BRCM College of Engineering & Technology

,
Bahal

I.C. ENGINES & GAS TURBINE
LAB MANUAL
(ME - 317 F)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
1. To determine the full load performance of 4 stroke single cylinder Spark Ignition engine.
2. To determine the part load performance of 4 stroke single cylinder Spark Ignition
engine.
3. To determine brake mean effective pressure of 4 stroke single cylinder spark ignition
engine at part load.
4. To determine the full load performance of a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine
using electric dynamometer.
5. To determine the full load performance of a single cylinder alternate fuel engine using
electric dynamometer.
6. Demonstration of different mechanisms in single cylinder 4 stroke spark ignition engine.
7. Demonstration of different mechanisms in Hydraulic Assisted Power Steering (Ball
Circulation).
8. Demonstration of Disc and Drum Brake mechanism.
9. Demonstration of Anti Lock Braking System mechanism.
10. Demonstration of different mechanisms in Automobile Chassis fitted with CI engine.
11. Demonstration of different mechanisms in Automobile Chassis fitted with Spark Ignition
engine (In Transverse Position).

m) s.c = mf/b. Switch on the mains electrical supply. Calculate Power Output and Specific Fuel Consumption and plot Engine Torque. 8. 6. s.hr) where. 11.p (kg/kW. Set the choke lever on the carburetor 900 to the barrel. Allow the engine to warm up for about 2 minutes. Allow 5 minutes for stabilization at each speed before repeating the step-10 as mentioned above. Open the throttle about half way. Set the joystick control to START position. Note readings of Engine Torque (T) and Engine Speed (N) from instrument panel. b. Method: Note Engine Torque and Engine Speed at full load. . set the joystick to FULL LOAD position and adjust the engine speed to about 40 rev/sec using the throttle and load controls.p: Brake Power N: Engine Speed (rev/sec) T: Torque (N.c: Specific Fuel Consumption mf: Fuel Flow Rate (kg/sec) Procedure: 1. Equipment:  Auto 3 Engine Test Unit  Stopwatch Technical Data: b.Experiment No. When the engine has started. adjust the speed in 5 or 6 steps up to maximum. Set the load control to the minimum position (fully anticlockwise).p = (2 x π x N x T)/1000 (kW) where.f. Set Lean/Rich device fully closed (fully clockwise) Lean or Rich. 4. 5. Maintaining maximum throttle. 2. 10. Power Output and Specific Fuel Consumption against Engine Speed. 1: To determine the full load performance of 4 stroke single cylinder Spark Ignition engine. 9. 7. Increase the throttle to maximum position whilst adjusting the load control to keep the speed constant and hold condition for at least 5 minutes until conditions have stabilized.f. 3.

Torque. mf b.12.c Speed. When the fuel level in the burette drops past a further convenient point. 14. Flow Flow Reading Flow power (kg/kW. Press the PUSH TO MEASURE button so that the engine uses fuel from the burette. Table: Sr.f. Check that the fuel flow burette is full of fuel. difference of burette readings and the time taken for the fuel to be used as given by the stopwatch. Engine Engine Fuel Fuel Stopwatch Fuel Brake s. stop the stopwatch and press the PUSH TO MEASURE button again to open the solenoid fuel valve. 13.m) Reading. No.Reading(Kg/sec) (kW) 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 Specimen Calculations: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ . After completion of readings return the throttle to its minimum position.p (rev/sec) (N.hr) N T Burette Burette Rate. 16. i. The Fuel Flow Rate (mf) can then be calculated using the fuel used from the burette. allow engine to idle for a few minutes and then stop engine.e. As the fuel level in the burette drops past a convenient measuring graduation. 15. start a stop watch.

Engine torque against engine speed 2.c (kg/kW. Brake power against engine speed 3.hr) ENGINE TORQUE (N.f. Specific fuel consumption against engine speed ENGINE SPEED (rpm) ENGINE SPEED (rpm) ENGINE SPEED (rpm) .m) 1.Graph: BRAKE POWER (kW) s.

3. Note readings of Engine Torque (T) and Engine Speed (N) from instrument panel.m) s. 9. 4.p = (2 x π x N x T)/1000 (kW) where.c = mf/b.p: Brake Power N: Engine Speed (rev/sec) T: Torque (N. 2: To determine the part load performance of 4 stroke single cylinder Spark Ignition engine. Power Output and Specific Fuel Consumption against Engine Speed. Set the load control to the minimum position (fully anticlockwise).f. 8. . Switch on the mains electrical supply. Set the joystick control to START position. 5. Method: Note Engine Torque and Engine Speed at part load. Set Lean/Rich device fully closed (fully clockwise) Lean or Rich. Open the throttle about half way. set the joystick to HALF LOAD position and adjust the engine speed to about 40 rev/sec using the throttle and load controls.c: Specific Fuel Consumption mf: Fuel Flow Rate (kg/sec) Procedure: 1. s.p (kg/kW. Calculate Power Output and Specific Fuel Consumption and plot Engine Torque. 10.f. Allow the engine to warm up for about 2 minutes. Equipment:  Auto 3 Engine Test Unit  Stopwatch Technical Data: b. 7. Increase the throttle to maximum position whilst adjusting the load control to keep the speed constant and hold condition for at least 5 minutes until conditions have stabilized. When the engine has started.Experiment No. 2. b.hr) where. 6. Set the choke lever on the carburetor 900 to the barrel.

f. After completion of readings return the throttle to its minimum position. Torque. Reading. 14. Engine Engine Burette Burette Stopwatch Fuel Brake s. Table: Sr.p (rev/sec) (N. start a stop watch. allow engine to idle for a few minutes and then stop engine. Maintaining maximum throttle. 15. mf b. No.c Speed. As the fuel level in the burette drops past a convenient measuring graduation. Allow 5 minutes for stabilization at each speed before repeating the step-10 as mentioned above.e.Reading Flow power (kg/kW.m) (Kg/sec) (kW) 1 2 3 4 5 Graph: 1. 13. Specific fuel consumption against engine speed . The Fuel Flow Rate (mf) can then be calculated using the fuel used from the burette. Brake power against engine speed 3. When the fuel level in the burette drops past a further convenient point. Check that the fuel flow burette is full of fuel.11. adjust the speed in 5 or 6 steps up to maximum. i. Engine torque against engine speed 2. 12.hr) N T 1 2 Rate. stop the stopwatch and press the PUSH TO MEASURE button again to open the solenoid fuel valve. difference of burette readings and the time taken for the fuel to be used as given by the stopwatch.Reading. 16. Press the PUSH TO MEASURE button so that the engine uses fuel from the burette.

c (kg/kW.ENGINE SPEED (rpm) BRAKE POWER (kW) s.f.hr) ENGINE TORQUE (N.m) ENGINE SPEED (rpm) ENGINE SPEED (rpm) .

Experiment No. Power Output and Brake Mean Effective Pressure against Engine Speed.4 mm Bore Size. Method: Note Engine Torque and Engine Speed at part load. S = 44. Set the load control to the minimum position (fully anticlockwise). 4. Calculate Power Output and Brake Mean Effective Pressure and plot Engine Torque.m) pmb = b. Set the choke lever on the carburetor 900 to the barrel. 3.1 mm Procedure: 1. pmb : Brake Mean Effective Pressure S: Stroke (m) A: Piston Area (m2) C: Machine Cycles Per Second For 4 stroke engine C = N/2 For 2 stroke engine C= N nc: Numbers of Cylinders The engine data is: Stroke. 2. Equipment:  Auto 3 Engine Test Unit Technical Data: b. Set Lean/Rich device fully closed (fully clockwise) Lean or Rich. . 5. 3: To determine brake mean effective pressure of 4 stroke single cylinder spark ignition engine at part load. Open the throttle about half way. b.p: Brake Power N: Engine Speed (rev/sec) T: Torque (N. d = 65.p/100 x S x A x C x nc (bar) where. Switch on the mains electrical supply.p = (2 x π x N x T)/1000 (kW) where.

No. 10. 12.e. 11. 7. b.m. When the engine has started. N T (rev/sec) (N. Maintaining maximum throttle. 8. Increase the throttle to maximum position whilst adjusting the load control to keep the speed constant and hold condition for at least 5 minutes until conditions have stabilized. Table: Sr. 9.p (bar) 1 2 3 4 5 Specimen Calculations: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ . Engine Engine Speed. Note readings of Engine Torque (T) and Engine Speed (N) from instrument panel.6.m) Brake power b. allow engine to idle for a few minutes and then stop engine. Torque. adjust the speed in 5 or 6 steps up to maximum. Allow 5 minutes for stabilization at each speed before repeating the step-10 as mentioned above. set the joystick to FULL LOAD position and adjust the engine speed to about 40 rev/sec using the throttle and load controls.p (kW) Brake Mean Effective Pressure. Allow the engine to warm up for about 2 minutes. After completion of readings return the throttle to its minimum position. Set the joystick control to START position.

m) 1.p (bar) ENGINE TORQUE (N. Engine torque against engine speed 2. Brake Mean Effective Pressure against engine speed ENGINE SPEED (rpm) ENGINE SPEED (rpm) ENGINE SPEED (rpm) .e.m. Brake power against engine speed 3.Graph: BRAKE POWER (kW) b.

p: Brake Power N: Engine Speed T: Torque (kW) (rev/sec) (N. 7. Set tachometer switch to clockwise position. 5. 3. Equipment:  Megatech Electric Dynamometer/Generator Technical Data: b. Set the field load to 100.m) Procedure: 1. switch the operating mode immediately back to “GEN” and field load rheostat to zero. When engine starts. 9. . 8.Experiment No. Use higher mode positions from 2 to 5 for increasingly greater load ranges. 6. Calculate Power Output and plot Engine Torque and Power Output against Engine Speed. b. Note torque and speed (rpm) from the panel of the dynamometer for every new field load position. Connect a 12 VDC car battery to the 12 VDC input terminals located on the back of the chassis.p = (2 x π x N x T)/1000 where. 4. 2. Method: Note Engine Torque and Engine Speed at various positions of field load. Set the field mode to clockwise. Start with the operating mode switch set at position no.1 and slowly increase the field load for the desired torque-rpm reading. Turn power “ON” and switch the operating mode from “GEN” to “START”. (+) red and (-) black. 4: To determine the full load performance of a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine using electric dynamometer.

No.p (kW) 1 2 3 4 5 Specimen Calculations: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Graph: ENGINE SPEED (rpm) BRAKE POWER (kW) ENGINE TORQUE (N.m) Brake power b.Table: Sr.m) 1. Torque. Engine torque against engine speed 2. Engine Engine Speed. Brake power against engine speed ENGINE SPEED (rpm) . N T (rev/sec) (N.

4. 7. Turn the main switch from “GEN” position to the “START” position. As soon as the engine starts. Connect a 12 VDC car battery to the 12 VDC input terminals located on the back of the chassis. Open the throttle fully. Turn the load adjust knob to “100%” range position. 13. Equipment:  Megatech Alternate Fuel Engine attached with Electric Dynamometer/Generator Technical Data: b. turn the main switch to “GEN” position and field reverse to “OFF”. 2. To get rid of air in the line. Turn the load range switch to “HIGH”. 10. Using funnel pour the denatured alcohol into one of the fuel tanks. Close one of the needle valves that is not in use and open the other valve two full turns. 12. 5. Method: Note Engine Torque and Engine Speed at various positions of . 5: To determine the full load performance of a single cylinder alternate fuel engine using electric dynamometer.Experiment No. b. 8. Connect the air supply to the cooling inlet at the back of the engine.p = (2 x π x N x T)/1000 where. Turn field reverse switch to “+”. Turn on the engine ignition switch. 6. Calculate Power Output and plot Engine Torque and Power Output against Engine Speed. 14. 11. (+) red and (-) black. 9.m) Procedure: 1. Fuel will be flowing into the cylinder. 3. choke the carburetor with your finger for a second. . Adjust the timing lever position in the back of the engine at least three quarter up position or all the way up. When the engine is cranking turn the load adjust knob counterclockwise to 75% range to increase the engine speed.p: Brake Power N: Engine Speed T: Torque (kW) (rev/sec) (N.

17. Torque.p (kW) 1 2 3 4 5 Specimen Calculations: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ Graph: BRAKE POWER (kW) ENGINE TORQUE (N. To load the engine set the field load reverse switch to “+”. Brake power against engine speed ENGINE SPEED (rpm) ENGINE SPEED (rpm) . 18. the load adjust knob to mid range and the main switch to “LOAD”. Table: Sr.15. 16. Turn the load adjust knob to five positions and check the tachometer and torque gauge readings for these five positions of load adjust knob.m) 1. Engine torque against engine speed 2. N T (rev/sec) (N. Engine Engine Speed. No. Set the throttle to three quarter range position and adjust the needle valve until the engine runs smoothly.m) Brake power b.

Silencer 4. Oil Pump iii. Cylinder Liners iv. Air Cleaner ii. Fuel Regulator v. Induction Manifold iii. Equipment:  Single Cylinder 4 Stroke SI Engine Model with EFI Description of Mechanisms and Systems: 1. Exhaust System i. Piston ix. Fuel Tank ii. Engine Components i. Exhaust Manifold iii. Lubrication System i. Crank Case v. Inlet Valve 3. Connecting Rod viii. Air Induction System i. Electronic Fuel Injector 5. Piston Rings x. Cooling System i. Flywheel vii. Cylinder Head iii. Cylinder Block ii. Oil Strainer ii. Cam and Camshafts 2. Fuel Pump iii. Radiator ii. Exhaust Valve ii. Water Pump . Crankshaft vi. Engine Oil Gallery 6. Fuel Filter iv. Fuel System i. Piston Pin xi.Experiment No. 6: Demonstration of different mechanisms in single cylinder 4 stroke spark ignition engine.

Electric System i. Electric Control Unit ii. As the piston reaches BDC. . It will cause the crankshaft to move the piston inside the cylinder upward and downward. at a little movement of piston in TDC direction will cause the inlet valve to assume fully closed position.iii. In the result of expansion of burning gases piston received a severe blow while the Fly Wheel momentum and thus it compelled the crank shaft to move the piston from BDC to TDC and cam shaft to open the exhaust valve in the cylinder head to let the exhaust gases go to open atmosphere. observe that the inlet valve is still open to some extent and at BDC the induction stroke completes. Now look at the position adopted by the inlet valve in the cylinder head. Further rotation of crankshaft will move the piston from BDC to TDC. This way a cycle of a 4 stroke 1C Engine completed to convert the heat energy into mechanical energy. As the piston reaches to TDC point it compresses the previously inducted fuel mixture during induction stroke in combustion chamber. Thus. it will remain open while the piston moves from TDC to BDC. Engine Water Circulating Ports 7. burnt gases expand and entailed in the movement of piston from TDC to BDC which is termed as expansion stroke. Spark Plug Procedure: Manually rotate the crankshaft pulley at the front side of engine in the direction of arrow mark. At this point when Compression stroke has been completed Engine Control unit which was monitoring the movement of the piston cause the sparking plug to spark to set the fire to compressed fuel mixture.

. the amount of rotation between the inner and outer parts of the spool valve depends on how much torque the driver applies to the steering wheel. 7: Demonstration of different mechanisms in Hydraulic Assisted Power Steering (Ball Circulation). Steering Column ii. Screw & Nut b. Since the inner part of the spool valve is also connected to the steering shaft (and therefore to the steering wheel). Hydraulic Assisted Power Steering Mechanism i. Drop Arm IV. both hydraulic lines provide the same amount of pressure to the steering gear. Drag Link V. Pump ii. it rotates the inside of the spool valve relative to the outside. Independent Suspension Steering System 2. When the steering wheel is not being turned. ports open up to provide high-pressure fluid to the appropriate line and assist the steering.Experiment No. Steering Box a. Rack & Pinion III. Axle-Beam Suspension Steering System 3. Track Rod Arm VII. Track Rod VI. But if the spool valve is turned one way or the other. Ram Cylinder Procedure: As the bar twists. Equipment:  Power Steering (Ball Circulation) Description of Mechanisms and Systems: 1. Control Valve iii. Axle Beam 4. Steering Components i.

The pressure on the master cylinder piston is transmitted through the fluid in the system to apply a force to each brake. a piston in the master cylinder pumps fluid through the liners into the wheel cylinders. . Brake Discs v. Two Cylinder Caliper iii. 8: Demonstration of Disc and Drum Brake mechanism. Hydraulic Pipes iii. Brake Drum iv. Disc Brake Mechanism i. Equipment:  Disc and Drum Brake Description of Mechanisms and Systems: 1. Four Cylinder Caliper Procedure: As the foot pedal is operated. Single Cylinder Caliper ii. Duo-Servo Brake 3.Experiment No. Two Leading Shoe Brake iii. Drum Brake Mechanism i. Brake Pedal Components i. Master Cylinder ii. Brake Shoes 2. Leading and Trailing Shoe Brake ii. This causes the pistons in the wheel cylinders to move outwards so that the shoe or pad is brought into contact with the drum or disc. When the pedal is released a pull force is provided by an extension spring attached to the two pads.

Wheel Brake Cylinders 3. atmospheric pressure forces the piston along the bore of the cylinder in the direction of vacuum port against the tension of the spring. Hydraulic Assisted Servo III. Vacuum Assisted Servo II.Experiment No. Difference Between Normal. Hydraulic Unit ii. Need of ABS 5. 9: Demonstration of Anti Lock Braking System mechanism. Power Assisted and ABS Procedure: As the brake pedal depressed it closes the atmospheric valve in servo cylinder and suction valve is opened. As pressure in the vacuum compartment get lower. ABS Mechanism 4. Compressed Air Assisted Servo 2. . Equipment:  Anti Lock Braking System (ABS) Board Description of Mechanisms and Systems: 1. Piston in servo compartment operate master piston in the fluid filled master cylinder that forces the fluid through the outlet valve and pipe lines to the power pistons which further force the pressurized fluid to wheel cylinders. Anti Lock Braking System Components i. Servo Operation I. Speed Electronic Sensors iv. ECU iii. A partial vacuum is produced on the one side of the piston while atmosphere exerts pressure on the opposite side. Speed sensors are available with every wheel that send the signals about wheel skidding to the engine control unit that finally releases the pressure from the hydraulic unit and avoid the vehicle from skidding.

Crown Wheel-Sun Wheel-Star Pinion-Half Shafts iv. 3. Air Induction system Air cleaner-Induction manifold-Inlet valve ii. Road Springs Front suspensions-spring-shock absorber fan-Heater- . Exhaust system Exhaust valve. Fuel system Fuel Tank-Fuel Pump-Fuel Filter-Fuel Injection Pump-Delivery Valve-Fuel Injector iv. Gear Box Gear box casing-Primary shaft.wheel bake plate-wheel drum. 10: Demonstration of different mechanisms in Automobile Chassis fitted with CI engine. Equipment:  Automobile Chassis Rear-Wheel Drive with Diesel Engine Description of Mechanisms and Systems: 1. Electric system Battery-Operating Console-Starter motor-alternator-Electric Indicators-Head Lights 6. Transmission i.Secondary shaft-Main shaft iii.Exhaust manifold-Silencer iii.Master Cylinder. Wheel Axles Conical shaft-Wheel bearings. Clutch Clutch Pedal-Spigot bearing-Pressure plate fingers-Clutch plate ii. Lubrication system Oil strainer-Oil Pump-Engine Oil Gallery-Moving parts-Oil Pressure Gauge v. Cooling system Radiator-Water pump-Engine water circulating ports-Thermo state ValveWater temperature Gauge vi. Brakes Brake pedal .Hydraulic pipes-Brake drum-Brake shoes-Brake discs 4. Engine i. Engine Components Cylinder Block-Cylinder Head-Crank case-Crank shaft-Camshaft-Fly Wheel-Piston-Connecting Rod-Sleeve 2. Differential Assembly Bevel gear. Steering Steering wheel-steering rod-Rack and pinion-Drop arm-Track rod 5.Experiment No.

wheel bake plate-wheel drum.Exhaust manifold-Silencer iii.Crown Wheel-Sun Wheel-Star Pinion-Half Shafts iv. Pressure plate fingers. Road Springs Front suspensions-spring-shock absorber fan-Heater- .Secondary shaft-Main shaft iii. Gear Box Gear box casing-Primary shaft. Transmission i. Fuel system Fuel Tank-Fuel Pump-Fuel Filter-Fuel Regulator-Fuel Gallery-Electronic Fuel Injector-Fuel Consumption Gauge iv. 11: Demonstration of different mechanisms in Automobile Chassis fitted with Spark Ignition engine (In Transverse Position). 3. Spigot bearing. Steering Steering wheel-steering rod-Rack and pinion-Drop arm-Track rod 5. Differential Assembly Bevel gear. Clutch plate ii. Air Induction system Air cleaner-Induction manifold-Inlet valve ii. Lubrication system Oil strainer-Oil Pump-Engine Oil Gallery-Moving parts-Oil Pressure Gauge v. Exhaust system Exhaust valve.Hydraulic pipes-Brake drum-Brake shoes-Brake discs 4. Engine Components Cylinder Block-Cylinder Head-Crank case-Crank shaft-Camshaft-Fly Wheel-Piston-Connecting Rod-Sleeve 2.Experiment No. Wheel Axles Conical shaft-Wheel bearings.Master Cylinder. Clutch Clutch Pedal. Cooling system Radiator-Water pump-Engine water circulating ports-Thermo state ValveWater temperature Gauge vi. Equipment:  Automobile Chassis Front-Wheel Drive with Spark Ignition Engine Description of Mechanisms and Systems: 1. Electric system Battery-Operating Console-Starter motor-alternator-Electric Indicators-Head Lights 6. Brakes Brake pedal . Engine i.