LITERARY CRITICISM

RIZKI REZA ALDIAN
2225121627

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS
STATE UNIVERSITY OF JAKARTA
2012

INTRODUCTION

2007:27) Concerning the elements of culture. As well as the peculiarities of the nation's wealth in the traditions and culture held is evidence that the differences can be integrated in a container of culture Indonesian nation. on the other hand Clifford Geertz said that culture is a system of inherited conceptions in symbolic form. defines culture as a complex whole. which means the power of the mind. art. suggests that there are seven elements of culture that can be found in all the nations of the world came to be called the elements of universal culture. 2006:1) More specific anymore. belief. Koentjaraningrat also explained that basically many scholars who distinguish between culture and “culture”. in his book "Primitive Cultures". (Abdullah. and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. while culture is the result of creativity. defines culture as "the power of the mind" in the form of copyrights. the study of anthropology. culture or simply "culture". E. Koenjtaraningrat. actions and results of human work in the framework of community life which belongs to self-made man with learning. So. which means "kindness" or "reasonable". which in this way humans can communicate. B Taylor. According Koentjaraningrat (2000:181) with the word culture comes from the cultural basis sangsakerta "buddhayah". and develop knowledge and attitude toward life. which is contained inside knowledge.Indonesia is known as a nation that has a rich tradition and culture. culture is considered an abbreviation of the culture. in his introduction book “ pengantar Ilmu Antropologi”. according Koentjaraningrat a "whole system of ideas. morals. where culture is a compound growth of aquaculture." Then. wills and taste. there is no difference from definition. Traditional roots embedded in people's lives very affect the process of forming the character of each individual and on principally the result of human kindness in dealing with various hardships to excite his life and realize their true happiness. extract prepared from various frameworks that scholars of Anthropology. ie the plural of buddhi. law. preserve. initiative and sense of it. tradition. Language ."( Setiadi. they are: 1. However. So Koentjaraningrat.

Art From those aspects in the novel Siti Nurbaya. he does not have to feed his wife and child. They lived with selling their wares to people. Firstly about the language. In art aspect. Man . Knowledge Systems 3. the Padang culture is still very strong. Living Equipment Systems and Technology 5. At the aspect social organization. Padang language is still really thick because that novel published on 1922 that the situation around the story still many deal with the invader. and rules the rules of another. Relationships between people or groups .a specific pattern. But in the pantun. the novel used the language which not really hard to understand. men do not have to work. In the novel. Social Organizations 4.2. and even just a man should feed for his brother. In human life. people cannot do any activities alone. Livelihood System 6. inheritance laws. In the livelihood System. He needs the cooperation of the people .the group took place according to the rules the rules and patterns . The differences between novel Siti Nurbaya with English and Indonesian that founded by the researchers. the researchers found some aspects that exist on those aspects.people in the surrounding areas. For example. the story tells us that at that time there still many farmers and planters. A man must marry many women. the social system in the society described in detail how to draw the line in a group. This is a product of man as homo socius. In fact. kinship. there are some words that not cover up the real language on the Indonesia version. nowadays Padang culture is not like that but maybe there still some people like that. Religion System 7. such as in the translator not translates the whole words in the Indonesia version. sometimes their exports the wares to another place or country. Kinship system is a very important part in the social structure. At that time the entrepreneur were more than the workers. the translator succeeds to make a good pantun even though the authenticity in pantun slightly changed.

. there went Syamsul Bahri to continue his school in Jakarta. The writer put so many pantun In this novel. Jakarta. movement arts. Sire Datuk Sulaiman borrows the money from Maringgih as many as ten thousand rupiah. This novel used pantun as the art of that time. and then all the wealth of the Sulaiman will be eliminated by Maringgih. boats filled with cargo was under water. On that day. with the intermediary accomplices. For example: the art of music. baked three stores of Sulaiman.not only to meet its food needs. Look at wealth Datuk Sulaiman. In Mount Padang that Syamsul Bahri expressed his love to Siti Nurbaya and got a reply. they made an agreement that they will be as lively as dead.as homo esteticus . so the coconut trees no fruit at all. Maringgih felt unhappy. number four and number five. One day after coming home from school. Bahtiar will continue to the Opzicther School (KWS) in Jakarta. Syamsul Bahri will proceed to the medical school. On the appointed day. He is in the same school with Zainularifin. namely Zainularifin. Sulaiman who have a single daughter named Siti Nurbaya. due to reimburse the loan that he still has hope of coconut crops. and painting. they went to Mount Padang. THE SYNOPSIS OF SITI NURBAYA A prince in Padang called Sutan Mahmudsyah with his wife. He always made a bad manner subtly so no one else knows. the son of a chief prosecutor in Padang named Zainularifin will continue his school to medical school in Java. Siti Mariam have a male child named Syamsul Bahri. His fortune was gained by not kosher. both visual and auditory. To improve the trade. but also fills his soul with beauty. They were so close like a brother and sister. For that he had many accomplices. But was surprised when he knew the entire coconut tree is no longer fruitful. In Padang there is a rich man named Datuk Maringgih. Whereas. Syamsul Bahri took Siti Nurbaya to Mount Padang together with two of his friends. On an appointed day. The coconut garden was given drugs by accomplices of Datuk Maringgih. House of Sutan Mahmudsyah close to the house of a merchant named Sulaiman. there are number three.

Furthermore. They both were not aware that their movements were being followed by Datuk Maringgih along with an accomplice. then sadly. Siti Nurbaya shouted. After Seeing number five was carrying a dagger. Siti Mariam was looking for his daughter.In addition. Arrive to the destination. He was buried at Mount Padang. then blow Datuk Maringgih not on the target. he fells. then Datuk Maringgih his wish seized goods belonging to King Sulaiman. came Siti Nurbaya because his father expecting. they finally kiss. so that his shout was heard by the neighbors and Sulaiman who got sick. he went home to the Sulaiman. Datuk Maringgih then slammed his stick as hard to Syamsul Bahri. Thus. His stuff is still there just about worth seven thousand rupiah. a meeting took place at night. On the morning. But because Syamsul Bahri was dodged and dragged Siti Nurbaya. so he was unable to pay debts that ten thousand rupiah. because he thought Siti Nurbaya an accident then rose Sulaiman and immediately to the place of his daughter. and met King Sulaiman was lying sick. At that night Syamsul Bahri secretly went to the Gulf Bayur to board the ship to go to Jakarta. so immediately the Sulaiman had died. Consequently fell down Datuk Maringgih. as heard scathing words of Syamsul Bahri. After a year in Jakarta. at the instigation of an accomplice Datuk Maringgih all subscriptions that have been indebted to the king Sulaiman deny debt. Initially Siti Nurbaya not willing but when he saw his father herded about to put in jail. But because of lack of caution. Hearing cries for Datuk Maringgih then at that time also came out of hiding number five armed with a keris. go Siti Maryam to the house of his brother in Padang Panjang. Syamsul Bahri immediately kicked him. Having met his parents all in good health. what happened to her and her own father was immediately notified by Siti Nurbaya to Syamsul Bahri in Jakarta. At that time Datuk Maringgih caught them and there was strife. After the events of contention with . Syamsul Bahri returned to Padang. Datuk Maringgih yell for help. After failing to look here and there. Because of Sulaiman could not pay its debts. after he heard from his mother that Sulaiman got sick. she got sick. Syamsul Bahri and Siti Nurbaya met in that place. Sulaiman suddenly become very needy. Syamsul Bahri met with Nurbaya. and because of pain. shortly after the arrival of Syamsul Bahri. before the month of fasting. Because it greatly missed. Because of her pain. unless Siti Nurbaya handed to him as his wife. A few days later. then he would be forced to Datuk Maringgih wife even though her heart had hated him.

and it is expected that the person detained and sent back to Padang. That's why Siti Nurbaya freed and there she stayed at home Alimah. Siti Nurbaya stays at her cousin’s home that named Alimah. Ali who had stopped participating Sultan Mahmud Shah since expultion of the top Syamsul Bahri. Bookmarks and advice Alimah fully accepted by Siti Nurbaya and decided. lieutenant Mas and his friend named lieutenant Van Sta . will go to Jakarta with Mr. Both bodies were buried at Mount Padang beside the tomb of Sulaiman.Datuk Maringgih. In the investigation at the Padang turns Siti Nurbaya not guilty of the crime as has been indicted on her. Siti Nurbaya advised by Alimah so just go to Jakarta. Siti Nurbaya then shouted loud. but pak Ali lost by number five. assembled with Syamsul Bahri. Nurbaya bought a cake are sold by number four. on that way to Padang Siti Nurbaya escorted by the authorities. directly he drags Siti Nurbaya and wanted to throw her into the sea but come pak Ali to rescue. After hearing the news Samsul wanted to commit suicide but failed. After that Samsul stop going to school and he became a soldier. The arrival of the police was to find Siti Nurbaya on the orders of their superiors who had received a telegram from Padang. and it causes her death. Syamsul Bahri mother was shocked. Whereas Samsul not dead. He asked to the authorities so that the news about his surviving was kept in secret. One day. within ten years rank Syamsul Bahri increased to Lieutenant by the name of Lieutenant Mas. That news arrived in Padang and heard by Sutan Mahmud and Datuk Maringgih. One day. Nurbaya had died because of eat the cake. After finding her place. Then went Siti Nurbaya with Mr. On that day. At that time all of a sudden the police came looking for Siti Nurbaya. her conversation with Alimah can be heard by Datuk Maringgih accomplice who was deliberately spying on her. Then number five was looking place of Siti Nurbaya. that there was a woman named Siti Nurbaya had fled with valuables belonging to her husband. who at that time was very sick. Finally the news of a medical school student in Jakarta has spread everywhere through the newspapers. Ali to the Gulf Bayur immediately boarded a ship bound to Jakarta. Maringgih accomplice. They know that their trip was followed by number five. Because of her courage. The house that Siti Nurbaya receive instructions and advice. But unfortunately. because it is number five felt scared and fled. The bullet point to his head was missed because Zainularifin. include to maintain the safety over her. The cake had been deliberately poisoned.

Lieutenant Mas told him that Syamsum Bahri was still alive and now he was in Padang to put down the rebellion. Mas or Syamsul Bahri buried among the tombs and Siti Maryam Nurbaya as requested. After said that. and died. that his message when he died. Then Lieutenant Mas was taken to the hospital. Finally also presented to Sutan Mahmud Shah. He also said that now Syamsul Bahri changed his name to Mas which the opposite of his name Sam. Then with the ceremonial pomp. His body was buried near the grave of his wife. Mas hit by it sword that caused him to fall. the body of Lt. After bickering for a while. But before he died Datuk Maringgih still had a time to take revenge with a swing of his sword. Lieutenant Mas met with Datuk Maringgih included as one of the rebel leader. because regretfully and sadly it also Sutan Mahmud Shah died a few days later. Lt. After it was asked by Sutan Mahmud Shah to the doctor who treated him. Because he felt that he has no many time anymore. he asked to be buried at tomb Mount Padang among Nurbaya and Siti Maryam. namely Lt. so he ask for help to the doctor to call prince in Padang who called Sutan Mahmud Syah. head of Lt. because he told there was any important problem. . namely Siti Maryam. After the death of Syamsul Bahri. either the government and from the people of Padang. then Datuk Maringgih shot by Lieutenant Mas. In the battle with the rebels. After Sutan Mahmud Syah came to that place. Mas alias Syamsul Bahri. but now he was being treated in a Hospital.assigned to lead his men to quell the rebellion on tax issues in Padang. finally Sutan Mahmud Shah learned that recently died was his own. Mas had died.

If the text associated with stories and storytelling. then deconstruction is synonymous with feminist and postcolonial. within the framework of popular literary novel Beautiful (literature). the women. and . The latter refers to a series of techniques for reading texts developed by Jacques Derrida. What is needed is the dismantling continuously. as a process. the reader does not need to find the last meaning of deconstruction. and others. Non deconstruction reader or conventional reader is done by finding the correct meaning. Paul de Man. Deconstruction is done by giving attention to hidden symptom. which sought new strategies for interpreting literary texts. including reader response theory. character sideline. as a result of the popularity of these techniques and theories. the workers and peasants for the Marxist group. these techniques in turn are connected to a set of philosophical claims about language and meaning.DECONSTRUCTION THEORY Deconstruction has a broader. like untruth. The difference between non deconstruction and deconstruction reader can be explained as follows. 'the women' is a symbol of the most constant marginality. deconstruction became associated and sometimes confused with other trends. deconstruction is synonymous with naratologi and postrukturalis. Deconstruction made its first inroads in the United States through departments of literary criticism. Deconstruction is synonymous with literary reception. the weak economy in relation to the capitalist project. and a narrower. the verb "deconstruct" is now often used more broadly as a synonym for criticizing or demonstrating the incoherence of a position. who referred to as the optimal meaning. Thus postrukturalisme is to deconstruct the power latent cultural subjects. more popular. meaning the last. If the text associated with the women and the problems of colonial. As a result. more technical sense. deliberately hidden. in view of the colonial natives. which argues that a text's meaning is produced through the reader's process of encountering it. subjects hegemonic that continuously conditions the situation of marginality. Basically dekostruksi confronted with symbols of 'the women' as above. and so on. However. Women is a manifestation of the garden of eden weather. the traditional self-service era. In contrast.

intends to drive out the invaders from the Earth Indonesia. It was pointed out that mentally. Samsul Bahri deeds can actually be taken as an act of traitors. he forgot about himself: despair and suicide.) That is. he is not a strong young man. but a young man with whiny and has a cramped national feeling. Datuk Maringgih. Ahmad Maulana . he became a rebel leader. Only the failure of his love for a girl (which was already a widow). It was he who became one of the characters that move the rebellion against the invaders. purely driven by personal motivation. According to Jausz deconstruction theory. Thereby. Even Derrida start from a footnote. whatever the motivation. although he was recognized by many as the villain. Later. he was assigned to crush the rebellion. old goat who hooked the women. After his suicide attempt turned out failed. a white character. Excitedly he went to the battlefield as well as intends to revenge against Datuk Maringgih who be the culprit of his failure love. which is the historical aspects of the tangible "history" reader response from time to time. which is the land of his birth. Through deconstruction. Although it was also motivated by personal motivation (to be free of major tax. He was not a hero. he decided to enter the Colonizer soldier. that situation will be inverted. Whatever the reason. In deconstruction. Samsul Bahri is not a young man hero. Generally.so on. no matter how small his part. when in the area of West Sumatra. On his own people. he has the heart to fight it. the reading does not have to start from the beginning and can be started from anywhere. on the other side. it means that he fights against his own people and even stand on the other side to defend the interests of the invaders. it was he who "has the right" called a hero instead of Samsul Bahri. black figures. the lovers of literature considered that Samsul Bahri is a hero protagonist. he was seen as a strong and good character. ANALYSIS After reading and observing the novel “Siti Nurbaya” the researchers will apply the theory of deconstruction. even for love heroes. he is a hero of the nation. while on the other hand Datuk Maringgih is an antagonist of the all evil. there was a rebellion because the problems of taxt.

much influenced by the attitude and outlook on life both figures. However. if understood very well the important messages to be conveyed through the novel. REFERENCES . in fact. only a sideline figures are generally considered to be less important. In a conversation with Nurbaya. Maulana reveals the ugliness that actually polygamous marriage more miserable the women and children.and Alimah. Nurbaya’s attitude and outlook on life. in the novel Siti Nurbaya. it would seem that the two figures is actually very instrumental.