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Chapter 5 -1

Moments

Department of Mechanical

Engineering

Concept of moment

Introduction

to moment

Moment about a point

Moment about a line

Couples

Some examples

Department of Mechanical Engineeri

Characteristics of a moment

O = moment center

d = moment arm (perpendicular to the line of

action of P)

A-A = axis of the moment

A-A is perpendicular to the plane made by the

force and the distance vectors

Mo = moment at O

Mo = |Mo| = |P|d

A

O

(scalar representation,

tells the magnitude)

**Arrow of the moment indicates the sense
**

(based on convention)

– Counterclockwise Positive

– Clockwise Negative

P

A

Mo

**Or use right-hand rule; the thumb tells the
**

“direction” of the moment

O

d

**Moment has magnitude and direction so
**

moment is a vector

P

Department

of Mechanical Engineeri

Moment

Principle of Moment – Varignon’s Theorem If R = A + B. then Mo(R) = Mo(A) + Mo(B) Mo(R)= Moment at O due to force R Mo(A)= Moment at O due to force A Mo(B)= Moment at O due to force B The theorem can be used to either decompose or combine moments produced by forces Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

13o = 3600lb.in 53.Example – finding the magnitude of moment a) b) c) d) The moment of force F3 about point C The moment of force F2 about point B The moment of force F1 about point B The moment of force F3 about point E M C = F3 LBC = 400 ×15 = 6000lb.in 15” 15” sin 53.in M B = F2 LBC = 300 × 15 sin 53.130o ) = 750lb.in M E = F3 LEB = 400 × (10 − 15 cos 53.130o ) = 400lb.13o LEB Department of Mechanical Engineeri .13o M B = F1 LDB LDB = 250 × (15 − 5 sin 53.

Example F = 300 N 30o MB = ? 250 mm B x 150 mm 200 mm Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

250 – Fy 0.Apply Varignon’s theorem: Break up the Force into its XYZ components and take the moments from each component Fy = F sin 30o Fx = F cos 30o MB = .m counterclockwise B A x MA = ? 150 mm 200 mm Department of Mechanical Engineeri .0 N.2 = -95.Fx 0.0 N.m 250 mm = 95.

especially when d is not easy to measure r = position vector of A A = any point in the line of action of P Parallel to the line of action O Line of action of force P r ~ ~ ~ Mo = r × P ~ ~ ~ M o = (| r || F | sin α ) e α P A magnitudes Note that d = r sin α d α e= A unit vector describing the moment Perpendicular to the plane of the moment Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Vector representation of a moment Useful for 3D cases.

Position vector Any point along the line of action is a valid point to get the r Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

Department of Mechanical Engineeri .s The direction of vector s ~ ~ ~ Mo = r × F O A The curling direction of the fingers other than the thumb. The thumb points in the direction of positive M.

review ~ ~ i ×i =0 ~ ~ ~ i × j =k ~ ~ ~ i ×k = − j ~ ~ ~ j × i = −k ~ ~ j× j =0 ~ ~ ~ j ×k = i ~ ~ ~ k ×i = j ~ ~ ~ k × j = −i ~ ~ k ×k = 0 Must be memorized !!! Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Cross Product of unit vectors .

and the components of r and F. ~ i ~ ~ r × F = rx Fx ~ j ry Fy ~ k rz Fz Definition of the determinant a e b f c g = afj + bgh + cei − cfh − agi − bej h i j Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Cartesian representation of Moment the cartesian components of a vector applied to vector position and force ~ ~ ~ ~ r =r i +r j +r k Recall: x y z ~ ~ ~ ~ F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k The cross product can be written as determinant of a matrix containing the unit vectors. Extra-point take-home quiz: Show it.

~ i ~ ~ ~ M o = r × F = rx Fx ~ j ry Fy ~ k rz Fz Mo = The moment Mo about the origin of coordinates O produced by a force F Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

j. Using i. and k unit vectors = Cartesian vector form ~ ~ ~ ~ r = rx i + ry j + rz k ~ ~ ~ ~ F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k ~ ~ ~ i j k ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ M o = r × F = rx ry rz = M ox i + M oy j + M oz k Fx Fy Fz ~ ~ ~ = (ry Fz − rz Fy ) i + (rz Fx − rx Fz ) j + (rx Fy − ry Fx )k Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Two ways of representing the moment vector: 1.

Using direction cosines = using a unit vector ~ ~ M o = r × F = M o e~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e = cos θ x i + cos θ y j + cos θ z k M ox cos θ x = ~ Mo M oy cos θ y = ~ Mo M oz cos θ z = ~ Mo The scalar components of the moment M o x = (ry Fz − rz Fy ) M oy = (rz Fx − rx Fz ) M oz = (rx Fy − ry Fx ) ~ 2 2 2 M o = M o = M o = M ox + M oy + M oz Department of Mechanical Engineeri .2.

Moment analysis Scalar Analysis – Get the Cartesian components of the forces – Get the distances for all of the force(s) components relative to the point of interest – Multiply each pair of the force and distance (scalar multiplication) and determine the direction of each moment using right-hand rule – Sum up the moments according to their direction Vector Analysis – Get the vector position of the point about which the moment is calculated relative to any point in the line of application – Perform cross product of the force and position vectors Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

If the tension in the cable is 570 lb. determine the moment about A of the force exerted by the cable at B. A steel cable is stretched from the free end B of the boom to a point C located on the vertical wall. 6 ft A z 15 ft B x Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Problem 1 y C 10 ft The 15-ft boom AB has a fixed end A.

A steel cable is stretched from the free end B of the boom to a point C located on the vertical wall. Determine the rectangular components of a force defined by its magnitude and direction. determine the B moment about A of the force x exerted by the cable at B. If the tension in the cable is 570 lb.y Problem 1 C 10 ft A z 15 ft 6 ft Solving Problems on Your Own The 15-ft boom AB has a fixed end A. If the direction of the force is defined by two points located on its line of action. 1. the force can be expressed by: F F= (d i + dy j + dz k) d x Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

Compute the moment of a force in three dimensions. If r is a position vector and F is the force the moment M is given by: M=rxF Department of Mechanical Engineeri .y C 10 ft 6 ft A z 15 ft B x 2.

Determine the rectangular 570 N components of a force defined by its magnitude and direction.y Problem 1 Solution C 10 ft 6 ft 3. A z 15 ft B First note: x Then: TBC = dBC = (_15)2 + (6) 2 + (_10) 2 dBC = 19 ft 570 lb _ ( 15 i + 6 j _ 10 k) = _ (450 lb) i + (180 lb) j _ (300 lb)k 19 Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

ft) j + (2700 lb.ft) k Department of Mechanical Engineeri .y Problem 1 Solution C 10 ft 6 ft A 570 N Compute the moment of a force in three dimensions. Have: z 15 ft MA = rB/A x TBC B x Where: rB/A = (15 ft) i Then: MA = 15 i x (_ 450 i + 180 j _ 300 k) MA = (4500 lb.

e] e A Moment about point O Moment about line OB e is the unit vector along OB O is any point on the line OB Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Moment of a force about a line Basically. it means the rectangular vector component of a moment (about a point that is passed by the line) that acts along the line. B F e r O Mo = r x F MOB = [(r x F) .

Couples Two equal. noncollinear. parallel of opposite sense The sum of these forces = zero Tends only to rotate a body a couple = a moment sum of the moments of the pair of forces that comprise the couple Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

b + F. (a + b) = F.Characteristic 1 The magnitude of the moment of a couple about a point in the plane of a couple is equal to the forces multiplied by the perpendicular distance between the forces F Mo = F. O can be anywhere as long as on the plane of the couple Department of Mechanical Engineeri . d d b a O F The distances “a” and “b” are missing from the equation. a = F.

F2 = (say) F M O = (rA − rB ) × F = rA / B × F rB F2 O = rA / B F sin α e A couple is a Free Vector Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Characteristic 2 Moment of a couple does not depend on the location of the moment center O M O = rA × F2 + rB × F1 F1 but rA/B α rA so F1 = .

Transformation of a couple A couple can be rotated in its plane A couple can be translated to a parallel position in its plane or to any parallel plane The magnitude of the forces and the distance between them can be changed provided that the magnitude of the couple is maintained Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

Characteristics determining the external effect of a couple Magnitude of the moment of the couple Sense (rotation) of the couple Aspect of the plane of the couple (the slope or direction of the plane of the couple) A couple can be represented as a vector Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

Couples ~ Vector characteristics Couples can be “summed up (vectorially)” to yield a resultant couple A couple can be decomposed into its scalar cartesian components Scalar components of the same directions can be combined to produce a couple vector in that direction Direction cosines can be computed in a similar method as for the forces and moments Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

– Determine the scalar component of the moment at point O about line OC. Department of Mechanical Engineeri .Examples The magnitude of the force F in is 595 N.

Example Department of Mechanical Engineeri .

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