ENGR 0135

Chapter 5 -1
Moments

Department of Mechanical
Engineering

Concept of moment
 Introduction

to moment
 Moment about a point
 Moment about a line
 Couples
 Some examples

Department of Mechanical Engineeri

Characteristics of a moment




O = moment center
d = moment arm (perpendicular to the line of
action of P)
A-A = axis of the moment
A-A is perpendicular to the plane made by the
force and the distance vectors
Mo = moment at O
Mo = |Mo| = |P|d

A

O

(scalar representation,
tells the magnitude)

Arrow of the moment indicates the sense
(based on convention)
– Counterclockwise  Positive
– Clockwise  Negative

P
A
Mo

Or use right-hand rule; the thumb tells the
“direction” of the moment

O
d

Moment has magnitude and direction so
moment is a vector

P
Department
of Mechanical Engineeri
Moment

Principle of Moment – Varignon’s Theorem      If R = A + B. then Mo(R) = Mo(A) + Mo(B) Mo(R)= Moment at O due to force R Mo(A)= Moment at O due to force A Mo(B)= Moment at O due to force B The theorem can be used to either decompose or combine moments produced by forces Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

13o = 3600lb.in 53.Example – finding the magnitude of moment a) b) c) d) The moment of force F3 about point C The moment of force F2 about point B The moment of force F1 about point B The moment of force F3 about point E M C = F3 LBC = 400 ×15 = 6000lb.in 15” 15” sin 53.in M B = F2 LBC = 300 × 15 sin 53.130o ) = 750lb.in M E = F3 LEB = 400 × (10 − 15 cos 53.130o ) = 400lb.13o LEB Department of Mechanical Engineeri .13o M B = F1 LDB LDB = 250 × (15 − 5 sin 53.

Example F = 300 N 30o MB = ? 250 mm B x 150 mm 200 mm Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

250 – Fy 0.Apply Varignon’s theorem: Break up the Force into its XYZ components and take the moments from each component Fy = F sin 30o Fx = F cos 30o MB = .m counterclockwise B A x MA = ? 150 mm 200 mm Department of Mechanical Engineeri .0 N.2 = -95.Fx 0.0 N.m 250 mm = 95.

especially when d is not easy to measure r = position vector of A A = any point in the line of action of P Parallel to the line of action O Line of action of force P r ~ ~ ~ Mo = r × P ~ ~ ~ M o = (| r || F | sin α ) e α P A magnitudes Note that d = r sin α d α e= A unit vector describing the moment Perpendicular to the plane of the moment Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Vector representation of a moment  Useful for 3D cases.

Position vector  Any point along the line of action is a valid point to get the r Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

Department of Mechanical Engineeri .s The direction of vector s ~ ~ ~ Mo = r × F O A The curling direction of the fingers other than the thumb. The thumb points in the direction of positive M.

review ~ ~ i ×i =0 ~ ~ ~ i × j =k ~ ~ ~ i ×k = − j ~ ~ ~ j × i = −k ~ ~ j× j =0 ~ ~ ~ j ×k = i ~ ~ ~ k ×i = j ~ ~ ~ k × j = −i ~ ~ k ×k = 0 Must be memorized !!! Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Cross Product of unit vectors .

and the components of r and F. ~ i ~ ~ r × F = rx Fx ~ j ry Fy ~ k rz Fz Definition of the determinant a e b f c g = afj + bgh + cei − cfh − agi − bej h i j Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Cartesian representation of Moment the cartesian components of a vector  applied to vector position and force ~ ~ ~ ~ r =r i +r j +r k  Recall: x y z ~ ~ ~ ~ F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k The cross product can be written as determinant of a matrix containing the unit vectors. Extra-point take-home quiz: Show it.

~ i ~ ~ ~ M o = r × F = rx Fx ~ j ry Fy ~ k rz Fz Mo = The moment Mo about the origin of coordinates O produced by a force F Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

j. Using i. and k unit vectors = Cartesian vector form ~ ~ ~ ~ r = rx i + ry j + rz k ~ ~ ~ ~ F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k ~ ~ ~ i j k ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ M o = r × F = rx ry rz = M ox i + M oy j + M oz k Fx Fy Fz ~ ~ ~ = (ry Fz − rz Fy ) i + (rz Fx − rx Fz ) j + (rx Fy − ry Fx )k Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Two ways of representing the moment vector: 1.

Using direction cosines = using a unit vector ~ ~ M o = r × F = M o e~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e = cos θ x i + cos θ y j + cos θ z k M ox cos θ x = ~ Mo M oy cos θ y = ~ Mo M oz cos θ z = ~ Mo The scalar components of the moment M o x = (ry Fz − rz Fy ) M oy = (rz Fx − rx Fz ) M oz = (rx Fy − ry Fx ) ~ 2 2 2 M o = M o = M o = M ox + M oy + M oz Department of Mechanical Engineeri .2.

Moment analysis  Scalar Analysis – Get the Cartesian components of the forces – Get the distances for all of the force(s) components relative to the point of interest – Multiply each pair of the force and distance (scalar multiplication) and determine the direction of each moment using right-hand rule – Sum up the moments according to their direction  Vector Analysis – Get the vector position of the point about which the moment is calculated relative to any point in the line of application – Perform cross product of the force and position vectors Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

If the tension in the cable is 570 lb. determine the moment about A of the force exerted by the cable at B. A steel cable is stretched from the free end B of the boom to a point C located on the vertical wall. 6 ft A z 15 ft B x Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Problem 1 y C 10 ft The 15-ft boom AB has a fixed end A.

A steel cable is stretched from the free end B of the boom to a point C located on the vertical wall. Determine the rectangular components of a force defined by its magnitude and direction. determine the B moment about A of the force x exerted by the cable at B. If the tension in the cable is 570 lb.y Problem 1 C 10 ft A z 15 ft 6 ft Solving Problems on Your Own The 15-ft boom AB has a fixed end A. If the direction of the force is defined by two points located on its line of action. 1. the force can be expressed by: F F= (d i + dy j + dz k) d x Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

Compute the moment of a force in three dimensions. If r is a position vector and F is the force the moment M is given by: M=rxF Department of Mechanical Engineeri .y C 10 ft 6 ft A z 15 ft B x 2.

Determine the rectangular 570 N components of a force defined by its magnitude and direction.y Problem 1 Solution C 10 ft 6 ft 3. A z 15 ft B First note: x Then: TBC = dBC = (_15)2 + (6) 2 + (_10) 2 dBC = 19 ft 570 lb _ ( 15 i + 6 j _ 10 k) = _ (450 lb) i + (180 lb) j _ (300 lb)k 19 Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

ft) j + (2700 lb.ft) k Department of Mechanical Engineeri .y Problem 1 Solution C 10 ft 6 ft A 570 N Compute the moment of a force in three dimensions. Have: z 15 ft MA = rB/A x TBC B x Where: rB/A = (15 ft) i Then: MA = 15 i x (_ 450 i + 180 j _ 300 k) MA = (4500 lb.

e] e A Moment about point O Moment about line OB e is the unit vector along OB O is any point on the line OB Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Moment of a force about a line Basically. it means the rectangular vector component of a moment (about a point that is passed by the line) that acts along the line. B F e r O Mo = r x F MOB = [(r x F) .

Couples  Two equal. noncollinear. parallel of opposite sense  The sum of these forces = zero  Tends only to rotate a body   a couple = a moment   sum of the moments of the pair of forces that comprise the couple Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

b + F. (a + b) = F.Characteristic 1  The magnitude of the moment of a couple about a point in the plane of a couple is equal to the forces multiplied by the perpendicular distance between the forces F Mo = F. O can be anywhere as long as on the plane of the couple Department of Mechanical Engineeri . d d b a O F The distances “a” and “b” are missing from the equation. a = F.

F2 = (say) F M O = (rA − rB ) × F = rA / B × F rB F2 O = rA / B F sin α e A couple is a Free Vector Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Characteristic 2  Moment of a couple does not depend on the location of the moment center O M O = rA × F2 + rB × F1 F1 but rA/B α rA so F1 = .

Transformation of a couple A couple can be rotated in its plane  A couple can be translated to a parallel position in its plane or to any parallel plane  The magnitude of the forces and the distance between them can be changed provided that the magnitude of the couple is maintained Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

Characteristics determining the external effect of a couple  Magnitude of the moment of the couple  Sense (rotation) of the couple  Aspect of the plane of the couple (the slope or direction of the plane of the couple) A couple can be represented as a vector Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

Couples ~ Vector characteristics  Couples can be “summed up (vectorially)” to yield a resultant couple  A couple can be decomposed into its scalar cartesian components  Scalar components of the same directions can be combined to produce a couple vector in that direction  Direction cosines can be computed in a similar method as for the forces and moments Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

– Determine the scalar component of the moment at point O about line OC. Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Examples  The magnitude of the force F in is 595 N.

Example Department of Mechanical Engineeri .