For the academic year 2012-2016

Chittluri Sreevarsha

(Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad, Telangana)

(Affiliated to JNTU, Hyderabad, Telangana)

Hyderabad during the academic year 2012 – 2016.Department of Mechanical Engineering CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the technical seminar entitled THERMAL ACOUSTIC REFRIGIRATION (TAR) By Chittluri Sreevarsha (12K81A0372) In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING by the Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Technology . Head of the Department Department of Mechanical SMEC .

Thermo acoustic heat engines have the advantage of operating with inert gases and with little or no moving parts. air conditioning and refrigeration remain expensive. All we need is a loud speaker and an acoustically insulated tube. current cooling technologies continue to generate greenhouse gases with high energy costs. Now we will look into a thermo acoustic refrigerator. In this type of refrigeration all sorts of conventional refrigerants are eliminated and sound waves take their place. its principle and functions . making them highly efficient ideal candidate for environmentally-safe refrigeration with almost zero maintenance cost. services for both homes and industries However. Thermo acoustic refrigeration is an innovative alternative for cooling that is both clean and inexpensive.ABSTRACT: From creating comfortable home environments to manufacturing fast and efficient electronic devices. Thermo acoustic have been known for over years but the use of this phenomenon to develop engines and pumps is fairly recent. Also this system completely eliminates the need for lubricants and results in 40% less energy consumption. yet essential. Thermo acoustic refrigeration is one such phenomenon that uses high intensity sound waves in a pressurized gas tube to pump heat from one place to other to produce refrigeration effect. in an age of impending energy and environmental crises.

Suppose that the above said wave is traveling through a tube. The constructive interference makes the molecules compress. Second. Thermo acoustics is based on the principle that sound waves are pressure waves. Another appealing feature of thermo acoustics is that one can easily flange an engine onto a refrigerator. using acoustic power to pump heat from a cool source to a hot sink. a temperature gradient can be generated by putting a stack of plates in the right place in the tube. which in turn creates constructive and destructive interference. a fluid’s temperature rises when compressed and falls when expanded.BASIC FUNCTIONING: Refrigeration relies on two major thermodynamic principles. All it takes to make a refrigerator out of this is to attach heat exchangers to the end of these stacks. creating a heat powered cooler with no moving parts at all. such gases are both nontoxic and environmentally benign. First. Unlike the chemicals used in refrigeration over the years. These sound waves propagate through the air via molecular collisions. thermo acoustic refrigerators rely on sound to generate waves of pressure that alternately compress and relax the gas particles within the tube. Now. This principle is the basis behind the thermo acoustic refrigerator. Some plates in the stack will get hotter while the others get colder. and the destructive interference makes the molecules expand. The researches have exploited the fact that sound waves travel by compressing and expanding the gas they are generated in. The principle can be imagined as a loud speaker creating high amplitude sound waves that can compress refrigerant allowing heat absorption. The molecular collisions cause a disturbance in the air. in which sound waves are bouncing around. A thermo acoustic engine converts heat from a high-temperature source into acoustic power while rejecting waste heat to a low temperature sink. heat will flow from the hotter substance to the cooler one. . While conventional refrigerators use pumps to transfer heat on a macroscopic scale. These devices perform best when they employ noble gases as their thermodynamic working fluids. A thermo acoustic refrigerator does the opposite. when two substances are placed in direct contact.

a collection of gas molecules that act and move together. so that heat is converted to work. the sound wave does work on the packet of gas. heat engines providing heat or power generators providing work. the packet of gas is compressed and moves to the left. When the gas packet is at maximum compression. Starting from point 1. cycle. THERMOACOUSTIC CYCLE: The cycle by which heat transfer occurs is similar to the Stirling cycle. When a second medium is present in the form of a solid wall. A net transport of heat results as expansion and compression in an acoustic wave are inherently associated with a displacement. The pressure variations in the acoustic wave are accompanied by temperature variations due to compressions and expansions of the gas. Figure below traces the basic thermo acoustic cycle for a packet of gas. in the cold area.THERMO ACOUSTIC EFFECT: Acoustic or sound waves can be utilized to produce cooling. the gas ejects the heat back into the stack since the temperature of the gas is now higher than the temperature of the stack This phase is the refrigeration part of the moving the heat farther from the bottom of the tube. Also the use of inert gases make them environmentally safe and hence more in demand. The reverse effect also exists: when a large enough temperature gradient is imposed to the wall. the average temperature at a certain location does not change. providing the power for the refrigerator. As the packet is compressed. a standing wave pattern is generated in an acoustic resonator. An expanded gas parcel will take heat from the wall. which results in high reliability and low vibration levels. To fix the direction of heat flow. For a single medium. net heat is absorbed and an acoustic wave is generated. providing cooling. heat is exchanged with the wall. A great advantage of the technique is that there are no or only one moving part. while a compressed parcel will reject heat to the wall. . The principle may find applications in practical refrigerators.

the sound wave expands the gas. the packets of gas reabsorb heat from the cold reservoir to repeat the heat transfer process. in step 4. This process results in a net transfer of heat to the left side of the stack.In the second phase of the cycle. As the gas packet moves back towards the right. . Finally. the heat released on the top of the stack is greater than the work expended to return the gas to the initial state. the gas is returned to the initial state. Although some work is expended to return the gas to the initial state.

it creates a temperature difference along the length of the stack. This temperature change comes from compression and expansion of the gas by the sound temperature difference is used to remove heat from the cold side and reject it at the hot side of the system. a porous component called a "stack. As the gas oscillates back and forth. it changes in temperature. air) or a mixture of gases in a resonator to produce cooling. and two heat-exchanger systems. . and the rest is a consequence of heat transfer between the gas and the stack. Thermo acoustic devices are typically characterized as either ‘standing-wave’ or ‘travelling-wave’. Application of acoustic waves through a driver such as a loud speaker makes the gas resonant. Much of the temperature change comes from compression and expansion of the gas by the sound pressure (as always in a sound wave). As the gas oscillates back and forth because of the standing sound wave. A schematic diagram of a standing wave device is shown in figure The main components are a closed cylinder. an acoustic driver.DESCRIPTION OF TECHNOLOGY : Pressure and the rest is a consequence of heat transfer between the gas and the stack. argon. The Thermo acoustic refrigeration systems operate by using sound waves and a non-flammable mixture of inert gas (helium.

Helium. Immaturity. Waste heat of burner (flue gases) can be used to supply heat.BENEFITS:  Inert working fluid. a electrically driven thermo acoustic refrigerator's cooling power is continuously variable. high powers can be achieved with small displacements so no sliding seals or gas bearings are required. The "stack" can be fabricated from cheap plastics. This also  means that no "tight tolerance" machined parts are required thereby reducing manufacturing costs. This acoustic energy is used in a thermo acoustic heat pump to liquefy natural gas. Thermo acoustics is the youngest of the heat engine cycles. Liquefaction of natural gas: Burning natural gas in thermo acoustic engine generates acoustic energy. Intrinsically suited to proportional control. Large range of working temperatures. A linear motor converts this energy to electricity. Again a thermo acoustic heat pump produces cooling. Just as one is able to control the volume of a stereo system. Chip cooling: in this case piezoelectric element generates the sound wave. the speaker generates the sound wave. one can trade off the temperature span and the heat pumping  power. This allows improved overall efficiency by doing rapid cool-down at a lower COP and then maintaining heat leak losses at higher COP. This "load matching" can also reduce heat exchanger  inefficiencies by minimizing temperature differences within the fluids and exchangers. or negative environmental effects. Different working fluids are therefore not required for different temperature ranges. It is more likely that important breakthroughs which substantially improve performance and manufacturability will still occur here rather than the older technologies which have already "skimmed the cream". Cogeneration (combined heat and power): A burner heats a thermo acoustic engine. . A thermo acoustic heat pump cools the chip. 5. Very few simple components. Upgrading industrial waste heat: Acoustic energy is created by means of industrial waste heat in a thermo acoustic engine. therewith generating acoustic energy. In a thermo acoustic heat pump this acoustic energy is used to upgrade the same waste heat to a useful temperature level. Electronic equipment cooling on naval ship: in this application. being an inert gas. 2. Due to the high frequency operation. APPLICATIONS: 1. No sliding seals or lubrication. 4. 3. Depending upon the position and length of the stack in the acoustic standing wave field. Electrically driven systems require only one moving part and  thermally driven systems have no moving parts. flammability. cannot participate in chemical re actions and  hence no toxicity.

This latest breakthrough. capture solar energy. lack of lubrication and sliding seals. and their use of environmentally harmless working fluids were adequate compensation for their lower efficiencies. liquefy industrial gases and serve in other capacities that are yet to be imagined.CONCLUSION: Thermo acoustic engines and refrigerators were already being considered a few years ago for specialized applications. air condition buildings. coupled with other developments in the design of high power. single frequency loud speakers and reciprocating electric generators suggests that thermo acoustics may soon emerge as an environmentally attractive way to power hybrid electric vehicles. In future let us hope these thermo acoustic devices which promise to improve everyone’s standard of living while helping to protect the planet might soon take over other costly. . where their simplicity. refrigerate food. less durable and polluting engines and pumps. The latest achievements of the former are certainly encouraging. but there are still much left to be done.