................................2 Residual Displacement ..............108  4..................................... ............. ............... ......93  CHAPTER 4 MULTIPLESPRING MODEL FOR BIDIRECTIONAL HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL PIERS .... ....117  4.... ................................................. .......2 Experimental Verification of Proposed Method .............2 ANALYTICAL METHOD OF MULTIPLE SPRING MODEL ...............4......................................................................1 Comparison with Static Cyclic Loading Test ................2 Constitutive Model for Nonlinear Spring .................. ............67  3............4 A New BiDirectional Seismic Verification Method ........................................................................7 CONCLUSIONS ..........2................. ..6....... ..3 Effect of Filledin Concrete....................................... ........................................................
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. Seismic Performance Matrix Type of Design Ground Motion TypeA bridges Level 1 Earthquake Level 2 Earthquake TypeB bridges SPL 1: Functional TypeI SPL 3: SPL 2: TypeII Prevent critical damage Retain Limited damage The two level ground motion are instructed in the Seismic Design Specifications as the moderate ground motions induced in the earthquakes with high probability to occur (Level 1 Earthquake) and the extreme ground motions induced in the earthquakes with low probability to occur (Level 2 Earthquake). The appropriate seismic design and keep the function of steel piers is significant for safe and serviceability in big cities especially in postearthquake periods. Table 11. The Level 1 Earthquake provides the ground motions induced by the moderate earthquakes.based design concept is described clearly on the necessary performance requirements and the verification policies. two types of ground motions are 1 . For the Level 2 Earthquake. Highway steel piers are generally served in urban areas in Japan because of its tough strength and demand for narrow constructional site. it has been recognized that the highway piers play a very important role in the social lifeline system.1 General From past large earthquake. the performance. In the Seismic Design Specifications for Highway Bridges (JRA 2012). Table 11 shows the seismic performance matrix including the design ground motions and the Seismic Performance Level (SPL) provided in the Specifications.
As mentioned in the above. 2 . the Seismic Performance Level (SPL) is based on the viewpoints of "Safety. The static verification methods including the seismic coefficient method and the ultimate earthquake resistance method are applied for the bridges with simple behavior with predominant single mode during the earthquakes. Fig. The second is the ground motion developed in earthquakes with magnitude of around 7 at very short distance (TypeII). It is the fundamental policy of the verification of seismic performance that the response of the bridge structures against design earthquake ground motions does not exceed the determined limit states. The ground motion at Tokyo in the 1923 Kanto Earthquake is a typical target of TypeI ground motion. The dynamic verification method is applied for the bridges with complicated behavior for the applicability of the static verification methods is restricted. The ground motion at Kobe during the Great Hanshin Earthquake is a typical target of this type of ground motion." "Reparability" during and after the earthquakes. For the Level 1 Earthquake. The first one is the ground motions induced in the interplate type earthquakes with the magnitude of around 8 (TypeI). For the Level 2 Earthquake.INTRODUCTION considered. In the seismic design of highway bridge structures. the TypeA bridges shall prevent critical failure (SPL 3). it is important to increase the strength and the ductility capacity to appropriately resist the intensive earthquakes." “Functionality. both TypeA and TypeB bridges shall behave in an elastic manner without essential structural damage (SPL 1).11 shows the seismic design flow for bridge structures introduced in the 2012 Specifications. the seismic performance is specified clearly. while the TypeB bridges shall perform with limited damage (SPL 2). The bridges are categorized into two types depending on their importance: ordinary bridges (TypeA bridges) and important bridges (TypeB bridges). Depending on the importance of bridges. The verification methods are based on the static analysis and dynamic analysis.
Based on these research results. and numerical analysis in a single lateral direction under constant axial force. 11. the seismic design verification method for steel bridge piers introduced in 2012 Specifications. suggests carrying out static analysis. dynamic analysis.INTRODUCTION Fig. pseudodynamic loading tests. Seismic design flow introduced in 2012 specifications To date the seismic performance of steel bridge piers has been widely studied through static cyclic loading tests. and response verification in longitudinal and transverse direction independently which is leaded based on the consideration that two directional major 3 .
It is difficult to properly evaluate the seismic performance of bidirectional horizontal seismic motions through merely singledirectional loading tests. Therefore. The current state of the art is summarized in this short survey.INTRODUCTION seismic forces occur simultaneously. A concerned effort to clarify the inelastic response of these structures under actual strong earthquakes has been continued but still under way for several years. as is well understood that.2 Literature Survey of Studies on Bidirectional Loading A review of existing analytical and experimental studies relevant to the seismic response of bridge piers subjected to bidirectional loading is presented in the following. Table 12. the necessity to know the precise spatial behavior of the bridge structures has arisen greatly in Japan. 1. which caused remarkable damages to the highway bridges. it needs to study bidirectional loading effect on the steel bridge piers for establishing rational design procedure. The Specification consists of Static Specification Method for the SPL1 and Dynamic Specification Method for the SPL2 and SPL3 as shown in Table 12. 4 . Verification Methods for Steel Bridge Piers Seismic Design Ground Verification Performance Motion Method SPL 1 Level 1 Static ? < ?? SPL 2 Level 2 Dynamic ?? < ??? . ?? < ??? SPL 3 Level 2 Dynamic ?? < ??? Main Verification Item However. the actual seismic waves consist of threedirectional components in orthogonal directions and the seismic response of the structure is also influenced by more than one directional seismic excitation. After the Kobe Earthquake occurred in 1995.
such as biaxiallinear. to clarify the seismic performance of columns subjected to bidirectional seismic loading.INTRODUCTION 1. circular. (2000) experimentally investigated the effects of multidirectional load histories. strength and ductility of tubular columns in comparison with uniaxial displacement paths. square.1 Experimental Studies In recent years. 12.2. Test specimen and load path used in Watanabe’s study Watanabe et al. circular. 12. The main conclusion drawn from this experimental study is that biaxial displacement paths cause more extensive degradation of stiffness. diamond and plus pattern as shown in Fig. on the response of tubular columns with small electricwelding and cold formed box section. some bidirectional static cyclic loading tests have been conducted under various loading patterns such as rectangular. it is also clearly understood that the biaxial 5 . and elliptical in the horizontal plane. From the test results. Fig.
Aiming to clarify the flexural strength and ductility of reinforced concrete bridge piers under bilateral loadings. rectangular. 13. were tested under a constant vertical load by Hayakawa et al. 14. (2004) conducted a hybrid loading test using the same box section steel piers as in Watanabe’ study subjected to Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) bidirectional ground motions. It is found that the strength and ductility of steel pier subjected to bidirectional loading reduced and the response displacement tended to increase in comparison with those under singledirectional loading. as shown in Fig. 3D loading system setup by Nagata et al. circular and ellipse as illustrated in Fig. In order to investigate the dynamic behavior of bridge piers subjected to strong ground motions in horizontal bidirections. such as oblique direction to the strong axis. 13. 6 . Nagata et al. (2004). It was found that the deterioration of strength and ductility capacities of the piers resulted from the bilateral loadings was substantial. five RC test specimens subjected to bilateral loadings with four orbits.INTRODUCTION effects were more prominent in the inelastic range. Fig.
14. Test specimen. It can be observed from the test results that flexural strength and ductility capacity of RC bridge piers significantly deteriorate under the bilateral excitation than the unilateral excitation.INTRODUCTION Fig. as presented in Fig. Input earthquake motions adopted in Ogimoto’s hybrid loading test Ogimoto et al. 7 . 15. test setup and bilateral load pattern of Hayakawa’s study Fig.15. which were 30% and 40% of original JMA ground motions obtained in Kobe Earthquake and 50% of Sylmar Parking Lot ground motions recorded in Northbridge Earthquake. (2005) conducted a hybrid loading test on six reinforced bridge piers as the same as Hayakawa’s research subjected to unilateral and bilateral excitations.
(2006. 8 . 2007) performed two kinds of bidirectional cyclic loading experiments. 16. From the experimental results. to examine the ultimate seismic behavior of thinwalled steel columns of circular and rectangular section shapes. They also carried out a bidirectional pseudodynamic test by using the JMA ground motions. it is observed that the strength and ductility of the columns decreased considerably under the cyclic bidirectional loads.16. 2007) Goto et al. (2006. respectively. as shown in Fig. Goto et al. under cyclic biaxial loading was extensively examined in comparison with that under inplane cyclic loading. (2009) then made an investigation on how the coupling of bidirectional horizontal seismic excitations affects the ultimate behavior of thinwalled stiffened rectangular bridge piers. compared with those under the conventional cyclic uniaxial loads.INTRODUCTION (a) Circular cyclic loading (b) Diamond cyclic loading Fig. which have different cross section types. The seismic performance of these piers. by using a spherical threedimensional (3D) experimental system. BiDirectional Loading Experiments Conducted by Goto et al.
square and octagon types as shown in Fig. respectively. (2007) to investigate the corresponding strength and ductility. circle. which were idealized into several simple hysteretic loading patterns. 9 . JRT. Fig. Actual loading system and loading patterns used by Aoki et al. oval. 17. (2010) performed a series of hybrid loading tests to examine the response behavior of square steel bridge piers subjected to 3 types of bidirectional ground motions named JMA. and PKB.INTRODUCTION In 2007. 17. Dang et al. They provided the basic information for establishing the rational design rules from the test results. (2007) As a consecutive research. which were obtained during the Great Hanshin Earthquake. radial. were tested by Aoki et al. 8 steel piers with rectangular cross section subjected to bidirectional horizontal forces. such as linear. It is found from the experiments that the bilateral excitation deteriorates the lateral force of the piers compared to unilateral excitation and the response displacement under actual earthquake conditions cannot be correctly estimated by conventional singledirectional loading test results.
2.10  . ground conditions and structural properties. As stated in section 1. Test specimen and test results obtained in Dang’s research 1. especially for large scale models. the loading system and test specimens of such tests require expenditure.2 Analytical Studies The seismic response of bridge piers to earthquake excitations depends on several factors.2.INTRODUCTION Fig. As shown in Fig. The determination of the structural properties of a pier is an essential step in the evaluation of its seismic response.1. However. such as earthquake characteristics. 11. a complete assessment of the seismic design of bridge piers often requires a nonlinear dynamic analysis. the dynamic characteristics of bridge piers subjected to bilateral seismic forces can be obtained by the static cyclic tests and hybrid loading tests.18. Results from these tests are then used in the development and calibration of hysteretic .
(2006) to take into account the behavior under large equivalent plastic strains that is often encountered in the . the threesurface cyclic plasticity model. (1998) to analyze specifically the unidirectional cyclic behavior of thinwalled steel columns by the nonlinear FEM shell analysis. (1) Microscopic finite element models In this category of models. A concerned effort to model and analyze the nonlinear seismic response of bridge piers subjected to bidirectional loadings has been done in these several years but still under way. and cyclic strain hardening. a discontinuous surface. which includes a yield surface. The threesurface cyclic plasticity model takes into account the important characteristics of cyclic steel plasticity such as existence of yield plateau. One of these models was developed by Goto et al. and a bounding surface as illustrated in Fig. 19.11  . As a constitutive model to express the cyclic plasticity of steel. members and joints are subdivided into a large number of finite elements.INTRODUCTION numerical models that permit the extrapolation for the limited test data of the dynamic response in other conditions. Constitutive and geometric nonlinearity is typically described at the stressstrain level or averaged over a finite region. A review of the relevant analytical studies is presented in the following. Existing models for the nonlinear response analysis of bridge piers subjected to bidirectional loadings can be divided into two main categories in accordance with the increasing level of refinement and complexity: discrete finite element models and microscopic finite element models. The threesurface model stated earlier was slightly modified by Goto et al. contraction or expansion of elastic range.
the results obtained from a cyclic circular loading test for thinwalled circular steel piers (Goto et al. 110. (b) uniaxial stressstrain relation Fig.INTRODUCTION bidirectional cyclic loading experiment. 2009) for thinwalled stiffened rectangular steel piers were used to confirm the validity of the proposed geometrically and materially nonlinear FEM shell analysis. (2006 and 2007) .12  . 2006). as illustrated in Fig. Fig. 2007) and a bidirectional pseudodynamic test (Goto et al. Analytical models proposed by Goto et al. Threesurface model: (a) multiaxial stress space. 110. a cyclic diamond loading experiment (Goto et al. Then.19.
which also adopted shell element as shown in Fig. 111. 112. (2009) . were carried out by Nagata et al.INTRODUCTION The elastoplastic finite displacement analyses of box steel piers subjected to strong ground motions in horizontal 2 directions. (2004). Shell element model proposed by Kulkarni et al.111.112. Elastoplastic finite displacement analytical model (Nagata et al. 2004) Fig.13  . (2009) as presented in Fig. Fig. The influence of bidirectional cyclic loading on finite shell element models of thinwalled circular steel piers was evaluated by Kulkarni et al.
the fiber element analyses were conducted to simulate the test results of RC bridge piers subjected to bilateral static cyclic loading and bidirectional ground motions by Hayakawa et al.INTRODUCTION The most promising models for the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) bridge piers are flexibilitybased fiber elements. which follow the uniaxial stressstrain relation of steel and concrete. as shown in Fig. (2005). 2004) . Using the same analytical model. In comparison with the results of shaking table tests. the analytical method using fiber element model proposed by Nishida et al. The constitutive relation of the section is not specified explicitly. but is derived by integration of the response of the fibers. In these models the element is subdivided into longitudinal fibers.14  . It is also found that the fiber element analysis is effective to reproduce the hysteretic behavior of the columns under bilateral loadings. Analytical model using fiber element (Nishida et al. respectively. 113. Fig. 113. (2004) could be simulated the experimental dynamic response results well until damage of the column such as peeling of the concrete and buckling of the longitudinal bar was occurred. (2004) and Ogimoto et al.
As shown in Fig. and torsional rotation spring (kr) placed between the two rigid elements. ksz). Modeling of steel bridge pier (Oide et al. which took into account the yielding of pier section due to biaxial bending and torsional behavior. a fundamental behavior of a steel bridge pier subjected to a set of two horizontal directional earthquake motions (JRT) recorded during Great Hansin Earthquake was investigated by employing above analysis method in the study. the piers are modeled as an assembly of interconnected elements that describe the hysteretic behavior of material members. was formulated by Oide et al. 114. two shear springs (ksy. (a) Rigid body and spring element (b) Division of the crosssection Fig. Constitutive nonlinearity is either introduced at the element level in an average sense or at the section level. (2000). In comparison with behavior that subjected to one horizontal directional earthquake motion.INTRODUCTION (2) Discrete finite element models In this category of models.15  . 114. 2000) . These spring constants can be obtained by the equal relationship between strain energy stored in spring elements and rigid body. An elastoplastic dynamic response analysis method of beamcolumn elements. there are multiple axle springs (ka).
However. 115(b). as shown in Fig. 115(a). The computation time of the multiplespring model was drastically reduced to 1/5000~1/6000 in comparison with that of the FEM shell model in the 3D dynamic response analyses. a hysteretic model consisting of a concentrated mass and a rigid bar with multiple nonlinear springs located at the pier base was proposed by Jiang et al.16  . to understand the behavior of the pier during earthquake. a beam element model of column was generally used in practice as illustrated in Fig. Jiang’s multiplespring model in comparison with FEM shell model To evaluate strength and ductility of the circular steel column. (2009) was statically analyzed with bidirectional horizontal displacement. (2001) as shown in Fig. 115. 1. These springs can represent not only the interaction between the axial force and the biaxial bending but also the local buckling effect. 112.INTRODUCTION In order to predict the ultimate seismic behavior of cantilevertype thinwalled circular steel piers. The validity of the proposed model was examined by comparing with the results of the 3Dearthquake response analysis carried out by using FEM shell models as illustrated in Fig.16. In this beam . The analysis results showed that the multiplespring model can be an acceptable alternative to the costly FEM shell analysis. (a) Multiplespring model (b) 3D FEM model Fig. a shell element model proposed by Kulkarni et al.
the modified twosurface constitutive law of steel was applied for all elements. since these models are extremely computational expensive for large scale nonlinear dynamic analyses. 1. should be limited to the study of critical regions. During bidirectional dynamic analysis. 2009) The discrete finite element models are the best compromise between simplicity and accuracy in nonlinear seismic response studies and represent the simplest class of models that still allows significant insight into the seismic response of members and of the entire structure. Fig. where the model involves thousands of degrees of freedom.17  . the node displacement response on the top and average compressive strain were observed in effective failure height (Le) at the base. Beam element model considered for dynamic analysis (Kulkarni et al. 116. on the other hand.INTRODUCTION element model. The microscopic finite elements.3 Objectives and Scope With the rapid development of urban highway and bridge constructions and with the effective .
and ductility (Kitada 1998) The use of concretefilled steel box sections have shown great improvement in the inelastic behavior of the steel piers. the use of steel bridge piers has become increasingly popular in Japan. The shapes of crosssection are mostly thinwalled box or pipe sections. Steel bridge piers are normally designed as cantilever columns or planar rigid frames. However. 117. strength. 117.18  . but also prevents the buckling deflection of the component plates toward the inside of the cross section. in many cases of the pratical designs.INTRODUCTION use of narrow city sites. defined as shown in Fig. because the encased concrete not only provides stiffness and strength. Since the steel bridge piers play a very important part for the total lifeline system. stiffness. . Definition of stiffness. 118 (Ge & Usami 1992). Accordingly. as illustrated in Fig. steel bridge piers were partially filled with the concrete. the seismic design is required to ensure that the strength and deformation capacities of steel piers exceed the limit values specified for severe earthquakes with an adequate margin of safety. and ductility. are three most important indices in the design of a pier. since it is need to be considered to reduce the dead weight of upper structure for designing foundations. Fig. strength.
2000. Goto et al. 1997. It is indicated from the tests and the subsequent analysis as stated earlier in the section 1. 1995a. further experimental investigations on the behavior of such piers under severe earthquakes are required to make a supplement to the current seismic design method.2 that the stiffness. 2002. 2003. and ductility of the piers under bidirectional displacement patterns or bidirectional ground motions result in significant degradation in comparison with those of unilateral displacement paths or singledirectional ground motion. Maeno et al. 1997. . 1995. 2009). Saizuka et al.118. 1995. 1996. (c) concretefilled steel column. (b) stiffened steel column. a lot of experimental and analytical studies on the inelastic cyclic behavior of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers have been conducted in order to develop a reliable earthquakeresistant design method in the last ten years (Usami et al. 2001. However. Thus. Kobayashi et al. 1997. 1995b.19  . Iura et al. Ge et al. 1994.INTRODUCTION Fig. Failure modes of crosssections: (a) steel column. 2002. strength. Therefore. 2002. (d) concretefilled stiffened steel column In the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Morishita et al. the test data is still lack for the seismic behavior of partially concretefilled steel piers under coupled ground motions in two horizontal directions. the partially concretefilled steel bridge piers also demonstrated their excellent structural performance in the strong earthquake.
20  . maximum horizontal force. to present the differences of seismic performance parameters. such as the maximum displacement. residual displacement.or bi.directional loading. .and bidirectional dynamic loadings and gives some suggestions for a more rational design of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers. The conclusions of this study and directions for future research are presented in Chapter 5. to propose some advices for the conventional seismic design which allows for the use of results obtained from singledirectional loading tests or analyses. to discuss the characteristics of different input seismic excitations which may result in the obvious different seismic behavior of steel bridge piers in the earthquake. between single.and bidirectional loadings.or bidirectional ground motions. to develop an analytical model which can accurately simulate the hysteretic behavior of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers under single. Chapter 2 introduces the details of test specimens and test systems. Chapter 3 discusses the differences of seismic behavior between single. Following the review of previous relevant studies in this chapter.directional dynamic loadings. with emphasis on considering a more rational design treatment according to the differences between the results of single. Chapter 4 develops a multiplespring model for simulating the inelastic behavior of such piers and the validity of the proposed model is then established by comparing the analytical results with the results from experimental studies. and cumulated energy absorption.INTRODUCTION The main objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of filledin concrete on seismic performance of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers subjected to either single.and bi. and presents the experimental results of static cyclic loading tests.
However. Therefore. and large energy absorption capacity. it is difficult to properly evaluate the seismic behavior due to bidirectional horizontal seismic motions through singledirectional loading tests because the real complex behavior of local buckling and inelastic behavior in the component plates of the pier are caused by bidirectional loading at the ultimate state. some efforts were concentrated on investigating basic characteristics of the seismic response of steel bridge piers through cyclic bidirectional loading tests. To date the seismic performance of steel bridge piers has been widely studied through mainly static cyclic loading tests. there are still lacks of dynamic test results on partially concretefilled steel columns under coupled ground motions in two horizontal directions. After Kobe Earthquake partially concretefilled steel piers have been widely used in earthquakeprone regions in Japan for their excellent structural performance and properties such as high ductility. some pseudodynamic loading tests. the actual seismic waves consist of threedirectional components and the seismic response of bridge piers is affected by the two horizontal components simultaneously. .1 General The Seismic Design Specifications for Highway Bridges (JRA 2012) allows applying independent singledirectional transverse forces in the design of bridge piers.21  . high strength. During the past decade. and numerical analysis. Most of them are tested in a single lateral direction. However.CHAPTER 2 BEHAVIOR OF PARTIALLY CONCRETEFILLED STEEL BRIDGE PIERS UNDER STATIC CYCLIC LOADING TEST 2.
In this chapter. The values of parameters of the numerical model are determined directly from the static cyclic loading test results.2.directional pseudodynamic loading tests. and the experimental results of test specimens subjected to the static cyclic loadings are presented prior to the single. the details of test specimens with different cross sectional shapes and various concretefilled ratios are introduced first.and bi. corresponding yield displacement.2 Outline of Experiment 2.22  . where numerical analysis is developed to calculate response behavior instead of single.directional pseudodynamic loading tests have been conducted in present study. maximum horizontal strength.STATIC TEST To investigate the basic seismic performance of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers under bidirectional loading. ductility. The load. Although it is not able to obtain the response due to seismic acceleration data from this test.displacement hysteretic curves obtained from the static cyclic loading will be utilized also in Chapter 4.directional pseudo. general fundamental characteristics of the piers under cyclic loading. 2. Numerous static cyclic loading tests on steel piers have been conducted after Kobe earthquake in Japan because the testing procedure is relatively simple.and bi. 3 stiffened rectangular test specimens made of SM490 steel and .and bi.and bi.dynamic loading tests which described in following Chapter 3.1 Test Specimen In the static cyclic loading tests.directional loading hybrid tests. These values will be applied as normal values to the test results of piers undergoing uni. basic value of the energy absorption are acquired. such as yield horizontal strength. a series of static cyclic tests and single.
A schematic illustration of test specimens is shown in Fig. 21. (b) Unstiffened circular piers .23  .STATIC TEST 3 unstiffened circular test specimens made of SS400 steel are designed. (a) (b) Fig. 21. Test specimens: (a) Stiffened rectangular piers. The geometrical properties of the test specimens are listed in Table 21. These test columns are cantilevertype with fixed conditions in the footing and free at the top as a common bridge piers.
STATIC TEST
In the case of stiffened rectangular piers, the entire test specimens with 2400 mm effective
height have the same crosssectional dimensions (450 × 450 × 6 mm) and each panel plate of
cross section are welded by two vertical stiffeners (55 × 6 mm), as presented in the Fig. 21(a).
To prevent crosssectional distortions, the diaphragms are welded at intervals of 225 mm along
the length of the specimens, and then at a distance of 450 mm in the upper region, i.e., from
900mm to top.
Table 21. Geometrical properties of the test specimens
Crosssectional shape
Rectangular
Circular
Width or diameter of cross section
b (mm)
450
480
Plate thickness of cross section
t (mm)
6
6
Width of vertical stiffener
bs (mm)
55

Thickness of vertical stiffener
ts (mm)
6

Area of cross section
A (mm2)
1.33×104
0.89×104
Moment inertia of cross section
I (mm4)
4.12×108
2.51×108
Gyration radius of cross section
r (mm)
176
168
Effective height of specimen
h (mm)
2400
2250
Table 22. Parameters of the test specimens
Specimen
RR
Rt
λ
hc
(a) Stiffened Rectangular Piers
S00
0.52

0.34
0.00h
S20
0.52

0.34
0.20h
S40
0.52

0.34
0.40h
(b) Unstiffened Circular Piers
U00

0.076
0.29
0.00h
U25

0.076
0.29
0.25h
U50

0.076
0.29
0.50h
 24 
STATIC TEST
Actual circular piers have generally neither diaphragms nor vertical stiffeners because the
carved plate is hard to occur local buckling. So, circular test piers in this study have no
diaphragms or vertical stiffeners, as shown in Fig. 21(b). Test piers are made of 6mm thick
SS400 steel grade and the outside diameter of cross section is 480mm, then radiusthickness
ratio parameter (Rt) value becomes 0.076 by Eq. 2.2. The effective height is 2250mm. It is
specified in the seismic design code (Japan Road Association 2012) that thinwalled circular
columns should be designed such that ?? ≤ 0.08 in order to prevent the decrease in strength
and ductility due to local buckling.
The values of various parameters of the test specimens are listed in Table 22, in which
specimen designations starting with an “S” refer to stiffened rectangular piers, and those starting
with a “U” refer to circular piers. In each specimen, the number following the “S” or “U” is
related to values of concretefilled ratio. The values of widththickness ratio parameters of
flange plate (RR), radiusthickness ratio parameter (Rt), and slenderness ratio parameter (λ) are
defined by the following equations.
?? =
? ?? 12(1 − ? 2 )
√
? ?? ? 2 ??
(2.1)
?? =
? ??
√3(1 − ? 2 )
? ??
(2.2)
λ=
2ℎ 1 ??
√
? ? ??
(2.3)
Here b = side length of square cross section, R = radius of the plate center position of circular
cross section, t = steel plate thickness, Es = Young’s modulus, ζy = yield stress, ν = Poisson's
ratio, h = effective height, r = gyration radius of the cross section, kR = 4n2 while n is the
number of subpanels divided by longitudinal stiffeners in each plate panel.
 25 
STATIC TEST
The material properties of the SM490 and SS400 grade steel are shown in Table 23, and are
obtained from tensile tests on three coupons in each series. The details of early strength concrete
adopted for the specimens are given in Table 24, where fc is compressive strength of the
concrete which is determined by the average of uniaxial compressive strength values of three
standard concrete cylinders (100 mm in diameter and 200 mm in length) in compression tests
carried out on the day of the experiments.
Table 23. Material properties of steel
SM490
SS400
Es
ζy
(GPa)
(Mpa)
Measured
212
Nominal
εy (%)
ζu (Mpa)
ν
391
0.186
526
0.286
200
325
0.163
490~610
0.300
Measured
211
312
0.147
443
0.291
Nominal
200
245
0.123
400~510
0.300
Table 24. Material properties of early strength concrete
2.2.2
Specimen
Age
Ec(GPa)
μc
fc(MPa)
S20
16
25.5
0.165
21.8
S40
21
25.5
0.165
23.5
U25
42
25.7
0.165
24.4
U50
77
25.6
0.165
27.9
Concretefilled Ratio
To determine the proper length of the filledin concrete, the Specification (Japan Road
Association 2012) recommends using the following formula in the practical seismic design.
ℎ? > (1 −
???
)ℎ
??
 26 
(2.4)
the bending moment ratio (Mys/Ma) defined by Eq. While.1 − ??? /ℎ ??? (2.2.20h and 0.40h.27  . In the case of the length of the filledin concrete being 0. and the fully plastic moment ratio (Mps/Mpc) obtained by Eq. for the length of the filledin concrete being 0. ??? = stress due to axial force. 2.4 is about 0. it is considered that the hollow steel section just above the concretefilled portion would reach the fully plastic state earlier. In this study. ?? = section modulus of hollow steel cross section. In the case of test specimens of circular sectional shape. 0. h = length of the specimen from the base to the position on the top where inertial force is applied. ?? = allowable bending moment of the steelconcrete composite cross section at the base.5) For the square sectional shape adopted in the tests. ??? = yield stress or stress calculated by multiplying the allowable stress for local buckling by coefficient 1. This calculation method of the filling length of concrete is based on the relation between the fully plastic moment of the steelconcrete composite cross section (Mpc) and the hollow steel cross section (Mps). From these two calculations. The height of the filledin concrete is calculated by Eq. ℎ? = .20h. it is planned to compare the seismic behavior of test specimens of abovementioned sufficient concretefilled ratio with that of those of low concretefilled ratio.53. the composite crosssection at the base would reach the fully plastic state earlier.STATIC TEST where hc = concretefilled length.2. which introduced by Usami & Ge 1994.5. while the bending moment ratio becomes Mys/Ma ≈ 0.40h have been selected as the length of the filledin concrete in this study.4 . ??? = (??? − ??? )?? which is the yield bending moment of the hollow steel cross section just above the filling concrete.7.59 by the abovementioned equations. the fully plastic moment ratio is Mps/Mpc ≈0.80.
5 δ/δ0 4 3 2 1 Cycle 0 1 2 3 4 5 Fig.28  .3 Load Sequence Before conducting the hybrid loading test. where Py is the axial yield load calculated using the nominal yield stress of steel and crosssectional area. The displacement increment is the yield displacement (δ0) of the steel pier without concrete filled. Displacement history of the static cyclic singleaxial loading test The horizontal displacement history consists of a sequence of fully reversed displacement cycles as shown in Fig. and ±2δ0 (3 cycles) until collapse.15.75. 2. ±1.STATIC TEST is about 0.22. the peak displacements are increased stepwise after three successive cycles at each displacement level such as ±0. That is.5δ0. . the static cyclic loading test in a single horizontal direction will be performed to obtain the common fundamental properties of the test specimens.50h and 0. 22. A constant axial load P/Py =0.5δ0. The corresponding load is defined as the yield strength H0. that is. ±1δ0 (3 cycles). where δ0 is defined as the displacement value corresponding to the yield strain (εy) at the bottom of the test specimen obtained from the tensile test. is applied to all test specimens. the concretefilled lengths of 0.25h are adopted for unstiffened circular section steel piers in this study.2.
as shown in Fig. behavior of specimens observed during the tests will be described in detail.29  .23(a).1 Collapse Modes In this section. and eventually the specimen lost its lateral resistance after either vertical . (a) S00 (b) S20 (c) S40 Fig.3. the features of three test specimens with different concretefilled ratios after the static cyclic tests are presented.3 Experimental Results of Stiffened Rectangular Piers 2. Once local buckling occurred. 23. and then extended to the web plates. Failures of stiffened rectangular section specimens observed after static cyclic loading tests For the stiffened test specimen without concrete infill (S00). In the Fig. 23. Buckling deformations progressively grew. local plate buckling was first observed in the flange plates of the pier base immediately after the peak horizontal load. the plates were not fully straightened out during reversed loading.STATIC TEST 2.
cracks along the welding in the corner of the cross sections were also observed after the loading was finished. local buckling deformations were localized only in its base panels. It is noted that this buckling also caused a large deterioration in post. 23(b). but it hardly grew as the loading was continued.STATIC TEST cracking in the weld material of flangeweb junctions or fracture in the plate material became considerable. Because both the steel plates and filledin concrete effectively participated in inelastic action. such as high strength. As shown in Fig.20h. the specimen S40 showed excellent earthquakeresistant performances. For the test specimen sufficiently filled with concrete (S40). It was observed that the plates buckled outward before the cracks in weld or material took place. the hollow steel section just above the diaphragm buckled severely as shown in Fig. high ductility.30  . Concrete behind the portions of plates buckled was seriously crushed. It indicates from the observation that the flange and web plates of the hollow steel section underwent significant inelastic action although the filledin concrete participated in dissipating energy during the later loading stages.3. 23 (c).40h.buckling strength which will be discussed in the next section. It should also be pointed out that buckling occurred initially on the flange plates near the pier base. slight local buckling occurred only in the flange and web plates at the pier base. in the case hc=0. In this kind of test specimen.2 Horizontal Load versus Horizontal Displacement Hysteretic Curves Nondimensionalized horizontal load versus horizontal displacement hysteretic curves obtained . For the test specimen partially filled with low length of concrete (S20) of the case of hc=0. This is because the filledin concrete prevented the buckling of plates inward. 2. and large energy absorption capacity.
5 0.5 0.5 8 6 4 2 0 Displacement(δ/δ0) (c) hc/h = 0.STATIC TEST in cyclic tests of three stiffened rectangular specimens are shown in Fig.31  . 24.5 0.00 2.5 1.5 S00 Horizontal Load (H/H0) 1.5 0.5 8 6 4 2 0 Displacement(δ/δ0) (b) hc/h = 0.5 2.40 Fig.5 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 Displacement(δ/δ0) (a) hc/h = 0.5 1.5 0.5 2. Hysteretic curves of stiffened rectangular piers . 2.5 S40 Horizontal Load (H/H0) 1.5 S20 Horizontal Load (H/H0) 1.20 2.5 0.5 2. 24.5 1.
27 3.5 0.00 1.15 1. Envelope curves of stiffened rectangular piers due to the static cyclic loading tests .0 7.99 5. It can be found in Fig.19 2.01 2.0 S20 0.STATIC TEST The main parameters which indicate the strength and deformation capacity presented in the cyclic tests are summarized in Table 25. 25.0 Displacement (δ/δ0) Fig.49 4.0 2. H0=233.25 S40 0.0 6. δ0=14. respectively. The comparison of these plots indicate that the hysteretic properties of specimen are improved as the length of filledin concrete incresed.0 3.00 1. 24 that effect of filledin concrete are significant.87 3.0 4.15 1.64 3.64 3.00 1. The load and the displacement are nondimensionalized by the yield displacement.0 1.06 1.15 1.42 kN.08 1.78 2.00 1.01 S20 0. and the corresponding yield load.0 1.00 0.40 0.20 0.0 5.32  .99 3. which refer to the yield point of specimen S00.5 Horizontal Load (H/H0) S40 2. Plots (a) to (c) are sorted according to the length of filledin concrete.99 mm.50 4. Table 25.5 S00 1.0 0. Static cyclic loading test results Specimen hc/h P/Py Hy /H0 δy /δ0 Hmax /H0 δm /δ0 δ95 /δ0 μm μ95 S00 0.16 4.01 5.
33  .33 and 1.STATIC TEST Fig.40h presented excellent deformation characteristics in undergoing the inelastic action due to slight buckling in the panels at the column base. which are showed in Table 25. μm and μ95 are used usually for evaluating the deformation capacity of piers. it can be concluded that by the presence of a diaphragm provided over the filledin concrete. The design strength. a deterioration in strength was observed because local buckling occurred in the panels of the hollow steel section just above the filledin concrete. It is worth noting that crack resulting from the lowcycle fatigue may occur at the corner near the weld. 24 and 25 and Table 25 the following important facts are observed.20h and 0. The two kinds of ductility parameters.3 Ductility Factor Ductility is an important factor in a seismic design. From the Figs.20h. Fig. respectively which was filled up to the 0. The ductility factor μm is defined as the ratio of the displacement corresponding to the maximum . 2. The corresponding displacement to the maximum load were 1. consequently cross sectional size of a pier can be substantially reduced if the pier is able to provide a good deformation capacity beyond the elastic limit by following constant energy law. As a result.3.40h. On the other hand.51 times larger than that of steel specimen S00. both the ultimate strength and deformation capacity of stiffened rectangular specimens are obviously improved in the filledin concrete. In the case of hc = 0. 25 shows the envelope of the horizontal loaddisplacement hysteretic curves. the maximum lateral loads were increased by about 5% and 12% in specimens S20 and S40. specimen S40 of hc = 0. 25 indicates that in comparison with specimen S00 without concrete filled.
Ductility Factor 6. to the horizontal displacement at which first yield occurs.STATIC TEST lateral load. and plot of μm and μ95 against the concretefilled ratio is shown in Fig. the ductility factors μm and μ95 are considerably higher when the height ratio of the filledin concrete increased.0 5. the ductility behavior of the stiffened rectangular piers can be largely improved by the filledin concrete. In other words. 26. Effect of filledin concrete on ductility The values of the ductility factors μm and μ95 are listed in Table 25. As seen from the figure.0 4. the degradation slope of the loaddisplacement curve is so gentle that the peak point is difficult to locate. 1996) in the following. Hence. another ductility parameter μ95 was proposed ( Ge & Usami. ?95 = ?95 ?? (2.34  .7) Here δ95 is the lateral displacement obtained when the lateral resistance load is reduced to 95% of the maximum load. .0 0.0 1. δm.0 μm μ95 2.0 0% 20% 40% Concrete Filled Ratio Fig.6) In some cases. δy : ?? = ?? ?? (2.0 3. 26.
however. such as S20 and S40 abovementioned in the section 2.4. Failure mode of circular specimens observed after static cyclic tests As seen in Fig. 27.STATIC TEST 2. .4 Experimental Results of Unstiffened Circular Piers 2. Similar to the specimens with a diaphragm over the concrete. This deformation. initial buckling occurred at the column base.4. 2. 28.35  . grew progressively when cyclic loading was continued because the load was not increased sufficiently to form buckling at the hollow steel section above the concretefilled part.2 Horizontal Load versus Horizontal Displacement Hysteretic Curves The hysteretic curves of the static cyclic loading tests of circular piers are shown in Fig.3. the local buckling of plates was observed at the column base regardless of the length of the filledin concrete.1 Collapse Modes (a) U00 (b) U25 (c) U50 Fig. 27. just before the maximum load.
25 3 U50 Horizontal Load (H/H0) 2 1 0 1 2 3 8 6 4 2 0 Displacement(δ/δ0) (c) hc/h = 0.36  .00 3 U25 Horizontal Load (H/H0) 2 1 0 1 2 3 8 6 4 2 0 Displacement(δ/δ0) (b) hc/h = 0.STATIC TEST 3 U00 Horizontal Load (H/H0) 2 1 0 1 2 3 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 Displacement(δ/δ0) (a) hc/h = 0. Hysteretic curves of unstiffened circular piers .50 Fig. 28.
Static cyclic loading test results Specimen hc/h P/Py Hy /H0 δy /δ0 Hmax /H0 δm /δ0 δ95 /δ0 μm μ95 U00 0.18 3.53 U25 0.10 It can be observed from the Fig.10 4.10 3. in comparison with specimen U00 without concrete filled.00 2.58 3.0 5.5 2.23 4. the displacement at the maximum load of specimen U25 with a length of 0.56 4.12 1. it is also shown that the filledin concrete of an insufficient length made a very small contribution to the .15 1.46 mm) and yield load (H0 = 85.00 2.0 U00 0.5 U25 1.00 1.50 0.00 0.15 1. However.06 3.92 5.56 U50 0. The cyclic loading test results are summarized in Table 26.0 Horizontal Load (H/H0) U50 2.0 Displacement (δ/δ0) Fig.00 2. where the horizontal displacement and horizontal load are nondimensionallized by the yield displacement (δ0 = 8.18 3.55 kN) of the specimen U00.0 1. respectively.0 3.23 4.25 0. 3.0 0.37  .0 4.92 5. Envelope curves of unstiffened circular piers due to the static cyclic tests Table 26. 29.53 3.25h infill concrete increased by 33%. 29. 29 that.STATIC TEST The envelope curves are shown in Fig.0 6. which showed its better deformation capacity.5 0.00 1.15 1.0 2.0 7.0 1.
4. The seismic performance of specimen U50 has shown great different with that of specimen U25.3 Ductility Factor The values of the ductility factors μm and μ95 obtained by the cyclic test results of unstiffened circular piers are listed in Table 26. respectively. comparing with specimen U00 without concrete infill.25h respectively increased by 33% and 29%. it can be seen from the Fig. and the displacement corresponding to the maximum load was 1. although both the specimens U25 and U50 were partially filled with concrete.STATIC TEST maximum lateral load since the load was transmitted difficultly to the concrete only through the frictional contact between the external plate with internal concrete. It can be seen from the Fig. 28 and Table 26 that both the maximum lateral load and deformation capacity are obviously improved by the filledin concrete. in the case of specimen U50 of hc = 0. Compared with the specimen U00.50h. and the upper part of filledin concrete could apply an axial force to the concrete at the base and transmit the load to the concrete through frictional contact between external steel plates and internal concrete. 210 that. and plot of μm and μ95 against the concretefilled ratio is shown in Fig. 210. This can be attributed to the confinement of the internal concrete .50h.38  . 2. in which concrete was filled sufficiently with a length of 0. the maximum lateral load of specimen U50 significantly increased by 25%. the corresponding values increased by 23% and 44%. the ductility factors μm and μ95 of specimen U25 of hc = 0.23 times larger than the displacement of specimen U00. This is because the specimen U50 possesses a sufficient length of infill concrete. For the specimen U50.
STATIC TEST
which prevented local buckling of plates. Accordingly, some improvement of ductility capacity
of the circular steel section due to the filledin concrete can be expected even when a diaphragm
is not provided on the concrete.
Fig. 210. Effect of filledin concrete on ductility
2.5
Conclusions
A total of 6 column specimens including 3 stiffened rectangular piers and 3 circular piers were
tested under constant axial compression and static cyclic lateral loads with varying displacement
amplitude. Based on the experimental results, the following conclusions are drawn.
Partially concretefilled steel piers under static cyclic loading showed generally prominent
earthquakeresistant characteristics in undergoing the inelastic action.
For the stiffened rectangular piers, through the comparison among the specimens S00 without
concrete infill, S20 (hc/h = 0.20), and S40 (hc/h = 0.40), it is observed that both strength and
ductility of steel piers can be significantly increased by filledin concrete. This is because when
inward localplate buckling displacements are prevented by filledin concrete, local buckling
deformations are delayed in their initiation and also moderated considerably, which leads to an
 39 
STATIC TEST
increase in ductility and ultimate strength.
In the case of circular piers, the partially concretefilled specimens U25 (hc/h = 0.25) and U50
(hc/h = 0.50) showed considerably better deformation capacity than specimen U00 without
encased concrete. However, for the specimen U25, it is also shown that the filledin concrete of
an insufficient length made a very small contribution to the ultimate load since the load was
hardly transmitted to the concrete through the frictional contact between the external plate with
internal concrete. On the other hand, the specimen U50 possesses a sufficient length of infill
concrete, and the filledin concrete was found to be effective in improving the strength and
ductility of column.
 40 
CHAPTER 3
BEHAVIOR OF PARTIALLY CONCRETEFILLED STEEL BRIDGE
PIERS UNDER SINGLE AND BI DIRECTIONAL HYBRID TEST
3.1
General
In this chapter, the earthquake response of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers obtained
from the single and bi directional hybrid test will be presented.
In order to evaluate the seismic performance of a structure or a structural member, the following
three kinds of test methods are used in general: the static cyclic loading test (quasistatic test),
the shaking table test (dynamic test), and the hybrid test (pseudodynamic test).
To date, most of the existing experimental data were obtained from static cyclic loading test
which was described in detail in the Chapter 2. Obviously, the seismic behavior of a structure
evaluated on the basis of its static cyclic behavior would be different from what actually
emerged during induced earthquake vibrations.
Shaking table test provides true dynamic loading. A model of a structure is mounted on a stiff
platform, which is shaken so as to apply the appropriate base motion. Shaking table tests are
often costly and cannot be efficiently conducted for isolated whole structure because of its too
large scale. Special loading equipment is also necessary for the dynamic test and its loading
capacity is usually limited so that test specimens have to be modeled in the smallscale range.
To overcome these problems, the hybrid loading test method had been developed.
Fig. 31 shows a conceptual flow of the hybrid test. Hybrid test is a widely used alternative to
 41 
the test specimen is modeled as a twodegreeoffreedom system. in which the structural displacements due to the earthquake are calculated by computers using a stepwise integration procedure and applied quasistatically to the test specimen. The resulting resistance forces are measured and feed back to the analysis model as part of the input for the next calculation step. It is advantage in simplifying the equipment needed and it allows for inspection of the behavior of structures during loading.HYBRID TEST shakingtable test. 31.42  . A conceptual flow of hybrid test method In a bidirectional hybrid loading test. Fig. it can make fullscale testing feasible. Because the hybrid test simulates realistic dynamic testing without the need for dynamically rated actuators or very high oil flow rates. and the corresponding equation of motion is presented as follows. . so long as a sufficiently large strong floor and reaction wall are available.
such as maximum lateral load.1). ? ?? ?+1 0 ? ?+1 0 ??. The damping coefficient (c) is then obtained from the mass and stiffness with a value of 0.(3. the response displacement. and {ag} is the seismic acceleration vector. To investigate the seismic performance of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers under actual earthquake conditions. initial rigidity (k0). The Newmarkβ method (β = 1/6) was applied to solve for the displacement using the initial rigidity (k0).3). and acceleration at n+1 step can be calculated using Eq.and bidirectional hybrid tests. maximum response displacement and residual displacement were studied in this chapter. respectively. The subscript x and y indicate the NS and EW direction.3) By introducing the measured and scaled restoring force vector{R} at n step into Eq. ? ??. The suffix n denotes the value at the time n×Δt.43  . a total of 40 test specimens. through single.01s. where the time interval was chosen as Δt = 0.? ?+1 (3. velocity. {a} and {v} are the acceleration and velocity at the gravity center of the mass. respectively.(3.(3. as shown in the following equations.2) 1 *?+?+1 = *?+? + (*?+?+1 + *?+? )Δ? 2 (3. the effects of bidirectional loading and length of filledin concrete on the main seismic performance parameters.HYBRID TEST ? * 0 0 ?? ? +* +. 1 *?+?+1 = *?+? + *?+? Δ? + *?+? Δ? 2 + ?(*?+?+1 − *?+? )Δ? 2 2 (3. . ? ?? ?+1 0 ?? 0 ?? ? + {? } =* +.1) where the properties of the actual bridge pier such as mass (m).2) and Eq.? +. The bidirectional restoring force {R} of the actual pier can be calculated from realtime data measured in the specimen during the loading test.05 for the damping ratio (ζ). and the natural period (T) are determined on the basis of the static cyclic loading test results. In the experimental work of hybrid tests. including 27 stiffened rectangular piers and 13 circular piers.
44  .2 Outline of Experiment 3.2. .32.1 Test System Setup Z (UD) Vertical Actuator Z Loading Support Apparatus Y(EW) X (NS) Horizontal Actuator X Y Specimen Horizontal Actuator Fig. 32. The loading system is shown in Fig. Measuring system The test system adopted in this study consisted of the tridirectional loading system and measuring system developed by Aoki et al (2007).HYBRID TEST 3. Tridirectional loading system ACT3 Fig. 33. 34. Loading support apparatus Z Z C6 ACT1 C3 ACT2 C5 C4 Loading Center O A B C2 D1 C7 C10 C9 D2 C8 X X Y C1 C11 C12 Y (a) Top (b) Base Fig.
HYBRID TEST
Three 1000kN actuators and a loading support apparatus were used to apply tridirectional loads
on the top of test specimens. The loading support apparatus included two loading arms and a
core ball and circular bearings as illustrated in Fig. 33. The outer ends of the loading arms were
rigidly connected to the two horizontal direction actuators. The inner ends could move along the
core ball surface with negligible friction to keep the axes of the loading arms always pointing
toward the center of the core ball and circular bearings.
The measuring system consisted of three groups of displacement transducers (DTs) and three
load cells (ACTs) located at the end of the loading axis of each actuator. A complex
displacement measuring system is required because the displacement of loading point O cannot
be measured directly. The first group of DTs including the 4 stringpull type displacement
meters C1, C2, D1, and D2, shown in Fig. 34 (a) were arranged in the measurement plane on
the top of the specimen, where the measurement plane is defined as the plane perpendicular to
the pier axis including the loading point O. The string ends of D1 and D2 were connected to the
midpoints A and B at the side of the measurement plane to measure the bidirectional horizontal
displacement of the loading center O. The string ends of C1 and C2 are linked to the corner of
the measurement plane to obtain the Zaxis rotation of the measurement plane, as shown in Fig.
34 (a). The second group of DTs of the slidingrod displacement meters C3 to C6 are located
vertically at the four corners in the middle of the specimen for measuring the rotation angle of
the measurement plane, as illustrated in Fig. 34 (b). The third group of DTs of C7 to C10 is
used for determining the rotation angle, and C11 and C12 are used for measuring the horizontal
shifts at the base of the specimen. The details of compensation are calculated from the
measuring data to obtain the precise location of the loading point O and can be referred to the
literature written by Dang et al. (2010).
 45 
HYBRID TEST
3.2.2
Experimental Program
Acceleration（gal）
1000
GT1EW，PGA=765.88 gal
500
0
500
1000
Acceleration（gal）
0
10
20
1000
30
Time(s)
GT1NS，PGA=812.02 gal
500
0
500
1000
0
10
20
30
Time(s)
Acceleration（gal）
(a) JMA (Ground Type 1 – Hard Ground)
1000
GT2EW，PGA=672.64 gal
500
0
500
1000
Acceleration（gal）
0
10
20
1000
30
Time(s)
GT2NS，PGA=686.83 gal
500
0
500
1000
0
10
20
30
Time(s)
Acceleration（gal）
(b) JRT (Ground Type 2 – Medium Ground)
1000
GT3EW，PGA=619.19 gal
500
0
500
1000
Acceleration（gal）
0
10
20
1000
30
Time(s)
GT3NS，PGA=557.43 gal
500
0
500
1000
0
10
20
(c) PKB (Ground Type 3 – Soft Ground)
Fig. 35. Input earthquake accelerogram records in Kobe Earthquake
 46 
30
Time(s)
HYBRID TEST
Three kinds of input acceleration data recorded in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake are used, which
consisted of JMA, JRT, and PKB, corresponding to hard ground (Ground Type 1), medium
ground (Ground Type 2), and soft ground (Ground Type 3), respectively. The acceleration time
histories are presented in Fig. 35.
Table 31. Experimental program for stiffened rectangular piers
No.
Specimen
Loading Mode
1
SH001D1
1DEW
2
SH001D2
1DNS
3
SH002D1
2D
4
SH001D3
1DEW
5
SH001D4
1DNS
6
SH002D2
2D
7
SH001D5
1DEW
8
SH001D6
1DNS
9
SH002D3
2D
10
SH201D1
1DEW
11
SH201D2
1DNS
12
SH202D1
2D
13
SH201D3
1DEW
14
SH201D4
1DNS
15
SH202D2
2D
16
SH201D5
1DEW
17
SH201D6
1DNS
18
SH202D3
2D
19
SH401D1
1DEW
20
SH401D2
1DNS
21
SH402D1
2D
22
SH401D3
1DEW
23
SH401D4
1DNS
24
SH402D2
2D
25
SH401D5
1DEW
26
SH401D6
1DNS
27
SH402D3
2D
Ground Type
Concrete Filled Ratio
GT1
(JMA)
GT2
(JRT)
hc/h = 0.00
GT3
(PKB)
GT1
(JMA)
GT2
(JRT)
hc/h = 0.20
GT3
(PKB)
GT1
(JMA)
GT2
(JRT)
GT3
(PKB)
 47 
hc/h = 0.40
15 315 514 44.66 0.15 315 514 61. Specimen Loading Mode 1 UH001D1 1DEW 2 UH001D2 1DNS 3 UH002D1 2D 4 UH251D1 1DEW 5 UH251D2 1DNS 6 UH252D1 2D 7 UH501D1 1DEW 8 UH501D2 1DNS 9 UH502D1 2D 10 UH501D3 1DEW 11 UH501D4 1DNS GT3 12 UH501D5 1DPA (PKB) 13 UH502D2 2D Concrete Filled Ratio GT2 hc/h = 0. specimen designations starting with an “S” refer to stiffened rectangular piers. respectively. In the tables.80 0.58 hc/h P/Py 0.15 648 1058 62. Experimental program for unstiffened circular piers Ground Type No.00 The experimental programs for stiffened rectangular piers and circular piers are listed in Table 31 and Table 32.9 835.HYBRID TEST Table 32.8 0.20 0.4 0. Properties of actual bridge piers Type Stiffened Rectangular Unstiffened Circular P m k0 c T (kN) (t) (kN/mm) (t/s) (s) 0. and “H” indicates the hybrid loading test. and “1D” or “2D” refers to the single.25 (JRT) GT2 (JRT) hc/h = 0.00 0.3 0.3 477.4 844.3 561.68 0.15 315 514 46.40 0.9 815. the following number denotes the height ratio of the filledin concrete.15 648 1058 65. .81 0.50 Table 33. respectively.25 0.00 (JRT) GT2 hc/h = 0.0 0.79 0. and those starting with a “U” refer to circular piers.2 487. The ground type is represented by “GT”.2 0.or bidirectional hybrid test.15 648 1058 67.48  .50 0.3 0.
3.15) was applied to all test specimens. initial rigidity. and sufficiently filled with concrete (hc = 0.36 that the specimens due to bidirectional loading suffered much more damage than those due to singledirectional loading.3 Experimental Study on Stiffened Rectangular Piers 3. The left two columns of plots are the results due to singledirectional loading. and 3 correspond to the test results of piers without concrete infill (hc = 0.49  . Fig. and the properties of the actual bridge piers. no matter what kind of concretefilled ratio. It also can be observed that as the length of filledin concrete increased. such as mass.00h). . in which plots placed in row 1. 3. 2. the conditions of damage were gradually improved. it was observed that the test specimens loaded by seismic waves of medium and soft grounds (GT2 and GT3) have shown much greater damage than those in hard ground (GT1). Therefore. in order to give complete and clear information for explaining the effect of bidirectional loading and filledin concrete on the seismic response of test specimens.40h). It can be clearly seen from the Fig. phenomena observed during the hybrid tests of medium ground (GT2) will be described in detail in this section.HYBRID TEST A constant axial load (P/Py = 0.1 Collapse Modes During the experiments. damping coefficient and the natural period. while the rightmost plots represent the results due to bidirectional loading.20h). respectively. whether under singledirectional loading or bidirectional loading. The piers of low concretefilled ratio or without concrete infill quickly collapsed in the bidirectional loading tests of soft ground (GT3). are listed in Table 33. 36 shows the different failure modes of piers after hybrid tests. with low concretefilled ratio (hc = 0.
local plate buckling was first observed in the flange plates at the pier base immediately after the peak horizontal load.36.00h). Stiffened rectangular specimens after loading tests of medium ground (GT2) For the stiffened rectangular test specimens without concrete infill (hc = 0.50  . the plates were not fully .HYBRID TEST (a) SH001D3 (b) SH001D4 (c) SH002D2 (d) SH201D3 (e) SH201D4 (f) SH202D2 (g) SH401D3 (h) SH401D4 (i) SH402D2 Fig. whether in singledirectional loading tests or in bidirectional loading tests. Once local buckling occurred. and then extended to the web plates.
only some surface cracks were observed on the plates near the column base and in the hollow steel section above filledconcrete. it was observed that large number of surface cracks appeared on the flange and web plates from base to upper hollow steel section during the loading.HYBRID TEST straightened out during reversed seismic loading. both in the case of hc = 0. For the specimens sufficiently filled with concrete at the bottom of the case of hc = 0.38 (c) and (d). However. as shown in plot (f).20h. . the earthquake damage was smallest among these three kinds of specimens. As the loading was continued.51  . For the stiffened specimens SH201D3 (GT2EW) and SH201D4 (GT2NS). the buckling waves progressively grew and most of the lateral deformation took place in the hollow steel section. no severe damage was observed in the test specimens. for the specimen SH202D2 (GT22D). buckling deformations progressively grew and the response displacement on the top of the piers became considerable. especially in the case of bidirectional loading as illustrated in plot (c). which was tested under bidirectional loading. as shown in plots (d) and (e). even under bidirectional seismic loading. local buckling deformations were localized only in their base panels as shown in plots (a) to (c). some small surface cracks and slight local buckling deformations were first observed in the base flange plate and the panel of the hollow steel section. there was only slight outward buckling deformation occurred in the base panel following by a large number of surface cracks.40h. and slight local buckling took place in the flange plates of the hollow steel section immediately after the peak horizontal load. In this kind of test specimens. For the specimens SH401D3 (GT2EW) and SH401D4 (GT2NS) under singledirectional loading. But until the end of test. For the specimen SH402D2 (GT22D). which resulted in the large horizontal displacements of the top of specimen in NS and EW direction as reflected in Fig. But the buckling deformations hardly grew until the test was finished.
48 14 SH201D4 GT21DNS 4.73 0.77 1.47 1.66 2.86 12.68 0.and bi.80 74.43 1. Specimen Loading Mode δmax/δ0 δr/δ0 Hmax/H0 ΣE/E0 1 SH001D1 GT11DEW 2.73 0.86 0.40 The hybrid test results obtained under single.81 47.09 16 SH201D5 GT31DEW 4.52  .76 11 SH201D2 GT11DNS 3.directional loading.68 1.12 22.95 1.12 25.14 17 SH201D6 GT31DNS 4.65 2.49 34.82 2.43 2 SH001D2 GT11DNS 3.49 26 SH401D6 GT31DNS 3.72 1.71 123.04 28.25 1.20 2.95 2.96 18 SH202D3 GT32D 10.69 1.85 38. including maximum horizontal load Hmax/ H0.49 1.82 6.88 19 SH401D1 GT11DEW 3.59 0.00 0.00 1.60 8 SH001D6 GT31DNS 5. are listed in Table 34. the residual displacement δr /δ0.40 4.2 Effect of Bidirectional Loading Table 34.49 9 SH002D3 GT32D 15.04 10.64 34.11 0.31 1.55 2.28 15 SH202D2 GT22D 7.18 1.86 4 SH001D3 GT21DEW 4.32 1. Results of hybrid tests for stiffened rectangular piers No.47 21 SH402D1 GT12D 3.97 38. the maximum displacement δmax/ δ0.55 61.90 5 SH001D4 GT21DNS 5.42 13 SH201D3 GT21DEW 3.57 0.24 0.68 1.96 30.25 25 SH401D5 GT31DEW 3.91 23 SH401D4 GT21DNS 4.89 22.56 21.51 1.83 7 SH001D5 GT31DEW 5.98 1.91 41.40 0.18 2.96 20 SH401D2 GT11DNS 3.07 2.90 13.94 66.44 0.3.08 69.80 6 SH002D2 GT22D 7.20 0.07 107.72 2.14 55.91 2.10 28.HYBRID TEST 3.58 24 SH402D2 GT22D 5.65 42.69 0.51 2.09 1.99 0.04 13. The cumulative absorbed .38 1.84 3 SH002D1 GT12D 3.94 hc/h 0.73 22 SH401D3 GT21DEW 3.76 15.76 1.81 121.13 1.61 30. and the cumulative absorbed energy ∑E /E0.06 2.09 1.22 0.58 12 SH202D1 GT12D 3.04 1.76 0.33 1.05 36.12 27 SH402D3 GT32D 7.70 10 SH201D1 GT11DEW 2.46 1.
and bi. the displacement responses show not much difference between single.directional loadings. maximum response displacement and residual displacement will be discussed in detail in the following section. displacement response obtained in the single. Before the end of time history. It is probably attributed to the effect of characteristic differences between seismic waves.53  . such as maximum lateral load. 38. 37 to Fig. particularly in medium and soft ground (GT2 and GT3). However. 37 and Fig. as illustrated in the plots (e) and (f) of Fig. the effects of bidirectional loading and length of filledin concrete on the main seismic performance parameters. In these figures.and bi. the loading test has to be stopped midway for the low residual bearing capacity and extremely large displacement accompanied by significant local buckling and cracks. as shown in Fig.4) On the basis of test results.directional loading tests are represented by broken lines and solid lines. respectively. respectively. because the steel plates buckled severely resulting in large stiffness degradation and greater deformation.310. It can be seen obviously from these figures that the maximum displacement and residual displacement due to bidirectional loading (solid lines) are generally larger than those due to singledirectional loading (broken lines). ?0 = 0 1 ?? 2 0 0 (3. the center of displacement response oscillation gradually slid off the time axis owing to bidirectional loading.HYBRID TEST energy parameters ∑E and E0 are defined by ? Σ? = ∫ ??? . . 39 respectively present the displacement time history curves of the test specimens with different concretefilled ratios measured during hybrid loading tests. for the specimens in hard ground (GT1). (1) Displacement Time History Curve Fig. In the cases of specimens SH002D3 and SH202D3.
20 .HYBRID TEST (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.00) (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig. 37.54  . Displacement time history curves of specimens without concrete infill (hc/h = 0. Displacement time history curves of specimens of hc/h = 0. 38.
00δ0 at 5. 39. and soon peaked 3.40 (b) SH202D3 (a) SH002D3 Fig. the maximum displacement of specimen SH202D1 in NS direction under bidirectional loading showed .HYBRID TEST (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig. 310. Failure conditions due to bidirectional loading effect in soft ground (GT3) Take specimen SH201D2 as an example.38 (b).4sec in positive side.55  . Displacement time history curves of specimens of hc/h = 0.76δ0 at 5. the displacement response due to single ground motion in NS direction reached its maximum value 2.8sec in negative side as can be seen in Fig. Whereas.
69δ0 larger than specimen SH201D2 because of stiffness degradation caused by local buckling. in which the horizontal and vertical axes indicate the response displacement in the EW and NS directions. in Fig. and the values of maximum displacement and residual displacement obtained in bidirectional loading tests even show a little less than those of singledirectional loading tests.8sec in negative side. respectively. and almost left no residual displacement.4sec in positive side. These changes in processes are reflected in the displacement response comparisons. . 311.69δ0 at 5. From that point. it can be found that the displacement trajectories were stretched toward Northwest owing to bidirectional loading.20h. As seen from the Fig. which is 0.00h and 0.40h concrete infill under bidirectional loading show much closer to results of singledirectional loading than cases of 0.and bidirectional loading tests are represented by broken and solid lines. and GT3 revealed that the shapes of the response displacement trajectories change significantly along with the change of input ground motions. GT2. It is also observed from the comparison that the displacement trajectories of specimens with 0. 311.HYBRID TEST 2.56  . respectively. The comparison among plots of GT1.77δ0 large residual displacement was caused by singledirectional loading.91δ0 at 5. especially for the cases in the soft ground (GT3). (2) Displacement Trajectories The displacement trajectories of the center of the mass point at the pier tops in the horizontal plane measured in single. while 0. which is 0. the displacement time history curve of specimen SH202D1 under bidirectional loading moved toward positive side and then reached the peak point 2.85δ0 less than that of specimen SH201D2 of singledirectional loading.
57  .and bidirectional loading test results. Response displacement trajectories in the horizontal plane (3) Maximum Displacement and Residual Displacement Plots (a) and (b) of Fig. 312 show the comparison of maximum displacement and residual displacement between single.20h (g) GT10. respectively.20h (f) GT30.00h (c) GT30.311. especially those caused by bidirectional loading depicted as the solid column in the figures. It is clear from Fig. increases as a function of .00h (b) GT20.40h (h) GT20.00h (d) GT10.40h Fig.20h (e) GT20. 312 (a) that the maximum response displacement.HYBRID TEST (a) GT10.40h (i) GT30.
and 15. it is thought that the maximum response displacement of steel piers without or with concretefilled caused by actual bidirectional strong earthquake loading cannot be adequately predicted from singledirectional loading tests or analysis. These results also indicate that it is inadequate to evaluate residual displacement under actual bidirectional loading based only on conventional singledirectional loading tests or analysis. the corresponding ratios change to 0. .and bi. respectively.48. Therefore. 1. especially for the specimens with 0.76. In the case of hc = 0.14. for the specimens of hc = 0.62 for GT1.40h. and 2. 1.HYBRID TEST the ground types from hard to soft in all three concretefilled ratios.92.08. 1. The average values of maximum displacements due to singledirectional loading for specimens without concrete infill are 3. and 1. Then. The ratios of the maximum displacements caused by bidirectional loading to those due to singledirectional loading vary with the different ground types as 1. respectively. and GT 3.20h.73.04. 312 (b). respectively. and soft ground (GT3). and 6. the ratios change to 1.40h. Compared with Fig.02.44.29.64. 7.28. the corresponding ratios vary with the different ground types as 1. 7. 5.and bi. 312 (b) compares the residual displacement due to single. and 5. which is corresponding to 1. 312 (a). respectively.53.directional loadings is expanded in Fig.79.19 for hard ground (GT1). In the case of hc = 0.33. GT2. in which the two lefthand columns list the results of singledirectional and the rightmost column lists the results of bidirectional loading tests.58  . Fig. the difference between single. 16. respectively.40.20h. The residual displacement limit provided in the specification for highway bridges of Japan is 1% of the pier height.directional loadings.60δ0 for the tested piers and is shown by the dash line in the plots.02.2h height of concrete filled.98. the residual displacement ratios of bidirectional loadings to singledirectional loadings are 0. respectively. and 3.83. The corresponding values due to bidirectional loading are 3. For the specimens of hc = 0. respectively. medium ground (GT2). and 1.
312.5) To determine the relationship between residual displacement and maximum displacement. ?? ???? = ?? ( − 1)(1 − ?) ?0 ?0 (3.and bi.(3. which is shown as a straight line in Fig. 313.1 to estimate the residual displacement of partially concretefilled steel piers under strong earthquake loading. Comparison of single.5) is proposed with the coefficients CR = 0. test .HYBRID TEST (a) Maximum displacement (b) Residual displacement Fig. In the design specifications.312.directional loading In Fig. Eq.45 and r = 0. a similar tendency of the residual displacement and the maximum displacement is observed.59  .
It can be observed that the design specifications provide an accurate estimation of residual displacement for sufficiently concretefilled piers (hc/h = 0. 313.directional loading tests are represented by broken lines and solid lines in Figs.313. Relationship between the maximum displacement and residual displacements (4) Hysteretic Curves The hysteretic curves measured during the single. this estimation equation does not well meet the results obtained in medium ground and soft ground due to either single.and bidirectional loadings are represented by hollow and solid marks. were selected and plotted in Fig.314 to 316. respectively.60  . respectively. respectively.20h and 0.40h concrete infill heights are indicated by circular shape (○) and square shape (□).or bidirectional loadings. But in the case of low concretefilled ratio. Fig. The plotted points for specimens with 0.and bi. The results due to single. which show much larger residual displacement values than the limit value. in which plots .40) except for the case due to bidirectional loading in the soft ground (GT3).HYBRID TEST data except for the results of the specimens SH202D2 and SH202D3.
314. while a greater average attenuation value of 22% was calculated for soft ground (GT3). buckling deformations progressively grew. As seen from Figs. (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig. Hysteretic curves of specimens without concrete infill (hc/h = 0. The degradation of lateral restoring force resulted from the local buckling deformation accelerated by the bidirectional loading.61  . and the lateral resistance of the specimen gradually reduced. 2. the plates were not fully straightened out during reversed loading. and soft ground (GT3). the specimens for the bidirectional loading hybrid tests presented a considerable degree of degradation in resistance force accompanied by an increase in displacement. For the cases of hard ground (GT1) and medium ground (GT2). medium ground (GT2). and 3 correspond to the test results of piers in hard ground (GT1). compared to the results of singledirectional loading tests.00) . Once local buckling occurred. the average attenuation ratios were about 14% and 10% large respectively.314 to 316.HYBRID TEST placed in column 1. respectively.
315.20 (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.62  . 316.HYBRID TEST (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig. Hysteretic curves of specimens of hc/h = 0.40 . Hysteretic curves of specimens of hc/h = 0.
63  .40h Fig. the synthesis of two lateral forces analyzed independently in the two orthogonal .00h (b) GT20.317.40h (h) GT20.00h (c) GT30.20h (e) GT20. Lateral resistance trajectories in the horizontal plane Bidirectional lateral resistance force trajectories in the horizontal plane are shown in Fig. respectively. The solid lines in all the plots of Fig. in which the vertical and horizontal axes represent the horizontal force of the piers in the NS and EW directions.20h (g) GT10. exhibit circularlike patterns which are generally enveloped by the fusiformlike singledirectional loading results presented by the broken lines.HYBRID TEST (5) Lateral Resistance Trajectories (a) GT10. Accordingly.20h (f) GT30.317.40h (i) GT30. representing the results due to bidirectional loading tests.317.00h (d) GT10.
EW under singledirectional loading.HYBRID TEST directions can result in larger force standard. (6) Maximum Horizontal Load Fig. 318 compares the maximum horizontal load.64  .NS and Hmax. Hmax. Maximum horizontal load comparison between single.and bi.directional loading Fig.2D subjected to bidirectional loading and Hmax. The maximum loads of stiffened . which will lead to an overestimation of the hysteretic horizontal force of the actual bidirectionally loaded steel piers with partially concrete infill. 318.
320. respectively. It also can be observed from Fig.2%. 318.20) showed almost the same deterioration in strength as steel piers without filled concrete. The cumulative energy absorption time history curves of sufficiently concretefilled test specimens due to bidirectional hybrid loadings tests are illustrated in Fig.c due to static cyclic loading are generally about 5% smaller than those of singledirectional hybrid loadings. As shown in Fig. medium ground (GT2).7%. because of local buckling deformation that was more prone to occur in the panels of the hollow steel section just above the lower positioning concrete.00. Hm. in comparison with results obtained by singledirectional loading tests on an average for the three ground types. respectively. in the case of bidirectional strong earthquake loading. The test specimens of inadequate concretefilled ratio (hc/h = 0. 318 that.65  .40 ) presented a small degree of degradation about 6. Hmax. and soft ground (GT3).e. because the static cyclic loading tests make specimens loaded by incremental displacement that lead to larger fatigue damage accumulation than singledirectional hybrid tests.c are presented by the dash line in the plots of Fig. hc/h = 0. 6. in which plots (a) to (c) represented the results obtained in hard ground (GT1). . 0. It can be observed that the largest difference is obtained among the ground types and the cumulative energy absorption due to bidirectional loading tests is generally larger than those due to singledirectional loading tests.20 and 0.5% and 3.. 318. (7) Cumulative Energy Absorption Fig.HYBRID TEST rectangular piers due to static cyclic loading Hm. 319 presents a comparison of the cumulative energy absorption values between the singleand bidirectional hybrid loading tests.2D of test specimens with three different concretefilled ratios (i.
8 second after loading the energy absorption in NS direction rapidly reached 70% of all the energy and finished left 30% slowly in the next 5 seconds. Cumulative energy absorption comparison between single.5 seconds later than that of EW direction. Compared to the cases of hard ground (GT1). while in the EW direction the test specimen absorbed almost all of the energy from 5. as shown in plot (b). In the case of EW directional component.and bi. while in the NS direction the specimen finished its 50% energy 2.directional loading It can be seen from the plot (a) of Fig.66  .320 that during the 5. the specimen of medium ground (GT2) absorbed much more energy.7 second.2 second.HYBRID TEST Fig. Then slowly absorbed energy and the peak appeared .2 second and reached its peak at 10.0 to 4.0 to 5.0 to 5. the specimen absorbed 50% of all the energy from 3. 319.
320.0 to 6.67  .3 second. For the cases of soft ground (GT3). Compared to the piers without concrete infill. as shown in plot (c). Energy absorption time history curves due to bidirectional loading (hc = 0. respectively.HYBRID TEST until 15. Therefore. the maximum displacement response due to bidirectional loading gradually decreased with increasing height of the filledin concrete. 321. for the medium (GT2) and soft ground (GT3). It can be found that great change does not emerge in hard ground (GT1) regardless of the encase concrete. the maximum displacements due to bidirectional loadings were reduced by about 14% and 38% on an average for the three ground types.4h height. In contrast.40h) 3.2h and 0. (a) Hard Ground (GT1) (b) Medium Ground (GT2) (c) Soft Ground (GT3) Fig. . the energy absorption value of EW directional component is nearly as much as that of NS directional component during from 5.3.3 Effect of Filledin Concrete (1) Maximum Displacement The change of maximum displacement as a function of the concretefilled ratio is shown in Fig. when the concrete is filled up to 0.5 second. it can be pointed that the specimens of medium and soft grounds (GT2 and GT3) will suffer much more damage caused by strong earthquake loading than those of hard ground (GT1).
Maximum displacement as a function of different concretefilled ratios (2) Residual Displacement The reduction of residual displacement along with the growth of concretefilled height is also observed in Fig.GT1 (b) Medium Ground . respectively.directional loading was also reduced by about 15% and 55%. 322 as well as the maximum displacement in Fig.GT2 (c) Soft Ground .GT3 Fig. 321. the residual displacement due to singledirectional loading was significantly reduced by about 53% and 72% through filling 0.20h and 0.GT3 Fig. respectively.321.68  .HYBRID TEST The difference between results due to single. it is also observed that the reduction of residual displacement attributing to the effect of filledin . In the case of bidirection loading.322. (a) Hard Ground .GT1 (b) Medium Ground .and bi.GT2 (c) Soft Ground .40h length concrete in the piers. Residual displacement as a function of different concretefilled ratios By comparison to the result of pier without concrete infill. (a) Hard Ground .
.40h concrete filled than the case without concrete infill. in comparison with the piers without concrete. it is unsafe to estimate the residual displacement based only on the singledirectional loading test results.GT2 (c) Soft Ground .GT3 Fig.69  .and bidirectional loadings diminishes. (3) Maximum Horizontal Load (a) Hard Ground .HYBRID TEST concrete is remarkable. However.20h and 0.323 presents comparisons of the maximum horizontal load with the different filledin concrete heights for the three different ground types. is filled up to 0. The effect of filledin concrete is clear from these results. If a bridge pier. It can be observed that the maximum load of the pier with a concretefilled height of 0. especially in medium ground (GT2) and soft ground (GT3).2h and 0.323.40h with concrete.4h was increased by about 15% and 25% on an average for the three ground types.GT1 (b) Medium Ground . It is owing to the sufficient height of encase concrete which can prevent local buckling deflection of the outer steel plates of cross section toward inside and increase the strength and ductility of the outer steel plates during the strong earthquake loading. the difference in the residual displacement between the single. respectively. especially in soft ground (GT3). Maximum horizontal load as a function of different concretefilled ratios Fig. The residual displacement has shown about 42% and 88% less by a height of 0. respectively. for the pier of a low concretefilled ratio.
For the specimen SH002D1 (hc/h = 0.HYBRID TEST However. as shown in Fig. . because the pier with sufficient concrete filling height always fractures at the bottom end of piers. and then loses its lateral resistance. However.324.70  . 324 that the cumulative absorbed energy does not greatly change in the hard ground (GT1) when the concretefilled ratio increased. in the case of medium ground and soft ground (GT2 and GT3). the maximum load of the piers would not significantly improve even if the height of filledin concrete increases. in the case of soft ground (GT3). 23 (c) of Chapter 2. and resulted in a low value of cumulative energy absorption.GT2 (c) Soft Ground . since the displacement response was considerably decreased while the lateral load changed little as the concretefilled ratio increased. Cumulative energy absorption as a function of different concretefilled ratios It can be observed from Fig.GT1 (b) Medium Ground . (4) Cumulative Energy Absorption (a) Hard Ground . the loading test was stopped midway because the pier had suffered great damage before the end of time history.00) under bidirectional loading. the reduction of cumulative hysteresis dissipation energy along with the growth of concretefilled height were generally observed in plots (b) and (c).GT3 Fig.
4 Experimental Study on Circular Piers 3.71  .4. the specimens of medium ground (GT2) absorbed the most energy among the three kinds of grounds. The obvious differences of seismic performance between singledirectional loading and bidirectional loading in medium ground (GT2) were also observed for stiffened rectangular piers. Circular specimens after loading tests of medium ground (GT2) As above mentioned in section 3.1 Collapse Modes (a) UH001D1 (b) UH001D2 (c) UH002D1 (d) UH251D1 (e) UH251D2 (f) UH252D1 (g) UH501D1 (h) UH501D2 (i) UH502D1 Fig.3.HYBRID TEST 3. the damage modes of circular piers in . Therefore.325.2.
are listed in Table 35. respectively.4.72  .325 that the effects of bidirectional loading and filledin concrete on the collapse modes of circular specimens are significant. because a diaphragm was not designed over the filledin concrete in specimens.2 Effect of Bidirectional Loading and Filledin Concrete The hybrid test results obtained under single. it can be clearly seen from the Fig. in which photos placed in row 1. no matter what kind of concrete. whether under singledirectional loading or bidirectional loading. and the cumulative absorbed energy ∑E /E0. 2. . The conditions of damage were considerably improved as the length of filledin concrete increased.and bi. including maximum horizontal load Hmax/ H0.directional loading. and 3 correspond to the test results of piers without concrete infill (hc = 0.25h). such as maximum lateral load. On the basis of test results obtained in the medium ground (GT2). Similar to the stiffened rectangular specimens. with low concretefilled ratio (hc = 0. the local buckling of plates was observed at the column base regardless of the length of concrete infill. As seen in the Fig.00h).HYBRID TEST medium ground (GT2) will be studied in this section. while the rightmost plots represent the results due to bidirectional loading. and sufficiently filled with concrete (hc = 0. 3. The left two columns of photos are the results due to singledirectional loading.50h). the effects of bidirectional loading and length of filledin concrete on the main seismic performance parameters. the maximum displacement δmax/ δ0. Fig. 325. 325 shows the different failure modes of piers after hybrid tests.filled ratio. the residual displacement δr /δ0. The test specimens due to bidirectional loading damaged more severely than those due to singledirectional loading.
04 61.26 6 UH252D1 GT22D 11. Results of hybrid tests for unstiffened circular piers No.59 3.63 2. respectively.14 2.45 2. 326 that the displacement components in EW and NS directions due to bidirectional loading are much larger than those due to singledirectional loading. because significant local buckling occurred in the steel plates at the base.45 15. Specimen Loading Mode δmax/δ0 δr/δ0 Hmax/H0 ΣE/E0 1 UH001D1 GT21DEW 8. because the steel plates at the base buckled severely resulting in large stiffness degradation and greater deformation.14 8 UH501D2 GT21DNS 4. The displacement response obtained in the single. 326.69 5 UH251D2 GT21DNS 6.21 2.05 101.98 74.39 107.73  .06 82.and bi.45 hc/h 0.94 4 UH251D1 GT21DEW 4.40 2.18 2.28 260.HYBRID TEST maximum displacement and residual displacement will be discussed in detail in the following.16 7 UH501D1 GT21DEW 4. Table 35. It also can be found .00 0.29 3 UH002D1 GT22D 15.25 2. It can be seen clearly from Fig. which were measured during the hybrid loading tests.59 0. which caused low residual bearing capacity and extremely large displacement of the specimen.66 3. 326 present the displacement time history curves of the test specimens with three different concretefilled ratios.37 8.93 1.07 2 UH001D2 GT21DNS 6.00.84 0.94 209.09 3.directional loading tests are represented by broken lines and solid lines.22 9 UH502D1 GT22D 8.50 (1) Displacement Time History Curve Fig. For the specimen UH002D1of the case of hc/h = 0. particularly in the case of low concretefilled ratios.39 2.10 4. as shown in plots of the top row in Fig.14 147.25 0.56 0.32 83. the bidirectional loading test had to be stopped midway before the end of time history.
50h Fig.HYBRID TEST that as the length of filledin concrete increased the displacement response was effectively improved. Displacement time history curves of unstiffened circular specimens (GT2) . especially in the case of bidirectional loading.74  .00h (b) hc = 0.25h (c) hc = 0. 326. (a) hc = 0.
327.327.75  . are represented in Fig. 328 that the maximum response displacement caused by bidirectional . It is also observed from the comparison that the displacement trajectories of specimens with an adequate length of filledin concrete (hc = 0. 328 shows the comparison of maximum displacement of circular piers with three different concretefilled ratios between single.50h) under bidirectional loading show much closer to results of singledirectional loading than results of 0.and bidirectional loading test results.25h. (3) Maximum Displacement and Residual Displacement Fig.50h Fig.25h (c) hc = 0.and bidirectional loadings.00h (b) hc = 0. Response displacement trajectories in the horizontal plane The displacement trajectories of the mass point at the pier top due to single.00h and 0. respectively. It is clear from Fig.HYBRID TEST (2) Displacement Trajectories (a) hc = 0. it can be found that the displacement trajectories were stretched toward Southeast owing to bidirectional loading. 327 by broken lines and solid lines. including three different kinds of specimens. As seen from the Fig.
when the concrete was filled up to 0.25h and 0. respectively.50h are 7. Fig. 5.38. The residual displacement limit provided in the specification for highway bridges of Japan is 1% of the pier height. 329 compares the residual displacement due to single. significantly decreased with increasing the length of the filledin concrete. The ratios of the maximum displacements caused by bidirectional loading to results due to singledirectional loading vary with the different concretefilled ratios as 2.09.directional loadings. 328 that the maximum displacement response. the maximum displacements due to bidirectional loadings were reduced by about 26% and 44%. Compared to the piers without concrete fill.76  . particularly due to bidirectional loading. which is corresponding to .50h height. Fig. 328. and 1.88. respectively. in which the two lefthand columns list the results of singledirectional and the rightmost column lists the results of bidirectional loading tests. Residual displacement comparison It also can be found in Fig. 0. 1. respectively. Maximum displacement comparison Fig.93.and bi.25h and 0.58.89 and 4. It is because the sufficient height of encase concrete can prevent local buckling deflection of the outer steel plates of cross section toward inside and increase the strength and ductility of the outer steel plates during the strong earthquake loading. The nondimensional average values of maximum displacements due to singledirectional loading for specimens of hc = 0. 329.HYBRID TEST loading depicted as the solid column was much larger than results of singledirectional loading.00h.
It is clear that the difference between single. 330. In the case of bidirectional loading.25) under . in the case of a low concrete fill ratio pier (hc/h = 0.77  .50h height in the piers.25. Like rectangular piers. respectively. In comparison with the results of piers without concrete infill. (3. 329. and is shown by the dash line in the figure.and bi.directional loadings was significant as seen from Fig. 328 and 329.HYBRID TEST 2. The reduction of residual displacement along with the growth of concretefilled height is also observed in Fig.25h and 0. the residual displacement due to singledirectional loading was significantly reduced by about 80% and 93% through filling concrete up to 0.25h and 0.50h have shown about 44% and 78% less than the result of specimen without concrete infill.and bidirectional loading test results are represented by white and black solid marks. in which all residual displacements due to bidirectional loading exceeded the limit value while the majority of results due to singledirectional loading located under the limit. 330. 328. Eq. 0. From Fig.5) for estimating residual displacement is represented by the straight line in the figure. Single. This means that the design based on singledirectional loading test results leads to unsafe side. a certain correlation between the maximum and residual displacements is also observed from Figs. However. In addition.and bidirectional loading were selected and plotted in Fig. test data of concretefilled circular piers collected under both single. the residual displacements of specimens of hc = 0. we observe that the seismic design code provides a nearupper bound level estimation of residual displacement when a partially concretefilled circular pier (hc/h = 0.50) under singledirectional loading or with adequate concrete fill ratio (hc/h = 0. 329 as well as the maximum displacement in Fig. In Fig.66δ0 for the test piers. respectively.50) under bidirectional loading. result for specimen H252D of bidirectional loading was excluded because it showed greater residual values than the limits stated in the specifications. respectively. 330.
0 0. 0. The degradation of restoring force resulted from the local buckling deformation accelerated by the bidirectional loading. 331.00h. For the specimens of three different concretefilled ratios. the plates were not fully straightened out during reversed loading and buckling deformations .0 Eq. 5. 12% and 9% large.5).and bidirectional loading tests are represented by broken lines and solid lines in Figs.0 2. 330. and 3 correspond to the results of piers of hc = 0. compared with the results of singledirectional loading tests.25h and 0. the specimens tested under bidirectional loading presented a considerable degree of degradation in horizontal load accompanied by a great increase in displacement. in which plots of row 1. respectively. respectively. residual displacement is far beyond the value calculated by the Eq. Once local buckling occurred.78  . (3.0 1D25 2D25 1D50 2D50 δr /δ0 4. the average attenuation ratios of horizontal load component of bidirectional loading to singledirectional loading were about 13%.0 0 2 4 δmax /δ0 6 8 10 Fig. respectively. 331. 2.0 3. As seen from Figs.50h.5) 1. Relationship between the maximum displacement and residual displacements (4) Hysteretic Curves The hysteretic curves measured during the single.HYBRID TEST bidirectional loading.(3.
00h (b) hc = 0. .HYBRID TEST progressively grew. 331.79  . (a) hc = 0. Hysteretic curves of circular specimens (GT2) (5) Lateral Resistance Force Trajectories The lateral resistance force trajectories in the horizontal plane for circular piers are shown in Fig. then the lateral resistance of the specimen gradually reduced.50h Fig.25h (c) hc = 0.
in which the vertical and horizontal axes represent the horizontal force of the piers in the NS and EW directions. 0. in comparison with average results of singledirectional loading tests.80  . 333 compares the maximum horizontal load.00. Hmax. 332.00h (b) hc = 0.3%. respectively. are generally enveloped by the singledirectional loading results presented by the broken lines. in .2D subjected to bidirectional loading and Hmax. The range of the horizontal resistance trajectories became larger as the concretefilled ratio increased.50h Fig.25h and 0. 333 that.25 and 0.25h (c) hc = 0.. Hmax.2% and 2.2D of test specimens with three different concretefilled ratios (i.EW under singledirectional loading. respectively.7%. The solid lines in all the plots of Fig.50 ) presented a small degree of degradation about 1. in the case of bidirectional strong earthquake loading.50h concrete were increased by about 12% and 43%. 3. (a) hc = 0. indicating the results due to bidirectional loading tests.e. respectively.HYBRID TEST 332. hc/h = 0. It also can be observed that the maximum horizontal loads of the piers partially filled with a height of 0.NS and Hmax. 332. Horizontal resistance force trajectories in the horizontal plane (6) Maximum Horizontal Load Fig. which means the strength of the piers can be effectively improved by filling concrete in the piers. It can be found from Fig.
Fig. Maximum horizontal load comparison Fig. because the displacement response was significantly reduced as the concretefilled ratio increased. the loading test was stopped midway before the end of time history because the pier had suffered great damage caused by severe buckling occurred at the base. which resulted in a low value of cumulative energy absorption. 334. 322 that the cumulative energy absorption due to bidirectional loading tests is generally much larger than those due to singledirectional loading tests.81  . . 333. The effect of filledin concrete is clear from these results. Cumulative energy absorption (7) Cumulative Energy Absorption Fig. The reduction of cumulative energy absorption along with the growth of concretefilled height was observed in Fig. while the increment rate of lateral load was much less than the reduction rate of displacement .HYBRID TEST comparison with the piers without concrete infill. 326. It can be clearly seen from the Fig. 334. as shown in Fig.00. 334 presents a comparison of the cumulative energy absorption values between the singleand bidirectional hybrid loading tests. For the specimen UH002D1 subject to bidirectional loading of the case of hc/h = 0.
i. The goal of PCA is to identify the most meaningful basis.e.5 A New Evaluation Method for Piers under Bidirectional Loading As above stated in the section 3. a new seismicbehavior evaluation method for steel piers under bidirectional loading is developed. 3. it is also clear that to evaluate the seismic behavior of steel piers under bidirectional loading through conventional singledirectional loading test or analysis is improper and difficult. the first principal component for reexpressing a data set of bidirectional ground motions. and the validity of this method is verified by the hybrid test results of circular piers on the soft ground (GT3). if this procedure is clarified to be effective.1 Principal Component Analysis of Ground Motion Data The eveluation method is developed on the basis of principal component analysis (PCA). The aim is that the singledirectional loading test on the basis of the first principal component could acquire the similar results to those due to bidirectional loading test. It is a simple and nonparametric method for extracting relevant information from confusing data sets. . far simple test method due to singledirectional loading compared with that of bidirectional loading will become a usefull tool as realising the behaviour of piers under actual holyzontally bi.directional seismic oscilations. According to the above discussion about the effect of bidirectional loading on seismic performance of bridge piers.HYBRID TEST 3. in diverse ﬁelds from neuroscience to computer graphics.3. the partially concretefilled steel piers on the soft ground (GT3) suffered most severe damage due to bidirectional loading among three different ground types.5.82  . which is a standard tool in modern data analysis. In other wards. Therefore.
j) entry is the covariance of data vectors in EW and NS directions.? ⁄5000 ?̅ −0. 35.HYBRID TEST Fig. ∑5000 ???.14 ∑?=1 ???. 335.? − ?̅?? ) Σ?=1 (???.7. respectively. 335. is calculated by following Eq. in which the horizontal and vertical axes indicate the ground motion data in the EW and NS directions.43 ( ?? ) = . The origin of the coordinate system are determined by the average values of the ground motion data.? − ?̅?? )(???. and illustrated as points in Fig. whose (i. are respectively named as aEW (gal) and aNS (gal). PCA of PKB earthquake accelerogram records (GT3) The PKB earthquake accelerogram records in EW and NS directions as shown in Fig.? − ?̅?? )2 Σ?=1 (???.? − ?̅?? )(???.6) The variance covariance matrix V.? ⁄5000 (3. 5000 ?=1 / 5000 5000 Σ?=1 (???.3. which were obtained on the soft ground (GT3) in Kobe Earthquake.83  . ?=1 ) /=( 5000 ?̅?? 0.? − ?̅?? )2 .? − ?̅?? ) . ?= 5000 1 Σ 5000 (???.
3.? are defined by Eq. ?2.? − ?̅?? ? ( ) = ? (?1. Let ? = (?1 ?2 ).? − ?̅?? 2.3. ???.? .? ) = ? −1 ( ) = ?? ( ) ? − ? ̅ ???.6481 (3.? = 0. is shown in Fig.? − ?̅?? ) (3.7615 0.HYBRID TEST 7501 −5751 =( ) −5751 9364 (3.7615(???. which describes the direction of Acceleration（ gal） maximum variance of ground motion data.7615(???.7) The eigenvalues of the variance covariance matrix V are λ1 = 14260 and λ2 = 2606.? − ?̅?? ? (?1.21 gal 500 0 500 1000 0 10 20 30 Time(s) Fig. the new viriables ?1.11) that is. ???. −0.? (3.? − ?̅?? ) { ?2.? − ?̅?? ???. 336.? ?? (3.? . The time history curve of first principal component *?1 +. 336. 1000 GT3PA1，PGA=790.9) To solve the ?1. Acceleration time history curve of first principal component of PKB seismic wave .? − ?̅?? 2.8) The pricinple axes determined by the unit eigenvectors are decipted by the dashed lines in the Fig.84  .? − ?̅?? ) + 0.9 can be rewritten as follows. Eq.? − ?̅?? ) − 0.6481(???.? ) ???.6481(???. and the corresponding unit eigenvectors are as follows: 0.? ??.7615 ?2 = ( ) 0.10) ?1.9.6481 ?1 = ( ).? and ?2.? = 0. 335.
82 3.09 72.37 0.2 specimens subjected to conventional singledirectional loading.64 2. respectively. Hybrid test results of circular piers on GT3 No. were investigated in this study. The comparison of seismic behavior due to proposed new singledirectional loading mode (1DPA) and bidirectional loading is to be discussed in detail as follows.5.96 31.99 123.and bi. The hybrid test results obtained under single.HYBRID TEST 3.76 2 UH501D4 GT31DNS 4.2 Experimental Verification of Proposed Method To verify the validy of proposed method. Specimen Loading Mode δmax/δ0 δr/δ0 Hmax/H0 ΣE/E0 1 UH501D3 GT31DEW 3. displacement response obtained in the single.and bi.28 3.85  .32 4.39 hc/h 0.50 It can be observed from the Table 36 that there is a wide gap between the results of No.1 and No. However. showed little differences from those of No. the proposed new singledirectional loading results of No. (1) Displacement Time History Curve Plots (a) to (d) of Fig.14 3. In Plots (a) and (b). 337 compared the displacement time history curve due to bidirectional loading with results due to three different singledirectional loading modes.26 4 UH502D2 GT32D 9.3 specimen.05 141. the displacement .81 0.directional loading tests are represented by broken lines and solid lines.24 2. In these plots.40 3 UH501D5 GT31DPA 8. Table 36. tested by adopting the first principal component.directional loading on the soft ground (GT3) are listed in Table 36.4 specimen.4 specimen in the case of bidirectional loading and the test results of No. respectively. a total of 4 circular piers.
. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig.86  . 337.3 and No. Displacement time history curves of circular specimens (GT3) Because the displacement trajectories due to bidirectional loading were located in a horizontal plane while the displacement responses due to 1DPA loading mode were limited on an axis as shown in Plot (c). the absolute values of displacement vectors were adopted in Plot (d) to ensure that it is possible to make a displacement comparison between No. It is feasible to accurately evaluate the complicated inelastic behavior of steel piers subjected to bidirectional seismic loading on the basis of results of conventional single.HYBRID TEST response components in EW and NS directions due to bidirectional loading showed so much larger than those due to conventional singledirectional loading.directional loading tests.4 specimens.
87  .6%. respectively. respectively.4 specimen of bidirectional loading test presented a considerable degree.HYBRID TEST It can be easily seen from Plot (d) that the gap between displacement time histories curves named as “1DPA” and “2D” is very small. which presented a significant larger hysteresis than those obtained in the conventional singledirectional hybrid loading tests. Therefore.82 and 3.28. respectively. respectively as illustrated in Plots (a) and (b). . As seen from Plots (a) and (b). 338 shows the hysteretic curves due to 1DPA loading test. of degradation in lateral resistance accompanied by an large increase in displacement.64 on the soft ground (GT3). (2) Hysteretic Curve The hysteretic curves measured in the hybrid loading tests conducted on soft ground (GT3) are represented in the Fig. the No.32 and 4. The corresponding values due to bidirectional loading are 9. The nondimensional values of maximum displacement and residual displacement due to 1DPA loading mode for specimens of hc = 0. compared to the results of conventional singledirectional loading tests. about 26%. i.50h are 8.7% and 17. The degradation of lateral resistance force resulted from the severe local buckling deformation accelerated by the bidirectional loading.e. Plot (c) of Fig. “1DEW” and “1DNS” curves. 338. The tolerances of the maximum displacement and residual displacement between bidirectional loading and 1DPA loading are about 5. it is thought that the displacement response of circular steel piers caused by actual bidirectional strong earthquake loading on the soft ground (GT3) could be practically predicted from proposed new singledirectional loading test (1DPA).
the absolute values of displacement and load vectors of 1DPA and 2D loading modes were depicted in Plot (d) by broken lines and solid lines. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. respectively. only about 2% tolerance.99 on the soft ground (GT3).HYBRID TEST In order to compare between the two hysteretic curves due to 1DPA loading and 2D loading. 338. using the same processing method as the above mentioned. Hysteretic curves of circular specimens (GT3) Both curves named as “1DPA” and “2D” showed a very similar hysteresis of absolute values.88  . The nondimensional values of maximum lateral resistance due to 1DPA loading mode is 2. .05. and the corresponding value due to 2D loading is 3.
339.89  . the complex seismic behavior caused by bidirectional earthquake loading on the soft ground (GT3) is considered to be approximately simulated by the results of proposed new singledirectional loading test or analysis more accurately than conventional single. which are depicted by dash lines. “1D” and “2D”. respectively. In comparison with the result of bi. Through the above comparisons.HYBRID TEST (3) Cumulative Energy Absorption Time History Curve Fig. and by the test results due to 2D hybrid loading. It can be observed that the cumulative energy absorption due to bidirectional loading test is larger than those due to singledirectional loading tests. while the sum of conventional 1D loading presents about 27% degradation in energy absorption. were obtained by the results of proposed 1DPA loading test.directional loading test. dot lines and solid lines in Fig. the ultimate cumulative energy absorption of 1DPA loading mode shows about 13% smaller. by the sum of results of conventional 1D loading tests in EW and NS directions.directional loading. respectively. 339. . Hysteretic curves of circular specimens (GT3) The three kinds of cumulative energy absorption time history curves names as “1DPA”.
all of the hybrid test results in medium ground (GT2) exceeded the admissible value. For the circular piers.4). In this study.20).40. was obtained by static cyclic loading tests as 2.99 (referred to as δm /δ0 in Table 25).00. respectively.90  .25 and 0.23 and 3. for the stiffened rectangular piers of sufficient concretefilled ratio (hc/h = 0. For the circular steel piers of hc/h = 0. 0. the steel grade. for the stiffened rectangular section piers without concrete fill or with inadequate concretefilled ratio (hc/h = 0. 312 (a). That is why an .00. i.64. As shown in Fig.20 and 0.1 Maximum Displacement The admissible displacement δma for partially concretefilled bridge piers advised in the seismic design specifications is determined as the displacement when the load of specimen reached its peak point in repeated cyclic loading tests or analysis.or bidirectional loading in medium and soft grounds (GT2 and GT3). respectively. 4.e. only those results acquired by bidirectional loading tests conducted in medium and soft grounds (GT2 and GT3) exceeded the corresponding admissible displacement. as shown in Fig. 3. the corresponding admissible value was 3. the admissible value was beyond by a majority of the hybrid test results due to either single.92. 0.18.50. Therefore. In the case of circular piers.. However.HYBRID TEST 3.50 and 3. diameter of cross section or the thickness of steel plate should be modified. the nondimensional admissible displacement (δma/δ0) for stiffened rectangular steel piers of three different concretefilled ratios. 328.6.6 Seismic Design Considerations 3. hc/h = 0. and a diaphragm over filledin concrete is recommended as an alternative improvement if possible. the crosssection size or the stiffenedplate rigidity of the stiffened rectangular steel piers with low concretefilled ratio should be modified in line with the routine design procedure on the basis of singledirectional loading test results.
3. this value was exceeded by both results of test specimens with filledin concrete. For the steel piers without concrete infill. when the piers under bidirectional loading.25. For the partially concretefilled steel piers. regarding the maximum response displacement. or the circular piers of hc/h = 0.HYBRID TEST adjustment of displacement is required to ensure the seismic performance of piers under actual strong earthquakes.20.6.60δ0 and 2. which corresponds to 1. 3.2 Residual Displacement The admissible residual displacement is provided in the seismic design specifications as 1/100 of the pier height. For the stiffened rectangular piers of hc/h = 0.3 Maximum Horizontal Load Whether for stiffened rectangular piers or circular piers.6. except in the cases of hard ground (GT1). whether under singledirectional loading or bidirectional loading. respectively. which suffered severe damage due to bidirectional loadings. especially in the soft ground (GT3). However. the enough increment of concretefilled height is recommended to ensure the basic seismic performance.66δ0 for the stiffened rectangular piers and the circular piers used in this study. the values of maximum lateral resistance obtained in the bidirectional loading tests showed nearly the same as the results of . the residual displacements due to singledirectional loading were all located in the range of admissible value. all residual displacements after the end of the tests exceeded the admissible value.91  .
1DNS are obtained in step (1). the average of conventional singledirectional loading results can be used for three different ground types. If the pier fails to satisfy the verification check.1DEW and δm. apply the earthquake motions in longitudinal and transverse directions separately and verify the dynamic response of a partially concretefilled bridge pier through the ultimate displacement limit δma and residual displacement limit δra. The procedure for a new bidirectional seismic verification method is explained in the following steps. Therefore.(3. especially in the medium and soft grounds (GT2 and GT3).6. (1) First.12). following the conventional singledirectional verification method. 3.92  . which may have an ability to withstand damage caused by singledirectional loading in the test.4 A New BiDirectional Seismic Verification Method As stated above.and singledirectional loadings can be ignored in practical design.2D from Eq. verify the maximum response displacement δm. The insignificant differences (2%~7%) between bi. Therefore. the partially concretefilled steel bridge piers. on the basis of the conventional singledirectional verification method.HYBRID TEST singledirectional loading tests. will probably suffer severe damage or even collapse due to actual bidirectional earthquake actions. then increase concretefilled height or thicken the steel plate to ensure basic seismic performance. regarding the maximum resistance under actual seismic bidirectional loading conditions. in which values of δm.and bidirectional loading tests. . (2) After a pier meets the above requirements. we consider a more rational design treatment according to the difference in displacement response between single.
verify the residual displacement of the pier through the following equation. ??.12) Here the maximum displacement correction factor Cm.2? ⋅ ???(??. On the basis of the test results.08. and soft grounds (GT1~3).1?−?? ) < ??? (3. and 1. 3.2D. subjected to single. apply EW and NS directional earthquake components simultaneously and check that the response displacements δm.and bi.2? = ??. (3) If the safety verification check was satisfied.2? = ?? ( ??. (5) If experimental equipment for bidirectional hybrid loading is available or there is an accurate model suitable for the practical design of actual bidirectional strong earthquake loading. respectively.98 for stiffened rectangular piers in the hard. the pier needs steel strength upgrades or a redesign in crosssectional area. a total of 40 test specimens.to singledirectional loading for a pier filled with adequate concrete. otherwise. medium.2D are smaller than the displacement limits.directional hybrid loadings were tested in this study.13) (4) The pier under bidirectional earthquake loading is confirmed to be safe if δm. can be referred to Table 34 as 1. including 27 stiffened rectangular piers and 13 circular piers. which is given by maximum response displacement ratio of bi. The value of Cm. 1. ??.1?−?? .93  .2D and δr.7 Conclusions To clarify the seismic behavior of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers subjected to actual seismic earthquake forces.2D are satisfied.HYBRID TEST ??.2? − 1)(1 − ?)?? < ??? ?? (3.2D and δr.2D is possible to change according to different pier parameters. the conclusions can be summarized as follows: .53.
94  . However. The design specifications provide an accurate estimation of residual displacement for sufficiently concretefilled piers except for the case due to bidirectional loading in the soft ground (GT3). especially in the medium and soft grounds (GT2 and 3).HYBRID TEST (1) Obvious differences between single. However. especially in the medium and soft ground (GT2 and GT3). .or bidirectional loading due to the effect of sufficient encase concrete. will probably suffer severe damage or even collapse due to actual bidirectional earthquake actions. the piers of adequate concretefilled ratio showed excellent earthquakeresistant performances under either single. The seismic design specification based only on singledirectional loading test results may lead to unsafe side decision in some cases. The maximum displacement and residual displacement during an actual earthquake cannot be correctly estimated by conventional single. and hence the residual displacement correction factor is also proposed for the seismic design. Then a modified admissible displacement method is proposed for the seismic design considering the bidirectional loading effect.and bi. (4) The residual displacement of the test results showed similarities with the maximum displacement. which results in an unsafe region.directional loading test results for medium and soft ground. it should be noticed that the difference between the single. which may have an ability to withstand damage caused by singledirectional loading.and bidirectional loadings was enlarged several times in the case of piers with low concretefilled ratio. (2) The piers with low concretefilled ratio or even without concrete infill.directional loadings were observed in the hysteretic curves and displacement time history curves of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers. showed much larger than results due to singledirectional loading. (3) The maximum displacement caused by the bidirectional loading.
Therefore. (6) For the cumulative energy absorption. The maximum load of the pier increased gradually along with the increment of concretefilled height but this growth trend might reach threshold value.95  . and the cumulative energy absorption caused by the bidirectional loading is generally larger than that due to single.HYBRID TEST (5) The maximum horizontal load caused by bidirectional loading was only about 2%~7% lower on an average than that of the singledirectional loading tests. (7) For the circular specimens on the soft ground (GT3). the complex seismic behavior caused by bidirectional earthquake loading can be approximately simulated by the results of proposed new singledirectional loading test method which is developed on the basis of principal component analysis (PCA) for the input earthquake acceleration data. the largest difference appeared among the three ground types.directional loading. . it is possible to predict the maximum horizontal load of the steel box section piers in actual bidirectional loading conditions from conventional singledirectional loading test results.
96  .HYBRID TEST .
a complete assessment of the seismic design of steel bridge piers often requires a nonlinear dynamic analysis. and microscopic finite element models. Based on the research conducted to examine the stability and ductility of steel bridge piers under cyclic loading. especially for large scale models. 2parameter model and . These models can be divided into three main categories in accordance with the increasing level of refinement and complexity: global empirical models. such as earthquake characteristics.97  .1 General As stated in the Chapter 1. As discussed in the Chapter 3.CHAPTER 4 MULTIPLESPRING MODEL FOR BIDIRECTIONAL HYSTERETIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL PIERS 4. trilinear kinematic hardening model. ground conditions and structural properties. Therefore. However. It is known that the dynamic characteristics of steel bridge piers subjected to bidirectional seismic forces can be obtained by the hybrid loading tests. the cost on experiment including loading system and test specimens is often substantial. it is necessary to carry out hybrid loading tests using a variety of seismic waves as much as possible. discrete finite element models. In order to clarify the seismic performance of steel bridge piers under actual earthquake loading. the seismic response of a thinwalled bridge pier to earthquake excitations depends on several factors. results from these tests are then used in the development and calibration of hysteretic models that permit the extrapolation of the limited test data to other cases of dynamic response. some single degree of freedom global empirical models such as bilinear kinematic hardening model.
can be studied with this kind of models. A multiplespring model is one of such models. creep. The proposed model consists of two inelastic elements at the two ends of a .ANALYTICAL METHOD damage index model have been developed to express the inplane hysteretic behavior of steel bridge piers. Physical nonlinearities. Constitutive and geometric nonlinearity is typically described at the stressstrain level or averaged over a finite region. a pier is modeled as an assembly of interconnected elements that describe the hysteretic behavior of steel or concrete members. members and joints of structures are discretized into a large number of finite elements.98  . relaxation and thermal phenomena. which are the best compromise between simplicity and accuracy in nonlinear seismic response studies. and such models are restricted to the region where only inplane hysteretic behavior of bridge piers is considered. This study concentrates on the discrete finite element models. However. like shell elements or fiber elements. Lai et al. interface friction at the cracks. For the microscopic finite element models. (1984) proposed a five spring model to simulate the hysteretic and stiffness degrading behavior of reinforced concrete members subjected to axial force and biaxial bending interaction. Constitutive nonlinearity is either introduced at the element level in an average sense or at the section level. including bond deterioration between steel and concrete. where the model of a steel bridge pier involves thousands of degrees of freedom. In the case of discrete finite element models. the global empirical models are based on too crude approximations and yield too little information on the forces. However. these models are computationally expensive for large scale nonlinear dynamic analyses. These models are useful in the preliminary design phase for estimating displacement ductility demands. deformations and damage distribution in the structure.
as illustrated in Fig. for thinwalled circular steel piers under biaxial bending to predict the ultimate seismic behavior of cantilevertype piers. (b) member model.99  . Jiang et al. 41. 41. 42 (b). The constitutive relations for nonlinear spring adopted in Jiang’s model. a maximum point directional bilinear model. not shown in the figure. In Lai’s model. 42 (a).ANALYTICAL METHOD reinforced concrete member sandwiching a linear elastic line element. as shown in Fig. in which the tension side is expressed by the bilinear curve while the compression side is by the trilinear curve with a . Fig. the forcedeformation relation for the effective steel springs follows Takeda’s model. consisting of a concentrated mass and a rigid bar with multiple nonlinear springs located at the base. as shown in Fig. For each inelastic element. (c) inelastic element As abovementioned in Chapter 1. there are four inelastic steel springs at each corner representing the stiffness of the effective steel bars. (2001) also proposed a hysteretic model. with a fifth spring. at the center of the section which was only effective when the concrete is in compression. Lai’s model: (a) member in frame.
and bidirectional hybrid loading. whose parameters are determined by the static cyclic loading test results. tried to bridge the gap between the microscopic finite element models and the very crude empirical models. In order to reproduce accurately the hysteresis characteristic of the steel bridge piers. by their simplistic constitutive relations of spring element. To examine the validity of the proposed multiple spring model. in this study. Fig. a series of approximate curves. the analytical results obtained by the proposed model are compared with experimental results due to static cyclic loading.100  .ANALYTICAL METHOD descending part that represents the strength deterioration due to local buckling. (b) constitutive model for each spring The two abovementioned models. . are not claimed to be precise to express the hysteretic behavior of bridge piers. but rather. have been adopted to describe the complicated nonlinear behavior of spring element exactly. a global empirical model. the inplane behavior is predicted by the 2parameter model. Jiang’s model: (a) multiplespring model for thinwalled circular steel piers. single. Herein. 42. especially in the case of bidirectional dynamic loading. are determined by the inplane behavior of thinwalled circular steel piers.
43. The springs are arranged with equal intervals along the middle surface of the cross section.2.101  .ANALYTICAL METHOD 4. Multiplespring model for steel pier From the plane crosssection assumption and kinematic relation. Fig. 43. as illustrated in Fig. the proposed model consists of a concentrated mass representing weight of the superstructure and a rigid bar with multiple nonlinear springs located at the pier base.1 MultipleSpring Model for ThinWalled Steel Piers As a threedimensional hysteretic model for thinwalled steel piers. and become symmetric with respect to both X and Y axes. It is assumed that no horizontal relative displacement occurs at the base of the pier. the incremental vertical displacement of the ith spring ∆?? is expressed as .2 Analytical Method of Multiple Spring Model 4.
1) where h is the height of the pier. as shown in Fig. Δ?? . respectively. 44.3) Δ?? = ∑ ? Δ?? ?=1 (4. ?? and ?? are vertical and horizontal coordinates of ith spring on the cross section. 44. Fig. Δ?? and Δ?? are three incremental translational displacement components at the top of the pier.2) ? 1 Δ?? = − ∑ ?? Δ?? ℎ ?=1 (4. Kinematic relation between incremental displacements of pier and springs The moment equilibrium and the vertical force equilibrium at the base of the pier lead to ? 1 Δ?? = − ∑ ?? Δ?? ℎ ?=1 (4.ANALYTICAL METHOD 1 Δ?? = − ( ?? Δ?? + ?? Δ?? ) + Δ?? ℎ (4.102  .4) where Δ?? . Δ?? and Δ?? are three incremental force components applied at the top of the .
it is critically important to determine the constitutive relations for nonlinear springs so that the model can properly express the complex seismic behavior of the steel pier due to coupling effect of multipledirectional loading.11) ?22 = ?33 = ∑ 4.9) ? 1 ∑ ?? ?? 2 ℎ2 ?=1 (4. ? − ∆ effect and local buckling.7) ? ?? (4. (4.2 (4.10) ? 1 ?23 = ?32 = − ∑ ?? ?? ℎ ?=1 (4.8) (4. the following constitutive relation holds. ∆?? is the incremental force of the ith spring and N of the form 2n is the total number of springs. In our proposed model all the springs are assumed to have the same constitutive . the incremental forcedisplacement relation at the top of the pier can be written as the following equation.103  . Δ?? = ?? Δ?? (4.1) to (4. From Eqs.5) where ?? is the tangent stiffness of the ith spring.2.12) ?=1 Constitutive Model for Nonlinear Spring In a multiplespring model. For each nonlinear spring.5). ?11 Δ?? ? Δ? { ? } = [ 21 ?31 Δ?? ?12 ?22 ?32 ?13 Δ?? ?23 ] {Δ?? } ?33 Δ?? (4.ANALYTICAL METHOD pier.6) where ?11 = ? 1 ∑ ?? ?? 2 ℎ2 ?=1 ? 1 ∑ ?? ?? ?? ℎ2 ?=1 ?12 = ?21 = ? 1 ?13 = ?31 = − ∑ ?? ?? ℎ ?=1 (4.
In such loading test. The hysteretic curves of steel piers due to cyclic loading or hybrid loading. given by static cyclic loading test. In order to faithfully reproduce the hysteretic behavior of steel piers. the constitutive relations for springs are approximately expressed by cubic curves and straight lines as shown in Fig. effects of local buckling and large displacement cyclic loading are considered. In order to take into account the ? − ∆ effect.104  (4. 45. the inplane horizontal forcedisplacement relation at the top of the pier. Skeleton curve of spring The skeleton curve of a spring reflects the behavior of steel piers. which is given by ??? = ? ?Δ =?+ ℎ ℎ Here M is the bending moment caused by the vertical force P and the horizontal force H. . manifested in the form of a series of smooth curves. 45. as presented in the figures in the Chapter 2 and 3. the equivalent horizontal force is used. To determine the parameters of the proposed constitutive model. is adopted. f M fm fy d y d m kd Y ke O dy dm d f y Y' kd M' fm Fig.ANALYTICAL METHOD relations.13) .
Therefore.21) is used to determine the elastic tangent stiffness ?? .6). Herein.22) Eq. From Eq. respectively. Then. as shown in Figs. 25 and 28.(4. the horizontal force at the top of pier is applied only in the X direction.20) ?11 = It should be noted that ∑? ?=1 ?? = 0 when the springs are located symmetrically with respect to the Yaxis. Eqs.105  . ?? = ?? .15) can be rewritten as Δ?? = ?? (?11 Δ?? + ?13 Δ?? ) (4.15) When pier is in elastic state. the incremental inplane (XZ plane) forcedisplacement relations are derived as following.18) ? 1 ?13 = ?31 = − ∑ ?? ℎ ?=1 (4. Δ?? = ?11 Δ?? + ?13 Δ?? (4.(4.ANALYTICAL METHOD Based on the forcedisplacement envelop curves of the piers due to static cyclic loading tests.14) Δ?? = ?31 Δ?? + ?33 Δ?? = 0 (4.17) where ? 1 ∑ ?? 2 ℎ2 ?=1 (4.16) Δ?? = ?? (?13 Δ?? + ?33 Δ?? ) = 0 (4.21) Δ?? = 0 (4.(4. that is. the parameters of the skeleton curve of the spring model are obtained.17) can be reduced to Δ?? = ?? ?11 Δ?? (4. the tangent stiffness of the ith spring ?? can be taken as the elastic constant. Eqs.16) and (4.19) ?33 = ? (4.14) and (4.(4.
?? ) and the initial maximum point ?(?? . as illustrated in Fig.25) Here ?? and ?? are the yield displacement and the displacement corresponding to maximum lateral force of the pier due to cyclic loading test. The displacement coordinates of yield point ?(?? .27) ?? ′ = 3?3 ?? 2 + 2?2 ?? + ?1 = ?? (4. the tangent stiffness of spring in softening or hardening state can be obtained as following ?? = ?? ?11 (4.26) ?? = ?3 ?? 3 + ?2 ?? 2 + ?1 ?? (4. In this constitutive model for spring. Similar to the elastic tangent stiffness. ?? ). Therefore. ℎ ? ?? = ? ? ℎ ? (4. After the pier reaches the maximum horizontal load.28) Then. . ?? ) are determined from the plane crosssection assumption and kinematic relation ?? = ? ? . the yield point Y and the initial maximum point M are located on a cubic curve.45. the skeleton curve of the spring model presents as a straight line.23) where ?? is the initial elastic stiffness of pier.106  . it is assumed that the origin point O. the constraint conditions of displacementforce relation for this cubic curve can be expressed as ?? = ?3 ?? 3 + ?2 ?? 2 + ?1 ?? (4.24) where ?? is the tangent stiffness of pier in softening or hardening range. the coefficients of this cubic curve can be expressed as functions of (?? .ANALYTICAL METHOD ?? = Δ?? ?? = ?11 Δ?? ?11 (4.
? = ??  ? . from Eqs.? + ?? ?? ) ? ? ?=1 ? ? ? .36) Then.? and ??.107  (4.? .? 3 + ?2 ??. respectively.29) to (4.? 3 + ?2 ??.29) (4.30) (4.?  ?=1 (4.? = ?3 ??.? 2 − (?? + ?? )??.35) where ??.? ??  (??. (4.? 2 + ?1 ??.31) According to the moment equilibrium.? (4. the yield moment ?? and the maximum moment ?? of the pier are given as ?? = ?? ℎ + ??? = ∑ ? ?=1 ?? = ?? ℎ + ??? = ∑ ?? ??.?  ? ?? ??.? = ??  ? ? ? (4.36). and they are given by ??. ? is the vertical load.38) . ??.32) (4.37) where ?10 = ?? − ∑ ?? ??.= *? 20 21 ?12 ?? ?22 + {?? } (4.? (4. ? ? ??.ANALYTICAL METHOD ?3 = 1 2 ?? (?? − ?? ) ?2 = − ?? − ?? 2 ?? (?? − ?? ) 1 2 ?? (?? − ?? ) ?? + ?? + ?? 2 ?? (?? − ?? ) ?? ?? ?? ?? − ?? (?? + ?? ) ?? ?? ?1 = ?? (4.? = ?3 ??.? 2 + ?1 ??.34) ??.33) where ?? and ?? are the yield force and the maximum lateral force of the pier due to cyclic loading test. a new equation can be derived as ?10 ?11 .? are the corresponding forces of the ith spring when the lateral force of pier reaches ?? and ?? .
40) (?? − ?? ) ?? ??.? 2 − (?? + ?? )??. ?? ) is named as the “Basic Curve”. the following hysteretic curve aims at the maximum point ?′ (−?? . −?? ) .? ??  (??.ANALYTICAL METHOD ?11 = ∑ ?12 = ∑ ? ??. ?? ) to the initial maximum point ?(?? . ?? ).? − ?? ) (4.? 2 ??  ?=1 ?? 2 ?20 = ?? − ∑ ?21 = ∑ ?22 = ∑ (??.45) Hysteretic Rule of Constitutive Model Depending on the different occasions.? ) (4.39) (?? − ??.? 2 ??  ?=1 ?? 2 (?? − ?? ) (4. 2) sub curve and 3) softening curve or hardening curve. the hysteretic curves for springs can be divided into three types: 1) basic curve.? 2 ??  ?=1 ?? 2 ? ??.? 2 ??  ?=1 ?? 2 (?? − ?? ) ? ??.? ) (4. the force coordinates of yield point ?(?? .43) (?? − ?? ) Therefore. (1) Basic Curve As shown in Fig. ?? ) and the initial maximum point ?(?? . ?? ) can be determined by the following equation.3 ?? = ?10 ?22 − ?12 ?20 ?11 ?22 − ?12 ?21 (4.46.2.42) (?? − ??.108  .41) (??. 4. the hysteretic curve starting from the origin point ?(?? .? − ?? ) (4. When the spring firstly unloads at the point ?(?? .? + ?? ?? ) ?=1 ?? ?? ? ? ??.44) ?? = ?11 ?20 − ?10 ?21 ?11 ?22 − ?12 ?21 (4.
46) where Δ?=? − ?? is incremental displacement from the starting point of the curve.ANALYTICAL METHOD on the other side. f m) B2( d B'. ?? is the force coordinate of destination point on the basic curve. f A) Basic curve ke O Basic curve C( dC . f M( d m. according to the constraint conditions of displacementforce relation for this cubic curve. ?2 and ?1 are given by ?1 = ?? ?2 = 3 ?3 = (4. f m) A( d A.109  . the tangent stiffness at the starting point and the maximum point is ?? and zero. 46.48) (?? − ?? ) (4. f B') Fig. The displacementforce relation of these two basic curves are approximately expressed by a cubic curve. which is also determined as the basic curve. ? − ?? = ?3 ??3 + ?2 ??2 + ?1 ?? (4. Hysteretic curves for spring before the pier reaches the maximum horizontal load .49) ∆??? 3 where Δ??? =?? − ?? is the incremental displacement from the starting point to destination point.47) (?? − ?? ) ∆??? ?? ∆??? 2 2 −2 −2 ?? ∆??? (4. respectively. f C ) Basic curve f A d Sub curve f A B1( d B. f B) M'(d m. then the coefficients ?3 . that is.
However. when the spring unloads from the sub curve. for example. ?? . Here.51) If ?? at the point B is larger than ?? at the last unloading point A. which belongs to the basic curve ??′ as illustrated in Fig. for instance.50) where ?2 = (?? − ?? ) ?? − (?? − ?? )2 ?? − ?? (4. if the spring draws the hysteretic curve back to point A without unloading midway. another new sub curve CB1 will be created. If ?? at the point B is less than the force value of the last unloading point A. ?? . the pathway forward depends on the value of spring force of the point ?. ? − ?? = ?? (? − ?? ) + ?2 (? − ?? )2 (4. this quadratic curve is referred to as the “Sub Curve”. if the spring displacement is reversed at the point ?(?? .46.46. i. On other hand. it is found that the hysteresis curves showed a negativeslope linear trend after these specimens reached their maximum lateral load. if the spring displacement is reversed at the point C on the sub curve B1A.110  .e. S20 and U00 as described in Chapter 2. like curve B2M as shown in Fig.ANALYTICAL METHOD (2) Sub Curve When the spring unloads from the second basic curve. (3) Softening Curve According to the cyclic test results of specimens S00. ?? ). the pathway forward will be an approximate quadratic curve B1A from the point B to point A. it will go along with the original basic curve OM after passing through the point A. The hysteretic curve of springs should reflect the behavior . a new basic curve will be drawn from the point B to the maximum point M.
the similar negativeslope linear curve is determined as “Softening Curve” with a tangent stiffness.47. in the case of partially filled with a certain height of concrete. as illustrated in Fig. As shown in Fig. the hysteretic behavior showed some significant differences with those of specimens S00. respectively. S20 and U00.ANALYTICAL METHOD of steel piers. the upward trend of lateral load of pier was once slow down due to local . Fig. a new basic curve ? + ?− will be drawn from the unloading point ? + on the softening curve to the maximum point ?− on the opposite side. when the spring unloads from the softening curve. Thus.47. 47. The experienced displacement in softening region is defined as ∆?? = ?? − ??  (4. 24 (c) and 28 (b) (c). U25 and U50. As shown in Figs. Softening curve for spring after the pier reaches the maximum horizontal load (4) Hardening Curve For the specimens S40. especially in the repeated large displacement region.111  . ?? .52) where ?? and ?? are the displacement coordinates at unloading point U on the softening curve and the maximum point M.
the maximum load point (inflection point) on the hysteresis curve moved from the original point ?0+ to a new point ?+ .ANALYTICAL METHOD buckling occurred at the base of pier after be loaded for some time. After crossing the inflection point ?− . the load rising region ? + ?− of spring in the beginning is firstly defined as a basic curve.112  .48. Hardening curve for spring after the pier reaches the maximum horizontal load Therefore. 48. 47 and 48. which was determined by the cumulative damage caused by cyclic loading.(4. as shown in Fig. in order to represent the complex behavior of such piers. (5) Variation of Maximum Load Point (Inflection Point) As shown in Figs. and these coordinate changes of the maximum . which is expressed by a positiveslope linear curve named “Hardening Curve”. the rigidity of pier would increase since the internal concrete once again participated in transmitting the lateral load applied at the top of pier. The hardening displacement is also obtained by Eq.50) like softening displacement. the point of the minimum tangent stiffness for spring. However. with continued loading. and then the hysteresis curve comes across the inflection point ?− . Fig. the hysteresis curve will enter the hardening stage.
ANALYTICAL METHOD load point (inflection point) can be expressed as functions of the accumulated hysteretic energy of the spring. 49.3 Experimental Verification On the basis of the contents stated above in Section 4. ??0 100?? 100?? (4. ∑ ?.55) where coefficients ?1 is also determined by the least squares method. ?1 . ?? 100?? (4. − ?0 / + 1   = ?2 .54) where ?? = ?? ?? ⁄2 is an energy unit for spring. ?2 . − ?0 / + 1   = ?2 .113  . (6) Stiffness Degradation As for the degradation rule for elastic stiffness ?? . in the softening (hardening) stage.  ∑? ??? − ?0 / + 1  = ?1 . 2 ∑? ∑? ?? − ?0 / + ?1 . ?1 and ?0 are obtained by the least squares method on the basis of the static cyclic loading test results of piers.2. the calculation procedure of analysis program for developed Multiple Spring Model is shown in Fig. To examine the validity of the proposed multiple spring model. coefficients ?2 . stiffness degradation occurs whenever the spring unloads. The degraded elastic stiffness ??? is assumed to be governed as follows by the accumulated hysteretic energy of the spring.53) 2 ∑? ∑? ?? − ?0 / + ?1 . ??0 and ??0 are respectively the initial values of displacement and force coordinates at the maximum load point (inflection point). 4. ??0 100?? 100?? (4. the analytical results obtained . ∑ ?.
the parameters for the constitutive models of the springs are identified from the experimental results of static cyclic loading tests. single. Calculation process of analysis program 4.ANALYTICAL METHOD by the proposed model are compared with the experimental results due to static cyclic loading.and bi. The identified parameters of the constitutive models are summarized in Table 41. ③ Determine the present status of springs based on the deformation {di } at i step and incremental vertical deformation {Δd0 }. calculate a new incremental displacement components {ΔD1 } of the pier. 49. i+1 step ① Calculate the initial incremental displacement components {ΔD0 } at the top of the pier using the initial elastic rigidity of the pier K0. ④ After assembling the present rigidity K1 of the pier from {k0 } of the springs.1 Comparison with Static Cyclic Loading Test First. then obtain the stiffness {k0 }of the springs.directional hybrid loading for the piers with different cross sectional shapes and different concretefilled ratios.ΔD0} < ε NO YES Next step Fig. .114  .2. following the procedure introduced in Section 4. ② Calculate the incremental vertical deformation {Δd0 } of the springs from the kinematic relation through {ΔD0 } of the pier.3. If max {ΔD1 .
046 0. It is observed from Fig.115  .30 22.196 0.239 0.266 0.688 0.048 0.771 0.053 0. unit of force is kN.13 11.322 0. Identified parameters for the constitutive models of the springs Parameter S00 S20 S40 U00 U25 U50 ?? 1258 1480 1597 646 656 903 ?? 73 58 232 45 66 135 ?? 5.238 ?1 0.098 0.175 0.64 3.250 0.023 Note: The unit of displacement is mm.090 0.55 5. However. .55 3.047 0. some difference exists in the cyclic behavior in the postpeak range.062 0.024 0.388 0.029 ?1 0. This difference is more evident for pier S40 with a sufficient concretefilled ratio where the external steel plate cooperates fully with the internal concrete to transmit the applied load of pier.50 15.198 ?2 0.043 0.91 ?? 6920 7242 7404 2307 2368 2384 ?? 14.056 0.049 0.047 0.112 0.005 ?1 0.03 22. 410 that the proposed model shows acceptable accuracy to express the inplane hysteretic behavior of steel piers. In Fig.ANALYTICAL METHOD Table 41. unit of stiffness is kN / mm.301 0.183 0.120 0.136 0.830 ?2 0. There still remains some room to improve the hysteretic rule for partially concretefilled steel piers.098 0.61 3.14 ?? 11400 13197 13861 4493 4616 5643 ?0 0.207 0. 410. the numerical analysis results obtained by multiplespring model are compared with the static cyclic loading test results for six kinds of piers in term of the inplane hysteretic curves.28 15.55 5.760 0.810 0.
ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) S00 (d) U00 (b) S20 (e) U25 (c) S40 (f) U50 Fig.116  . Comparison between multiplespring model and static cyclic test . 410.
117  . Displacement time histories of S00 under singledirectional earthquake wave (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig. Displacement time histories of S20 under singledirectional earthquake wave .2 Comparison with SingleDirectional Hybrid Loading Test (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.3. 411.ANALYTICAL METHOD 4. 412.
25NS (f) hc/h = 0. 414.50EW (b) hc/h = 0.25EW (e) hc/h = 0.00NS (d) hc/h = 0. 413.118  .50NS Fig.00EW (c) hc/h = 0. Displacement time histories of circular piers under singledirectional earthquake wave . Displacement time histories of S40 under singledirectional earthquake wave (a) hc/h = 0.ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.
415.ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig. 416.119  . Hysteretic curves of S00 under singledirectional earthquake wave (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig. Hysteretic curves of S20 under singledirectional earthquake wave .
Hysteretic curves of S40 under singledirectional earthquake wave (a) hc/h = 0.50NS Fig.00NS (d) hc/h = 0.25NS (f) hc/h = 0. 417.120  .25EW (e) hc/h = 0. 418.50EW (b) hc/h = 0. Hysteretic curves of circular piers under singledirectional earthquake wave .00EW (c) hc/h = 0.ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.
57 2.4% JRTEW 4.2% JMANS 3.01 5.73 2.70 5.32 5.6% 0.09 3. the accuracy of the proposed multiplespring model is examined in comparison with the singledirectional hybrid loading tests.92 4.07 3.9% JMAEW 2.5% 0.7% 0.63 4.07 6.25 1.11 1.88 0.67 1.1% 5.8% 2.14 6.6% 2.10 2.57 1.59 2.04 4.84 2.06 3.69 2.69 1.52 2.45 1.1% JMAEW 3.11 2.98 4.87 2.4% 2.97 0.73 1.55 1.4% PKBEW 3.86 1.82 1.39 6.4% 1.87 3.9% PKBNS 5.40 1.121  .51 2.93 1.8% JRTEW 8.0% JRTNS 5.69 2.88 3.0% JRTNS 6.52 2.03 6.9% 2.83 3.93 6.0% JRTNS 4. The results of the singledirectional earthquake response analysis obtained by the multiple .67 3.62 5.56 3.11 4.03 3.80 2.02 2.1% JRTEW 4.5% JMANS 3.54 3.22 2.6% 2.03 1.52 2.76 1.6% JRTEW 4.7% 0.9% JRTEW 3.69 1.02 5.96 2.93 1.1% JMANS 3.92 4.67 4.09 1.1% PKBNS 4.3% 1.92 6.35 2.66 2.3% 1.ANALYTICAL METHOD Table 42.3% 5.55 2.10 3.10 2.5% JRTEW 3.4% 4.5% 2.5% 1.93 3. Comparison between multiplespring model and singledirectional hybrid test Test Result Specimen S00 S20 S40 U00 U25 U50 Analytical Result Tolerance Case ?? ?0 ?? ?0 ∗ ?? ?0 ∗ ?? ?0 ∗ ?? − ?? ?? ∗ ?? − ?? ?? JMAEW 2.3% 2.01 4.0% 1.58 1.2% PKBNS 3.20 1.8% 0.8% PKBEW 4.95 1.0% 5.9% JRTNS 4.97 5.67 0.74 6.5% 2.37 5.52 1.05 7.6% JRTNS 4.0% PKBEW 5.97 1.99 1.94 3.78 5.2% JRTNS 6.6% 3.93 0.63 1.9% 0.59 2.95 2.40 2.21 2.46 1.93 2.24 2.70 1.97 1.18 1.2% In the singledirectional dynamic response analyses.
414 and 418 correspond to the displacement responses and hysteretic curves of specimens U00. 411 to 418. 419 to 427. and from left column to right. The results of the bidirectional earthquake response analysis obtained by the multiplespring model are summarized in Figs. 423 to 426 show the hysteretic curves. Figs. and the tolerances in the maximum lateral load and maximum displacement are about 2. 411 to 413 respectively show the response displacement time histories of rectangular piers. 419 to 422 present the response displacement time histories of piers and Figs. in comparison with those obtained by the hybrid loading tests. the accuracy of the proposed multiplespring model is examined in comparison with the bidirectional hybrid loading tests. 427 illustrates the displacement trajectories. the test results and analytical results of rectangular piers are depicted by solid lines and dot lines.3. 4. the plots correspond to the results obtained under JMA. For the circular piers. In addition.2% and 3.ANALYTICAL METHOD spring model are summarized in Figs. . and Figs.3 Comparison with BiDirectional Hybrid Loading Test In the bidirectional dynamic response analyses. respectively. in comparison with those obtained by the hybrid loading tests. respectively. which were loaded under JRT earthquake waves. and U50. 415 to 417 illustrate the corresponding hysteretic curves. respectively. It can be observed from Figs. Figs. 411 to 418 and Table 42 that the multiplespring model can be an acceptable alternative to the singledirectional hybrid loading test in practical design. In these figures. the plots from left column to right in Figs. JRT and PKB earthquake waves. U25. Table 42 compares the maximum response displacement and maximum lateral load of the piers between the test results and analytical results. Fig.122  . respectively.6% on average.
123  . 419. 420. Displacement time histories of S20 under bidirectional earthquake waves . Displacement time histories of S00 under bidirectional earthquake waves (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.
00NS (d) hc/h = 0.25EW (e) hc/h = 0.50EW (b) hc/h = 0.50NS Fig. Displacement time histories of S40 under bidirectional earthquake waves (a) hc/h = 0.ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.124  .00EW (c) hc/h = 0. Displacement time histories of circular piers under bidirectional earthquake waves . 422.25NS (f) hc/h = 0. 421.
424. Hysteretic curves of S20 under bidirectional earthquake waves .125  . 423. Hysteretic curves of S00 under bidirectional earthquake waves (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.
126  .00NS (d) hc/h = 0.50NS Fig. Hysteretic curves of S40 under bidirectional earthquake waves (a) hc/h = 0.25NS (f) hc/h = 0.25EW (e) hc/h = 0.ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) GT1EW (c) GT2EW (e) GT3EW (b) GT1NS (d) GT2NS (f) GT3NS Fig.50EW (b) hc/h = 0. 426.00EW (c) hc/h = 0. Hysteretic curves of circular piers under bidirectional earthquake waves . 425.
respectively. The tolerances in the maximum lateral load and maximum displacement are about 4.127  .4% on average.ANALYTICAL METHOD (a) S00:GT1 (b) S00:GT2 (c) S00:GT3 (d) S20:GT1 (e) S20:GT2 (f) S20:GT3 (g) S40:GT1 (h) S40:GT2 (i) S40:GT3 (j) U00:GT2 (k) U25:GT2 (l) U50:GT2 Fig. 427. . Trajectories of response displacements under bidirectional earthquake waves The maximum response displacement and maximum lateral load of the piers obtained by the hybrid tests and proposed analytical model are listed in Table 43.7% and 5.
8% PKB2D collapse collapse 8.84 2.3% JRT2D 5.73 1.5% 5.91 4.94 8.3% 4.56 3.3% PKB2D 7.1% 8.57 1.79 － － JMA2D 3.04 5.82 1.60 0.9% 3.47 3.82 3.18 2.4% Specimen S00 S20 S40 .40 1. it can be observed from Figs.34 2.59 2.68 1.93 1.1% PKB2D collapse collapse collapse collapse － － JMA2D 3.89 3.69 7.3% 5.69 2.13 2.33 1. except for the error caused by large local buckling.2% 6.48 2.9% 8.37 2. This is probably because the coupling effect of JRT bidirectional earthquake waves on large local buckling of piers are most complex and the present hysteretic rule for multiplespring model also needs to be improved.5% 3.05 6. the piers under JRT earthquake waves exhibit the largest difference in hysteretic behavior between the multiplespring model and hybrid loading test. Comparison between multiplespring model and bidirectional hybrid test Test Result Analytical Result Tolerance Case ?? ?0 ?? ?0 ∗ ?? ?0 ∗ ?? ?0 ∗ ?? − ?? ?? ∗ ?? − ?? ?? JMA2D 3.95 6.95 3.128  .42 1.94 18.45 1.4% U50 JRT2D 8.44 1.39 1.5% JRT2D 7.0% 3.34 1.9% U00 JRT2D collapse collapse collapse collapse － － U25 JRT2D 11.ANALYTICAL METHOD Among the three kinds of earthquake waves.76 1. Table 43. However. 419 to 427 and Table 43 that the multiplespring model can be an acceptable alternative to the bidirectional hybrid loading test in practical design as long as the local buckling is moderate and not extremely large.28 11.78 6.32 1.2% JRT2D 7.
7% and 5. respectively. There still remains some room to improve the hysteretic rule for partially concretefilled steel piers. the corresponding tolerances changed to approximately 4. We compared the maximum response displacement and maximum lateral load of the piers between the test results and analytical results. The model consists of a rigid bar and multiple nonlinear springs located at the pier base. it was observed that the tolerances in the maximum lateral load and maximum displacement were about 2. These multiple springs can present not only the interaction between the axial force and the biaxial bending but also the local buckling effect and ? − ∆ effect. respectively. some difference existed in the cyclic behavior in the postpeak range. .ANALYTICAL METHOD 4. it was observed that the proposed model showed acceptable accuracy to express the inplane hysteretic behavior of steel piers. single. a multiplespring model is proposed to express the complex bidirectional hysteretic behavior of thinwalled steel piers.129  . For bidirectional loading. When the pier was loaded by singledirectional ground motion.6% on average. In comparison with static cyclic test results.4 Conclusions In view of the application to the practical design.2% and 3.4% on average. The constitutive relation for each spring is expressed by the multicurve model and the parameters of this model are calibrated on the basis of the inplane hysteretic behavior of piers subjected to static cyclic loading. To verify the validity of proposed model under dynamic loading.and bi. However. It can be said that the multiplespring model can be an acceptable alternative to the costly hybrid loading test in practical design as long as the local buckling is moderate and not extremely large.directional earthquake dynamic response analyses are carried out.
ANALYTICAL METHOD .130  .
further experimental investigations on the behavior of such piers under actual severe earthquakes are required to make a supplement to the current seismic design method.CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS The thinwalled bridge piers are required to be able to withstand severe earthquake without collapsing due to their important role in the total lifeline system. . Therefore. The appropriate seismic design and keep the function of steel piers is significant for safe and serviceability in big cities especially in postearthquake periods. a lot of experimental and analytical studies on the inelastic cyclic behavior of partially concretefilled steel bridge piers under singledirectional loading have been conducted in order to develop a reliable earthquakeresistant design method in the last ten years. a lot of effort was concentrated on investigating the basic characteristics of the seismic response of steel bridge piers through bidirectional cyclic loading tests or finite element analysis. the actual seismic waves consist of threedirectional components and the seismic response of bridge piers is affected by the two horizontal components simultaneously. However. Thus. At the same time. During the past decade. the partially concretefilled steel bridge piers demonstrated their excellent structural performance in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. even if the effect of vertical component is negligible. The current seismic design specifications allow applying independent singledirectional transverse forces in the design of bridge piers. it is very important to study bidirectional loading effect on the steel bridge piers.131  . Therefore. However. there are still lacks of dynamic test results on steel piers with a rectangular or circular section under coupled ground motions in two horizontal directions.
which may have an ability to withstand damage caused by singledirectional loading. (1) Both strength and ductility of steel piers under static cyclic loading can be significantly increased by adequate filledin concrete.40).directional hybrid loading tests have been conducted by the author on steel bridge piers with different cross sectional shapes and various concretefilled ratios.and bi. and it is possible to . the hollow steel section just above the diaphragm buckled severely. And the conclusions of Chapter 3 are summarized as follows: (1) For the steel piers with low concretefilled ratio or even without concrete infill. a series of static cyclic loading tests and single. in the case of low concretefilled ratio (ℎ? ⁄ℎ = 0. they showed excellent earthquake resistant performances under either single. (2) For the piers of adequate concretefilled ratio. while in the case of sufficiently filled with concrete (ℎ? ⁄ℎ = 0. and the related experimental results are discussed in the Chapter 2 and Chapter 3.or bidirectional loading.20). slight local buckling occurred only in the flange and web plates at the pier base. The acceleration data recorded on the three kinds of grounds in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake are used in the hybrid loading tests. (2) For the stiffened rectangular piers. (3) The maximum horizontal load caused by bidirectional loading was only about 2%~7% lower on an average than that of singledirectional loading tests. will probably suffer severe damage or even collapse due to actual bidirectional earthquake actions. (3) For the circular piers without diaphragm. the local buckling of plates was observed at the column base regardless of the length of the filledin concrete.132  .CONCLUSIONS For this purpose. From the Chapter 2. following conclusions are obtained. especially in the medium and soft grounds.
it is pointed that the displacement response during an actual earthquake cannot be correctly estimated by singledirectional loading test results. . (6) For the steel piers on the soft ground.CONCLUSIONS predict the maximum horizontal load of the steel piers in actual bidirectional loading conditions from the singledirectional test results. was proposed to express the complex hysteretic behavior of thinwalled steel piers subjected to biaxial bending and axial force. was proposed for the seismic design. and the conventional seismic design specification based only on singledirectional loading test or analysis results may lead to safety issues. (4) The maximum and residual displacements caused by the bidirectional loading. showed much larger values than those due to singledirectional loading. considering the bidirectional loading effect. the following analytical studies were carried out: (1) A multiplespring model.The validity of this method was verified by the hybrid test results of circular piers. especially in the medium and soft grounds. consisting of a rigid bar and multiple nonlinear springs located at the pier base. (2) A multicurve constitutive model for nonlinear spring was developed to faithfully reproduce the hysteretic behavior of steel piers and the parameters of this model were calibrated on the basis of the inplane hysteretic behavior of the piers subjected to static cyclic loading. In the Chapter 4.133  . the complex seismic behavior caused by actual bidirectional earthquake loading can be approximately simulated by the results of proposed new singledirectional loading test method which was developed on the basis of principal component analysis (PCA). (5) A modified admissible displacement method. Accordingly.
Thus. there are limitations pertaining to the current experimental study and proposed analytical model. Then. which offer several opportunities for future studies: (1) As indicated previously. the radiusthickness ratio parameter for circular piers.134  . ?? . Needless to say. it is required to conduct much more experimental studies of steel piers subjected to various strong seismic motions.directional loading are necessary to carry out. In light of these experimental observations. ?. (3) The proposed new singledirectional loading test method. (4) It is noted that the proposed model also can be an acceptable alternative to the bidirectional hybrid loading test in practical design as long as the local buckling is moderate and not extremely large. adequate inclusion of the effects of bidirectional loading in seismic design would seem prudent.CONCLUSIONS (3) In comparison with the singledirectional loading test results. were taken as specific values though these values are selected as the representatives of average values commonly used in actual structures. and the slenderness ratio parameter. the widththickness ratio parameter of the flange plate for stiffened rectangular piers. In order to clarify the seismic behavior of steel piers under actual earthquake loading. ?? . it is pointed that the proposed model is able to accurately predict the seismic response of steel piers under singledirectional strong earthquake.. further experimental investigations on the seismic behavior of steel piers with various values of parameters under bi. which was developed on the . the present study is aimed at laying emphasis on the effects of bidirectional loading. (2) The present experimental work was conducted by using only the acceleration data recorded on the three kinds of grounds in the 1995 Kobe Earthquake.
There still remains some room to improve the hysteretic rule for nonlinear springs. (4) The proposed multiplespring model is generally applicable. . is limited to the steel piers on the soft ground.135  . Its implementation in other different seismic waves should be explored. some difference existed in the hysteretic behavior in the postpeak range when piers were under bidirectional loading. However.CONCLUSIONS basis of principal component analysis (PCA).
CONCLUSIONS .136  .
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Vol. 五十嵐晃. DOI: 10. Ji Dang. 袁 輝輝. 土木学会論文集 A2 (応用力学 ). Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics.69. “鋼製橋脚の水平２方向地震応答解析のための曲線近似 MS モデル”.LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 1. Huihui Yuan. “Experimental Study of the Seismic Behavior of Partially Concrete Filled Steel Bridge Piers under Bidirectional Dynamic Loading”.141  . 青木徹彦. . 2. 党 紀. Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013.2320 (Accepted).1002/eqe. and Tetsuhiko Aoki. 2013 年 8 月 (Accepted).