@

1969 by-MCA

Igsic, a division of MCA rnc.,44s park Avenue, New york, N.y. 10022

International copyright secured
Made in u.s.A.
Au Ítights Resórved

copvright

17251-051

Foreword

This sequence of rhythmic exercises

is

a valuable addition to much needed material in music educa-

tion. Its importance stems

from contents that are well organized, consistiog of simple elementary exercises that progress to complex drills, enabling students to reach a degree of proficiency, the kind that

is, alas, sadly lacking in

the general run of music students.

Though excellent treatises on musicianship exist, giving some examples of rhythmic problems, most
of them dq not have enough material for consistent drilIs. There are no short cuts to the mastery of one's
crafr. Conscienrious reachers who have been writing their own drills have felt the need for such material

in printed

form.

is the answer to these needs. His approach is not only that of the teacher,
but also that of the composer and performer. This happily is not a "method." It contains direct examples to be used as desired, with varied approaches and techniques. The main concern is its relationship
to music, eirher read, performed or heard. Nothing could be more welcome to al1 music students and
Robert Starer's fine book

teachers.

Suzanne Bloch

Preface
The ability to transform visual symbols of rhythmic notarion into time-dividing sounds is an acquired
skill. It involves the coordination of physical, psychological, and musical factors and cannor, therefore,
be accomplished by the simple act of comprehension. This book represenrs an arrempr to develop and

train the ability to read and perform musical rhythms accurarely. It is not tied ro any particular sysrem
of melodic ear-training and cah be used in conjunction with any approach to sight-singing. It is intended
for rhe classroom, for the private srudio and for self-training.
The chapters are arranged in a sequence of increasing difficulry. Each chapter deals with a specific
rhythmic situadon. The problem is stated; a way to surmounr ir is proposed, and exercises are provided
for practice purPoses. The number of exercises in each chapter is designed to meer the needs of the average studenc. The brilliant student may need fewer. On rhe other hand it may be oecessary ro invent

additional examples, modeled after those provided, for the less adepr student. In some instances irmay
be advisable to divide the exercises into shorter segmenrs. The srudent with previous experience will
find his place in the book when he encounters his first difficulty.
No attempt has been made to shape these exercises into musical phrases or to give them form by rep-

etition and development of rhythmic motives, since either procedure would rend ro make rhe exercises
memorizable by rote upon reperirion in practicing.

In

my experience as composer, performer and teacher I have come to rhe conclusion thar inadequate
is often the cause of poor sight-reading. It has also become increasingly ap-

grasp of rhythmic patterns

parent that lack of familiarity with ) and 7 time and changing meters, particularly in the early stages of
musical training, has contributed much to the uniusrified fears of performing 20th-century music. This
book was writren

in the hope of alleviating both of these siuarions.
Robert Starer

Acknowledgemenrs
I would like to express my sincere grarirude ro Suzanne B1och, Dororhy Klotzman and Emile Serposs
for their many helpful suggestions and to Lewis Roth and Bruce Howden for their editorial advice.

How to Use This Book
first ten chapters of this book the upper line represents the rhythm the student should
perform, the lower line is the pulse. The upper line may be sung,hummed or spoken on a neutral syllable;
the lower line should be tapped by hand or foor, or it may be conducted. It is strongly recommended that
the methods of execution be changed frequently, so that none becomes an exclusive habit. A metronome
may be used for rhe lower line in the early chapters, but it is preferable for the student to produce üe
pulse himself. Eventually the lower line should only be "felt," üat is, it should be done in silence.
Throughout the

While rhe upper line is always printed on a single note, a disdnction between strong, medium strong,
and weak beats in the pulse is indicared by placing the notes on different lines or spaces.
ot

weak weak

strong weak

t:.oor;g-

*"""

It is imperative that the srudent always differentiate clearly between strong and weak beats
form the pulse line as a sequence of identicai beacs.

and not per-

at the fastest possible speed. To accomplish this, they
slowly, then repeated with gradually increased velocity until the individual's

The aim should be ro execure rhe exercises

should first be performed
limit of capability is reached.

be encouraged to invenr their own examples, dealing with the specific problems
chapters. This will strengchen the imprinc of the rhythmic patterns involved on the
studenr's mind. In class and in private instruction üe exercises can also be used for dictation. Examples invented by the srudents often provide additional material for dictation. In classroom use it is also
helpful to let individual students perform shorter segments, taking over from each other at predetermined

All students should

ser

in

rhe various

intervals such as every chree or four bars or every line. Another suggested teaching technique is for the
teacher to inserc deliberate errors into the examples he performs, challenging the student to find the mistakes and to correct them.

Contents
Preliminary Exercises.

Basicandcompoundrhythmicnotation.

I.

Rhythmic Organization, the Bar-line and Mete¡.
and changing

meters.

7flt[27r

II.

..

rest. Beginning with an upbeat

triplet.

8 I

tɧ

and changing meters

......

Mixing Divisions of the

VL

Dividing the Beat into Six Equal Parts.

....,)3

Beat

Thesixteenth-noteinthe

. . . .41

tripledivision

VII.

Dividing the Beat into Five and Seven Equal

VIII.

Dividing the Beat into Eight or Twelve Equal Parts

(withthe

....,...45

Parts.

. . . .52

half-noteaspulse)

......57

Dividing the Beat into Eight, Twelve, Sixteen or more Equal Parts.
(with the quarter-note as pulse)

Thethirty-second-note,thesixty-fourth-noteetc.

.

......62

Changing the Rate of Pulse.

f,to§ or to f,

XL

68

Summary and Review.

(Thepulsenolongergiven).
XII.

18

Dividing the Beat into Four Equal Parts.

V.

X.

. . . .9

.. ..27

.

Thesixteenth-noteandrest..

IX.

6

Dividing the Beat into Three Equal Parts.
The

IV.

........

Dividing the Beat into Two Equal Parts.
The eighth-note and

III.

Notationofsilence

Two Rhythms.
(2 against 3,)against

4,etc.)Polyrhythms

.......74
.......78

PRELIMINARY EXERCISES
Rhythmic Notation:

o = whole no,", J= hal[-note, J= quur,""no ,", ).=dotted half-note
(The dot placed after any note adds to ic one-halfofits value')
The Quarter-Note as pulse
Each unit of the pulse is called a beat.

Basic Notation:
J

I , 0"u,, J= 2 b"u,", J.= I b"u,r, o= 4 beats.

Compound Notation:
When two notes are

.J=t

tied, the second is treared as an addition to the first.

b"ut., o-J or o.=6 U"ur., o-J. oro..=7 beatsf ovo or

tsi

=B beats.

* A second dot adds half the value of
the first dot to the note. In this case the first dot added
half-note; the second, an additional quarter-note.

a

2

=L_
I
I

Notation of Silence:
Rests:

E=whole-rest E=h^lf-r"rt E=quarter-rest

*=l

b"ut

E=z

b""t"

E

x=

3 b.at"

E

= 4 b"ur.

*The dot aftet a rest functions identically wiü the dot after a note.
Rests must be performed with the same precision as notes; otherwise there would be no
difference between

3

).""¿ ) I

Chapter

I

Rhythmic Organization, the Bar-line and Mete¡.

A ver¡ical line divides the pulse into bars or measures. The first beat afrer each bar{ine

downbeat(strong).

I

Twoquarter.notebeatsperbar:f;,".".=#Conductor,ssymbol:1Jl
I
I
(A tie connecting two nores may go across

4

,t'#:;"1!

is
,

always

I

downbeat upbeat

10

Three quarter-note beats per bar:

5

flr",.,

=

ffi stroog

weak weak

ÍX
l---------->2

tl
rour quarter-note beats per bar:

I

meter

=
I

I

I

trong weak medium
s

6

-

rrong

I

weak

-,

i+r/\-4
-

l \
I

12

Five quarter-note beats per bar, fl is a combinatio¡ of

t5 t3
¡AIN

ltl\

D

4

t--">2

7

D

4

I

meter

(2*3)=- .i-

"

iiE,

lt2

or 2+3.

f3

[ ,"t"r

continued: mixing 2+1 and 3+2

t4
Six quarter-note beats per bar:

usually3+3=-vv-vv

f, ,eter,

6'

\_v

4

sometimes 2+2+2

- -, !- r!-,

,6
5
I ts-r

ñti

15

Seven quarter-note beats ver bar:

J
4.

f, is a combination of 4+3 ot 1+4 or 2+3+2.

*etet(4*J¡=-, -.!-r,

f, *"rr,

(314)=

-, ,!- , - .

6
2

16

4

mete¡ (2+3+2)=

¡v!- vw!-u

76
rN,--z

,'-l-\ \
/tr-v
211

>.

f, ^"t , conrinued: mixing 4+3, 1+4 aÍd2+1+2.

t7
Numbers larger than seven (beats per bar) are occasionally found in musical literature. They are rarely
prime numbers such as 11 and 13, but mostly multiples of shorter numbers such as 9 Oxl) or L2 (4x)) a¡d

will

be dealt with in later chapters.

Changing Meters

r5

18

Chapter

II

Dividing the Beat into Two Equal Parts

Ihe Eighth-Note
Notation: The eighth-note can be norated

fi ,.t"r

=

- ,

I:; d"o JT]

(see No.4 for conductor's symbol)

Notation: The eighth-rest

17

)).t

7

L9

lrlE-

J)

Notation: ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ is usuallvnorated .D
v
can also be created by the use of ties and

res

su.t an "off-bear" rhyrhm parrem is calied syncoparion. It
ts.

t8

Notation: J' The dotted quarter-noie equals three eighth-notes or one and a half quarrer-note beats.

19

20

A musical composition can begin

on an upbeat rather than on a downbeat. This upbeat may be an eighth
or a quarter-note. In order to perform the upbeat precisely,it is wise to establish the pulse clearly before

beginning.

should be practiced:

Notation: usually the value of the upbeat

f;
20

meter=

-.

is

subtracted from rhe last bar.

2t

I

4

2l

tTl€t€f =

r v v

22

ft^"t"r=¡ v -v

23

[ ,etet

(1+2 ot 2+1)=

of ¡ v!-

v v

24

f, ,.t.t ()ú

ot 2+2+2)=-

vv- uu

25

'1, meter(4+)or)+ls¡)+J+/)= - v - r i -,
4.

v or ¡ v v ! - e - v of ¡ v!_ v u!-

u

26

27

Chapter III
Dividing the Beat into Three Equal Parts
The Triplet
J
Three basic

pattern", t.

JID

r3-

2.

)

.D

, )-J-.-)

These basic pattems should be practiced separately. In order to acquire faciliry with numbers z andl ir
should be noted that they differ from previously practiced material only in notation and in their relarionship to the pulse.
|

No.2

is ,"ullu ffi

_____..l_

rJoerformed on a sinsle bear.

J,

Similarly,No.3is,""uy+nownotatedwithreducedvalues.T_j-

Notation: ühen a composition makes extensive use of the triple divided beat it is often norated with
dotred quarter-nore as pulse. In rhis notarion

J.=, o.uq J.=2 b.ur": ). ).--3 bears; o. =4 bears.

¡-37

737

T hus:

can be notated:

To the listener the two versions will sound identical

33
Similariy:

can be notated:

ft

,un

be notated

u"

§;


f; as

erc.

Throughout this chapter both forms of notation

will be pracriced.

a

28

f

neter

r

i-, i-lf

[r -3-ñ

§ Ftt"'

rr 4-r

[,

_3_
lt

J-.-1¡-i-.¡

\ll\

--3-=

I

r.

3---ll Tr.

3-lr

29

fl ,"t"'

r-3---r

r-3--¡ r-

§ ,et.t

3-__¡r_3-_¡

r-3=r rA

.-r

30

ft

nete,

r-3-----r

r. l-

r-3--r r.--3-r

T-3-----r

r- 3--¡ ¡-3-;-1

3t

[

*"t"t

r.-3--

I 3-lt r

t85

'"t"t

3- .r

r+-=

f-.

3-----¡

r--3---;-r

32

Changing Meters

_3_

_3__

r--3----r

f-3--]

Changing Meters

33

Chapter IV
Dividing the Beat into Four Equal Parts
The Sixreenth-Note
Notation: the sixteenth-note can be notated .h.R.h.h o,

Six basic parrems:

t. ffi

2. ¡-T

ffi

3.

fr1

4.

I-

j. FTj

o.

IJ.

These basic patterns should be understoodas differently norated versions of famiiiar rhythms.To comprehend their ratio to the beat it is best to take every one of them through the different stages outlined below, keeping in mind that stages 2 and 2aare identical excepr tl:rt 2a is twice as tasr as 2.

Stage

1:

Pattern

,.-

g
ffi

om

6:

Stage 2:

Stage 2a:

Stage 3:

34

Patterns

Patterns

i,

2 and

4,5

3

a¡d

6

-..etffi--

35

The Sixteenth-Rest

f

§lotation:

J..=i.-¿)

(7 sixteenrh-notes)

39

Upbeats using one or more sixteenth-notes occur frequently. To execute them precisely the pulse
should
be firmly established before beginning the exercise.

36

Sixteenth-notes can also be tied across the bar-line.
a)

f,

meter

37

fl ,"t"t
42

39

[ *","t

(1+2 and 2+3)

40

Changing Meters

4l

Chapter V
Mixing Divisions of the Beat

The aim of this chapter is to practice switching back and forrh bemeen duple and triple
divisions of the
bear while maintaining an absolutely steady pulse. Each preliminary exercise should be pracriced
separ-

atety, perhaps preceded W

Preliminary exercises

1.

f) J1 ^^o lh fn

:

3933

2.

4.

3.

Ztr)n 'll n tr){l ffitr)ll tr),-fr,|l
,.

6.

8.

In

7.

10.

9.

order to perform certain more intricate patterns precisely,

cemporarily. For insrance,

*r,.n

JiJ

it

to subdivide the bear
i, is best ro ,,feel,, n
n,
Hg

may be necessary

J-jJ t, followed ¡y J.-! JJ

namely the four underlying sixteenth-notes.

Throughout this chapter these suggested subdivisions
The ability to temporarily subdivide the beat

will

of

rhe beat

will

be incorporared

become increasingly more imporrant

in

rhe pulse line,

in later chapters,

42

A

meter

§ *.t.,

t-2--1 2:3
or
f.J. J J or n
4:3
4
r
Similarly, divisions or rnÉr.Dear rnro rour m¿y looK llKe ,n,r,iEE.
o, ¿T¿
o, ¿ñ
are used.
In this exercise the nota trons ¿. ¿.
^nd ¿. ¿. ¿. ¿.
Different notations have been used to divide the J.beat into ,*o,

13

§ *",",
In this exercise the notation"

49

r2-1
4
J J un¿ JTTJ

are used.

44

ft *"t",

§ *","t

2:3

In ttris exercise rhe notation" J-J

51

"nd

45

Chapter VI
Dividing the Beat into Six Equal Parts
The Sixteenth-Note in the Triple Division

Basic patterns:

l.frTE 2.fm 3.m) .frT 5.fff) 6.]-Tfr 7.fT

8.J-J:J

in Chapter IV, each pattern should be taken through the three stages given below, keeping
that stages 2 and2a are idenrical excepr that2a is twice as fast as 2.

As

i#
Stage

1

Stage

2

Stage 2a

in

mind

Stage 3

Él

,, J#.JJ-n
E-!

r-+
-

--ft
----J-#'----+-

--___T------il

l--E

-;+---.L--LJT
---tHl
----r___-------x

--J--,
F._+
-- r-:l:=====+

46

Patterns 1 through

4

Patterns 5 through 8

47

Eighth and sixteenth resrs, ties across rhebar-line,andupbeat.

With more incricate patterns, particularly syncopated ones not shownon page 41,a remporary subdivision
of the beat is highly recommended.

48

The next four exercises may be practiced with an eighth-note pulse tJ]l
I]],t before chey are done
with a dotted quarter-note pulse 1J. J.¡.
Whenever the degree of dif ficulry warrants it, the suggested temporary divisions of thebeat are indicated

in

parentheses.

49

g meter

ot

50

§ *.,"t

51

Changing Meters

52

Chapter

VII

Dividing the Beat into Five and Seven Equal Parts

When the beat

is divided into five

or seven equal parts no partial subdivision is possible. No combina'

tion of twos and threes will divide the beat into segments of equal

dura

tion.

Preliminary exercises
5

5

When more

o,

intricate figures are encounrered, such u" JT!
5

be subdivided, as explained in earlier chapters.

f,JI

ITI
5

Fl-r
¿
*o ¿¿
IJJJ-I

5

5

¡__ 7__1
The same applies to patterns involving division into seven

Division into larger prime numbers: 11, 13,
most often indicate

17

the underlying beat itself must

)...J1
IJ-I-LLLI

,,n.7
7

IJJJJJ-I

etc. are occasionally found in Romantic music where they

"tubalo" and do not need to

be executed with precision.

53

Ihe Quintuplet

The Septuplet

54

Mixing divisions of 5 and

7

f; ^"t*

I_

5

___-l

r_

3

___t

_5
I
-l

55

f
68

*et"t

56

ft *"t",

M

5--r

3

r-l-l

57

Chapter VIII
Dividing the Beat into Eight or Twelve Equal parts
with the Half-Nore ( J ) a" pulse.

Since reading the smaller values is as much a visual challenge as it is a
rhythmic one, dividing rhe bear
into 8 or 12 should firsr be practiced with the half-note as pulse.As in previous chapters, the
principle
will be to temporarily subdivide dre beat.
For instance:

Since the essence of good sight-reading is looking ahead, anticipating the
temporary suMivision of the
pulse line by at least one beat will avoid sudden upsers and
surprises:

58

Ttroughou t this chapter these remporary subdivisions of the pulse will be indicated. Subdividing euery
beat should be avoided, since it will be no preparation for the succeeding two chaPters.

Dividing the beat into

8

65

Dividing thé beat into l2

r

r' ; 'r
r-3--.---:l

-_

t3

6_------r

3\
b

r

i--

,r

59

Mixing divisions of 8 and

!

12

,eter

t'

'.?

',

|

-?

'l

60

I

,n",",

r-3------¡

r'

.?

|

,l

't'

g

I

i3

r-3-----

r--3 ---

6L

§ *",",

r-,

-

Tl-3---¡

I

r,

--_-_:r

rl-

q------r

---3
,i,

* E= 4

beats

3---

,r

------------¡

,r'

62

Chapter D(

Dividing the Beat into Eight, Twelve, Sixteen or more Equal Parts
with the Quarter-Note as Pulse.

Notation:

) ) ) ) ) ¿¿¿

Sixreenth-note

I

sixteenth-rest

Thirtv-second-nore

I

rhirty-second-rest

ixty-fourth-note

I

sixty-fourth-rest

-

-

,) ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿

-*¿¿¿¿¿aaa

S

-¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿
----¿¿¿aa¿4.
-

---

-

I

ighth-note

One -hundred-twenty-e

(occasionally found)

Two-hundred-fifty-s

ixth-note

(rarely found)

.1

1

One

-hundred-twenty-eighth-re st

I

.t

7

Two-hundred-fifty-s ixth- rest

Some slow movements by Mozart and Beethoven are notated

in these small values. Very often it is possibletoreadthe entiremovement with the eighth-note as pulse, occasionallyeven with the sixteenth.note.
Insomemovements,however,thebasicpulseisthequarter-note.Then,whensuddenlythirty-second-notes
aPPear,

it

becomes necessary to subdivide the beat temporarily.ln order to be prepared,it

is best to sub-

divide the beat immediately preceding the thirty-second-nores, as explained in the preceding chapter.
For ins tance:

63

In this exercise rhe eighth-note
the smaller rhythmic values.

§ ,"t".
70

is

PRELIMINARY EXERCISE
the pulse. The purpose is to get acquainted with rhe visual aspecr of

64

The following eight exercises should not be begun without a glance at the smallest rhythmic values. In
all music of this kind the maximum speed with which thesmallest values can be performeddeterminesthe
tempo for the entire piece.
.D

fi

meter

7l

§ ,"t"t

65

fl ,"t",
73

66

4

4

75

§ *"t"t

67

Changing Meters

Changing Meters

68

Chapter

X

Changing the Rate of Pulse

So

far all the meter changes encountered were different counts of the

same pulse. In much 2Oth'century

music,meterchangealsoinvolvesachangeinthepulse.Forinstance

In this case rhe three eighth-notes are not a.triplet;
This is often indicated in the music in the following

the duration

t^"rbefollowed¡y §.

of the eighth-note remains üe

same.

manner:

)= )

Quarter-note pulse can also be followed by sixteenth-note pulse:

h_

a-a

These changes

in

the pulse are practiced separately in exercises 79

ing the change of pulse in the beat immediately preceding

Br

h

a¡dÑ.

it will again

The principle of anticipat-

prove very helpful.

ins tance:

In both examples given, the quicker pulse was also continued for one beat after the second cünge of meter in order to re'establish the previous pulse firmly.

69

Fro, J pulse to ) puls"

t\

From J pulse to Jlpulse

70

Fro, J pulse to ) pul."

From

82

J pul"" ,o ) pulr"

7t

J

, .D, and

.D pulse

74

Chapter XI
SUMMARY AND REVIEW

In this chapter all previously practiced materials a¡e mixed, The pulse and its
are no longer given.

suggested subdivisions

76

90

78

Chapter

XII

Two Rhythms
Every pianist has to be able to perform two independent rhythmic lines simultaneously. In chamber music
and ensemble playing this
sin ge rs

ability is of equal importance to performers of single-line

ins truments and

.

In each of the preliminary exercises stage 1 (with subdivisions) .should be practiced
velociry until stage 2 (on a single bear) can be performed.

Preliminary Exercises

Stage

2 agaitst

3

2

3 against 2

3

4 agaílst )

4

3 against

4

5

2 against

5

6

3 against

5

1

:

Stage

2

w

irh

inc reasing

79

(Nos. 94 and

9)

are rhy rhmic canons.)

80

33

8l

-=
96
l-l-l

t--

l-=t.'l

r

I

l-l-l

l---

82

83

.D=.l)

)= )

ie&á*

. ..d;§ail,

84

,-.-3 ---

9g

.¿:-i*;:-.;.

..*

.\¡
I

r¡¡
*,.I
t^fl

t*
*t

i

t::

t

.1

!.'

,

t

'.r¡
Robert Starer, distinguished composer, has been a member of the
faculty of the Juiltiard School of Music since 19¿19. ln addition, he is
Professor of Music at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York.

k*,

#

Related Interests

Igsic, a division of MCA rnc.,44s park Avenue, New york, N.y. 10022
International copyright secured
Made in u.s.A.
Au Ítights Resórved

copvright

17251-051

Foreword

This sequence of rhythmic exercises

is

a valuable addition to much needed material in music educa-

tion. Its importance stems

from contents that are well organized, consistiog of simple elementary exercises that progress to complex drills, enabling students to reach a degree of proficiency, the kind that

is, alas, sadly lacking in

the general run of music students.

Though excellent treatises on musicianship exist, giving some examples of rhythmic problems, most
of them dq not have enough material for consistent drilIs. There are no short cuts to the mastery of one's
crafr. Conscienrious reachers who have been writing their own drills have felt the need for such material

in printed

form.

is the answer to these needs. His approach is not only that of the teacher,
but also that of the composer and performer. This happily is not a "method." It contains direct examples to be used as desired, with varied approaches and techniques. The main concern is its relationship
to music, eirher read, performed or heard. Nothing could be more welcome to al1 music students and
Robert Starer's fine book

teachers.

Suzanne Bloch

Preface
The ability to transform visual symbols of rhythmic notarion into time-dividing sounds is an acquired
skill. It involves the coordination of physical, psychological, and musical factors and cannor, therefore,
be accomplished by the simple act of comprehension. This book represenrs an arrempr to develop and

train the ability to read and perform musical rhythms accurarely. It is not tied ro any particular sysrem
of melodic ear-training and cah be used in conjunction with any approach to sight-singing. It is intended
for rhe classroom, for the private srudio and for self-training.
The chapters are arranged in a sequence of increasing difficulry. Each chapter deals with a specific
rhythmic situadon. The problem is stated; a way to surmounr ir is proposed, and exercises are provided
for practice purPoses. The number of exercises in each chapter is designed to meer the needs of the average studenc. The brilliant student may need fewer. On rhe other hand it may be oecessary ro invent

additional examples, modeled after those provided, for the less adepr student. In some instances irmay
be advisable to divide the exercises into shorter segmenrs. The srudent with previous experience will
find his place in the book when he encounters his first difficulty.
No attempt has been made to shape these exercises into musical phrases or to give them form by rep-

etition and development of rhythmic motives, since either procedure would rend ro make rhe exercises
memorizable by rote upon reperirion in practicing.

In

my experience as composer, performer and teacher I have come to rhe conclusion thar inadequate
is often the cause of poor sight-reading. It has also become increasingly ap-

grasp of rhythmic patterns

parent that lack of familiarity with ) and 7 time and changing meters, particularly in the early stages of
musical training, has contributed much to the uniusrified fears of performing 20th-century music. This
book was writren

in the hope of alleviating both of these siuarions.
Robert Starer

Acknowledgemenrs
I would like to express my sincere grarirude ro Suzanne B1och, Dororhy Klotzman and Emile Serposs
for their many helpful suggestions and to Lewis Roth and Bruce Howden for their editorial advice.

How to Use This Book
first ten chapters of this book the upper line represents the rhythm the student should
perform, the lower line is the pulse. The upper line may be sung,hummed or spoken on a neutral syllable;
the lower line should be tapped by hand or foor, or it may be conducted. It is strongly recommended that
the methods of execution be changed frequently, so that none becomes an exclusive habit. A metronome
may be used for rhe lower line in the early chapters, but it is preferable for the student to produce üe
pulse himself. Eventually the lower line should only be "felt," üat is, it should be done in silence.
Throughout the

While rhe upper line is always printed on a single note, a disdnction between strong, medium strong,
and weak beats in the pulse is indicared by placing the notes on different lines or spaces.
ot

weak weak

strong weak

t:.oor;g-

*"""

It is imperative that the srudent always differentiate clearly between strong and weak beats
form the pulse line as a sequence of identicai beacs.

and not per-

at the fastest possible speed. To accomplish this, they
slowly, then repeated with gradually increased velocity until the individual's

The aim should be ro execure rhe exercises

should first be performed
limit of capability is reached.

be encouraged to invenr their own examples, dealing with the specific problems
chapters. This will strengchen the imprinc of the rhythmic patterns involved on the
studenr's mind. In class and in private instruction üe exercises can also be used for dictation. Examples invented by the srudents often provide additional material for dictation. In classroom use it is also
helpful to let individual students perform shorter segments, taking over from each other at predetermined

All students should

ser

in

rhe various

intervals such as every chree or four bars or every line. Another suggested teaching technique is for the
teacher to inserc deliberate errors into the examples he performs, challenging the student to find the mistakes and to correct them.

Contents
Preliminary Exercises.

Basicandcompoundrhythmicnotation.

I.

Rhythmic Organization, the Bar-line and Mete¡.
and changing

meters.

7flt[27r

II.

..

rest. Beginning with an upbeat

triplet.

8 I

tɧ

and changing meters

......

Mixing Divisions of the

VL

Dividing the Beat into Six Equal Parts.

....,)3

Beat

Thesixteenth-noteinthe

. . . .41

tripledivision

VII.

Dividing the Beat into Five and Seven Equal

VIII.

Dividing the Beat into Eight or Twelve Equal Parts

(withthe

....,...45

Parts.

. . . .52

half-noteaspulse)

......57

Dividing the Beat into Eight, Twelve, Sixteen or more Equal Parts.
(with the quarter-note as pulse)

Thethirty-second-note,thesixty-fourth-noteetc.

.

......62

Changing the Rate of Pulse.

f,to§ or to f,

XL

68

Summary and Review.

(Thepulsenolongergiven).
XII.

18

Dividing the Beat into Four Equal Parts.

V.

X.

. . . .9

.. ..27

.

Thesixteenth-noteandrest..

IX.

6

Dividing the Beat into Three Equal Parts.
The

IV.

........

Dividing the Beat into Two Equal Parts.
The eighth-note and

III.

Notationofsilence

Two Rhythms.
(2 against 3,)against

4,etc.)Polyrhythms

.......74
.......78

PRELIMINARY EXERCISES
Rhythmic Notation:

o = whole no,", J= hal[-note, J= quur,""no ,", ).=dotted half-note
(The dot placed after any note adds to ic one-halfofits value')
The Quarter-Note as pulse
Each unit of the pulse is called a beat.

Basic Notation:
J

I , 0"u,, J= 2 b"u,", J.= I b"u,r, o= 4 beats.

Compound Notation:
When two notes are

.J=t

tied, the second is treared as an addition to the first.

b"ut., o-J or o.=6 U"ur., o-J. oro..=7 beatsf ovo or

tsi

=B beats.

* A second dot adds half the value of
the first dot to the note. In this case the first dot added
half-note; the second, an additional quarter-note.

a

2

=L_
I
I

Notation of Silence:
Rests:

E=whole-rest E=h^lf-r"rt E=quarter-rest

*=l

b"ut

E=z

b""t"

E

x=

3 b.at"

E

= 4 b"ur.

*The dot aftet a rest functions identically wiü the dot after a note.
Rests must be performed with the same precision as notes; otherwise there would be no
difference between

3

).""¿ ) I

Chapter

I

Rhythmic Organization, the Bar-line and Mete¡.

A ver¡ical line divides the pulse into bars or measures. The first beat afrer each bar{ine

downbeat(strong).

I

Twoquarter.notebeatsperbar:f;,".".=#Conductor,ssymbol:1Jl
I
I
(A tie connecting two nores may go across

4

,t'#:;"1!

is
,

always

I

downbeat upbeat

10

Three quarter-note beats per bar:

5

flr",.,

=

ffi stroog

weak weak

ÍX
l---------->2

tl
rour quarter-note beats per bar:

I

meter

=
I

I

I

trong weak medium
s

6

-

rrong

I

weak

-,

i+r/\-4
-

l \
I

12

Five quarter-note beats per bar, fl is a combinatio¡ of

t5 t3
¡AIN

ltl\

D

4

t--">2

7

D

4

I

meter

(2*3)=- .i-

"

iiE,

lt2

or 2+3.

f3

[ ,"t"r

continued: mixing 2+1 and 3+2

t4
Six quarter-note beats per bar:

usually3+3=-vv-vv

f, ,eter,

6'

\_v

4

sometimes 2+2+2

- -, !- r!-,

,6
5
I ts-r

ñti

15

Seven quarter-note beats ver bar:

J
4.

f, is a combination of 4+3 ot 1+4 or 2+3+2.

*etet(4*J¡=-, -.!-r,

f, *"rr,

(314)=

-, ,!- , - .

6
2

16

4

mete¡ (2+3+2)=

¡v!- vw!-u

76
rN,--z

,'-l-\ \
/tr-v
211

>.

f, ^"t , conrinued: mixing 4+3, 1+4 aÍd2+1+2.

t7
Numbers larger than seven (beats per bar) are occasionally found in musical literature. They are rarely
prime numbers such as 11 and 13, but mostly multiples of shorter numbers such as 9 Oxl) or L2 (4x)) a¡d

will

be dealt with in later chapters.

Changing Meters

r5

18

Chapter

II

Dividing the Beat into Two Equal Parts

Ihe Eighth-Note
Notation: The eighth-note can be norated

fi ,.t"r

=

- ,

I:; d"o JT]

(see No.4 for conductor's symbol)

Notation: The eighth-rest

17

)).t

7

L9

lrlE-

J)

Notation: ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ is usuallvnorated .D
v
can also be created by the use of ties and

res

su.t an "off-bear" rhyrhm parrem is calied syncoparion. It
ts.

t8

Notation: J' The dotted quarter-noie equals three eighth-notes or one and a half quarrer-note beats.

19

20

A musical composition can begin

on an upbeat rather than on a downbeat. This upbeat may be an eighth
or a quarter-note. In order to perform the upbeat precisely,it is wise to establish the pulse clearly before

beginning.

should be practiced:

Notation: usually the value of the upbeat

f;
20

meter=

-.

is

subtracted from rhe last bar.

2t

I

4

2l

tTl€t€f =

r v v

22

ft^"t"r=¡ v -v

23

[ ,etet

(1+2 ot 2+1)=

of ¡ v!-

v v

24

f, ,.t.t ()ú

ot 2+2+2)=-

vv- uu

25

'1, meter(4+)or)+ls¡)+J+/)= - v - r i -,
4.

v or ¡ v v ! - e - v of ¡ v!_ v u!-

u

26

27

Chapter III
Dividing the Beat into Three Equal Parts
The Triplet
J
Three basic

pattern", t.

JID

r3-

2.

)

.D

, )-J-.-)

These basic pattems should be practiced separately. In order to acquire faciliry with numbers z andl ir
should be noted that they differ from previously practiced material only in notation and in their relarionship to the pulse.
|

No.2

is ,"ullu ffi

_____..l_

rJoerformed on a sinsle bear.

J,

Similarly,No.3is,""uy+nownotatedwithreducedvalues.T_j-

Notation: ühen a composition makes extensive use of the triple divided beat it is often norated with
dotred quarter-nore as pulse. In rhis notarion

J.=, o.uq J.=2 b.ur": ). ).--3 bears; o. =4 bears.

¡-37

737

T hus:

can be notated:

To the listener the two versions will sound identical

33
Similariy:

can be notated:

ft

,un

be notated

u"

§;


f; as

erc.

Throughout this chapter both forms of notation

will be pracriced.

a

28

f

neter

r

i-, i-lf

[r -3-ñ

§ Ftt"'

rr 4-r

[,

_3_
lt

J-.-1¡-i-.¡

\ll\

--3-=

I

r.

3---ll Tr.

3-lr

29

fl ,"t"'

r-3---r

r-3--¡ r-

§ ,et.t

3-__¡r_3-_¡

r-3=r rA

.-r

30

ft

nete,

r-3-----r

r. l-

r-3--r r.--3-r

T-3-----r

r- 3--¡ ¡-3-;-1

3t

[

*"t"t

r.-3--

I 3-lt r

t85

'"t"t

3- .r

r+-=

f-.

3-----¡

r--3---;-r

32

Changing Meters

_3_

_3__

r--3----r

f-3--]

Changing Meters

33

Chapter IV
Dividing the Beat into Four Equal Parts
The Sixreenth-Note
Notation: the sixteenth-note can be notated .h.R.h.h o,

Six basic parrems:

t. ffi

2. ¡-T

ffi

3.

fr1

4.

I-

j. FTj

o.

IJ.

These basic patterns should be understoodas differently norated versions of famiiiar rhythms.To comprehend their ratio to the beat it is best to take every one of them through the different stages outlined below, keeping in mind that stages 2 and 2aare identical excepr tl:rt 2a is twice as tasr as 2.

Stage

1:

Pattern

,.-

g
ffi

om

6:

Stage 2:

Stage 2a:

Stage 3:

34

Patterns

Patterns

i,

2 and

4,5

3

a¡d

6

-..etffi--

35

The Sixteenth-Rest

f

§lotation:

J..=i.-¿)

(7 sixteenrh-notes)

39

Upbeats using one or more sixteenth-notes occur frequently. To execute them precisely the pulse
should
be firmly established before beginning the exercise.

36

Sixteenth-notes can also be tied across the bar-line.
a)

f,

meter

37

fl ,"t"t
42

39

[ *","t

(1+2 and 2+3)

40

Changing Meters

4l

Chapter V
Mixing Divisions of the Beat

The aim of this chapter is to practice switching back and forrh bemeen duple and triple
divisions of the
bear while maintaining an absolutely steady pulse. Each preliminary exercise should be pracriced
separ-

atety, perhaps preceded W

Preliminary exercises

1.

f) J1 ^^o lh fn

:

3933

2.

4.

3.

Ztr)n 'll n tr){l ffitr)ll tr),-fr,|l
,.

6.

8.

In

7.

10.

9.

order to perform certain more intricate patterns precisely,

cemporarily. For insrance,

*r,.n

JiJ

it

to subdivide the bear
i, is best ro ,,feel,, n
n,
Hg

may be necessary

J-jJ t, followed ¡y J.-! JJ

namely the four underlying sixteenth-notes.

Throughout this chapter these suggested subdivisions
The ability to temporarily subdivide the beat

will

of

rhe beat

will

be incorporared

become increasingly more imporrant

in

rhe pulse line,

in later chapters,

42

A

meter

§ *.t.,

t-2--1 2:3
or
f.J. J J or n
4:3
4
r
Similarly, divisions or rnÉr.Dear rnro rour m¿y looK llKe ,n,r,iEE.
o, ¿T¿
o, ¿ñ
are used.
In this exercise the nota trons ¿. ¿.
^nd ¿. ¿. ¿. ¿.
Different notations have been used to divide the J.beat into ,*o,

13

§ *",",
In this exercise the notation"

49

r2-1
4
J J un¿ JTTJ

are used.

44

ft *"t",

§ *","t

2:3

In ttris exercise rhe notation" J-J

51

"nd

45

Chapter VI
Dividing the Beat into Six Equal Parts
The Sixteenth-Note in the Triple Division

Basic patterns:

l.frTE 2.fm 3.m) .frT 5.fff) 6.]-Tfr 7.fT

8.J-J:J

in Chapter IV, each pattern should be taken through the three stages given below, keeping
that stages 2 and2a are idenrical excepr that2a is twice as fast as 2.

As

i#
Stage

1

Stage

2

Stage 2a

in

mind

Stage 3

Él

,, J#.JJ-n
E-!

r-+
-

--ft
----J-#'----+-

--___T------il

l--E

-;+---.L--LJT
---tHl
----r___-------x

--J--,
F._+
-- r-:l:=====+

46

Patterns 1 through

4

Patterns 5 through 8

47

Eighth and sixteenth resrs, ties across rhebar-line,andupbeat.

With more incricate patterns, particularly syncopated ones not shownon page 41,a remporary subdivision
of the beat is highly recommended.

48

The next four exercises may be practiced with an eighth-note pulse tJ]l
I]],t before chey are done
with a dotted quarter-note pulse 1J. J.¡.
Whenever the degree of dif ficulry warrants it, the suggested temporary divisions of thebeat are indicated

in

parentheses.

49

g meter

ot

50

§ *.,"t

51

Changing Meters

52

Chapter

VII

Dividing the Beat into Five and Seven Equal Parts

When the beat

is divided into five

or seven equal parts no partial subdivision is possible. No combina'

tion of twos and threes will divide the beat into segments of equal

dura

tion.

Preliminary exercises
5

5

When more

o,

intricate figures are encounrered, such u" JT!
5

be subdivided, as explained in earlier chapters.

f,JI

ITI
5

Fl-r
¿
*o ¿¿
IJJJ-I

5

5

¡__ 7__1
The same applies to patterns involving division into seven

Division into larger prime numbers: 11, 13,
most often indicate

17

the underlying beat itself must

)...J1
IJ-I-LLLI

,,n.7
7

IJJJJJ-I

etc. are occasionally found in Romantic music where they

"tubalo" and do not need to

be executed with precision.

53

Ihe Quintuplet

The Septuplet

54

Mixing divisions of 5 and

7

f; ^"t*

I_

5

___-l

r_

3

___t

_5
I
-l

55

f
68

*et"t

56

ft *"t",

M

5--r

3

r-l-l

57

Chapter VIII
Dividing the Beat into Eight or Twelve Equal parts
with the Half-Nore ( J ) a" pulse.

Since reading the smaller values is as much a visual challenge as it is a
rhythmic one, dividing rhe bear
into 8 or 12 should firsr be practiced with the half-note as pulse.As in previous chapters, the
principle
will be to temporarily subdivide dre beat.
For instance:

Since the essence of good sight-reading is looking ahead, anticipating the
temporary suMivision of the
pulse line by at least one beat will avoid sudden upsers and
surprises:

58

Ttroughou t this chapter these remporary subdivisions of the pulse will be indicated. Subdividing euery
beat should be avoided, since it will be no preparation for the succeeding two chaPters.

Dividing the beat into

8

65

Dividing thé beat into l2

r

r' ; 'r
r-3--.---:l

-_

t3

6_------r

3\
b

r

i--

,r

59

Mixing divisions of 8 and

!

12

,eter

t'

'.?

',

|

-?

'l

60

I

,n",",

r-3------¡

r'

.?

|

,l

't'

g

I

i3

r-3-----

r--3 ---

6L

§ *",",

r-,

-

Tl-3---¡

I

r,

--_-_:r

rl-

q------r

---3
,i,

* E= 4

beats

3---

,r

------------¡

,r'

62

Chapter D(

Dividing the Beat into Eight, Twelve, Sixteen or more Equal Parts
with the Quarter-Note as Pulse.

Notation:

) ) ) ) ) ¿¿¿

Sixreenth-note

I

sixteenth-rest

Thirtv-second-nore

I

rhirty-second-rest

ixty-fourth-note

I

sixty-fourth-rest

-

-

,) ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿ ¿

-*¿¿¿¿¿aaa

S

-¿¿¿¿¿¿¿¿
----¿¿¿aa¿4.
-

---

-

I

ighth-note

One -hundred-twenty-e

(occasionally found)

Two-hundred-fifty-s

ixth-note

(rarely found)

.1

1

One

-hundred-twenty-eighth-re st

I

.t

7

Two-hundred-fifty-s ixth- rest

Some slow movements by Mozart and Beethoven are notated

in these small values. Very often it is possibletoreadthe entiremovement with the eighth-note as pulse, occasionallyeven with the sixteenth.note.
Insomemovements,however,thebasicpulseisthequarter-note.Then,whensuddenlythirty-second-notes
aPPear,

it

becomes necessary to subdivide the beat temporarily.ln order to be prepared,it

is best to sub-

divide the beat immediately preceding the thirty-second-nores, as explained in the preceding chapter.
For ins tance:

63

In this exercise rhe eighth-note
the smaller rhythmic values.

§ ,"t".
70

is

PRELIMINARY EXERCISE
the pulse. The purpose is to get acquainted with rhe visual aspecr of

64

The following eight exercises should not be begun without a glance at the smallest rhythmic values. In
all music of this kind the maximum speed with which thesmallest values can be performeddeterminesthe
tempo for the entire piece.
.D

fi

meter

7l

§ ,"t"t

65

fl ,"t",
73

66

4

4

75

§ *"t"t

67

Changing Meters

Changing Meters

68

Chapter

X

Changing the Rate of Pulse

So

far all the meter changes encountered were different counts of the

same pulse. In much 2Oth'century

music,meterchangealsoinvolvesachangeinthepulse.Forinstance

In this case rhe three eighth-notes are not a.triplet;
This is often indicated in the music in the following

the duration

t^"rbefollowed¡y §.

of the eighth-note remains üe

same.

manner:

)= )

Quarter-note pulse can also be followed by sixteenth-note pulse:

h_

a-a

These changes

in

the pulse are practiced separately in exercises 79

ing the change of pulse in the beat immediately preceding

Br

h

a¡dÑ.

it will again

The principle of anticipat-

prove very helpful.

ins tance:

In both examples given, the quicker pulse was also continued for one beat after the second cünge of meter in order to re'establish the previous pulse firmly.

69

Fro, J pulse to ) puls"

t\

From J pulse to Jlpulse

70

Fro, J pulse to ) pul."

From

82

J pul"" ,o ) pulr"

7t

J

, .D, and

.D pulse

74

Chapter XI
SUMMARY AND REVIEW

In this chapter all previously practiced materials a¡e mixed, The pulse and its
are no longer given.

suggested subdivisions

76

90

78

Chapter

XII

Two Rhythms
Every pianist has to be able to perform two independent rhythmic lines simultaneously. In chamber music
and ensemble playing this
sin ge rs

ability is of equal importance to performers of single-line

ins truments and

.

In each of the preliminary exercises stage 1 (with subdivisions) .should be practiced
velociry until stage 2 (on a single bear) can be performed.

Preliminary Exercises

Stage

2 agaitst

3

2

3 against 2

3

4 agaílst )

4

3 against

4

5

2 against

5

6

3 against

5

1

:

Stage

2

w

irh

inc reasing

79

(Nos. 94 and

9)

are rhy rhmic canons.)

80

33

8l

-=
96
l-l-l

t--

l-=t.'l

r

I

l-l-l

l---

82

83

.D=.l)

)= )

ie&á*

. ..d;§ail,

84

,-.-3 ---

9g

.¿:-i*;:-.;.

..*

.\¡
I

r¡¡
*,.I
t^fl

t*
*t

i

t::

t

.1

!.'

,

t

'.r¡
Robert Starer, distinguished composer, has been a member of the
faculty of the Juiltiard School of Music since 19¿19. ln addition, he is
Professor of Music at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York.

k*,

#

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