# Appendix 2 Th venin's

theorem
Th6venin's theorem is extremely useful in the analysis of complex electrical circuits.
It states that any network which has two accessible terminals A and B can be replaced,
as far as its external behaviour is concerned, by a single e.m.f, acting in series with a
single resistance between A and B. The single equivalent e.m.f, is that e.m.f, which
is measured across A and B when the circuit external to the network is disconnected.
The single equivalent resistance is the resistance of the network when all current and
voltage sources within it are reduced to zero. To calculate this internal resistance of
the network, all current sources within it are treated as open circuits and all voltage
sources as short circuits. The proof of Th6venin's theorem can be found in Skilling
(1967).
Figure A2.1 shows part of a network consisting of a voltage source and four resistances. As far as its behaviour external to the terminals A and B is concerned, this
can be regarded as a single voltage source Vt and a single resistance Rt. Applying
Th6venin's theorem, Rt is found first of all by treating V1 as a short circuit, as shown
in Figure A2.2. This is simply two resistances, R1 and (R2 + R4 -k- R5) in parallel. The

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A

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mI

m~
%
B
Fig. A2.1

L v 4 b <~ R 1 .R5 Now. . . I. Vt can be calculated from: Vt .3. To calculate this. .3 .4.e 5 ) V 1(R2 -k.2 equivalent resistance Rt is thus given by: RI(R2 + R4 + Rs) et R1 + R2 + R4 -k.1. R3 can be regarded as an external circuit or load on A Rt Vt .R5 Vt is the voltage drop across AB. . A2. Referring to Figure A2. it is necessary to carry out an intermediate step of working out the current flowing.Measurement and Instrumentation Principles 453 A . A2..1 has thus been reduced to the simpler equivalent network shown in Figure A2.. this is given by: V1 I= R1 + R2 + R4 -k.R4 + Rs) R1 + R2 + R4 -q.I(R2 + R4 -q.R5 The network of Figure A2.i A i v B Fig. Let us now proceed to the typical network problem of calculating the current flowing in the resistor R3 of Figure A2. A v B Fig.

R1. A2.4 A | i i i ill |l A v . which is equivalent to the single voltage source and resistance. calculated above. . as shown in Figure A2. R2. l _ a R~ Fig. R4 and Rs. R1.454 Appendix 2 Th6venin's theorem A R1 R~ v. . . I. R4 and R5 is that shown in Figure A2.7.l R. ..5 R1 A R2 R.1. A2. Vt and Rt. . This network of V1. . . R2. . and the current flowing through R3 can be written as: Vt lAB -- Rt +R3 . . Network of V1. v g R~ Fig.6 the rest of the network consisting of V1. The whole circuit is then equivalent to that shown in Figure A2. . R 4 and R 5 . . . 1 R~ R 2.6.5. A2. A w B Fig. This can be rearranged to the network shown in Figure A2. R1.

47. The first step is to imagine two terminals in the circuit A and B and regard the network to the fight of AB as a load on the circuit to the left of AB. E AB. Suppose in this network that it is required to calculate the current flowing in branch XY. the current flowing round the loop to the left of AB is given by" 50 1100 + 2000 Hence. by Th6venin's theorem.I X 2000 -.7 100 ~ A 150 ~ 250 ~ 2000 ~ 50 V T 1000 ~ 300 ~ X 500 ~ 200 _ B Y Fig. If the 50 V source is replaced by its zero internal resistance (i. RAB.9.8. and resistance. by a short circuit). the open-circuit voltage across AB.8 Th6venin's theorem can be applied successively to solve ladder networks of the form shown in Figure A2. is given by: EAB -. ii v. A2. A2. then RAB is given by: 1 1 RAB 1 2000 § 100 100 § 2000 200 000 Hence: RAB -.e.95. . The circuit to the left of AB can be reduced to a single equivalent voltage source.1 i ~ V ~.62 V We can now replace the circuit shown in Figure A2.Measurement and Instrumentation Principles 455 A i i1. R~ i i | B Fig.8 by the simpler equivalent circuit shown in Figure A2.24 g2 When AB is open circuit. E AB.

456 Appendix 2 Thdvenin's theorem RAB A' 150 f~ I 250 f~ 300 f~ X 1000 200 f~ B' Y Fig. for the circuit to the left of A ' B " in Figure A2. Proceeding as before to find an equivalent voltage source and resistance.9 The next stage is to apply an identical procedure to find an equivalent circuit consisting of voltage source E A.~N~. .B.. A2.'B. 1 = + RAB + 150 1 1 = 1000 1 + 245. 20.24 1245. .94 f2 EA.B.10 300 f~ .94 500 223 470 Hence: RA.. A2..B. . B.24 = 1000 245 240 Hence: RA'B' -. EA'B' f2 . X 500 f~ 200 f~ T B" Fig.10..99 500 Rh.19 V A" 250 f~ .24 V The circuit can now be represented in the yet simpler form shown in Figure A2.10: 1 1 --- RA"B" [ RA. E A"B" and RA.B.196. -- 1000 RAB + 150 + 1000 EAB = 38..9" 1 RA. w + 250 + 500 EA'B' RA. + 250 1 --- 500 + 446. EA"B" - - -- 235. .Ih _ Y .B' and resistance RA'B' for the network to the left of points A I and B' in Figure A2.

43 mA Skilling.11. H. EA"B" 300 ~ X T 200 J Y Fig..11 The circuit has now been reduced to the form shown in Figure A2.B. A2. where the current through branch XY can be calculated simply as: IXY = EA"B" RA.Measurement and Instrumentation Principles 457 RA.--F 300 + 200 = 20.B. .99 = 27. (1967) Electrical Engineering Circuits.19 735.. Wiley: New York.H...