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ARMED SERVICES TECHNICAL INFORMA1ION AGENCY
ARLINGTON HALL SFATION
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UNCLASSIFIED

NOTICE: When goverment or other drawings, specifications or other data are used for any purpose
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ASD-TR-61-234

r

273880

HANDBOOK OF DESIGN DATA ON ELASTOMERIC
MATERIALS USED IN AEROSPACE SYSTEMS

FM,,

-"

TECHNICAL REPORT No. ASD-TR-61-234
JANUARY 1962

C'.

DIRECTORATE OF MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
AERONAUTICAL SYSTEMS DIVISION
AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND
WRICHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OHIO

PROJECT No. 7381, TASK No. 73812

(Prepared under Contract No. AF 33(616)-7093
by Southwest Research Institute; A. . Pickett
and M. M. Lemcoe, Authors)

NOTICES

When Government drawings, specifications, or other data are used for any purpose
other than in connection with a definitely related Government procurement operation, the
United States Government thereby incurs no responsibility nor any obligation whatsoever;
and the fact that the Government may have formulated, furnished, or in any way supplied
the said drawings, specifications, or other data, is not to be regarded by implication or
otherwise as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or
conveying any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention
that may in any way be related thereto.

Qualified requesters may obtain copies of this report from the Armed Services Technical Information Agency, (ASTIA). Arlington Hall Station, Arlington 12, Virginia.

This report has been released to the Office of Technical Services, U. S. Department
of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C., for sale to the general public.

Copies of ABD Technical Reports and Technical Notes should not be returned to the
Aeronautical Systems Division unless return is required by security considerations, contractual obligations, or notice on a specific document.

Deputy for Technology. E. with Mr. ject No." Directorate of Materials and Processes. "Handbook of Design Data on Elastomeric Materials Used in The work was administered under the direction of Aerospace Systems.FOREWORD This report was prepared at Southwest Research Institute under The contract was initiated under ProUSAF Contract No. AF 33(616)-7093. 73812. This report covers work performed in the period of 5 February 1960 through 30 June 1961. 7381. Aeronautical Systems Division. . C. "Design Data on Aircraft Elastomeric Materials and Products." Task No. Jaynes acting as project engineer.

ACKNOW LEDGMENTS Appreciation is expressed to the following companies and organizations for providing certain information included in this report. ±i . Inc. Inc. Naugatuck Chemical Division Vanderbilt. & Company.. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company. Silicone Products Department General Tire and Rubber Company. Convair Division General Electric Company. Lockheed Aircraft Company Lord Manufacturing Company Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company Mobay Chemical Company North American Aviation.. Inc. Inc. I. Aero-Space Division Connecticut Hard Rubber Company Crane Packing Company Dayton Rubber Company Dow Corning Corporation Dowty Exports Limited DuPont de Nemours. Raybestos -Manhattan. T.. Inc. Society of Automotive Engineers. Inc. Elastomer Chemicals Department Enjay Company. Stoner Rubber Company. Inc. E. Parker Seal Company Precision Rubber Products. Inc. Inc. Acushnet Process Company American Society for Testing Materials Armstrong Cork Company Boeing Company. Chemical Division Goodrich-Gulf Chemicals. Firestone Synthetic Rubber & Latex Company General Dynamics Corp. Inc. Thiokol Chemical Corporation Union Carbide Plastics Corporation United States Rubber Company. Company. R. Chemical Division Linear. .

Elastomer part design methods are not reviewed in this handbook because they are the subjects of other Department of Defense reports which this handbook is intended to complement. The elastomeric materials for which data are presented are compounds of high polymers currently available in the U.ABSTRACT The objective of this handbook is to provide aerospace weapons system design engineers with useful data on the materials properties of elastomers. Materials Engineering Branch Applications Laboratory Directorate of Materials and Processe. PUBLICATION REVIEW This handbook has been reviewed and is approved. P. A. FOR THE COMMANDER W. The properties considered are original mechanical and physical properties and the changes in these properties that result from aging and exposure to environments of aerospace weapons systems. CONRARDY Chief. The sources of this information are Department of Defense research reports and the technical literature of engineering design and elastomer technology. A selected bibliography of technical literature on elastomers and elastomeric parts is included to aid the handbook user who r-eds further information on these topics. Elastomer compounding is only briefly treated in this handbook because it is intended for use by structural and mechanical engineers rather than by rubber chemists and techhdlogists.! iii . S.

.3. .... 1.... ..3 ELASTOMER TERMINOLOGY. 1 1. Standard Test Methods ... 1 2.... 1.. . 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 .... and Room . Coating... I 1 1 2 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELASTOMERIC MATERIALS . . 1. Original Room Temperature Properties ........ 1. Characteristic Properties of Elastomers ....2 2... .. 1 1. . General ... 2... 4 1....... .... ............... Temperature Vulcanization ...INTRODUCTION PAGE 1....4 1..... Elastomer Part Manufacturing Processes ...4.... 1...... ..... .....3.2 ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF ELASTOMER PARTS .. ... 4 1................ .... Scope.............. ...TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 ........ MEASURED PROPERTIES OF ELASTOMERS ..... ...... .... .. ... ..............2 SCOPE OF REPORT .... ......... Dynamic Response . 1.... 2. 2....... Natural Rubber and Substitutes ...3........ .. 1. ... .... 1..... 2.... Polybutadiene . . 2..3..... Indexing . .. . 1 1...2.. . ........ ... Static Response ........... 2 2.. ...... 1.. Ethylene Propylene Copolymer .... 4 4 5 CHAPTER 2 . ..... .. ASTM Definition of an [ Elastomer] ....1 2..... ... . 1 1.. ....... ........ ... Method of 1... Potting....3....3. ..... .. ....... ....2 ELASTOMER COMPOUNDING AND PROCESSING .. ... 3 PURPOSE AND Purpose ... ......3.. . ...MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 2....2....... 1 DISCUSSION OF ELASTOMER PROPERTIES ... 1 2. 1.... 2.. ....3 1..2 1. . Casting.... ...........3 2........... 3 2. 4....... ......... 1. ...............4 .... ....... 2...... SBR ... 5 iv 7 7 8 8 13 .. Natural Rubber .. ... 1 1.......... .... 2... Types of Elastomers ........ 2.............. .... . 2 2 3 4 4 1. 1..... Synthetic Polyisoprene ...... . .... ............ ......... 1 1.2 1. .. 1...

3.. Fluorocarbon Elastomers .. 1... Urethanes ... ..... 2 ORDINARY AGING . ....... 2....... Polysulfide .3.TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) PAGE 2..... 1 3.. and High Performance Substitutes ...4 General Utility Elastomers with Specific Resistance Properties . 2.. 3.. Fuels. 3....... 3 1....4 1.2. ....... Compatibility with Conventional Petroleum Based Oils. 3............... Silicones .. ............... 3. 3 1...... ......5 18 18 19 20 21 21 21 22 22 23 25 26 27 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES ............. 5 2 2. .... 2........ . .. Neoprene .... ..... .......3....... 1 1... ........ 2.... 40 40 3 3 GAS PERMEABILITY.. . .. 1........2......... ..... .. 2... . . 2. .. Ozone Attack ........ 3 2........ . 33 35 CHAPTER 3 ... 2 2........ ...3 1.. 5 HIGH VACUUM EFFECTS ...... 3................ 3.. 3 .... 2..... 3... ...... ..... V ........ and Oxidizers ...... Special Purpose Elastomers .... Time and Temperature Dependence of Mechanical Behavior of Elastomers . . . 3.... 3..... 1... 2 1....... ... 3.. .. General .. 48 ... 2 2... ... Hydraulic Liquids. Compatibility with Rocket and Space Power Source Liquids.... . 3..2 2 LIQUID COMPATIBILITY ...2................RESISrANCE PROPERTIES 3 1 3..... . Butyl ... 3........... .. Temperature Effects on Mechanical Properties .4 1...... .. 47 3 4 RADIATION EFFECTS .. 3 1... .... .. Hypalon . Buna N ...... ... Acrylic and Poly FBA .................. .. .. 1 2....... . .... 3. Effects of Low Temperature .. ............. ................... 2. 2 3. 2.............. 2 3.... ....... 2....... 37 37 37 40 42 . . 1 3.. ............ ........... 2........ Fuels........... 2......... 1 1. 50 ...... . 3 2 3.......2 1........ Thermal Oxidation .. .. .... 2................. ..... Lubricants...... . 29 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND THERMALLY INDUCED DIMENSIONAL CHANGES ..... ....3...........

.. ..... 2..1 52 ELASTOMER PARTS 4.2 ELASTOMERIC INTEGRAL FUEL TANK SEALANTS .. 99 165 .. BIBLIOGRAPHY .. 5....... GENERAL.... . ... ...... CHAPTER 4 - .. 1 ... ...1 4.. 1 4.. . .3 4..... 61 61 62 63 APPENDIXES [-GLOSSARY ... ... ....... ..... ..... 1 4. ...... 4..... .4 4...... .... . .... 93 -CONVENTIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS.. .. .. ........ 2........ ... ........ ..... 59 60 ... .2 4....... . . .... Present Airframe Seal Capabilities. .... ..... 5 4.. 4. . . ... .. Elastomeric Static Seal or Gasket-Type Seal Capability ....4. 2 SEALS FOR MECHANICAL COMPONENTS .... .... . 3... Elastomeric Dynamic Seal or Packing Capability 4........ ... ......... .. 5.. . .. 4.. ELASTOMER PART II MANUFACTURING PROCESSES... ...... 83 ...... ..... vi ....... .... ........ . .. .................... Present Fuel Tank Seal Capability .......TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) PAGE 3.... ..... . General ..2 AIRFRAME SEALS.......... . . . .. .. . ..2 VIBRATION AND SHOCK ISOLATION AND DISSIPATION. 61 61 61 ........... 57 59 4.... TABLES ...... .57 Vibration Analysis............ .... .... .. ...4..6 MICROBIOLOGICAL ATTACK .... Elastomer Springs.. .... 53 59 . . . 3... ..... General .

...........Shore A Points) 2-12 Conversion Graph for Hardness Readings ..... 09 ........ 2-7 Tangent Moduli Values Derived from Figure 2-3 2-8 Tangent Moduli Values Derived from Figure 2-4 2-9 Equilibrium Shear Stress-Strain Curves for the 108 .. ..... ...... 2-13 Bonded Sandwich Units Loaded in Compression ....... 07 Compounds of Figure 2-3 2-10 105 .... 110 ........ Rubber..... ....... 2-5 Secant Moduli Values Derived from Figure 2-3 ...... 102 Equilibrium Tensile Stress-Strain Curves for a . ... ... . .... v h" ..... .... 2-6 Secant Moduli Values Derived from Figure 2-4 ... ill ..... Durometer Series of Natural Rubber .............. Correlation Curve between N oung's Modulus and British Standard Degrees ('.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS CHAPTER 2 Page Figure 2-1 Typical Creep Curve Time = 0 2-2 2-3 - Instantaneous Loading at 101 . 2-4 Small Strain Portion of Figure 2-3 .... 2-14 Effect of Surface Conditions on the Deflection of Rubber in Compression and Compression StressStrain Curves for 30... 103 104 .... Repeated S'ress-Strain Curves for a Natural .. .. 112 113 114 ........ 50 and 80 Durometer Specimens ......... . ... 1... Scatterbands of Values of Elastic Moduli versus Durometer 2-11 106 1.

.... 129 2-25 G" Values ............... ......... Spring Deflection ............ 125 2-26 Correlations between Test Values and Dynamic Moduli....... 120 Tensile Stress Relaxation of Viton and Silicone O-Rings at 600°F and 20% Elongation .. ..... 121 ....... ............... 115 Typical Creep Curve Plotted on Various Coordinate ................ Elastomers ........ 119 ............ 2-18 Relative Creep of Elastomers .........................124 Mechanical Model for Dynamic Response of ................. .. 2-19 Typical Stress Relaxation and Recovery Curves ........ viii..... Tensile Stress Relaxation of a Silicone Elastomer O-Ring at Various Temperatures and 20% Elongation 118 ... 126 2-27 G' and 2-28 Characteristic Fatigue Life Curves for Elastomers ........................ 128 2-29 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Urethanes ........ ......... ment Apparatus .. with Natural Rubber ......... Tensile Stress Relaxation of Viton and Neoprene at .................. 117 .. 2-20 Typical Static Fatigue Life Curves ..... Figure 2-3 .............. 2-21 High Temperature Tensile Stress Relaxation Measure.......... 2-22 2-23 2-24 ....LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd) CHAPTER 2 FigurPage 2-15 2-16 2-17 Compression Load Deformation Curve for Calculating ...... 122 123 ............ 127 ... Systems ... .............116 Relative Creep of Natural Rubber Compounds of . 600°F and 20% Elongation ..

2-32 Stiffening of Elastomers at Low Temperatures "-33 Stiffening of Elastomers at Low Temperatures (Resilience) 2-34 2-36 2-37 2-38 . . The Effect of Long Time Exposure at 158-F on Properties and the Effect of Short Time Exposure to Various Temperatures on Properties of Neoprene 142 The Effects of Elevated Temperatures on Ordinary . . . as a Function of Temperature 140 Properties of a Buna N at 325'F after Aging for 72 ..... Hours at Temperature in Various Media 141 ..-39 1'-40 2-41 2-42 2-43 .. of Time and Temperature 136 Typical Test Results of Creep Response over a Range . .... I .. Moduli Behavior of Three Elastomers as a Function .. 138 Example of Use of Time Temperature Superposition Principle ..... . .. of Temperatures 137 Example of a Master Creep Curve Developed from Test ... Results over a Range of Temperatures.. ...... Examples of the Effects of Exposure to Elevated Temperature of a Plastic and an Elastomer 2-35 130 ....131 132 .. ... ..... . 134 ...... 135 Moduli Behavior of Three Elastomers as a Function . of Time and Temperature .... Butyl Elastomers 143 ix .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd) CHAPTER 2 Page Figure 2-30 Mechanical Properties of a Cast Polyether Urethane 2-31 Stiffening of Elastomers at Low Temperatures . ....... ...... 133 . . 139 The Properties of Natural Rubber and SBR Compounds ..

............ 151 ...... and 400 ° F . ..... ............................ 250°F....... 147 Stiffness of Various Elastomers over a Broad Temperature Range .... 250°F.... 2-47 A..... .................. Effect of Fuel Aromaticity on Buna N at 75°F..................................... B. Frequency and Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Properties of a Silicone ... 2-46 Silicone Life at Temperature Curve of Best High Temperature Compounds Developed from Data of Figure 2-45 ...149 Compression Set and Hardness of Silicones as a Function of Temperature and Compression Set as a Function of Time . .. 154 . ...............150 Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Properties of a Silicone ........ x 153 ... .... 144 . 147 Tensile Strength at Room Temperature and 4000F Before and After Aging at 400°F for 8 Hours ... .... ....... 2-48 2-49 2-50 2-51 2-52 ..... and 400°F .........152 CHAPTER 3 3-1 3-2 Effect of Fuel Aromaticity on Kel-F 3700 Elastomer at 75°F.. ................ ........... ........ 148 Steel Ball Rebound Resilience of Several Elastomers over a Broad Temperature Range . 145 146 Room Temperature Tensile Strength of Elastomers Before and After Aging at 350°F for 8 Hours ..... .LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd) CHAPTER 2 Figure Page 2-44 The Effects of Elevated Temperatures on Hypalon 2-45 Temperature Effects on Silicone ........ .......................

....... X 6 in. Slab in Rubber Pad Contacted with 800°F Metal Surface ....... 163 .... 5 in...... Metal Surface ...........xlJ . 159 Temperature Distribution in Pad of 0. for 3 Minutes ........ and Other Materials .... 075-in..... Polymer Modification) ......... 155 ..... Aromatic Content in Fuels ...... Temperature versus Time of Viton A in Contact with . X 0.. 075-in........... . 075-in.... Butyl Rubber Slab after 3-Minute Exposure 0................ 161 Temperatures in 6 in....... 157 Variation of Radiation Resistance of Silicones (Showing the Effects of Compounding Variables and High ... Air Permeability of Elastomers as a Function of Temperature ..........LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd) CHAPTER 3 Page Figure 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 Change in Rate of Permeability with Increasing .........156 Graph of Relative Radiation Resistance of Elastomers ..... Rubber Slabs after 3-Minute Contact with 8000F Metal Surface 160 .. ... Slabs) ........ from a 1000°F ...... ........... 162 Time-Temperature Usefulness of Elastomers ...... 158 CHAPTER 4 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 Percentage Loss of Tensile Strength of Second 0.... Metal Hot Plate at 800°F (0................ 25 in.....

... 184 Imme r... 70/30 iso-Octane-Toluene ............. Viton A. .. . . 185 Reference List of Common Military Liquid Specification 'Jumb....itary Sp-cifications 3-5 3-6 "-'I ..... 167 . 176 Summary of Electrical Insulating Qualities of Selected Elastomers ...... .. 186 3-7 Re'erence List of Common Elastomer Specifications 189 3-8 Liquid Media Guide for Elastomer Selection by Mi.. ...... .............. 1 2-2 Thermal Coefficients of Typical Elastomers Compared with Other Engineering Materials ..........ion Test Data on Compounder's Property Values of Buna N LS-53......LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER 1 Table Page 1-1 Elastomer Classification ........ ..........rs . ........... 190 .......... ... .........1 3-2 Tensile Properties of Vulcanizates Before and After Heat Aging in Air and in Nitrogen . ... 179 3-3 Liquid Immersion Test Standards 181 3-4 Examples of Resistance of Specific Elastomers to Common Solvents Evaluated by Volume Change of Elastomers Immersed in the Liquid ....... 170 CHAPTER 2 2...... Z 1..... 177 CHAPTER 3 3..... 1-2 Standard Test Method Outline . and Kel-F Elastomer Exp)osed to FTfM Medium 6 (ASTM Reference Fuel B.... 178 Ossefort's Classification of Elastomers According t3 Ozone Resistance . ......... ......

..... 3-20 The Effects o' Environment on Radiation Resistance of V'iton and Teflon.. . ....... xi±i 222 .... 3-10 Results of Lox Impact Tests .. ............. .. ........ ..... 216 210 220 . . .... . ....... 202 3-15 The Effect of Radiation on Compression Set .... 3-12 Gas Permeability Constants X 107 3-13 3-14 Temperature ..... .. 212 Radiation Stability of Elastomers and Plastics Used in Seals and Gaskets at Temperatures Below 3000F . . .. ... 3-11 Elastomer-Liquid Compatibility . ... 3-17 192 .. .. 194 ............... . 221 Comparison of Steel and Elastomer Springs as Vibration Isolators ....... CHAPTER 4 4-1 Order of Merit Ratings of Various Spring Types as Shock Absorbers 4-2 .19 Radiation Stability of Fluoropolymers .. . ...... ....... .............. 3-16 Radiation Effects on Vibration Characteristics of Elastom ers 3-18 .. ........ ...... 214 Radiation Stability of Elastomers and Plastics Used for Seals and Gaskets for Operation Above 300'F ......... 201 Effects of Gamma Radiation on Physical Properties ..... .....195 Comparison of Thermal and Radiation Stability of Elastomers .....LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) Table 3-9 Page A Reference List of Space Weapons System Energy Source Chemicals of Current Interest . ............. of Elastomers ..211 .......... .... cm2 at Room sec atm 200 .. 3......

2 Scope The elastomeric materials considered in this handbook include thcse currently being used in aircraft and missiles. It is intended to assist structural and mechanical engineers (rather than rubber chemists and technologists) concerned with the application of elastomneric materials in parts design for air and space weapons systems. testing. . A. !y with the elastorner technologist in part design. technical literature published within the past ten years and information provided by the elastomer industry. both natural and induced. The primary purpose of this handbook. and technology. and to better understand the complexities of elastomeric materials a-.1 Purpose This handbook is a collection of information and data related to behavior of various types of elastomers under a variety of environmental conditions.. Elastomer technology is such a dynamically developing field that the data included herein should not be considered as complete and up-to-date. and techrolcgy of elastomers compared to"the engineering materials with which most structural or mechanical engineers are familiar. Also. As more data become available.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. testing. supplements to sections of this handbook will be issued. several materials ar.1. The major sources of data presented herein are ASD (formerly WADC and WADD) technical reports. is to en -bit..1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF REPORT 1. there is also included information on elastomer terminology. therefore.d processes. It is felt that such background information is necessary because of the difference in the terminology. Such information is essential to the structural or mechanical engineer to enable him to properly interpret data. An attempt has been made to provide information on which to base decisions as to the selection of an elastomeric material for use as a component.1. to perform materials evaluation. included which are presently only available in pilot plant quantities. 1. In addition to the tabulated and graphical data pertaining to the properties of these elastomeric materials.thc mechanical and structural engineer to collaborate -nore effeci.Li cit.

and the review of this information in terms of specific criteria derived from successful air and space weapons systems. and recommendations are based is presented in its original form in the handbook. and reference to it can be found in subject heading 2. 2) is the 28th table in Chapter 2. and also the numerical sequence in which reference is made to them within that chapter. 1 ASTM Definition of an I Elastomer] * I "An elastomer] is a I rubber-like] material that can be or already is modified to a state exhibiting little plastic flow and quick and nearly complete recovery from an extending force. e. in most instances.Conclusions. is under the second major topic. Such material before modification is called.. statements. and is the first subheading under that topic. "A. a raw or crude rubber [or a basic high polymer] and by appropriate processes may be converted into a finished product. and recommendations made in this handbook are engineering judgments based on information available to the authors. 1 designates that the item is in Chapter 2. The tables and figures are indexed by a number which designates the chapter in which they are listed. "When the basic high polymer is converted (without the addition of plasticizers or other diluents) by appropriate means to an essentially nonplastic state. statements. Table 2-28 (2. 2. 2. After being stretched 100% . 3 Method of Indexing The text in this handbook is indexed by numerical prefixes which designate chapter and sequence of subject within the chapter. The number of the figure or table is followed by a number within parentheses. 15-32 C). it must meet the following requirements when tested at room temperature (60 -90 ° F. 1. held for 5 minutes and then released. The information on which these conclusions. 1 2 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELASTOMERIC MATERIALS 1. For example. 2. Is capable of being stretched 100%. 2. 2. i. 1. This number is a cross reference and designates the portion of the handbook where reference is made to the table or figure. " *'Brackets indicate change in wording from original quotation. "B. it is capable of retracting to within 10% of its original length within 5 minutes after release (ASTM D412-51T). 2 . 2.

is usually an asset for such applications because it facilitates ease of installation and increases resistance to fatigue. Rubber-like elasticity. when compared with other engineering materials. Elastomers possess volume compressibility of the same order of magnitude as most liquids and about 100 times that of steel. diaphragm. 3 . 141.1. rvice environments is change in original properties. A significant response of elastomers to s. thermal and permeability properties. that is. These properties vary interdependently over large ranges in response to variations in compounding and processing. Plastic and fiber materials are also high polymers. Many plastic materials can be stretched 100% without rupture. specific elastomeric materials are particularly suited for use in insulating. but will not retract to their original length after release. while not required. make the application of engineering analysis to part design very complicated. high hysteresis. elastomers can be subjected to enormous elastic strains without rupture. and coating applications. Elastomer selection must be based on useful service life and for this reason. elastomers are categorized by their original and aged properties. low shape rigidity. liner.airacteristic Properties of Elastomers (Refs. large energy storage capacity. together with their nonlinear response. or materials made up of large molecules of high molecular weight. Elastomers. Certain of the elastomeric materials possess additional useful characteristics such as corrosive chemical resistance and electrical. processing. 35. and application technology. Thus. 2 (':. The majority of elastomer test results are not physical conbtants usable in design computations but are comparative measures of material qualities. Rubberlike elasticity is exhibited by only a limited number of materials over narrow ranges of temperatures. All such materials known are high polymers. 125.2. are characterized by large deformability. High polymers are similar in chemical origin and response. 229) The fundamental mechanical property of elastomers is rubber-like elasticity. The role of the elastomer technologist in part design includes analysis of service requirements in terms of standard elastomer property values and the furnishing of a material for the part which will perform satisfactorily in service. nonlinear stress-strain curve. but differ in mechanical properties. The extremely large deformations experienced by elastomers in service. and large variation of stiffness with temperature and rate of loading. abrasion and tear.

make it possible to produce custom-made elastomer parts to meet a broad range of requirements." 4 . 92. 4. Table I-I lists the commonly used elastomer materials. Appendix II of this handbook includes descriptions of "Conventional Elastomer Part Manufacturing Processes. 144. 161. 3 Types of Elastomers For the convenience of the user of this handbook. 4 E LASTOMER COMPOUNDING AND PROCESSING The many types of elastomeric high polymers. 120. Elastomer technology also uses words and meanings not commonly employed by other disciplines to express material responses and laboratory test results which are different from those of other materials. 2. 45) The technical language of elastomer technology differs in two important aspects from the usual terminology of structural and mechanical engineering: (1) Different meanings are assigned to the same words describing physical properties or behavior. 121. 1 Elastomer Part Manufacturing Processes (Refs. 4 Standard Test Methods (Ref. 44. 1. 2. the variety of compounding ingredients available to modify their properties. 89) Table 1-2 lists test result nomenclature related to properties of elastomers according to standard test methods. and the different methods of processing and forming available. Each type of elastomer can be identified by several names. 1. For these reasons. a glossary defining terms of specific interest to the designer is included in this report as Appendix I.1. (2) Different words are assigned to the same meanings describing physical properties or behavior. 1. The underlined names in Table 1-1 are those used in this handbook. 1. 3 ELASTOMER TERMINOLOGY (Refs. Only standard test methods in general usage and of direct interest to design engineers are included. Z09) As an aid to the designer.

5 . Examples of these applications are integral fuel tank sealants and coatings. 5. it is necessary to use elastomer solutions or dispersions to obtain required consistency.) Processes (Refs. In these cases. V. T. In the latter application. and the potting of electronic components. Pottiig. V. elastomer specifications and application design depend on storage. and Room Temperature Vulcanization (R. 19. For the other high polymers.sting. Certain types of component material or construction do not permit heat induced vulcanization.1. systems for polycondensation product elastomers are extensively reviewed in manufacturers' literature.d r'views somc of the applications of these materials. the material must be installed while it is of liquid or putty like consistency and vulcanized in place on or in the component. R. and vulcanizing characteristics of these materials as well as their properties after vulcanization. T.4. T. 1 lists some of the current sealant specifications a. 2 Ca. 223) Many of the elastomer applications in air and space weapons systems require fabrication techniques other than the conventional elastomer part manufacturing processes. Section 4. room temperature vulcanization systems must be used. R. V. The polycondensation product elastomers are especially suited for such application because polymerization and vulcanization reactions can be combined in these materials so that it is never necessary to deal with a plastic high polymer in the processing operation as is the case with the other elastomers. handling. Coating.

should be aware of the following: (1) The mechanical properties of an elastomer are so dependent on time. 7 . 37) The mechanical and physical properties of elastomeric materials are dependent upon the methods employed in compounding and processing them.CHAPTER 2 MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 2. This is of considerable importance to the proper evaluation of data and choice of material properties for a particular design. it should be noted that the data presented are obtained by testing specific elastomeric compounds. environment. 27. A wide range of properties are available to the designer of elastomer parts. The designer must recognize that attainable properties are interdependent so that improvement of a specific property may mean degradation of other properties. trade names are commonly used by engineers to identify specific elastomeric materials. which may be superior. temperature. and previous history that the difference between the usual design estimate of these parameters and the actual component service history will generally cause appreciable differences between predicted and actual response. trade names. in the particular properties measured. 1 General (Refs. to the general class of elastomers compounded from the same basic high polymer. The designer whose task is prediction of elastomeric part response to loads and environment. rather than unfamiliar chemical nomenclature. to avoid confusion. 1 DISCUSSION OF ELASTOMER PROPERTIES 2. The standard measured properties of elastomers outlined in Table 1-2 are indices of material quality rather than measures of functional response. For this reason. This enables the designer to fit his material to the application requirements. Also. are frequently used in this handbook to describe specific elastomeric materials. 1. although there does exist quantitative correlation between these two sets of information for particular series of compounds. Therefore. The quality control properties are related to mechanical properties in unknown fashion. sometimes identified by trade name.

1 depicts nomenclature and technique for expressing a creep curve in terms of elastic moduli and viscosity by using a mechanical model composed of springs and dashpots. (2) The use of empirically derived relationships between quality control properties and mechanical response. The static problem is based on the response to a single load applied instantaneously. 178. 48. 176. 147. in the steady state drift region. This time dependent modulus is used in place of the elastic modulus in elastic response equations (see 2. Figure 2. 2. 2 ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF ELASTOMER PARTS 2. 126. The point T s corresponds to a static modulus value such as would be obtained by a standard laboratory test. The creep curve is based on constancy of materials properties which implies both linear response and no environmentally induced change in the material. (3) The quality control specifications usually permit variation in original mechanical properties of elastomers of the order of * 15%. A model commonly used for the static case is presented in Figure 2. 132. The load-deformation relationship. Another commonly used concept. 177. 135. 103. with the function of interest being time dependent deformation. (3) The use of empirically derived methods of data presentation which facilitate engineering calculations. 3. 2. The conventional approach to mathematical analysis of elastomer part response is based on (1) The use of an idealized model of the material to reduce test results to numerical values that lend themselves to engineering calculations. 202) 102. 152. These restrictions limit the usefulness of this model to theoretical studies.(2) The applications of elastomers are in the realm of large deformations and nonlinear response where mathematical theory is presently both too limited and complex for practical design use. can be defined by a linear function of time. 1 Static Response (Refs. 2. 8 . based on the creep curve type of Figure 2-1 is time dependent modulus.1 together with a creep curve for the model which approximates elastomer behavior. 201. 2).

the elastomer-reinforcing pigment network is broken down at high elongation so that the elastomer permanently loses the original stiffness which would be measured in a standard tensile test. They are not satisfactory for compression parts because of the considerable effect of end restraint. Actual stress-strain response as a function of hardness varies considerably (see Figures 2-29 and 2-30). 152) has presented the curves reproduced in Figure 2-14 as suitable for prediction of compressive 9 . Figure 2-2 depicts the results obtained by repeated loading and unloading of a natural rubber specimen to constant maximum elongation in a tensile test. and set as unrelated phenomena. Figure 2-12 is a conversion graph for various commonly used hardness scales. and continuous change in materials properties during stressing. hysteresis. Kimmich (Ref. Figure 2-10. Figure 2-9 depicts equilibrium shear stress-strain curves for the compounds of Figure 2-3. The preceding curves are useful for predicting initial deformations of tension and shear elements. The British have attempted to systematize such correlation by using a hardness scale based on Young's modulus (Figure 2-11). Figure 2-4 shows the small strain portion of these curves. yet. 176). including nonlinearity of load-deformation relationship. Change in modulus is also caused by temperature elevation during repeated stressing. such curves are commonly used to provide a preliminary estimate of static moduli for design purposes. It is usually impossible to express the characteristic behavior of elastomer parts subjected to complex real service conditions by use of simple models such as that of Figure 2-1.The most commonly used method of deformation analysis is to consider initial deformation. It reveals some of the characteristics. creep deformation. Figure 2-3 depicts equilibrium tensile stress-strain curves for a series of natural rubber compounds identified by Shore A Hardness points. compiled from a number of different sources. Figure 2-13 depicts the deformed shape of bonded sandwich units loaded in compression which determines the compressive stiffness of elastomer parts. or tangent moduli values (Figures 2-7 and 2-8). whose response is little affected by shape (see Ref. The shape of these curves (Figures 2-3 through 2-9) is characteristic of elastomers. depicts variation of static moduli for small strain as a function of hardness.) Other convenient methods to use to present such information are as secant moduli values (Figures 2-5 and 2-6). plotted to a larger scale. It should be noted that British Standard Industry Hardness Number and British Standard Hardness Degree are different scales. In this case. (The deformations at which these values were measured are small for elastomers. but would be considered large for most engineering materials.

84 0. E 5 0 = 265. for slab (44.08 = L.35)2 / 3 310 = 0. The following examples demonstrate the use of these empirically developed curves in analysis of part performance: (I) Circular bonded sandwich of Shore A60 elastomer dimensions: 0. 0 psi from Figure 2-10. measured deflection 0.61 for unit cube 0. A 265 0 = 0.61(0. Smith (Ref. 152) has presented the curve reproduced in Figure 2-15 as suitable for prediction of compressive deformation of rectangular slabs. XO.28 in. 2. 75 in. X 5.095 X 0.27 X0. 995 sqin.84 = 0.125 4X0. X 50 lb = shear modulusXarea 135 Ib/sqin.670 lb compressive load. thick Xl.5 2.08 3 = 0.6 psi = 60.75 = 0. from Figure 2-15.75 in. 125 in. 15 in.335 from Figure 2-10. Ah 2. Direct interpolation between these curves is not recommended. thick X 7. 147 in.0 50 lb compressive load. 84 in.2. E 5 5 = 310 30 from Figure 2-14. 75 = 0.670 44.20 = 0.. (2) Rectangular rubber slab of Shore A40 elastomer dimensions: 0. 50 lb of shear load. E 4 0 = 190. instead.84 in.544. G = 135 thickness X load 0. measured deflection 0.2 140 T-O X 0. Ah 30 = 0. 06 in.6 X 13. loading pressure = 2. wrD Kimmich's shape factor 2 1.20 = 0. from Figure 2-10. multiply deflection taken from curve of nearest durometer to specimen by the elastic modulus for curve durometer elastic modulus for specimen durometer using moduli values from Figures 2-10 or 2-11.deformation of parts having parallel loading faces and sides normal to these faces. diameter.75 in. 81 X 0. E 3 0 = 140.15 in. Kimmich's shape factor = 1.75 X1.6)1/2190 10 . measured deflection 0.06 in. E 6 0 = 370 from Figure 2-14.

Creep and stress relaxation data are generally lacking because of:( 1) the expense of such tests. Required information for these responses must usually be developed in the laboratory specifically for the design application. on compounding and processing of the material. but the actual response is often dominated by structural and chemical changes in the material. Figure 2-16 presents a typical creep curve plotted on various coordinate systems for the purpose of showing characteristic form and nomenclature.Reasonable estimates of static deformations in response to short time loads can be made from a knowledge of moduli or hardness values which are standard measured properties. stress relaxation. The only standard viscoelastic property generally available to the designer is set obtained by a rigidly defined test. The set value is useful only in order of merit comparison within a series of elastomeric compounds. Creep performance for a particular elastomer is highly dependent. This is not the case for creep. for example. Compression creep in natural rubber compounds is about 20% less than shear creep. while tension creep is about 30% greater than shear creep. While these curves resemble those for metals. The effects of the in service chemical reactions of elastomers are major reasons that a prohibitive amount of laboratory work would be required to develop complete handbook creep data. The engineer must be particularly careful to distinguish between the two meanings when using compounder's data. as are all other properties. may change long term creep magnitude by 200%. although limiting values can be estimated from the compounder's tabulated values of set. and 40% in 3 years under constant load. and (2) the requirement that the conditions of test must closely simulate the conditions of service. or set. Percent creep has a special definition in the aging test (ASTM D 1206) which is different from the usual engineering definition. Significant chemical reactions which occur are: (1) Cross link formation during deformation (post cure) (2) Cross link or molecule rupture during deformation (degradation) (3) Cross link rupture and formation during deformation The creep test is used as an index of resistance to aging and deterioration by the elastomer technologist because this response is so sensitive to changes in the material. the internal structure 11 . The physical process of flow does not offer great difficulties. The best room temperature shear creep performance which can be expected is of the order of 20% of elastic deformation in 60 days. A simple change in antioxidant in an SBR compound.

(c 10 . but is not directly cor. Figure 2. geometry of loading. The log-graph of creep is the best approximation to linearity for the total effect of all these parameters. obtained for particular geometries and loading configurations in short time tests. (et -c 1)/( 10 -el). Stress relaxation is the time dependent decrease in stress which occurs under continued deformation. if change in material does not occur. these methods facilitate elastomer creep calculations. 12 . This parameter is usually expressed in percent and defined as (.17 is an alignment chart of relative creep data for natural rubber compounds (Figure 2-3). This is because permanent set is a result of a whole set of processes such as gross molecular movement. Linear viscoelastic creep functions are transformable to stress relaxation functions. Creep set cannot be calculated and must be measured by prototype testing. Certain conventional methods of data presentation and problem analysis are used that are based on the characteristics of elastomer creep curves. canbe obtained by a single simple test and the constant.16. and physical and chemical changes of the material. the ratio of creep deformation to initial elastic deformation is a function of time only. The mechanisms of elastomeric creep result in curve characteristics which are founded on rate process equations similar in form for viscous flow and chemical reactions.e )/c . relatable to either parameter.and mechanisms of response are different for elastomeric materials. for such a material of specified dimensions. 73 and Figure 2-18) is a method which facilitates analysis of test design and data presentation. primary creep versus log time often approximates linearity very closely.- % Relative Creep = El 100 X 100 where Et is total deformation at time t and c 1 is total deformation one minute after loading. As can be seen from the semilog plot of Figure 2-16. The timewise deviation from linearity is characteristic of many elastomers for particular environments. and temperature. This procedure is not of practical value to the designer. Primary creep curves for many elastomers deviate considerably from the linearity displayed in Figure 2. Primary creep is a physical process dependent on stress and temperature alone. Cooper's technique (see Ref. and shows the order of creep magnitude for elastomers. This form is generally used for data presentation. Changes in material are usually a dominating factor in determining elastomer response. The advantage of this method is that the material characteristic curve. The set obtained by standard laboratory tests provides a qualitative order of merit index for both creep set Ind primary creep. The basic convention is based on the approximation of elastomers to linear viscoelastic behavior.

is independent of amount of original deformation. 175. The ratio St/So. which is a deformation that (in the steady state) also varies sinusoidally with time. 176) The dynamic problem is based on the response to a load which varies sinusoidally with time. Comparison of the shape of these curves with those of Figure 2-19 shows the variation in response resulting from changes in the material. 82. see Figure 2-28 and last paragraph of 2.25 also exhibits this type of behavior and. (3) It is not correlatable with any other materials property. 74. 100.2 Dynamic Response (Refs. The static fatigue life curves of Figure 2-20 depict the typical shape of such curves. (4) It is highly dependent on environment and state of stress. the response equation for the model is: 13 . 2. but cannot be correlated with it. 2. The departure from linearity of the semilog plot can be attributed to structural and chemical changes in the material and is correlatable to set. if S = So coo (Wt) is the load equation. A simple device which has been used for measuring stress relaxation is depicted in Figure 2-21. 83. Static fatigue life is closely related to permanent set in molecular mechanism. (5) It is of primary interest in the design of parts which are constantly loaded in service (such as mountings that are preloaded in order to increase dynamic fatigue life. where SX = stress at time x.2. Static fatigue life is the time to rupture for a given constant load or deflection. and 2-24. 167. Standard set values provide an index of stress relaxation properties but cannot be correlated. The general characteristics of static fatigue life are: (1) Rupture often occurs without increase in creep or stress relaxation rate. The model of Figure 2. This sinusoidal deformation has the same frequency as the load and is usually out of phase with the load and with an amplitude dependent on both magnitude and frequency of stress. 2). 27.The typical stress relaxation curves of Figure 2-19 show the same useful characteristics as the creep curves of Figure 2-16. The experimental curves obtained with this apparatus are shown in Figures 2-22. 75. This prevents accurate prediction of long time response from the results of short time tests. 2-23. (2) Measured values exhibit considerable scatter or deviation from mean.

Elastic and viscous moduli are complicated functions of temperature. The most common error is to assume that the elastic and viscous moduli. both the creep function and the dynamic function specify the viescoelastic properties of a material if a sufficient number of such models are combined in series or parallel and these functions can be transformed one into the other through the model. and strain energy. 14 . but the degree of approximation of the model response to the behavior of a real material must be kept in mind to avoid errors such as are invited by much of the literature on dynamic behavior of elastomers.1. the third term is ninety degrees out of phase with the applied stress and dissipates energy continuously. (2) Imaginary part of the modulus has a maximum with respect to temperature at constant frequency. Theoretically. are constants. The complexity of the mathematics involved presently constrains use of the basic concept and model to the further simplification of use of a single delayed elastic response element. stress amplitude.ly=SO cos(ot) + i n ( wiG t -a ) -+ I sin(WtO where a=tan'l I The first term of the response equation is in phase with the applied stress and absorbs no net energy during a cycle. This model is suitable and useful as a conceptual aid and as a basis for a mathematical analysis of response of elastomers. although it has the same basic objections as the model of Figure 2. The middle term is intermediate in phase between the second and third terms and its energy absorption is frequency dependent. It is very seldom that the published values can be used in analysis. frequency (or strain rate). The most obvious result of the variability of these moduli is that the numerical values for moduli obtained by a variety of test procedures are different. Nolle (Ref. and vice versa. 167) lists the effects of frequency and temperature on the moduli of elastomers as follows: (1) Real part of the modulus always increases or remains constant with increasing frequency. mean stress. This extremely simplified model is a useful analytical tool. when derived by the application of the simplified model to experimental results. Figure 2-25 summarizes the notation commonly used for dynamic moduli of elastomers.

but increases with increasing temperature at low frequencies. Figure 2-27 presents curves of values G' and G" (see Figure 2-25) as measured by Painter (Ref. Most of the standard resilience and hysteresis tests are only semiquantitative in that the values of dynamic moduli cannot be derived from test results. It is important to remember. As in the case of time dependent static response. (9) Real part of the modulus decreases with increasing temperature in regions of appreciable dispersion. 175) for neoprene. (4) Imaginary part of the modulus approaches zero at zero frequency and probably approaches progressively smaller values at high frequencies past the peak. Also. 15 . however. Characteristic behavior of these variables is shown in response to variations in test procedure.(3) Loss factor E 2 /E 1 has a maximum with respect to temperature at constant frequency. silicone. to review the approximate equations which relate these moduli to test results. (8) An increase of frequency is qualitatively equivalent to a decrease of temperature in effect upon the dynamic modulus. especially in the case of reinforced elastomers. and natural rubber elastomeric compounds. It is of interest. (7) Real part of the modulus has limiting values at high and low frequencies. insufficient test data are available to present any comprehensive summary of the viscoelastic properties of elastomers. and vice versa. Figure 2-26 summarizes these relationships which are derived from simple linear theory. the design analysis should include the effects of temperature dependence of moduli and the temperature rise caused by elastomer hysteresis and low thermal conductivity of elastomers. that the original mechanical properties of elastomers are altered by applied stress and that specimen conditioning based on predicted stress history is essential to obtaining accurate moduli for particular applications. (5) Imaginary part of the modulus is large where the real part changes rapidly with logarithm of frequency or with temperature. (6) Real part of the dynamic modulus approaches limiting high value at low temperatures.

as in the case of creep. therefore. 2. The causative agents are not presently subject to analysis. Fatigue failure life by rupture is comprised of time to crack initiation and time for crack growth. S. The "steady state drift" is somewhat greater for dynamic creep than for static creep. attributable to stress concentrations and environmentally induced chemical degradation. Also. is different in basis. although they radically alter the simplified picture obtained from fatigue tests of simple specimens. These effects cannot presently be predicted by analysis because of the lack of experimentally obtained data and. Fatigue life may be defined as: (1) the number of cycles required to alter the part properties so that it is no longer serviceable in its particular application due to decrease in modulus. Dynamic fatigue life of elastomers superficially resembles that of metals but. the dynamic creep curve is similar in shape to the static creep curve. The "transient drift" is considerably greater for dynamic creep than for static creep under equivalent load. increasing component life by increasing static load is limited by the static fatigue curve. together with the 16 . The temperature dependence of dynamic creep is similar to that of static creep. 48). 3 MEASURED PROPERTIES OF ELASTOMERS The information contained in this section is provided to aid the engineer in selection of the most suitable materials for use in elastomer parts. Crack initiation is. In steady vibration. must be measured by prototype testing in part development. quite often. Either type of failure is dependent on: (1) Static load imposed on part (2) Amplitude and pattern of dynamic loads imposed on part (3) Environment (4) Operating temperature Figure 2-28 depicts the fatigue life behavior of natural rubber components as measured by U. or (2) failure due to part rupture. thus only descriptive information can be provided. Rubber Company tests (Ref. This response has not been studied in sufficient detail to provide data for analysis.Dynamic creep and dynamic fatigue are also effects of dynamic loading of elastomeric materials that are of interest to the designer. Examples of the properties of practical compounds. Minimum fatigue life occurs when the component is unstrained during strain cycling.

104. 196). Natural rubber can be compounded to satisfy a wide range of requirements by change of filler. 179.distinctive properties of particular elastomers. 69. abrasion resistance. 2. 3. 3. 1. are presented (Refs. 38.1. 1. 1 Original Room Temperature Properties 2. 30 Ultimate Tensile Strength (psi) Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 70 80 40 50 60 2. 1 Natural Rubber and Substitutes 2. The following examples of original room temperature properties of practical compounds are only a sampling of sets of available properties. It has poor swelling resistance to oils. 183. 182. tear and cut growth resistance. 100 3. 191.) Compression Set (ASTM B at 158*F) 2. 300 725 680 640 620 490 310 90 95 90 80 70 60 100 280 370 390 550 490 40 8 10 12 15 26 Ultimate Elongation (%) Yerzley Resilience (%) Crescent Tear (lb/in. but this could be the result of lack of compounding experience with the newer material. 52. 107. 4 Polyisoprene is a new elastomer which has the same chemical composition as natural rubber. 1. 400 4. 2 Synthetic Polyisoprene cis. cure system and other processing variables. 43. 1 Natural Rubber (Ref. 500 3. 200 3. 180. 1. 93) Natural rubber has low compression and permanent set and high resilience. 1. Its major uses are in tires and vibration isolators. 700 4. 50. 169. 3. fuels and solvents and only fair aging resistance. tensile strength and ultimate elongation. 3. 17 . Elastomer parts using this material are reported to be somewhat inferior in properties.

Hydrogenated polybutadiene (Hydropol). 500 3. compression and permanent set properties. 1. 3. when compared to natural rubber. 1. 214) Neoprene. 1. in addition to the effects of compounding and processing variables. 186. Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 80 60 70 50 40 Ultimate Tensile Strength (psi) 2. is useful for missile applications. 1 Neoprene (Refs. Neoprene is used for sealing strips (where sunlight and weathering resistance is essential) and for many applications where it is necessary to obtain good mechanical and moderate resistance properties. strength. 2. 1. 3. and chemical resistance. but is inferior in resilience. 4 material is a natural rubber substitute possessing properties slightly inferior to those of natural rubber. swelling. 1. possesses inferior mechanical properties at room temperature and poorer low temperature flexibility. being chemically resistant to hydrazine. 3 SBR (Ref. 2. 2 General Utility Elastomers with Specific Resistance Properties 2. 1. 000 750 620 350 250 250 Ultimate Elongation (%) 18 . 3. has fair resistance to corrosive chemicals. 3. fuels and solvents. Its mechanical properties are somewhat inferior to those of natural rubber but it has superior aging. 98) This material is a substitute for natural rubber. 4 Polybutadiene The new high cis-1. 500 2. tear resistance. 1. It possesses slightly better aging resistance than natural rubber. 3. and moderate swelling resistance to oils. It is ozone and flame resistant.2. propyl nitrate. The following examples of original room temperature properties of practical compounds are only a sampling of sets of available properties. 1. 2. there are 10 variations of the basic high polymer commercially available. 5 Ethylene Propylene Copolymer This material is currently manufactured in Italy and will soon be available in the United States. 800 3. It must be remembered that. 700 3. and tricresyl phosphate. 2. Some polybutadienes exhibit better low temperature flexibility than natural rubber.

2. 19 . 200 Ultimate Elongation (%) Lupke Resilience (%)* Tear Strength (lb/in.Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 40 50 60 70 80 Yerzley Resilience (%) Crescent Tear (lb/in. 100 2. Examples of original room temperature properties of practical compounds are: 30 Ultimate Tensile Strength (psi) Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 40 50 60 70 80 90 1. there are more than seven variations of the basic high polymer commercially available. in addition to the effects of compounding and processing variables. Buna N is a standard material for most ordinary hydraulic and hot oil applications. These examples are only a sampling of available properties because.1.) Compression Set (ASTM B at 158-F) 2.900 2. 000 2.3.700 1. It has inferior mechanical and weather resistance properties when compared to neoprene or natural rubber. fuels and aromatic hydrocarbons (intermediate between neoprene and polysulfide). 100 860 630 750 570 530 120 80 67 66 64 57 43 56 49 140 230 250 370 370 210 260 87 85 79 74 71 36 33 2.2 70 85 80 70 70 100 150 170 160 170 25 15 10 10 5 NBR (Buna N) Buna N has high resistance to oils.)* Compression Set (ASTM B at 21VF)* *Note difference in test procedure from natural rubber data. 100 2. Optimum low temperature flexibility resilience and compression set values are incompatible with optimum oil and solvent resistance and strength properties.

electrical insulating properties and low temperature flexibility. 20 . in this case. permits considerable variation in basic properties of the vulcanizate. resilience can be increased or decreased by fifty percent. It possesses good heat resistance. 1. 2. compression set and resilience properties. vegetable oils. together with six grades and three variations of basic high polymer. 3. 41. having values of these properties intermediate between those of natural rubber and neoprene. as is resistance to phosphate ester liquids. Examples of original room temperature properties of practical ordinary* butyl compounds are: Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 70 80 50 60 40 Ultimate Tensile Strength (psi) 1.2. improved aging. 200 2. Its outstanding characteristics are low gas permeability. weathering resistance. 68) Butyl has poor resistance to petroleum oils and fuels. Other cure systems are resin. Oxidation and ozone resistance is excellent. 800 2. This fact. and static seals for certain specific chemicals. and low sulfur-high accelerator. in particular. and resistance to certain specific chemicals. and dilute acids and alkalis. 300 2. For the same hardness values of the preceding tabulation. 47.) Compression Set (ASTM B at 1580 F) 30 The mechanical properties of butyl are most dependent on cure system than most elastomers. 000 2. Other cure systems provide butyl elastomers with definite advantages in specific applications. Butyl's major uses are for shock absorbers and vibration damping members. refers to cure system. and tensile strength can be increased by fifty percent. sulfur-donor. gas and chemical barrier elements. *Ordinary. compression set can be decreased by seventy-five percent. 100 800 750 700 600 500 45 45 40 35 30 150 200 300 500 400 15 20 20 30 Ultimate Elongation (%) Yerzley Resilience (%) Crescent Tear (lb/in. 3 Butyl (Refs.

3. 66. 70. Its major uses are to blend with other elastomers.450 Yerzley Resilience (%) 45- Crescent Tear (lb/in. chemicals.) 70 100 .1.e.250 Compression Set 20 .3.95 Ultimate Tensile 500 . 97.2. and for chemical barrier elements and static seals for specific chemicals. i. sealants.3500 Strength (psi) Ultimate Elongation (%) 250 . coatings. 3 Special Purpose Elastomers 2. to attack by oxygen. greases and solvents.1. Ranges of original room temperature properties of particular compounds are: Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 45 . Typical practical compound properties are: Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 50 60 70 80 Ultimate Tensile Strength (psi) 700 500 1.1 Polysulfide (Ref.3.200 450 300 300 400 Ultimate Elongation (M) 21 .60 (ASTM B at 158"F) 2. Use of polysulfide is restricted to moderate temperature liquid barrier applications where part design can compensate for poor mechanical properties. ozone. ozone and weather. and dilute acids and alkalis. 128) Polysulfide possesses outstanding impermeability to liquids and outstanding resistance to swelling by oils. 221) Hypalon exhibits fair mechanical properties and excellent resistance to heat.3.4 Chloro Sulfonated Polyethylene (Hypalon) (Refs. It has poor mechanical properties although good resilience can be obtained. 1. 2.. 203.200 1. fatigue.

The difference in mechanical properties of urethane elastomers as compared with natural rubber is so pronounced that examples of behavior are presented in Figures 2-29 and 2-30. 192) This is a group of high polymers which. The stiffness of urethanes at large deformations is greater than for other elastomers of equal hardness which should be taken account of in design.2 Acrylic and PerfluoroAlkyl and Perfluoro Alkoxy Acrylates (Poly FBA) These materials are used as seal and gasket materials where both minimum and maximum service temperatures are of the order of 50"F higher than for Buna N. hot water.Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 50 60 70 80 100 100 40 100 Compression Set ASTM B at 158"F (%) 2. 139. alkalis. 3.3.1. Urethanes are intermediate in low temperature flexibility among elastomers. Their resilience and resistance properties could be classed as good. 32.3 Urethanes (Refs. possesses superior mechanical properties. 165. 3. 85. Typical property values of practical compounds are: 22 . with the exception of resilience. 84. 138. resistance to aromatics and water resistance are inferior to Buna N properties. or fuels or oils over 250'F. 500 Ultimate Elongation (%) 300 Compression Set (ASTM B at 158" F) 30 2. Mechanical properties. They are not resistant to acids. 1. Properties of a typical material are: Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 60 Ultimate Tensile Strength (psi) 1.3.

LS-53 is a new fluorinated silicone that has excellent resistance to many fuels and oils. 194. a few years ago. 137. 28. 46. have remarkable stability of mechanical properties over their temperature range of utilization.3. would have been impossible for elastomers to perform. Silicone development has been so dynamic that silicones are presently being used in applications which. 224) Silicones are high polymers possessing superior resistance to both high and low temperatures.50 Ultimate Tensile Strength (psi) Durometer Hardness (*5 Shore A Degrees) 80 70 60 90 2.) Compression Set (ASTM B at 158'F) These materials have only recently become available in this country and are currently in the application development phase.3. 39. 136. 000 4.4 Silicones (Refs. Examples of original room temperature properties of practical silicone compounds are: 23 . 164. 36. Silicones.1. 58. 000 5. 193. compared with other elastomers. 77. 127. 000 650 500 450 450 500 80 75 70 65 60 100 150 200 400 500 40 9 12 15 20 Ultimate Elongation (%) Yerzley Resilience (M) Graves Tear (lb/in. They offer great potential both for utilization and property improvement. 206. They are indispensable materials for aero-space applications despite their inferior mechanical properties at room or moderate temperatures. 000 6. 2. 219. 000 3.

85 .60 100 90 50 50 700 700 450 600 50 80 60 80 55 75 50 1000 950 800 1000 850 1000 600 1500 High Tensile 75 Low Temperature Low Temperature High Temperature High Temperature Conductive (Electrical) Flame Resistant LS-53 55 General Purpose General Purpose Nitrile Nitrile Low Comp. 24 C-4 M__ C.60 . T.$Cured at room temperature and not heat aged. Set Low Comp.80 75 475 300 230 260 125 390 175 550 22 24 21 60 35 15 17 25 -100 -100 -120 -120 -175 -175 -130 .0 t Zin F4 Type* "0 0"0 U NJ M . Is). - 0 -- 50 .90 .60 -100 -100 -165 -165 -100 80 125 80 75 80 75 180 600 600 500 500 500 500 500 1275 310 Z5 . t 220 0 160 250 110 140 200 -100 0 -100 -100 -100 -100 -100 *Room Temperature Vulcanizates (R.60 .- 50 25 -- 500 60 600 600 600 600 600 __ _ Putty like Lqi Putty like Putty like Liquid Liquid Liquid . Set High Tensile 170 210 200 90 80 80 80 . *. V.80 110 500 50 60 750 700 290 125 60 30 -175 -175 80 75 500 500 60 60 65 60 800 800 840 600 175 100 15 50 34 37 - -165 -165 .60 - 60 'qConventionally Processed Vulcanizates h0 0 T~ype IS-53Geea LS -5 3 General General General General ~ ups Purpose Purpose Purpose Purpose 0 V X LO ~ 4* J4(n0 uo 380 7 750 2100 Z5** 650 60 450 50 0'~24 u24 275 30** 35** 0 60 0CAj4~0.

T. 80. psi Static Modulus. Hardness. ASTM . and poor low temperature flexibility. even for vented environment. 42. Above 7000F These same special stocks have a life expectancy of hours. 225) These materials have outstanding chemical resistance. 3. 213.Yerzle.. 72. and dependable service is limited to days. To 4000F In vented systems. V. 157. vented. Present applications are limited to seals. 's can be used as sealants where pressure differentials are less than 20 psi at 5200F for one hour and 7000F for one-half hour. liners. Shore A Brittle Point. 3. An example of typical properties of a practical compound is Viton A-HV Tested at 75"F Modulus at 100%. 1. psi 900 3075 200 70 -42 25 48 215 1060 1530 . psi Effective Dynamic Modulus. good thermal stability. 5 Fluorocarbon Elastomers (Refs. "F Resilience.Temperature limitations of currently available conventionally processed silicones are To 300*F All compounds have indefinite life in either sealed or vented systems. 2. Above 6000F Special compounds must be formulated. 195. Above 3500F In sealed systems. % Load at 20% Defl. psi Tensile Strength. % Resilience. all compounds have indefinite life. Above 5000 F All compounds in vented systems will hold up for months. no compound will last more than a few days.. 190. 5% Defl. and coatings which require chemical resistance not attainable in other materials. good mechanical properties that are markedly temperature dependent. Current R. psi Elongation at Break.

pts. 350"F. 2 Temperature Effects on Mechanical Properties Three significant aspects of behavior of elastomers are observed in the measurement of elastomer properties as a function of temperature: (1) At low temperatures. % Retained Hardness. (2) Above this temperature. Shore A. +12 change 7 Weight Loss. 48 % Retained Hardness. 450"F. monotonic and continuous change of property with temperature. 3. Shore A.After 28 Days at 450*F (Oven) Tensile Strength. psi Elongation at Break. abrupt changes in slope of curve of measured property versus temperature.Method B 850 100 70 94 118 46 70 94 22 46 70 Stress-Strain . 26 . % Esimated Maximum Service Life at High Temperatures Time to Brittleness Temperature 2400 1000 250 72 24 4000 F 450*F 5000 F 550"F 600" F hours hours hours hours hours 2. % % % % % 10 12 11 21 25 36 65 84 87 % 14 % % % ASTM . change 80 70 +7 Stress-Strain . Tensile Strength. 450"F.Viton A-HV (Cont'd) Compression Set Tested at 300"F Tensile Strength. 250"F. 350"F. 4500F. % ASTM . % Retained Elongation at Break. 350F.After 16 hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours at at at at at at at at at 250"F. % Retained 67 Elongation at Break.Method A Hours at 6000F (Oven) 22 hours at 400"F. pts. 250"F.

days or even weeks. butyl rubber and neoprene are crystallizable. 2. more commonly. All of these changes are reversible. the specimen becomes brittle or will shatter on sudden bending or impact. " and the temperatures at which abrupt changes occur in slope of property versus time curves are known as transition points. natural rubber. depending upon the exposure temperature and on the particular composition involved." Crystallization results in stiffening which is only evident after prolonged exposure. It may require hours. the specimen becomes progressively stiffer at a gradual rate until a particular temperature is reached. The changes which cause the gradual increase in stiffness are known as simple "temperature effects. Further cooling produces little additional increase in stiffness. Returning the composition to room temperature. At some temperatures. irreversible property changes associated with chemical alteration of the elastomer. When determined under specific testing conditions.ttion results in an increase in stiffness. its stiffness will increase as a function of temperature (Figure 2-31). " The brittle point bears no definite relationship to the stiffness curve. This is to be expected because of the difference in time scale between stiffness and impact tests. 149. At this point. For each elastomer 27 . it is known as the "brittle temperature" or. 2. Immediate Effects If the modulus of a specimen ia measured at successively lower temperatures. being held at each temperature only long enough for thermal equilibrium to be established. or slightly elevated temperatures.. Among all of these. 1 Effects of Low Temperature (Refs.(3) At elevated temperatures. stiffness increases sharply with a decrease in temperature. As the temperature is decreased. 3. While crystalli7.tureDependent Effects. Timeand \rnp. One such change is known as "crystallization. The temperature at which this occurs depends on the rate of application of load. 40. itdoes not necessarily result in brittleness. Nor does the fact that crystallization has taken piace appear to affect the brittle point of the composition. results in a restoration of its original properties. Long-time exposure produces two other kinds of changes. This is in contrast to the eifects of high temperature exposure which permanently change the composition. dependent on test technique. Among the common elastomers. 187) A number of changes can take place in an elastomer as a result of exposure to low temperature. so that within a range of about 20°F stiffness may increase a hundredfold or more until another abrupt change in curve shape is attained. the rate of crystallization is increased by placing the vulcanizate under strain. 45. the "brittle point.

there is a temperature at which crystallization takes place most readily. In
fact, at extremely low temperatures (e. g., -50*F) or at elevated temperatures
neither neoprene nor natural rubber crystallizes. Since crystallization is a
time effect and does not take place at extremely low temperatures, it does not
occur if the elastomers are cooled more or less rapidly through the range in
which crystallization ordinarily can occur.
The second effect is known as the plasticizer-time effect. Many
compounds designed for low temperature service contain substantial quantities
of special plasticizers which are used to improve low temperature flexibility
and to depress the brittle point of the composition. Under ordinary temperature conditions such plasticizers are highly compatible with elastomers, i. e.,
they are soluble in the elastomer. Upon prolonged exposure to low temperatures, however, the compatibility of the plasticizer is reduced and a portion
of it is thrown out of solution. This portion, of course, is of no value in
reducing the brittle point or in promoting flexibility; consequently, plasticizertime effects may result in two changes in the composition. First, its flexibility at temperatures above the brittle point may be reduced; second, its brittle
point may be raised several degrees. Generally speaking, plasticizer-time
effects are apparent only after prolonged exposure at extremely low temperatures, such as -40'F, and are noted only when large quantities of certain
plasticizers are used.
Actual service low temperature limits are dependent on the application in which an elastomer is used. In seal applications, elastomers are often
used at temperatures below stiffening temperatures because elastomeric
response is not required by the design, system liquid absorbed by the elastomer acts as a low temperature plasticizer, or system operation keeps elastomeric temperature above nominal environmental temperature. On the other
hand, elastomer parts have proven unserviceable or failed at higher temperatures than would be predicted by laboratory data because of stiffening, loss of
resilience, or increase in brittle point due to elastomer service history; in
particular, plasticizer loss by extractionor "boiling off" at elevated temperature or static exposure at low temperature under strain. Any material for a
service application,to operate in environmental temperatures near or below
stiffening temperature, should be analyzed in terms of predicted component
temperature and strain rate and amplitude histories rather than by mere comparison of recommended service and environmental temperatures derived from
laboratory tests.
Typical results of three of the standard laboratory methods used to
measure the effects of low temperature on the properties of elastomers are
depicted in Figures 2-31, 2-32, and 2-33. Figure 2-31 illustrates the low
temperature stilfenhng of several elastomeric materials as measured by the

28

Gehman test. The graphs of the degrees "twist versus temperature" of most
of the organic elastomer compounds in common use fall in the narrow range
between natural rubber and fluorocarbon elastomers
Figure 2-32 depicts low temperature retraction characteristics of
several elastomers; not only are the temperatures at which significant change
in retraction behavior occurs considerably different from stiffening temperature, but the order of merit of freeze resistance is different. Results of
these tests are highly dependent on differences in both elastomer processing
In the case of LS-53, for example, the curve presented
and test technique
in Figure 2-32 (Ref. 11) is parallel to, but at about 2 0 °F higher temperature
than, test results reported in Reference 95. Figure 2-33 depicts low temperature resilience characteristics of several elastomers. It further demonstrates
that minimum service temperature is a function of both the elastomer and the
The change in behavior
type of response required of the elastomer in service
at low temperatures, measured by the various tests, marks the change in
response of the material from that of an elastomer to that of a plastic material and, in this transition region, responses are especially strain rate sensitive
This is the reason, not only for the differences in temperature of
marked change in response as measured by the various tests, but also for the
variations in recommended minimum service temperatures for different
service applications
2. 3.2. 2

Time and Temperature Dependence of Mechanical Behavior of
Elastomers (Refs 71, 86, 90, 95, 96, 117, 140, 143, 197, 200,
"17, 218, 222)

Until recently, the only effects of exposure to elevated temperatures
commonly measured were changes in room temperature properties. The high
operating temperatures of many aircraft and missile parts require the designer
to consider response of elastomers at elevated temperatures as well as the
Recent programs (such as
changes in materials caused by such exposure.
reported in Reference 9) have developed considerable useful design information in this area.
Elastomers exposed to elevated temperatures exhibit two types of
response- reversible response, and irreversible response caused by changes
in the material. One of the first lessons learned by investigators of these
phenomena at elevated temperatures was that it is difficult to separate the
The low thermal conductivity of most elastomers,
two types of response

the high rate of the irreversible changes, and the similarity of the rate equations of the two types of response make separation impractical. Reversible
response is referred to as time and temperature dependent behavior, and
irreversible response as aging.

29

Temperature dependent behavior includes time dependent response,
i.e., creep resulting from viscous flow. It does not include irreversible processes, i.e., creep resulting from oxidative scission of polymer bonds. Temperature dependent behavior determines elastomer temperature limitations
while the aging properties determine elastomer life at temperature limitations.
Very often the compounder can modify each type of response without sacrificing other desirable properties.
The time and temperature dependent behavior of elastomer mechanical properties is analogous to the dependence of liquid viscosity on temperature. The temperature dependence of liquid viscosity can be expressid by
equations of the form (Ref. 125)
we= Ae Evis/RT
whe re

17

= viscosity

A

= a material constant

Evi s = energy of activation of viscous flow

R

= a physical constant

T

= absolute temperature

This type of relationship is of the same form as the rate equations for simple
chemical reactions, such as seem to be involved in elastomer aging. The
basic equations are linear, thus graphical analysis and superposition of effects
is simplified. As previously mentioned, the complexity of chemical reactions
at elevated temperature and the rapidity of some of the reactions render measurement of temperature dependence alone particularly difficult, but the characteristic form of the rate equations involved is of considerable aid in organizing
and interpreting actual test results. Figure 2-34A (Mechanical Properties of
Teflon) displays how closely the properties of thermally stable Teflon fit a
linear relationship.
Figure 2-34B (Mechanical Properties of a Urethane Elastomer) displays the manner in which the properties of a urethane elastomer conform to
and deviate from linearity. Teflon may be considered as an unvulcanized and
unreinforced polymer below its transition temperature = 620*F. The urethane
is a cross-linked, reinforced elastomer above its transition temperature - -30*F.
If the transition temperature range were included in the study it would be

30

evidenced by a discontinuity in the curves but with linear relationship evidenced
both above and below it. Inspection of elevated temperature test results (Ref.
140) often shows initial strengthening of the material due to post cure. Also,
considerably greater decay of strength properties with temperature increase
for the reinforced elastomer than the unreinforced material is often observed.
Urethane was chosen as an example because, except for possibly
the room temperature tensile strength value, post cure and reinforcement
effects are not significant. However, chemical degradation of urethane at
temperatures above 250°F is evident from the results of 8-hour aging at test
temperature. At temperatures above 4000F it seems apparent that the reaction rate is so high that significant chemical degradation of urethane has
occurred before initial properties can be measured at this temperature.
In Section 2. 2. 1, Static Response, the time dependence of moduli
was discussed and it was mentioned that semilog plots of deformation versus
time approach linearity when irreversible material changes do not occur and,
in Section 2. 2.2 , Dynamic Response, how the behavior of elastomers approximated the Maxwell and Voigt models. Figure 2-35 and 2-36 present actual
moduli behavior of three common elastomers as a function of time and temperature. The convenient "coincidence" (Ref. 117) that simple chemical reaction rate equations, temperature dependence of elastomer properties, and
time dependence of response all have the same form, provides the engineer
with a powerful analytical tool in the superposition principle (or method of
reduced variables). The Voigt model, for example, has a basic differential
equation
G =GA +*

of which the integral is

0=' ( (-e
G

f o=0whent = 0, TG

When dealing with materials whose response functions have linear operators,
there is a direct mathematical relationship between the analysis of a body
made of these materials and a corresponding elastic body loaded in the same
way. The store of results from elastic theory can be used for analysis of
components made of these materials. The incompressibility of elastomers
further facilitates such computations because Poisson's ratio can be approximated as one-half, and the simplest formulas of elastic theory can be used.
Tests of elastomers demonstrate that, within limits, the response of many
mechanisms, including some of the chemical degradation ones, are approximately linear so that these effects can be included in the analysis. Instability

31

The data will be shown by the heavy lines in [Figure 2-37]. The observations can be reduced to a given temperature. Hence for experiments carried out with a given time-scale. 197) so that single master moduli curves covering a very wide range of temperature and time (or frequency for the dynamic cases) can be developed from a small number of tests using feasible time duration and temperature values. the curves are then shifted along the logarithm of time axis until they overlap. the change in the logarithm of the time-scale varies linearly with the reciprocal of the square of the absolute temperature. and over a given range of times. Such a "reduced" curve is shown in [ Figure 2-38].problems. significant chemical changes take place under these 32 . the change in time-scale with temperature is found. However. "Let us suppose that measurements of retarded elastic behavior are made over a range of temperatures up to about room temperature. Also. the true equilibrium strain would be reached. this provides a quantitative basis and means for correlation of simulated service tests accelerated by elevated temperatures with service behavior. the above empirical law implies that the change in timescale becomes more and more pronounced with decrease in temperature. It is to be noted that there is no temperature at which the vulcanizate suddenly stiffens. The "observed" curve corresponding to the highest temperature in [Fig 2-37] is shown to be nearly horizontal. a somewhat higher temperature would be required to obtain the same type of curve over a time range of minutes to hours. by normalizing the curves so that the equilibrium strain is the same as at the "reduced" temperature. The timetemperature transformation is performed graphically. Unfortunately. say 25°C. for elastomers. say five seconds to one hour after application of stress. With a material such as a butyl rubber vulcanizate. a marked increase in "stiffness" appears to take place over a limited range of temperature. The following figures and discussion of this technique are taken from Reference 146. "It would be expected that if a creep test at the highest temperature represented in [Figure 2-371 were carried out for an extended period of time. It appears that. which involve nonlinear response. The second benefit is that change of temperature can be related to change of the time scale of response to stress (Ref. cannot be solved by this technique. Such a curve is obtained with a natural rubber pure gum vulcanizate at room temperature. From the amount of lateral shift necessary. The simplest method of problem solution using this technique is to use apparent (or time dependent) moduli derived from tests with appropriate time and temperature history in place of the elastic moduli.

unfortunately. 143). however. for example. 134) Elastomer part design must take into account the physical properties of thermal conductivity and thermally induced dimensional changes over narrow 33 . "Another manifestation of the viscoelastic behavior of rubber is found in stress relaxation tests.conditions. This is not the case. In such tests a constant deformation. is applied suddenly to a specimen of rubber and the decay of stress observed as a function of time.4 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND THERMALLY INDUCED DIMENSIONAL CHANGES (Refs. hardness and compression set of silicones at elevated temperatures. as departure from linearity provides definite evidence of polymer degradation at elevated temperature and is a measure of such degradation. Figure 2-49 depicts the change of resilience with temperature for several elastomers over a wide range of temperature and Figure 2-50. we can reduce curves of relaxation modulus obtained over a range of temperatures and a limited range of time to a single curve at a "reduced" temperature. we can represent it by a relaxation modulus. The effects of elevated temperatures on a number of elastomers as measured by the tensile test are depicted in Figures 2-40 through 2-48. If the behavior is linear. 2. " Figure 2-39 furnishes an example of a master curve developed from dynamic tests (Ref. The relaxation modulus G (t) (at a specified temperature) is the shear stress at a time t after the application of a constant unit shear strain at zero time. At first glance it might appear that the departure from linearity of the behavior of these materials at elevated temperature limits the utility of this techniqut. a constant shear strain. such data are not available for most elastomers. since tests at elevated temperature measure chemorheological behavior. 129. Here again we are interested in tests below room temperature. Such a reduced relaxation modulus curve is also represented in [ Figure 2-38]. As before. The tensile test is very sensitive to changes in material and is simple and inexpensive so that it is generally used by the elastomer technologist to compare aging and heat resistance of elastomers although it does not measure mechanical properties directly. Knowledge of the time and temperature dependence of such properties is more useful to the designer than tensile test results but. Extended creep tests at room temperature and above on materials such as natural rubber gum vulcanizates are more a measure of chemo-rheological phenomena than viscoelastic behavior.

the Joule effect. Change in elastic properties with change in temperature is significant.ranges of temperatures as compared with requirements of most other engineering materials. Direct dependence of moduli on absolute temperature is generally obscured by other test variables. Below this temperature the thermal coefficient of expansion is similar to that of a normal crystalline solid. Table 2-1 provides examples of values of linear coefficients of expansion which can be used to estimate severity of expected effects and other thermal properties. and elastomer compounding and processing procedures are interrelated problems. and a rubber band to generate heat when stretched. 34 . Part geometry. The thermal properties of a particular elastomer are readily calculated from the properties of the high polymers and fillers used in compounding. On the other hand. The thermal coefficient of expansion of an elastomer above second order transition temperature approximates that of a normal liquid. The dimensional changes of elastomers in service is a particularly serious design problem. Elastomers exhibit the Joule effect in that: (1) the force in a component maintained at constant deformation approximately varies directly with absolute temperature. heat evolved by hysteresis. While this response can be used to advantage (as in one shot high temperature seals). The Joule effect is superposed on normal thermal expansion when an elastomer part is heated and opposite in direction for a stretched elastomer. specification tolerances. it often requires design elaboration to prevent failure. These changes derive from the high values of thermal coefficients of expansion relative to those of metals. The low thermal conductivity of elastomers permits part function in high temperature environments for short periods of time. The Joule effect is an entropy effect similar to the compression and release of a gas. The Joule effect applies only to stressed elastomers. This effect causes a stretched O-ring to seize around a rotating shaft as temperature increases. spring deflection to change with temperature. component failure often results from thermally induced dimensional changes in elastomer parts rather than their mechanical failure. therefore. as in missile applications. and (2) the deformation of a component maintained under constant force approximately varies inversely with absolute temperature. The thermal conductivity. They are also modifiable over a considerable range by selection of compounding ingredients. The thermal coefficient of expansion is temperature dependent and a compounding variable. These materials have rubber-like elasticity only when warmer than second order transition temperature. and aging effects. and dimensional changes of elastomers in service are interrelated factors in service. rubber metal components and assemblies must be designed to accomodate the differences in part geometry or component stresses which develop in response to temperature change. mold or die design.

This is due to the variation in thermal properties of elastomers and the significant dimensional changes that occur over a range of but a few hundred degrees of temperature. The designer must also consider corona and environmental resistance properties in part design because electrical properties of elastomers are affected by the environment and changes in the material to the same degree as are the mechanical properties. ). 151. dielectric constant. 13. I. and power factor. Insulation resistance is the resistance to flow of current through the insulation of a component or part measured along the path over which the insulation is designed to be effective. Conductivity is the reciprocal of resistivity expressed in mho-cme. 155. Dielectric constant. Dielectric strength is the electrical stress required to puncture a material sample of known thickness measured by a standard test method and expressed in volts per mil thickness. insulation resistance. creep or liquid swelling. 2. is the ratio of the electrical capacity of a condenser having the tested material as a dielectric to the capacity of the same condenser having air as the dielectric. The desired electrical properties are usually obtained by selection of kind and amount of filler used in the formulation of an elastomer based on a high polymer chosen for resistance to service environment. These effects are also functions of high polymer. The electrical properties of primary interest are dielectric strength. 35 . C. Component design must also take into account all of the other "inservice" dimensional changes which an elastomeric part might undeTgo. or specific inductive capacity (S.5 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES (Refs. Elastomer insulations are available with electrical resistance superior to that of glass and conductive elastomers with electrical conductivity superior to that of aqueous electrolytic solutions. formulation and processing methods. 133. 168. Specific resistance or resistivity is the electrical resistance offered by a material element of unit length and unit cross-sectional area in ohm-cms. Elastomer technology provides the compounder with a considerable body of empirical data to predict elastomer behavior for most applications. Consideration should be given to the effects of aging. Close coordination is required between the elastomer technologist and the engineer in the details of part design. 119. 227) The electrical properties of elastomers can be varied by the compounder over such a wide range that elastomers are used both as insulators and as conductors of electricity.

surface conditions. The interdependence of mechanical. Electrical properties of practical elastomers. despite a considerable body of theory. such as the degradation product of a silicone insulator being nonconductive silica. The characteristics of temperature and frequency dependence of electrical properties of elastomers is depicted in Figures 2-51 and 2-52. cannot be calculated from a knowledge of the ingredients as can thermal properties. while small wacunts of certain carbcn blacks will change gocd insulating aterial into a fair cornductor. Corona discharge occurs at much lower voltage in the rarefied atmosphere of high altitudes so that this is a particularly critical problem in aircraft. the electrical properties of elastomers are functions of strain. compounding natural rubber with large quantities of metallic particles has little effect on its resistivity. Corona resistance is the ability of a tested material to withstand the effects of & flow of electrical energy from a conductor at high potential to the surrounding air which converts oxygen of the air to ozone. has resulted in the development of a large number of specific elastomers with balanced sets of properties.Power factor is the ratio of energy loss expressed in watts to the volt ampere product of the alternating current flowing in a condenser using the tested material as a dielectric. 36 . Order of merit is based on some factors not included in the table. and chemicals absorbed from the environment. etc. Elastomers are rated in order of merit classifications as electrical insulating materials in Table 2-2. In addition to the effects of temperature. A diversity of application requirements can be satisfied. chemical and physical properties of elastomers on type and amount of filler. flame resistance. as well as the differences in the environment and function of electrical and mechanical components. Considerable information on the properties of these special compounds is available in the technical literature of electrical and electronic engineering. For example. varying from electrically conducting tire treads to insulating seals.

55) The deteriorative agents usually considered in this category are: heat. 199. and to a considerably smaller extent on other elastomers. Atmospheric oxygen produces changes in elastomers by diffusion into the material. stress and atmospheric ozone. It is important because of its effects on natural rubber and SBR. It is so greatly modifiable by the use of protective agents that even the most susceptible of the high polymers can be compounded into an elastomer with relatively good oxidation resistance. Elevated temperature aging tests conducted in vacuum or inert gas environments are used to compare the combined results of heat and oxidation with the result of heat aging alone (see Table 3. 1 ORDINARY AGING (Ref. Light (ultraviolet and the blue end of the spectrum) accelerates oxidative reactions near elastomer surfaces. atmospheric oxygen. light. causing random. 122. 2 Ozone Attack (Refs. 230) The effects of temperature elevation and thermal oxidation are seldom separated in testing or actual practice.CHAPTER 3 RESISTANCE PROPERTIES The information in this chapter is provided to aid the engineer to determine the suitability of elastomers for use in service environments and to estimate the change in resistance properties of particular elastomers which may occur in service. 1. followed by oxidation reactions which cause significant 37 . 99) Ozone is a highly reactive form of oxygen which is formed in the atmosphere by the action of sunlight on oxygen. 1 Thermal Oxidation (Refs. 87. 3. The rate of oxidation has approximately the same temperature dependence as simple chemical reactions (approximately doubles for each 15*F rise in temperature near room temperature). atmospheric moisture. shallow surface cracking or crazing (photo-catalytic oxidation). 210. 1). Reaction rate in some elastomers is influenced by moisture. 1. 3. The resistance of an elastomer to thermal oxidation is greatly dependent on the high polymer used in compounding. 3.

Some evidence has been found to indicate somewhat higher values at ground level in Arctic regions due to auroral activity. In extreme cases. the cracks being perpendicular to the direction of strain. ozone is produced in quantities larger than those that occur due to natural causes. these can be disregarded. ozone affects rubber by causing cracking of stretched rubber. and to design accordingly any items intended for use or storage in those areas. During periods of moderate to severe conditions. ozone concentrations in the range of 25 to 50 parts per hundred million are measured. Other urban areas. Under these conditions. on the other hand. or to both. In addition to naturally-occurring ozone as discussed above. Ozone. it is sufficient to remember that ozone attack will occur more rapidly in Los Angeles and San Francisco than in other areas. In the future. For aircraft or other equipment designed to operate or be transported at high altitudes. and values in excess of 50 parts per hundred million have been reported on rare occasions. and somewhat lower values may sometimes exist at lower altitudes. 000 feet. for example. and may need to be considered. although there is growing evidence that the same type of problem sometimes exists on the East Coast of the United States. reacts only at the surface. notably Los Angeles and San Francisco. at the present time. These effects can occur even at the very low ozone concentrations which are normally found at ground level. this phenomenon has been attributed to the much higher rate of reaction. automobile tires have been observed with cracks which penetrated clear through the sidewall so that the fabric was visible beneath. One other special situation needs to be mentioned concerning manmade ozone in the atmosphere. to the larger size of the molecule (03 compared to 02 for oxygen). In certain urban areas. severe cracking may make rubber items unserviceable. Regardless of the mechanism. 000 to 90. It is well known that ozone is formed in the 38 . one must consider the fact that atmospheric ozone concentrations of five to ten parts per million (by volume) are found at altitudes from 60. will not be significantly different from rural areas with respect to ozone attack of elastomers. From the standpoint of the design engineer. it seems obvious that the Californiatype problem will occur with greater frequency in other urban areas. ozone may also occur in the atmosphere as a result of the activities of man. In other cities. ozone attack may occur much more rapidly than at ground level.changes in the properties of the elastomer. abnormally high ozone concentrations have been reported very infrequently. but for ordinary design purposes.

atmosphere near an electric discharge. as well as compounding ingredients and high polymer used. For example. (4) Reducing part operating temperature. Temperature increase and elongation increaseup to 100%. High polymers are classified according to ozone resistance in Table 3-Z. Due to the instability of ozone. humidities. and ozone concentrations. While ozone resistance is primarily a polymer selection and compounding problem. the designer can assist in increasing storage and service life of elastomer parts made of nonresistant elastomers by: (1) Designing parts to have minimum tensile stresses in storage and service. the time to first cracking is so short it is difficult to measure with any accuracy. some consideration should be given to the possibility of accelerated ozone attack. it quickly decomposes in the atmosphere following its formation. Jaynes. strains. and hence for parts to be used in motors or other electrical equipment. and detailing to eliminate high stress concentrations. 39 . by designing components so that elastomer parts are not stressed in tension by installation.increase crack number. E. At low ozone concentrations. * Some compounding ingredients. Juve to C. called antiozonants. product of concentration and time to first crack have been measured as constant at very high concentrations. designing parts using low modulus and high set materials properties. such as low temperature plasticizers. and decrease time to first cracking.while specific inhibitors. (5) Avoidin s location of electrical components which generate ozone near elastomer parts which must be made of nonresistant material.decrease ozone resistance. and hence serious problems will not normally occur except in the immediate vicinity of electric discharges. (2) Providing for proper packaging in storage. Ozone cracking resistance of an elastomer part is dependent on exposure temperatures. increase resistance. (3) Providing for barriers such as flexible coatings in service installation. decrease crack size. *Private communication from A. E.

and High Performance Substitutes (Refs. 40 . Intermediate between these two extremes are liquids which vary in solubility and reactivity and cause both swelling and irreversible changes in the properties of the bulk of the material at rates . 166. these liquids when in contact with parts. t quantitatively. 3-2.) Commonly used classifications are: Aliphaticlydrocarbons. Usually aromatic hydrocarbons cause greater swelling effects than the straight chain hydrocarbons so that. Decrease in aniline point corresponds to increase in percent aromatics and swelling. heptane.c'i h1Iq ids is pre.ility with Conventional Petroleum B'ased Oils. 2. 184) Organic liquids are often classified according to molecular structure and chemical composition in categories selected as indicative of elastomer swelling behavior._2 Cor. Other liquids are not solvents but are highly reactive. 228) Two relationships are of primary importance in the interaction of chemical compounds: solution and reaction. Benzene and its derivatives such as toluene and xylene are examples of aromatic hydrocarbons. 154.t)t. and 3-3). 172. and isooctane. 67. 18. 65. Lubricants. 64. r. Both solubility and reactivity derive from chemical constitution of liquid an(] clasto mer so that scrviceability of particular elastomers for st'rvice in contact with :. 2 LIQUID COMPATIBILITY 1.il . lictable qualitatively..3. 2.ivpicnt on their solubility in and reactivity with the elastoi. but do not react with the material. 63. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. The aniline point (lowest temperature at which the hydrocarbon is miscible with an equal volume of aniline) or mixed aniline point (lowest temperature at which the hydrocarbon mixed with an equal volume of normal heptane will dissolve an equal volume of aniline) is used for this purpose. Hydraulic Liquids. t. these liquids deteriorate elastomers by surface attack. Many liquids are good solvents for particular elastomers. Fuels. Straight chain hydrocarbons and their derivatives such as hexane. (The similarity in swelling behavior of elastomers immersed in similar liquids is so pronounced that swelling behavior of a liquid can be estimated by knowledge of the behavior of ai similar liquid. 162.-). it is useful to have a measure of aromaticity (as illustrated by Figures 3-1. if n. for hydrocarbon mixtures such as petroleum fuels. This is not always true for aircraft fuels andoils. cause reversible swelling and property changes. 2. 1 General (Refs.

" Table 3-4 lists volume change in response to liquid immersion of selected elastomers in a variety of organic liquids. An organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen. volume change 1eqs than 40%. carbon tetrachloride. such data are suitable only for preliminary elastomer screening purposes. ethylene dichloride. elastomer-liquid may be compatible. and the results of more comprehensive tests. elastomer-liquid incompatible. Nitrogen Compounds.Halogenated Hydrocarbons. Any organic compound containing nitrogen. Table 3-3 lists standard oils. as well a. A rule of thumb sometimes used to evaluate such data is: Volume change less than 16%. volume change greater than 40% . Halogenated derivatives usually have greater solvency power than the parent hydrocarbon. fuels. stressand actual amount of exposure of a part to the liquid. 41 .s the exercise of engineering judgment. are required before a specific elastomer can be selected as a suitable material for a particular service application. and ethers. Among the many reasons why such tabulated data is not sufficient for elastomer choice are: (1) It reiers to a specific elastomer which most probably was compounded for optimum resistance to the liquid in which it was tested without regard for other elastomer properties. Examples are aniline and nitrobenzene. esters. Oxygenated Compounds. As indicated by the quotation from ASTM standards. elastomer-liquid probably compatible. Hydrocarbon. The ASTM immersion test standard states. no direct correlation between these accelerated tests and service performance may be given or implied. aromatics. ketones. and immersion periods used in immersion tests. temperatures. which have halogens substituted for hydrogen atoms or added at double or triple bond sites. Organic compounds containing oxygen may be divided into classes such as alcohol. Any compound which contains oxygen. The standard test for liquid resistance is sample immersion at a temperature selected from a standard list to approximate service temperature. "owing to the wide variations often present in service conditions. Hydrocarbon derivatives such as methylene chloride. (2) The volume change measured does not take into account the effects of the many other service variables such as part restraint.

and inorganic material combinations which have elastomeric properties (see Refs . and Oxidizers (Refs. Fuels. component and part design details which will extend the range of usefulness of available elastomers. high ozone concentrations. expulsion bladders. and electrical insulation are so significant that they should be considered for use in these applications despite the apparent incompatibility of familiar elastomeric materials with such severe environments. 3 Compatibility with Rocket and Space Power Source Liquids. Environmental temperatures of parts exposed to these liquids may range from near absolute zero to over 2000"F. ?2).(3) In addition to volume change caused by immersion. for some chemicals. as they are not correlatable to physical properties. and typical acceptable property values. suitable engineering materials have not yet been found to enable use of the chemicals in aero-space weapons systems. There are hundreds of liquid and elastomer standards and specifications and many liquids and elastomers in use for which there exist no applicable specifications. elastomers. The examples chosen for these tables of liquids. and their compatibility were selected from ASD sources on serviceable seals as representative of present good practice. Required service requirements of parts may include near instantaneous response after long periods of inactivity. mechanical erosion. the designer needs to know the values of other elastomer properties while a part is swollen by the liquid and after loss of the liquid. These parts may also be exposed to other environmental agents of deterioration such as nuclear and ultraviolet radiation. diaphragms. U. 3. These environments are so severe that. 156. 3-7.2. their measurement. The military specifications themselves should be referred to for information on properties required for particular service applications. hose. 12. This table also shows the lack of correlation between volume swell and property changes. The tensile test results are very sensitive to change in materials properties but. seals. and high vacuum. The inherent advantages of elastomers as materials for fabrication of such important parts as gaskets. and 3-8). The standard tests also provide information on changes in compounder's properties in response to liquid immersion (see Table 3-5). 163) This class of liquids includes materials which are both highly reactive and have high solvent power. The military specifications provide serviceability index tests and criteria which should be used whenever they are applicable (see Tables 3-6. are only a merit index. Considerable research effort is currently devoted to development of more resistant elastomers. 42 . tank and accumulator liners and coatings.

For all these reasons. the information provided in this section of the report is not as complete and accurate an index of elastomer serviceability as information provided in preceding sections. For example. and Viton A has a high brittle temperature. these fluoroelastomers with superior chemical resistance properties are being used successfully in parts for which usual design standards require low strain relaxation rate. An important characteristic of elastomers is that materials which have superior specific resistance properties are often inferior in some of the physical properties to commonly used elastomers. properly compounded and designed elastomer parts have been found to be far more serviceable in extreme environments than would be predicted by application of the usual evaluation methods used in part design. compared with Buna N seal compounds.In this area of interest (in which much of the available information is proprietary or classified and cannot be included in this report). Nevertheless. and low brittle temperature. high tear and abrasion resistance. These chemicals must be contained and transferred 43 .the designer is faced with the following problems: (1) The lack of design precedent in the form of examples of successful service use of elastomer parts in similar applications. Table 3-9 lists some of the chemicals of interest as space weapons systems energy sources. and part details required. (4) The considerable difference that often is required in design criteria and acceptable quality control tolerances of elastomer parts for aero-space weapons systems as contrasted with ordinary elastomer utilization. (2) The lack of test procedures as well as of test data which correlates elastomer properties to serviceability for specific applications. LS-53 has poor tear and abrasion resistance. part and component design details may need to be modified from usual standards to compensate for this deficiency. Physical properties are not always considered in ordinary design practice because the usual elastomers have adequate property values for serviceability. In actual practice. (3) The lack of specifications and standards for liquids. In those cases where elastomers with inferior physical properties must be used. elastomers. the Kel-F elastomers have a high strain relaxation rate.

they feel that it is desirable to use packings having good impact resistance in the associated equipment of a weapon system. processing contaminants. The following briefpaper by Jorian(R. Also. Another characteristic of elastomer-reactive chemical interaction is that seemingly minor amounts of compounding ingredients. In addition to these chemicals. vernier engines. aluminum. however. or surface contaminants acquired by an elastomeric part in handling may initiate or catalyze reactions which would not otherwise occur. although materials are available which have satisfactory resistance to each of the chemicals. A particularly severe problem in power source devices is that different chemicals must often be separated by seals. Elastomeric O-rings are used in certain types of fittings in liquid oxygen systems. Several of the chemicals used as energy sources and working liquids are listed in Tables 3-6 and 3-8. coolant. as well as Teflon.in typical rocket motors.f. serviceable in extreme environments.. no one of the materials may be resistant to both of them. it should be noted that successful LOX seals in current use are made from elastomers such as Buna N. In connection with this article. that even an oily fingerprint can causc a detonation in this test. (1) The 44 . and stainless steel. "Although liquid oxygen impact tests arc usetd as criteria for mieasurlng the utility of materials to be used in systems containing liquid oxygen. Furthermore. and power sources. These experiments also reveal several other points that should be of interest to engineers responsible for design of sealed devices. and hydraulic liquids. "The standard test measures the ability of the material to withstand an impact load in the presence of liquid oxygen. 131 )is roprintcI in its entirety because it illustrates so naly of the typical problems encountered in evaluating elastomers for use in contact with highly reactive liquids. "Experimental work recently conducted at Parker Seal Company indicated that the following conclusions were justified. from experiments conducted it appears that liquid oxygen impact resistance has no connection with the chemical or physical properties of most elastomers. The engineering staffs of firms designing such systems often request that the O-rings be impact resistant. It has been determined. lubricant. must also be controlled. many aero-space weapons systems must be designed to permit change in energy source and working liquids as well as for operation in diverse environments without extensive modification and part replacement. to minimize the possibility of creating a hazardous condition by accidentally interchanging O-rings. and.

. The weight was held by an electromagnet which could be de-energized remotely. "During any handling of containers or samples. washed in detergent and rinsed in triclioroethylene.. has been generally spoken of as a desirable parameter for materials in this 45 . TEST DATA AND PROCEDURE "The test results shown in TableI (3-10 of this report) are listed in decreasing order of utility in liquid oxygen systems. of 1. i. a drop of one foot resulted in an impact of 40 ft. . that it is necessary to conduct impact tests on each compound to determine its suitability. lbs. 3 inches.performance of the several elastomer types tested varied sufficiently to indicate that utility cannot be predicted on the basis of elastomer type. a drop of one and a quarter feet applied 50 ft. based upon resistance to detonation. i. the foil container was removed. These 0-rings have a nominal cross section of 0. (2) Compounds V271-7 (a compound of the fluorocarbon type) and 1011-10 (a nitrile) have the best impact resistance of all the materials evaluated.. "The test samples were 2-214 0-rings cured in accordance with our standard process specifications. The 0-rings were cut into 3/4-inch lengths in order to obtain a specimen size which would easily fit into aluminum foil cups holding the liquid oxygen. thereby reducing the hazard to laboratory personnel. e. and a drop of one and a half feet applied 60 ft. was run before each series of tests. The foil container was then immersed in liquid oxygen (contained in quart glass thermos). A blank container containing no elastomer. When the liquid oxygen stopped boiling. and the electromagnet de-energized. No detonations were obtained on the blanks. "Impact test machine consisted of a 40-lbweight. "The elastomer specimens were placed in aluminum foil containers approximately 3/4-inch in diameter by 1/2-inch deep. lbs. lbs. placed on an anvil under the impact head. The initial height of the weight could be adjusted so that various impact loads could be applied. e. 013 inch and an 0. dropped along guide rods onto the sample. D. liquid oxygen cleaning techniques were used. "Since resistance to impact detonation at 60 ft. The test specimens were then cleaned for liquid oxygen service. just liquid oxygen. lbs.

"It might be argued that there should be correlation between impact resistance and excess curing agent (excessive in respect to the stoichiometric quantity).. lbs. a nitrile which is noted for a calculated excess of curing agent performed better than fluorinated silicone. and the two chloroprenes are more fire retardant than any of the nitriles. lbs. (Certainly the elastomer here should have taken up most of the curing agent. due to their ability to absorb energy at the test temperature (-297"F). Consequently. testing at this level was discontinued. It has been argued that detonation is simply very rapid burning and therefore. and the fluorinated silicone compounds had lower brittle points. ) "The third agrument which has been advanced is that highly flexible materials would be less impact sensitive. It is conceivable that due to the statistical 46 . Yet again. all the fluorocarbon compounds. Yet. Yet a flame retardant chloroprene had greater impact sensitivity than a highly plasticized nitrile.service. This explains why all the materials were not tested at 60 ft. i. initial tests were conducted at this level.. it is rather difficult to extrapolate this type of data. Also. a fluorocarbon material is our best performer. again. and 40 ft. RESULTS "Liquid oxygen impact resistance appears to have no correlation with the chemical or physical properties of the elastomeric materials tested. whereas all the nitriles. In the first ten tests none of the O-ring materials would consistently meet this requirement. and various fluorocarbons which are cured at 400"F for 24 hours. lbs. fireproof materials should display greater resistance to detonation than materials which readily burn. and our sights were set on 50 ft. This variation also requires that at least ten separate tests be performed before final acceptance. and why the sample lot size at this test level is less than ten. VARIED PERFORMANCE "One other point that should be stressed is the lack of a definite pattern in impact sensitivity. e. the chloroprenes. the performance of the fluorosilicones varied in almost the same way at each impact level. with a sample lot size of ten at each level. which has a very small portion o" curing agent. the fluorinated silicone compounds. Consequently.

Consequently. It should be remembered. which is the same as dropping one pound 60 ft. 9.probabilities (using small samples). 78. 106. 51. too. it is always necessary to indicate the size of the O-ring when specifying impact resistance. material selection based upon impact resistance can be intelligently accomplished only by using a statistically acceptable quantity of tests for each individual compound under consideration. lbs. The equation used to define permeability constant is dQ dt AP(P 2 - PO) d where Q is the quantity of gas that goes through a membrane when the pressure is higher on one side than on the otherand steady state flow rate is achieved t is the time A is the area of the membrane 47 . . we believe this requirement is too high for known elastomeric compounds. because solubility of gases in elastomers is not usually measured except in high vacuum studies. "Summing up. "The application of 60 ft. Fluorine is an example of a chemical for which a resistant elastomer has not been developed. 220) Permeability is related to solubility but.. gas permeability is usually considered independently of gas solubility. The elastomers of this table were developed specifically for resistance to the particular chemicals they were tested with and should not be considered as typical of the set of elastomers referred to by the high polymer name used. that the unit loading is based upon the area of the specimen. is a rigorous condition.3. a transposition may occur by which an inferior material would be selected over a materialhaving greater impact resistance. 3. Consequently. " Table 3-11 presents selected data on the compatibility of a number of liquids of Table 3-9 with resistant elastomers (or plastics). GAS PERMEABILITY (Refs.

101. particularly for the case of the effect of combined environments. 115.d is the thickness of the membrane P is the permeability of the membrane material (P2 . P. 114. A considerable amount of empirical work has been performed on radiation damage to elastomers in terms of the response of compounder's property values to radiation. 53. Elastomers are particularly sensitive to radiation damage because of both their chemical composition and the dependence of their behavior on molecular structure.speed electrons) released during atomic fission. 48 . but it has not yet organized into usable engineering design information. T. Most permeability data are reported in cgs units: Q in cubic centimeters reduced to 0"C. Charged particles such as alpha particles( helium atom nuclei) and beta particles (high.pl) is the pressure differential across the membrane Permeability can be expressed as the product of two factors. The forms of radiation of interest are: (1. it is easy to describe the effects but difficult to measure them quantitatively. standard atmosphere (N. 61. Table 3-12 presents permeability data collected from a number of sources. Radiation damage effects are similar and complementary to aging effects and the mechanisms of damage are closely related to those of aging. 30. 3. 232) 1. As in the case of aging. 198. solubility and diffusion constant which are sometimes reported. 116.4 RADIATION EFFECTS (Refs.) t in seconds A in square centimeters d in centimeters P1' P2 in atmosphvres 2 /cm/sec/atm or P is in cc/cm cm 2 sec atm Permeability increases sharply with temperature and is very dependent on gas and type of elastomer as can be seen by reference to Figure 3-4 and Table 3-12. 76. primarily References 9 and 220.

and free radical production are the significant mechanisms of radiation energy absorption. (b) Thermal or slow neutrons moving at velocities equal to molecular kinetic motion which have little direct effect except to induce radioactivity in a material. These processes break molecular bonds and cause molecular rearrangement by chemical reaction between the resulting fragments. excitation. 49 . is that quantity of radiation which will produce 1 esu of ions in 1 cc of air at 0"C and 760 mm. 8 ergo of energy by 1 gram of air. (2) (3) Neutrons are highly penetrating particles: (a) Fast uncharged nuclear particles not in thermal equilibrium with their environment and possessing fairly high kinetic energy that can lose this energy only by direct collision with atoms. or will cause the absorption of 83.Charged particles do not penetrate deeply into solid materials and are readily removed by shielding. Roentgen. similar in nature to X-rays but more energetic and penetrating. Ionization. Garrma photons or electromagnetic radiation. which interact with electrons of irradiated materials. reserved for X-ray or gamma radiation measurement in air. It has been fairly well demonstrated that damage is dependent only on dosage. 8 ergo of energy in one gram of animal tissue. They are produced in some irradiated materials by neutron absorption. irrespective of the form of radiation within a factor of two. Rad is that quantity of ionizing radiation which will cause the absorption of 100 ergs of energy in one gram of the material being irradiated. Rep (roentgen equivalent physical) is that quantity of ionizing radiation of any type which will cause the absorption of 83. or amount of radiation energy absorbed. (c) Epithermal neutrons having intermediate kinetic energy values. Dosage units are: Ergs/gram (dosed carbon) used as standard by ASD.

Figure 3-6 presents the results of Dow Corning's development of a silicone elastomer specifically for radiation resistance. An elastomer exposed to high vacuum quickly loses 50 .2 roentgens 1 1. thermal aging includes the effects of atmospheric environment. Polyurethane. so that this approximation is not strictly valid. Surprisingly enough. maximum radiation resistance cannot be expected to be obtained in an elastomer not specifically tailored for such resistance. in this case. displays superior radiation stability. 1 rep i 100 ergo/gram (dosed carbon).nor is it in terms of engineering property values. A set of data presented as simply as in Table 3-13 is not adequate design information because it does not display the variation in radiation resistance with compounding. as in the case of other resistance properties. cure system and the use of antirads. plasticizer. The information from which Table 3-14 is taken is summarized in Figure 3-5. Property retention values are not in themselves design criteria. These graphs display the dramatic improvement achievable in radiation resistance in specially designed elastomers as compared with the standard materials. are available to the system. 3.5 HIGH VACUUM EFFECTS A deteriorating factor of space environment not previously considered is high vacuum. The methyl and phenyl elastomers of these curves are the materials for which data are presented in the tables. which should be the most thermally unstable of the elastomers because reaction equilibria favor dissociation at high temperatures. and environment. There are many other factors involved in component design such as original property values and the relationship between measured properties and application requirements. processing. More dramatic improvements are made by modification of the basic high polymer. such as oxygen. the least heat resistant of the elastomers displays the most radiation resistance. Compounders have learned many ways of improving radiation resistance of ordinary elastomers. Also. Rad values are a function of the material being irradiated as well as radiation field. such as proper choice of filler.A rule of thumb is I rad i 1. Table 3-13 compares the thermal aging and radiation stability of specific elastomeric compounds (different compounds for the different measurements). Tables 3-14 through 3-20 are inclucled to present the diversity of effects which occur in elastomers exposed tonuclcar radiation and recommended radiation dosage limitations for elastomers. Dosage rate is an important factor in elastomers only where significant degradation from other agents is occurring simultaneously and where other reactants.

Exposure to high vacuum does not affect the stress-strain properties of the vulcanizates to a significant degree unless accompanied by elevated temperatures. Where the ozone resistance of the vulcanizate is contributed by an antiozonant.the fluids absorbed from its previous environment as well as volatile compounding ingredients. "4. indicating that the presence of oxygen represents a more severe condition than the extreme vacuum. dioctyl sebacate and trioctyl phosphate. On the other hand. unfiltered solar radiation. "Several conclusions may be made on the basis of the data (presented in the paper): "1. as well as the dioctyl p-phenylene-diamine (DOP 88) antiozonant. the loss of protective ingredients can result in higher rate of elastomer deterioration than would occur at higher pressures in the same environment.. antirad. all of which have relatively high vapor pressures. and ultraviolet absorbers designed to protect the material from photochemical degradation. this resistance is lost after exposure to high vacuum at either room or elevated temperature. antioxidant. This is borne out also by an infrared analysis made on condensate resulting from these exposures. e. Large weight losses were noted only in the case of those compounds containing high levels of plasticizers. The following quotations are from Reference 173. Studies of these effects are currently in progress. i. Since space environments include exposure to low temperature. This analysis reveals the presence of the two plasticizers. Lower molecular weight high polymer constituents could also be lost by the materials. These compounding ingredients may include low temperature plasticizer. The low temperature flexibility of elastomers containing plasticizers is adversely affected by exposure to a high vacuum at both room temperature and elevated temperatures. "5. "3. Only the ingredients having the highest vapor pressures appear to be significantly affected in this regard. Air oven aging is generally more severe at any given temperature than is high vacuum exposure. "2. " 51 . such as oxygenfrom the elastomer and its environment may reduce deterioration rate or change mode of deterioration. There is little evidence to indicate any severe loss of the elastomer itself. removal of deteriorating chemicals. antiozonant. and other forms of high energy radiation.

AF 33(616)7310 which is currently in progress. The deteriorative effects usually observed are changes in materials properties due to plasticizer loss. 148) Elastomers are inherently resistant to microbiological attack compared with other organic compoundings. In some environments. a susceptible elastomer may be consumed to a degree where the part becomes unserviceable.6 MICROBIOLOGICAL ATTACK (Ref. delamination (where adhesive or bonding agent is consumed). with the exception of the susceptibility of natural rubber polysulfides and some plasticizers to fungal attack.Also see Reference 23 and Reports of Contract No. fungal attack has been found to be more severe. Specifications for elastomers to be used in moist environments should include tests of fungi resistance if fungal attack may decrease part serviceability. 3. 52 . moist elements of fungi on part surfaces. In these cases. such as are encountered in tropical climates and in petroleum fuel tanks containing some water where fungi have been found to proliferate. and electrical short circuits caused by conductive. minor surface etching.

174. Electrical insulation c. Shock absorption and vibration damping parts d. Weapon. 226) Elastomers are useful materials of construction for aero-space weapons system vehicle parts such as: (1) (2) (3) Airframe a. 109. 105. 188. and abrasion resistant coatings and parts e. 150. Chemical. Electrical system parts f. Power source and transmission parts b. servo. 112. thermal. 4. Indicator.CHAPTER 4 ELASTOMER PARTS The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize the design engineer with the uses of elastomer parts in aero-space weapons systems. thermal. actuator.1 GENERAL (Refs. Chemical. Control system power source. Structural system vibration damping elements c. and vibration damping parts d. 153. Heating and cooling system parts Instrument. and abrasion resistant coatings and parts Landing Gear System a. Tires 53 . Pressurization system sealing parts b. and Guidance Systems a. 207. 108.

elastomer part development is necessarily a cooperative effort of design engineer and elastomer technologist. As a result.(4) b. Actuator and servo parts c.and component characteristics usually depend on whether or not elastomer parts are used. Solid propellant ingredients Many of the elastomer parts referred to are specialized items such as tires. Elastomer parts can seldom be substituted directly for parts made of other materials (and vice versa). An example of a design procedure flow chart depicting a typical sequence of design steps leading to development of a serviceable elastomer part is presented on the following page. and elastomeric solid propellants with which a designer is concerned only to the extent of selecting suitable available parts or establishing performance requirements for development by others of suitable parts. Braking device parts d. The critical initial step of the preliminary design phase is the designers' consideration of elastomer parts for use in a component. Also optimum part design details and tolerances are dependent on compounding and processing variables as well as part service requirements. require a designer to participate in part design and development. Fuel containment and transfer element parts b. radome rain erosion coatings. Shock absorption and vibration damping parts d. The decision to reject or to use elastomer parts in component design may result in impairment of potential 54 . for those uses where off-the-shelf parts cannot be used. Electrical insulation e. Many of the other applications of elastomers. Shock absorption and vibration damping parts c. because materials properties of elastomers are capable of variation within wide limits. fuel cells. Part design in elastomers differs from design in other materials in that. relevant data on mechanical response of the specific elastomeric compound most suitable for part fabrication are not always available to the designer. Retraction mechanism parts Propulsion System a. flexible hose.

Plastic tank liner Landing Gear to be Located in Area Whose Surface is Heated to Excessive Temperatures for Off-the-Shelf Pneumatic Tires a. Elastomer coating of skin b. Elastomeric sealants and seals with riveted construction b. Structural adhesive seam assembly with riveted construction Prevention of Chemical Attack on Missile Fuel Tank Walls a. Elastomer springs b. Metal springs and friction elements with plastic snubbers Integral Fuel Tank Fluid Tightness a.weapons system performance or necessary later component redesign. Elastomeric expulsion bladder in spherical reservoir b. particularly if satisfactory elastomer parts cannot be developed for the application. Elastomer fill and drain coating b. A number of examples of recent design problems. Piston in cylindrical reservoir c. Coil from reservoir with interface Equipment Vibration Control in Extreme Environment a. with alternate solutions that were considered. Develop a heat resistant elastomer tire 55 . illustrates the differences in resulting component characteristics involved: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Sonic Fatigue Damage Prevention a. Crack arrestor banding Liquid Transfer from Reservoir at Any Flight Attitude a. Full seam welding c.

Success was achieved in excess of fifty percent of these cases with resulting improvement of weapons system characteristics. Air condition wheel wells c. Metal spring and friction element with plastic snubbers In each of these cases. Elastomer pad b. Examples of performance tests and their results to illustrate these recommendations are: (1) A part made of material compatible with hydrogen peroxide ignited in service as a result of reaction initiated by mold release agent on production parts. and test results should be carefully reviewed in order to provide correct information for part redesign in case of unsatisfactory performance of prototype. in all of these cases. prototype part development studies were required to evaluate feasibility because of lack of experience with suitable elastomers in the particular applications and environments involved.(7) b. They must measure part response required for serviceability. (3) Burst test of a filament wound plastic pressure bottle designed for minimum weight resulted in premature rupture. This resulted in acceptance of a material that had unsatisfactory flexibility after long term storage at low temperatures. The 56 . These tests must bear a close relationship to service conditions. Use "wire brush" tires or skids Shock Absorber in Extreme Environment a. the preferred solution was the first one listed. The second important step in the design procedure is part design and performance testing. but the feasibility of this solution depended on the environmental resistance of available elastomers with suitable physical properties for the application. And. Hydraulic recoil cylinder c. (2) Short term tests were used to measure low temperature flexibility of collapsible fuel cell material for arctic service. This effect had not been evaluated in the carefully cleaned prototype parts that had successfully passed performance tests.

204. 205. such as cycling tests in a prescribed environment for hydraulic system parts. and MIL-R-25988 of an elastomeric material specification. The main difference between elastomer material specifications and specifications with which the engineer is usually more familiar. 185. 158. 81. 57 . 17. 215. Often. 113. The military specifications are excellent guides to choice of required materials properties. 111.elastomer liner material that was used crystallized under compression. is that elastomer specifications are based on required performance and not on definition of a particular elastomeric compound processed by a specified method.1 Vibration Analysis* Elastomer parts are usually considered as simple springs whose constants are estimated by procedures outlined in the references or measured if prototypes are available. part characteristics. the final steps in design are: (1) to analyze and measure the materials properties and part characteristics of the prototype which are necessary for serviceability. must be included along with the standard laboratory tests to assure part serviceability. 170. Wherever possible. and test properties should be limited to those required by the application. The first two cases. References 19 and 25 describe a part development study and a compounding study of the types on which such specifications are usually based. and methods of test. 4. A change to a noncrystallizing elastomer produced a successful design. 15. 178. After a prototype part has proven successful in service. while the third is an example of excellent scientific analysis of a test failure that resulted in development of a superior part instead of rejection of the proposed design. 231) 4. 5. (2) choose or design acceptance tests which measure these properties and characteristics.2 VIBRATION AND SHOCK ISOLATION AND DISSIPATION (Refs. nonstandard part performance tests. resulting in reduction of ultimate elongation below that required. 112. above.2. required performance capability should be measured by standard laboratory tests. 123. and (3) incorporate these tests into procurement specifications. MIL-P-25732A is an excellent example of an elastomer part specification which includes realistic performance tests. 74. 118. demonstrate inadequate problem analysis.

sn Component Drawings and Testingn Materials and Process Specifications Final Design Phase Component Procurement and Installation in System j Perfomanc Analsis Prototype a. Detail Design Phase a. Elastomer Technologist Preliminary Design Phase a. Elastomeric Component Design Criteria b. Design Modification + ''Performance t \ Analysis Material Modification Component Production and Utilization 58 . Performance AnalysisP b. Preliminary Component and Test Procedure Design Feasibility Appraisal 0 Compounding Study and Test Procedure Design Prototype Fabrication and Testing 2.Flow Chart for a Vibration Isolator Design Design Enginee r 1. Component and System Design Compromise xx Test Result Analysis I _ __ _f Material and Process Design Compromise Prototype Fabrication c. 3. Test Result Analysis b.

2 Elastomer Springs (Refs. 2. 57. 16. 10. 21. 62. and (3) to provide almost any desired shape of load-deflection curve. and smaller joint assemblies than are attainable with compression seals using other materials. 88. 22. usually provide simpler. 25. 33. 56. 160) The elastomer seals. 181. (2) to have desired flexibility in any direction of loading. 94. 24. 8. 26. 4. Table 4-2 compares steel and elastomer springs as vibration isolators. 171. an important use of elastomers for vibration and shock isolation is as potting compounds and pads used in electrical and electronic component assemblies.000 psi b. see Chapter 3) as follows: (1) (2) Standard Military Specification O-Ring and Gasket Materials and Design Details a. simple unit to serve both as a vibration isolator and shock absorber. Temperatures less than +400*F and greater than -100*F Special Elastomeric Compounds and Design Details up to a Pressures of 15. Currently available materials permit the use of elastomer seals (neglecting liquid compatibility factors. The major limitations of elastomer springs are their change of properties in service and environmental sensitivity. The complexity of requirements of aero-space weapons systems does not usually permit the use of simple elastomer springs of the type used in vehicles or factory machinery and which can be analyzed by the methods of the references. 1 Elastomeric Static Seal or Gasket-Type Seal Capability (Ref. 34. as well as shock and vibration isolators. 3. In aero-space weapons systems. where environmental conditions permit their use. Temperatures of + 600"F 59 . Reference 20 provides a good example of design procedure used to develop a satisfactory part even though the unit concerned is based on a steel spring. lighter. These materials also serve as sealants and seals. 142) The three major advantages of elastomer springs are that they can be designed: (1) as a single. Pressures less than 4. 189) 4. 000 psi and greater than ordinary vacuum b. 145. 79.3 SEALS FOR MECHANICAL COMPONENTS (Refs. Table 4-1 lists comparative characteristics of different kinds of springs used as shock absorbers.4. thermal and electrical insulators.

and 4-4 are taken from this reference.These limits are for continued serviceability and. on elastomers used as dynamic seas are! (I) Standard Military Specification O-Ring and Similar Elastome r Packings a. Reference 134 demonstrates how the thermal insulating properties of elastomers permit such utilization. 4.3. 4-3. 124. (2) Temperatures less than +275°F and greater than -65*F Special Elastomeric Compounds and Design Details up to a.000 psi b Temperatures of +400"F Applicable specifications for ordinary applications include: (1) Installation and Groove Design MIL-P-5514 (2) (2) Hydraulic System O-Ring and Similar Seals MIL-P-5516 -65"F to 160"F seal material MIL-P-25732 -65"F to 275"F seal material MIL-G-5510 compression-type seal material Fuel System O-Ring and Similar Seals MIL-P-5315 -65"F to 160"F 60 . Figure 4-5 (from Ref. for many limited time applications. other than liquid compatibility. 104) depicts present elastomer temperature resistance capabilities in terms of time in service as well as projection of future needs and capabilities in this regard. 7. Pressures less than 1500 psi and greater than ordinary vacuum b. Figures 4-1. 4-2. elastomers can be used at higher temperatures and pressures as in the chamber-nozzle seals for solid propellant rockets where the nominal seal environmental temperature is in thousands of degrees for times measured in seconds. 216) The environmental limitations.2 Elastomeric Dynamic Seal or Packing Capability (Refs. Pressures of 4.

are based on hollow or foam filled units to increase conformability over that provided by a solid elastomer. and joints. operable at skin temperature ranges from -65"F to 400"F. since they must seal against pressure differentials of the order of only 15 psi. 4 1 provide excellent examples of current design practice. and movable controls and control surfaces.4 AIRFRAME SEALS (Ref. aerodynamic and aerobalance.2 Present Airframe Seal Capabilities Composite seals are in current use on aircraft that are fluid resistant. and have low leakage rates. gaps. nor are sealants used in all integral fuel tanks. 6. inspection plates. 212) 4 5 1 General The usage of sealants is not limited to integral fuel tank construction. 4 5 ELASTOMERIC INTEGRAL FUEL TANK SEALANTS (Refs.s. and intercompartment sealing have resulted in the development of two highly specialized types of elastomer parts which will be reviewed in this and the following siction of the handbook by discussing such parts in terms of specific applications of these two types of parts. R. Liquid cooled inflatable seals serviceable for skin temperatures of 700*F have been developed for missile applications.5) is considered typical of those elastomer parts which adhere to and. and space vehicles for access aperture. The airframe seal is considered typical of those seals used for closures such as are required by doors. 4 4. rockets and missiles. 212) 4. 54. firewalls. canopies. These parts are usually fabric or wire reinforced and. 19. 130. more or less. but this application has been chosen as a typical use of sealants 61 . viewing port. "Evaluation and Testing of Hydraulic O-Rings.Additional recommended references are a paper in Reference 11 by F. The exacting requirements of dynamic seals in aerospace weapons system components are so different from those of ordinary vehicle and equipment components that the design recommendations provided in commercial manuals and handbooks should not be accepted without critical evaluation. permanently seal fabrication seams. 209. Straus. 4 1 General The requirements of high performance aircraft. 14."which is a discussion of MIL-P-25732 in terms of the requirements of that specification and their basis which presents correlation between quality control properties of elastomer parts and their serviceability in the subject application. 4. The integral fuel tank sealant (see Section 4. and Reference 145. 208. The references cited in 4.

(3) Permits repair by groove reinjection. Channel or groove sealant system.4. (2) Required closer tolerance workmanship and heavier construction. 5. using a sealing compound injected into channel or groove: (i) Capabilities of laying surface system. Faying surface system. (2) Temperatures up to 500"F for pressure cabin sealant when exposure is limited to air. using a fillet of sealing compound along all seams and around fasteners: (1) Temperatures of -65"F to 250"F with aircraft and jet fuels. (2) Temperatures of -100*F to 550*F for pressure cabin sealant when exposure is limited to air. using a sealing material placed between metal surfaces (1) Temperatures of -65*F to 2750F with aircraft and jet fuels. 62 . 2 Present Fuel Tank Seal Capability Filleting system.

WADC TR 55-492. " Development of Fluoro-Silicone Elastomers. " 6." 3. "Development and Physical Testing of Elastomeric Compounds Resistant to Petroleum Base Fuels at Elevated Temperatures. "Design Data for O-Rings and Similar Elastic Seals. " 4. "Development of High Temperature Resistant Rubber Compounds. University of Dayton Joint Conference.A Fluorinated Acrylic Elastomer for High Temperature Service in the Presence of Aircraft Fuels and Lubricants. WADC TR* 55-58. " 8. 12. "Design Factors for Aircraft Electronic Equipment. " 10. WADC TR 56-331. " 9. WADD) Technical Reports." 2. WADC TR 56-148. "Evaluation of High Temperature Hydraulic Seals to Temperature of 550"F. WADC TR 55-381 "Poly FBA . "A Study of the Effects of Nuclear Radiations on Elastomeric Compounds and Compounding Materials. WADC TR 57-478." 5. "Development of Rubber-like Materials for Applications Involving Contact with Liquid Rocket Propellants " *WADC TR refers to Aeronautical Systems Division (formerly WADC. WADC TR 55-220. WADC TR 56-272. WADC TR 57-76. WADC TR 56-267. " WADC. "Evaluation of Designs and Materials for High Speed-High Temperature Shaft Seals for Turbo-Jet Engine Applications. 63 .BIBLIOGRAPHY I. WADC TR 56-155. "High Temperature Resistant Sealant Materials. WADC TR 57-651." ll." 7. "Elastomers for Air Weapons.

Y. "Effects of Molten Boron Oxide on High Temperature Elastomers. WADC TR 58-181. Sci." J. " 20. January 1958. "A Research Program on the Investigation of Seal Materials for High Temperature Application. WADC TR 59-74. WADC TR 58-13. " 16. "High Temperature Insulation for Wire.13. Mechanical Behavior of High Polymers. "Composite Elastomer-Metal O-Ring Seals. "Design and Development of a 1000"F Hydraulic System.Containing Polymers. WADC TR 59-749. Alfrey. WADC TR 59-430. "Composite Inorganic Resilient Seal Materials. "Silicones and Their Applications. WADC TR 58-363. "Studies on the Protective Ultraviolet Absorbers in a High Vacuum Environment." 23. Vol 35." 15. Interscience Publishers. ." 14. Turner. 28. WADC TR 58-148. 64 . "A Room Temperature Vulcanization System for Selected Fluorine. WADC TR 59-42. "Vibration Mount Development for High Speed Aircraft " 21. "Development of Greases and Seals for 275*F Pneumatic Systems. " 18 WADC TR 58-443. " 26. 1 17. 1948... New York. Instruments. " 24. Inc. 1. WADC TR 59-338. J. 22. "Design Handbook for O-Rings and Similar Elastic Seals. No. "Development of High Temperature Sealants.. "Study of Vibration and Shock in Aircraft and Development of Instrument Mountings. pp 1-8." 27. " 19. WADC TR 59-428. N. WADC TR 59-99. WADC TR 58-89. WADC TR 59-354. Ames. Jr. " 25. "Electronic Designers' Shock and Vibration Guide for Airborne Applications.

.. Eng.. 31." Aircraft and Missiles Mfg. 32. pp 105-109. No. 29." Rubber Age." Materials in Des. . 65 June . pp 20-24. Special Technical Publication No. December 1958. Bulletin CDS 208." Materials in Des. "Nitrile Silicone Compounds are Heat.. 1946. 6. N. November 1953. Anon. Vol 35. "Hcw to Interpret Mechanical Properties of Elastomers. Eng. Anon. No. 5711. July 1956.. Oil Resistant. "Nuclear Effects on Materials.. "Viton O-Rings. Anon. 634-641.. 30.. Design and Media Data.. p 32. . "X-15 Hydraulic Seals. No. " Rubber World. Anon. "Silicone Rubber. Anon." Materiais and Methods. Inc. 33. .High and Low Temperature Properties. Anon.. April 1959.ASTM Standards on Rubber Products. June 1958. Anon. Vol 49. Y. Rubber in Engineering. "Materials Selector . "Elastomers for Specific Applications.." General Electric Co. 44. 34. pp 22-24. Anon. Eng. "Latest Developments in Butyl Rubber." Aircraft and Missiles Mfg. "Glossary of Terms Relating to Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. Vol 50. 1958. pp 129-130 40. Anon." Aircraft and Missiles Mfg. .. 184. . pp 38-39. March 1957. 4. Anon.." Materials in Des. Vol 79. Anon.. 43. ASTM. Silicone Products Department." Aircraft and Missiles Mfg. 37.. Brooklyn. 19th Edition. 39. 42. "Specifying Elastomers for Low Temperature Service. Anon." Catalog No.. Mid October 1959. 4 pp. 41.Annual Reference Issue. Anon. Vol 38." ASTM Special Technical Publication No.. pp 890-900. 5. 229. pp 114-118. August 1959. 35.. "Polyurethane Elastomer... pp 629-634. "Teflon . December 1959. 38. 36. Anon. Anon. 1959. . Chemical Publishing Co. Parker Seal Company.

" Machine Design. 51. 3. 4. W. Vol 30. "High Temperature Sealing Studies of Missile Hydraulic Components. . SAE Nat'l. 46. "The Permeability of a Natural Rubber and Some Rubber-Like Materials to H2 . " Jour.. Connecticut Hard Rubber Company. "Behavior of Silicone Rubber in Sealed Systems at High Temperatures. Vol 84. "Elastomers for High Temperature Applications. pp 1498-1504. I. R. 56. 3. New York.. J. Silicone Rubber. May 1959. Paris (France). 47.. and Born. "Deterioration of Organic Polymers. No.. A." Report No. 66 . Barton. Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development. Sci . " Bell System Tech. 0 2 and A. Pt 2. "Hydraulic Missile Components. 1960. Billett. B. Vol 1. 55 Biggs. May-June 1959. November 28. No. 57. du Pont de Nemours & Co." Aircraft and Missiles Mfg. R. Bobear. Anon..... He. Vol 28. N2 . Elastomer Chemicals Department.. P. 48. E. Anon. 49. 53. R. W. I Chain Scission and Antirad Action. pp 6-8. (Inc. "Closure Seals. E. Aero. W. S. S. The Language of Rubber. 58. September 6.. United States Rubber Co. Enjay Company. 1959.45. pp 351-355.. Anon. October 1951. Inc. Bartholomew.) 1957. March-April 1958. B. Apex-261. 52 Baumann. Brit. Anon.). Engineering Properties of Rubber. December 1958. Bauman.. pp 448-450. Billett. November 1958. " Report No. J.. AEREZ/M 210. A.. "The Mechanism of Radiation Damage to Elastomers. R. Pol. 1950. Appl. No." Rubber Age. B. 50. 1956. 178. HL58/3140. "The Present State of Our Knowledge in the Field of Elastomers. 1959. pp 97-100. " Chemistry and Industry (London). J. pp 1078-1102. ." Preprint 50T. Meeting. 54 Beckim.. Butyl. .. Atomic Energy Research Establishment (Gt.

Vol 127. Boonstra. No 6.. W.." Trans Faraday Soc. . J. M . January 1954. R E . L. Sisman.Carbon Black Vulcanizates. Sci. F. Bueche. pp 1567-1573. .. A. W. & Eng. 62. 68. Bristow. E. I Cohesive Energy Densities of Rubbers by Swelling Measurements. Vol 49. Vol 39.. forPart 3). R." Indus. B. SAE Natil Aero Meeting. "The Swelling of Rubber Networks in Binary Solvent Mixtures. B. 1959. and Ives. & Eng. pp 1731-1747. Hill. pp 305-324 70. December 1958. and Semegen. M A .." Rubber World. "Viscosity . F. June 1953. " ISA Journal. July 1956. Pol. 63. "Mechanical Properties of Natural and Synthetic Rubbers. F D. and Watson. 67 Brunton. R F forPart 1) Busse.. and Watson. J C . pp 348-350 (see Smook.. W 67 . M.. 5. Bopp.. Bristow. M. W.. D E . "Electrical Conductivity of Rubber ." Trans. C. and Smook. No. Vol 46. Chem. Kirkland. T. March 1953. D. No 3. Busse. G.. 7. J. II Cohesive Energy Densities by Viscosity Measurements. pp 718-721. December 1959.59. and McAlevy. D. F .. 3." J. D. S. pp 12461253 66 Brooks.. J.. and Deweese. Tech." Indus. Faraday Soc 65. 1. Vol 3. F. Vol 25." Rubber Chem. 64. "A Versatile Closure for High Pressure Vessels Utilizing 0 Rings for the Initial Seal.. "Combined Heat and Radiation Effects on Practical Rubber Compounds. pp 791-793 (see Smook.. Bowman. and Towns. July 1959. L . Chem. Brooks. G. No. . Vol 32. "Trans Vol 54. Vol 128. 61. Buckley.. New York. "Elastomeric Properties of Butyl Rubber. S T. Strain." India Rubber World. M A. No 11. and Dannenberg.. W. "Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene . 60.." India Rubber World. Vol 54. Born. A.. "The Effects of Kerosene Type Fuels on the Design and Operation of a Jet Transport. W. No. H. Faraday Soc. forPart 2. Bristow.Equilibrium Swelling Correlations for Natural Rubber. G. No. 0." Preprint 47R. M. 1958. "Cohesive Energy Densities of Polymers. pp 241-242. E. pp 1475-1486 69. "Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene 3. August 1957. E.1. pp 379. J. October 1958. F. pp 218-227. J. M . "Radiation Effect on Polymer Vibration Characteristics. Cross. Mooney. D.. Vol 55. A forPart 2. April 1957. K .

. 75. 74. E. 6. "New Silicone Rubbers Meet Tough DC-8 Specs. W. C. W. pp. Sci. Dawton. "Airsprings and Their Application to Automotive. L. June 1958. Appl. F.. 78. 82. Robb.." Space/Aeronautics. 68 . No. Appl." Jour. 73. Jour. Flanged Joints and the Gassing and Permeability of Rubber-Like Materials. pp 543-550. H.. Physics.. M.. P. "High Vacuum Shaft Seals. Vol 27. Aircraft. J. 79. Eng. Vibration and Shock Isolation. G. C." Elec. Honn. "Outlook for 600"F Silicone Rubbers. L. F. Conroy. pp 414-421.. Physics. H.. 72. 80. " Brit. E. D... Cunningham. October 1959. and Scholler." Jour. "Effect of High Temperature and Nuclear Radiation on Silicone Insulation Systems.). Physics.. R. 1940. R. H. October 1957. and Industrial Uses. 1951." Rubber Age. September 1956. McGraw-Hill Book Co. F. F. "Dynamic Properties of Various Rubbers at High Frequencies. Mechanical Vibrations.. "Primary Creep and Stiffness of Vulcanized Rubbers. pp 110-115. G. Inc.71. Vol 8. and Lyons. Mfg.. and Wolf. D. pp 60-64. 4. pp 85-86. of Appl. May 1959.. R. " Rubber World. T.. J. 76." Ind. and Ivey. J. J. January 1955. Dickson. M. Den Hartog. 0. Cooper. No. July 1958.. June 1950. Currin. No. p 563.. Vol 38. H. N. .. Vol 76. R. Conant.. 90. "Equivalent Effects of Time and Temperature in the Shear Creep and Recovery of Elastomers. S. Instr. 425-428. Y. Vol 21... Chem. A. pp 967-974.. October 1959.. Dellaria. R. 179. 77. Vol 43.." Aviation Age. Deist. 81. p 499 ff.. "Kel-F Elastomer.. E. D. H. New York. V. 4. N. Y. and Smith.. W. and Strauch. (2nd Ed. Crede. E. "Apparatus for the Measurement of Internal Friction and Dynamic Young's Modulus at Kilocycle Frequencies. 88.. Daily." J. Hall. J. New York. John Wiley & Sons. Inc. pp 365-73 (1951).

p 141 ff. W.. pp 309-323. W. "Hysteretic and Elastic Properties of Rubber-Like Materials under Dynamic Shear Stresses. J. 11. D. Vol 84. R. 1. I. York. and Fogg." April 12. and Fitzgerald. "Accelerated Ozone Aging. D.. 1958. J. p 59-63. R.." Modern Plastics. A. No. pp 128. R "Evaluation of an Oil Resistant Fluorosilicone Elastomer Flexible at -80°F. Chemistry of Natural and Synthetic Rubbers. H. J..83.. D. J. 93. No. 90 Ferry. and Seals. D. S G . 1955. R A. J." Appl Hydraulics and Pneumatics. 85 Dombrow. 1953." Rock Island Arsenal Report No. No." DuPont Reprint. 88.. Reinhold Publishing Corp . "Radiation Resistance of Polysiloxane Elastomers. Manual No. P. and Hall.. 130. "What You Should Know about O-Rings for Air and Oil Circuits. and Macready. C. N. . 92 New Fisher. 132 95 Freeman. 601." Jour. April 1960.. Flegel. G. G. Packings. DiPinto. L. Oxford. p 140. 1957. R. V. S. 2. E. April 1944. Congr... R G .. Appl. December 1959. "Application of the Superposition Principle to Data on Heat-Aging of Plastics. B. Fabian. 116.. Vol 34. Y. Vol 87. "Rubber: Sampling and Testing. "Dynamic Rheological Properties of Linear Polymers. Doyle. Vol 83. Dunkel. 91. July 1957. L." Rubber Age... pp 281-286. Fischer. R. "Urethane Polymers as Engineering Materials. and Phelan.. pp 632-638. "Materials for Gaskets.. 57-1881 69 . "Natural Rubber Compounds for High Temperature Service. Chaffee. Reinhold Publishing Corp. Dillon.. Rheology. May 1958. 1957." Proc 2nd Intern. 87. Polyurethanes. 94." Rubber Age. Fletcher. R. B. . . Prettyman." Rubber Age. pp 111126 89 Federal Test Method Standard No. Physics. Harry L. 86. Vol 15. July 1959. 84. Eng. Freedman." Materials in Des.

.. Vol 38. . 9. pp 46-57. pp 57-71. ." Paper presented at Sixth JANAF conference. Vol 36... Fuller. Gehman. Frith. . 100. E." Rubber World. Applied Science Lab. 108. Mech. H. p &11." Rubber World. M. No. Gibson. Gibbs.. . Griffiths. Vol 31. 392. December 1955. "Testing of Rain Erosion Resistance of Aircraft Coatings. E. R. 107. Gregory. 2. W. 103. Engrs. Gale. A. Ohio. 5. 1957. Gent. Inst. Vol 30. B. B. 101. . No. and Storey. S. 787.. No. No. pp 780-783." Rubber World.." Materials & Methods. Gent. "Rubber and Plastics in Aircraft Tank Industry. of Cincinnati." Final Report. 1959. J.Proc. "Polymer Program at Wright Air Development Division. Green& Co. "Ozone Cracking of Natural and Synthetic Rubbers. and Tucker. August 1957. No. D. pp 96-100. 1958. "Effect of Temperature on Air Permeability of Silicone Rubber. IRI. John. pp 687-694. N. A. J. 102. L. 2. 99. Longmans. 3. 785. "Changes in Elastomers Due to Radiation from Cobalt-60. B. pp 389." Institution of Rubber Industries ."' Trans.96. W. No. "WADC Evaluation of Experimental Polymers. March 1956. Elizabeth M. A. R. E. N. F. Galighan. 1958. Vol 173. and Hobbs. 97. and Lindley. No. "Dynamic Properties of Elastomers.. 789. pp 803808. W.. P. 106. Vol 30. P. April 1955. J.. 98. 1951." Proc. D. S. Vol 33. 5. January 1957." Rubber Chemistry and Technology. "The Compression of Bonded Rubber Blocks. No. September 1957.. "On the Relation between Indentation Hardness and Young's Modulus. "Where to Use Hypalon. December 15... Vol 33. 1. 105. 6. Vol 45. B." Rubber and Plastics Age. 3. No. Griffin." Rubber World. "Self-Reinforced Elastomers. p 1202 ff. Gehman. 701. 70 Linear Polymers. U. Contract NOa(s) 58-230-d.. Pfisterer. pp 643-646.. August 1954. E. 104. . Vol 134. E.

. Y. pp 825-826.. V Effect of Gamma Radiation on Nitrile Elastomers with Data on Supplemental Elastomers and Flexible Plastics.Their Properties and Applications. "Rubber Molding Techniques and Equipment.. pp 462-470. Vol 1. pp 1003-1015. 1937 119 Hayden. R . "Elastomers for Use in Radiation Fields . "Silicone Insulants . Vol 83. 5." Space/Aeronautics. 116 Harrington. 6.. Vol 83. 3. F . Hessney. February 1956. D. 336. Harrington. 337. 114. August 1958. 92." Rubber Age. R. "Integrated Seals Simplify Tartar Design. "Seals. J. Haas. No. Vol 82. 120. Vol 80. Aug. p 471. Aero Mtg. New York. Vol 85. 112. Vol 28. "Rubber Cushioning Device. .. pp 58-63. pp 188-191. "Vibration Isolation Design. March 1958. 1959. Hanley. 304-307. B. and Hayward.. N. F. No. pp 144-149. April 1959. No. No. pp 262-265." Rubber Age. p 123. Vol 59." Rubber Age. 1960. 111." ASME Trans. 118 Haushalter C F .109. R .. 110. pp 115-119.980." Preprint 50S." Aircraft Eng . Vol 81. "Elastomers for Use in Radiation Fields. Harriman. 2. G C. pp 963-973. 90. Vol 32. J. pp 819-825. 117 Haugh. P. W.. F. September-October 1959. 71 SAE . No." Rubber Age. "Anti-Vibration Mounting of Aircraft Power Plants. J D. 6. IV Rig Test-Bed & Flight Testing of Power Plant Anti-Vibration Mounting. July 1959. C. VI Radiation Resistance of the Neoprenes. Nat'l. September 1957. E. 3. February 1960. of Applied Polymer Science.. Wendel. E. No.. pp 89.. 1959. 113. No 5. Harriman. " Electronic Eng. No.. III Design & Testing of Rubber Anti-Vibration Units.1-3. September 1959." Jour. the Vulnerable Giants. pp 971.. "Elastomers for Use in Radiation Field. December 1957. "Anti-Vibration Mounting of Aircraft Power Plants." Aircraft Eng. F. 115 Harrington. "Time and Temperature Dependence of Mechanical Behavior." Machine Design.. Hamlin. March 1956.

H.. Vol 24. October 31. 131. Hile. 1937. D. Juve. Jr. Jordan. B. Their Chemistry. E. London. 1953. pp 142-147. 130. January 1952. H. 6. J. 3.. Elaztomers and Plastomers. Houwink.. T. pp 60-61. Hillmer." Missile Design and Development. H. pp 759-769. J. E. . No 4. and Scheele. J.." Machine Design. No. II Oxidative Degradation of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates at Different Elongations and Temperatures. Hirchfield. No.121. Vol III. "The Degradation of Elastomers. Vol 32. Mech. 122. A. Physics and Technology. " Machine Design... S. W. Brussels.. Vol 59. and Miceli. J. 1957. E. July-September 1959." Machine Design. 132. C. July 1955. A. New York.. Vol II. Vol 32... 1. S. Parker Seal Company... 128. pp 367-379 72 . Jorczak. and Tech.Paper N53A-170 for meeting N2-29. "Rubber Cushioning Devices. & Tech. and Chalmers. . "Rubber-Metal Parts.. G. "Tear Resistant Silicone Rubber. Vol 30. 1960. "Recent Developments in Hardness Testing. 1. Vol XXII. Testing and Analysis: Tabulation of Properties) Elsevier Publishing Co. Vol 42.. Manufacture Properties and Applications. Amsterdam. S.. Soc." Rubber Chem... ASME. W. A. J. Jordan. Aug. 1949. "Selection and Application of Dynamic Seals and Packings. R." Materials and Methods. Holt. (Vol I. p 144. General Theory. 127. p 471. Hurry. "Liquid Oxygen Impact Sensitivity of Various Elastomers. New Developments in Static Sealing. Tech. . John.. April-June 1957. 1. R. "Thermal Expansion of Elastomers. F." Rubber Chem.. .. " Rubber Chem. No. K. pp 70-98. Jordan. John and McCuistion. S. and Piron. Blaurock. September 1960. "Mechanical Properties of Polysulfide Polymers. Irby. 123. 125. E. 126. pp 106-107. No. No. 124." Trans. 129. January 7. "Photoelastic Applications in Rubber Technology. Engrs. and Miller. pp 1103-1124." Am. December 4.

136. No. Berck) Chemical Publishing Co. F. Kitchen. A. Krotz. "The Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Hypalon 20 Synthetic Rubber at Small Strains. Vol 79. No. Inc . 6. "Effect of High Temperature on Properties of Organic and Silicone Rubbers. Vol 45. June 1956. "Effect on Elastomers of Exposure at Temperatures up to 1000*F. Rigby. 1957. Hall. W. 182. 3. . May 1957. Vol 128. Vol 30. T. Vol 19. 9. Kidwell. and Moroney. 143 Kurath. pp 181-182). Engrs.. Vol 1." Rubber Age. Vol 29. May 1958. YetElastic.. S. and Morony.. F... A. S." Paper presented at the Sixth JANAF Conference on Research and Development." Machine Design." ProductEng. March 6. R. 141. pp 150-157. pp 124-127.. April 19. 2. 5. Kenkle. J. 10. June 1957. pp 140-144. E." Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 5. Jean. 3. pp 891-893 (see also: India Rubber World. 144. Mech. (See also Engrs' Digest. and Pigott. 137. R.133." Materials and Methods. J P. pp 114-119. July Ten Years. -Trans." Machine Design. pp 118-124. Vol 75. Design and Fabrication. J. V . pp 351-353).... Soc. No. 0. J. J. "Selecting Silicone Rubbers II Properties. T.. pp 6 8 -7 1 140.." Elec. T. H. "Cast Urethane Rubber. No. LeBras.. 1957 73 . 135 Keen. L. Kilbourne. Passaglia. and Fenner. N.. " Materials and Methods. S. September 16. . 1958. New York. and Dallas. A S "How to Design Rubber Torsion Springs. Mcintyre. D. 5. June 1957. K. pp 147-149. B. "Rubber. L. 134.. A S. L.. pp 445-451. (Translated from French by Irene E.. "High-Potential Tests for Aircraft and Missile Electrical Insulation. R H . No. No." Machine Design." Am. December 1959. G M . 1959.. Kidwell. 8.. Vol 28. and Pariser. . Kilman. 142. June 1953. Rubber: Fundamentals of Its Science and Technology. No. pp 128-132. Jr. pp 114-119.. S. No. "Properties and Applications of Urethane Rubber. 1956. 5... R. 1953. Y. Hard. 138 Kittner.45. No. Mfg. Krause. L J. No. 139 Kittner. . Vol. "Creep of Neoprene in Shear Under Static Conditions. N. Vol 18. "Selecting Silicone Rubbers..

J. "The Role of High Polymers in Composite Solid Rocket Fuels. 12 ref. D. New York. "Viton A. No. A. 60. 1950. J. Vol 24. 11 pp. August 1958. R." Elec News & Eng. Reinhold Publishing Corp. 74 .. R. Applied Physics. pp 96-98. 155. 147. Vol 140. Vol 59." Gen.. K.. Vol 83.. Hydraulics and Pneumatics.. Aero Mtg. Leaderman.. "Effect of Mold and Moisture on Electrical Insulation." Rubber World. . H. 1956. H. Leonard. Moran. Y. Z. Miller. C.. "Resistance of Viton A Vulcanizates to Attack and Permeation by Liquid Rocket Propellants. C. A. November 1957. Lichtman. "Fluid Sealing in Extreme Environments." Product Eng." Rubber World. A. " Final Report on Lab. pp 573-578. McKinley. pp 807811. 149. 'Hydraulic System Design for Future Aircraft... C. "t Jour. New York Naval Shipyard. (Editors). Vol 27." Appl. April 15. 148. July 1952. and Chatten. E. McPherson. Vol 55.145.. . 258. 154. and Taylor.. July 1956.. N. J. New York. Rev. 4." Preprint 50U. N... A. No. "Moisture vs Rubber Insulation... and Tovee. J. 153. D. December 1951. pp 158-160. Vol 22. L. LaPera.. "Physical Properties of Natural and Synthetic Rubber Materials at Low Temperatures. December 1958. Engineering Uses of Rubber. 12. 151." Analytical Chem. Vol 137." Rubber Age. A. Mayhew. and Klemin. 5855-1. M. 7.. 152. 156. p 665 ff. " NBS Report 4057. andSeaberg. Mironov. July 1959. SAE Nat'l... Meyer. 4. pp 60-6Z. "Molecular Structure and Mechanical Properties of Rubber. 5. Lee. Proj.. 2 July 1959.. H. 150. "Applications of Silicone Insulation. No. Brooklyn. McDermott. and Patouillet. T. No. W.. A.. C. H. pp 250-254. Elec. pp 812-818. No. J. B. May 1952. and Delman.. "Stress Analysis in Viscoelastic Materials. 146. E. "Effect of Highly Aromatic Gasolines on Fuel Hose Compounds. pp 56-57. 8. No. 2. No. M. 1959. J. No. 157. Material Lab. Y.

123-125. Norman. 1959. R." Product Eng.. 1957. A. R. 164. Mueller. Morris. and Starmer. R. E. No. "0-Rings and Interference Seals for Static Applications." Rubber Age. No. N. 163. Nolle. 169. E. Ordnance Materials Handbook 20-307. Vol 29. "Silicone Rubber.. pp 91-94. W. 3. Vol 5. Vol 39. July 1953. 161. 75 Vol 27. 3. . 160. R. E. pp 85-100. 197. 2... 205. 2. Mueller. 1. B." Machine Design. K.. New York.. " Rubber and Plastics Age. pp 982-987. 159. 203. "Further Developments in 'Vulkollan' Field. pp 1-54 (1950). S. P. "Rubber Parts ." Materials and Methods. Ordnance Materials Handbook. pp 195. P. March 1958. Morris. Polymer Science. "Gasket Materials (Nonmetallic). and Test Methods." Rubber and Plastics Age. S. "How the New Propellants Affect Plastics and Elastomers.. Reinhold Publishing Corp.158. pp 89-91." Rubber Age. Conductive Rubber: Its Production." Rubber Age. 199-200.. Mottram. Vol 39. 3. 5. Mowers. H. (Editor). 167. W... R. E. New York. 1957.Materials and Methods Manual No. O'Keefe. and James. 166. J... Vol 85. "Behavior of Neoprene Vibration Isolators at Various Temperature. No. New York. February 1958. E. Moxness.London.. "Oil-Resistant Compositions from Nitrile and Acrylic Rubbers. Maclaren & Sons . 162. andCaggegi. pp 120-121. 1957.. 126." 1961 Revision (Unpublished). Vol 38. Introduction to Rubber Technology. 165. Vol 71. 168. pp 625-628. Maurice. No. February 7. March 1956. Morton. 170. No.. "Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. James. R. R. Morrison.. August 1952. September 1959. "Effects of Gamma Radiation on Compression Set of Rubbers. May 1959. pp 243-249. 171.. Y. H. pp 173-176. R. "Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Rubber-Like Materials" Jour. 95. No." Materials in Design Eng... Application. "Permeability of Rubber to Organic Liquids.

pp 111.." Rubber Age. F H . (see also: Rubber Age. New York. Rubber Lab. November 1958. Palmer. J. 50. Z. Vol 207. 179 Phillips. Interscience Publishers. 7. pp 255-269. 181 Pollard. 5380. Vallejo. No. A. Feb. "Effect of Shape on the Static and Dynamic StressStrain Relationship of Bonded Rubber in Compression. . 15. Payne. R. Engineering Design in Rubber. A. E H.. 2. No. No. A B." Ind. Institute of Environmental Science. . p 1174." Missile Des. W & Eng Chem R . 178. June 1956. 1959. p 368." The Engineer. March 1959. Inc. February 1954. "Shape Factors and Functions in Rubber Engineering Part II.. Vol 177." Rubber and Plastics Age. . "The Effect of Pressure on Swelling of Hycar 1014 Vulcanizate in Various Fluids. Mech.Trans. "Designing for Use of Viton '0' Rings at Elevated Temperatures. New York. N. & Devel. pp 38.." Rubber World.. 5. 4. 173 Ossefort. W. . 175 Painter. February 1956. J. Phreaner. Vol 207. October 1954. 90-5. G W ." The Engineer. A R . 597. Y. SAE Nat'l Aero Mtg.. J Vol 37.. Mare Island Naval Shipyard. No 180. Vol 76. . 1959 182 Postelnek. 19 February 1959. April 1959. . No. "Pressure Regulator Seals. and Scott. "Air Force Polymer Development Program. Vol 80. "Shape Factors and Fuwctions in Rubber Engineering Part I. 113. T. 174. 177 Payne." Paper presented at Fifth National Meeting. and Ruby. "Flame-Proof Rubber. No. R . D. pp 1602-1607." Am. "Properties of Silicon Modified Rubbers. "Dynamic Characteristics of Silicone Rubber. 183. Vol 36. pp 543-545. "Search for High Temperature Elastomer." Preprint 50R. 1960. R . California. 76 . November 1956. pp 1131-1135. .172 Oser J. " Nature. "The Effects of a Simulated Space Environment on the Properties of Elastomers. Soc. pp 701-706). Engrs. No 2." Report No. Vol 74. July 1957. 5379. p 328. Vol 50. Postelnek. 176 Payne.

2. M. November 1959. R. "Solid Urethane Elastomers. pp 129148. October 1959.. " Materials in Design Eng. September 1957. 77 . No.184. pp 74-77." Materials Methods." SAE J." Ind. "Gasolines vs Elastomers." Rubber Age.. "Evaluation of Rubber Compounds for Vibration Isolation at High Temperature. pp 75-83. 1 Materials in Design Eng. G. 185. J. J.. pp 102-104. 194. Hydraulics & Pneumatics. 1. S. Chem.Materials & Methods Manual N 113. M.. Schmuckal. Radcliff. Riley. 193. July 1957. J. 1.Manual No. N. Vol 84.. M. "Silicones . pp 109-124. E. Ramberg.A Status Report. (Formerly Materials and Methods). Raymond. 196. 192. Prendergast. R.. W. September 1959..." Appl. No. E. 187. 190. Riley. Jr. W. R. Vol 41." Materials in Design Eng. pp 272-274. . January 1959. and Britt. pp 90-98.Type WRT. Rugg. L. W.. 191." Rubber Age. pp 92-97. 188. Fcbruary 1955.. and Gammell. A. T." Rubber Age. No.. October 1958. Riley. Vol 125. "Flexible Hose . A. October 1958. "Compression Set of Silicone Rubber. No. Vol 82. pp 28-37. pp 6-10. & Eng. "Aircraft Reliability Demands Leakproof Hydraulics. "Fluoro-Elastomers. 2. L. November 1954.. "New Elastomers Break Old Barriers.. pp 619-626.. No. S. Racca.. Rose. Vol 50. Vol 46. pp 311-314. M." Rubber Age. Vol 46. December 1951.. C. Radi. July 1959. K. No. "Improved Neoprene . pp 2439-2444. John J. 195.. 3. and Hull.. C. P." India Rubber World. Roush. "Guide to Synthetic Rubbers . No.New FluorineContaining Rubber. 141. 189. 186. Latest Weapon Against Heat and Fluids. 4.. "Viton A . Vol 46. . and Stevenson. Vol 86." Acft & Missiles Mfg. No. "Fundamental Low Temperature Retraction Studies of Natural and Synthetic Elastomers. 3.. October 1957.. W. W. R. 1. and Braley. Vol 84.

Shaver. pp 273-277. Vol 39. Vol 29. August 1958. Soroka. April 14. Chem." Report on Contract Nobs72324.. Vol 6. Smith. Vol 28. P." Journal of Applied Mechanics. 1. R." Product Engineering. & Eng... Appl. No 4. & Eng. R. August 1959. "Time-Temperature Dependence of Linear Viscoelastic Behavior. J. D.. pp 838-843. 4. No. M. 0. pp 48-51. A. F Downie. December 1939.. L . J. January 1959. 202. D. W.197.. J. J. 205. pp 461-469. and Youngquist.. "How to Predict Performance of Rubber Vibration Isolators.. pp 934-938." Journal of Applied Physics. 4. G.Shear Loading. J. 1958. Spurgeon. B.. W.. J.. Shelton. and Staverman. 206. 203. pp 2080-2086. "The Choice of Resilient Materials for AntiVibration Mounting." Brit. 207. Spalding. A. No. Wherley. "Sealing Integral Jet Fuel Tanks. F. Vol 63. April 1953.. No.ubber Springs . " India Rubber World. M. F. Richard C.. and Good. Roche.. B. W. Bereckeville. L. No. "Ground Rules for Molded Silicone Rubber Parts. "Effect of Temperature upon Rate of Oxidation of Rubber and Nature of Resultant Deterioration. pp 54-58 204. "Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene-2. Phys. and Cox. pp 533541. 199. pp 141-145. Schwarzl. Vol 45. Chem. F.. J. Downie. Stephen Q. 201." Mechanical Engineering... Ohio. F. Clark." Aviation Age. Goodrich Co. December 1958. 208. "'. J. pp 69-71.. Product Engineering." Ind." Ind." Rubber World. "Properties of Elastomers up to 550"F I. pp 159-167. J. R. Smith. 198. Snowdon. September 1953. Smook. C. 28. F. 200. Vol 23. Smith. Spenadel. 15. 1. Heat Resistance of Currently Available Elastomers at Temperatures up to 550"F. 1952.. W. "Synthetic Rubber for Self-Sealing Fuel Tanks. "Rubber Springs Under Compression Loading. 78 . July 1957... and Semegen. Vol. April 1941. "The Effects of Nuclear Radiation on Elastomeric Compounds and Compounding Materials foz Use in Naval Material.

New Elastomer. 216. "Stress Relaxation Studies of the Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers. pp 205-221.. Thorn. R. July 1956.. No. 494-514).. February 1959. January 1958. and Mueller. L. 7. pp 66-69. Eng.." Rubber Age. "Thermal Degradation of Unvulcanized and Vulcanized Rubber in a Vacuum. pp 1212-1219. J. July 1958." Aircraft & Missiles Mfg. Spurgeon. Vol 83. Hagman. 1959. N. 4. Los Angeles... Arthur V. Vol 7. Vol 27. January 1956. California." Acft. J. Vol 39. and Madorsky. F." Rubber Age... July 1956. No." Ind. No.. Symposium on Sealants and Sealing of Aircraft.. 212." Disc. pp 673 ff. J. "Organic Fluorine Rubbers. pp 819-824." Rubber Age. SAMPE. April 1958. pp 335-336. pp 153-158. D. Warner. June 1954. No. C. Thompson. "Plastics for Leakproof Fuel Tanks. 211. N. F. R.." Aviation Age. Details of a Method of Sealing Integral Tanks. Authur V. Treat. 6. 6. 217. "Silicone Elastomer. No. p 3844 if." Rubber & Plastic Age. S. No..." Machine Design. Chem. Jr. "Elastomeric Mountings for High Temperatures. Van Amaerongen.. pp. New York. Vol 20. October 28-30. H. G. Straus.. Appl. Tatlow. R. "Hypalon S-2 . R. 1. 214. "Effect of Fillers on Gas Permeability of Rubber. 218. pp 35-37. Vol 48. No. Physics. pp 555-560. 79 . 210. 213. Vol 78. pp 112113.. 206. Vol 71. C. pp 132WT136WT (Rubber Chemistry and Technology.209.. C." Kantschuk und Gummi. August 1958. Thorn. 220. 2. S. Vol 20. No. May 1952. "Rubber and Plastics Packings. Tobolsky. R. Swartz. P. "Flame Resistance of Neoprene. "Nonmetallic Diaphragms. Tobolsky. & Eng. Missiles and Electrical Components." Jour. 215... J. 221.. "Oxidative Degration of Polymeric Material. 2. 219. 5. J. Faraday Soc. 1947.

REIC Report and Memoranda..." Rubber World. George G (Editor). No." 80 . Wilson. W.. Griffis. R. December 1958. Reports for Aeronautical Systems Division. publ. L ." Materials in Design Eng. Vanderbilt Company. 228. formerly WADD. " Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.. Womack. John Wiley & Sons... "Cyanosilicone Elastomers.. 231. "How to Protect Metals with Elastomeric Linings. C. 230. 2.. L. A . T. July 1955. "The Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Elastomeric and Plastic Materials with Addenda. " Wire and Wire Products. F. R A . H. p 1487 ff. pp 68-73. 224. Vol 47. No. & Eng.. No. August 1957.." Rubber Age. G. (Refers to Radiation Information Center. "Properties of Fluorocarbon Elastomer 214.. B. 229. Zapp. J. S.General Prop- erties and Electrical Characteristics. Vol 139. C. C. "Hycar 2202 . "Time and Temperature-Dependent Modulus Concept for Plastics. and Fekete.. A New Class of Solvent-Resistant High-Temperature Rubbers. Youmans. 1958. No. (Editor). Robertson. Wilson. July 1955. Pike. 7. andBartoe. p 1311 ff. pp 172-185. Vol 30.222 Weber. Synthetic Rubber. Vol 13. Williams. 230 Park Ave. F. Woerner. pp 939-940. "Correlation of Room Temperature Shelf Aging with Accelerated Aging. The Vanderbilt Rubber Handbook. and Maassen.. formerly WADC) Report Number 3... Chem. C. "Effect of Swelling on the Properties of Elastomers. Winspear. B. 227. August 1959. . H." Ind. E. Vol 5.. and Montermoso. New York. "Dynamic Properties of Butyl Rubber and Their Applications. No 7. Battelle Memorial Institute. pp 647-652 226. by R T. N. A. 4. Whitby. No 6.. A. and Montermoso. Griffis.. N Y. J. C. W. 1954. Vol 47. 232.. Inc. G." Institution of the Rubber Industry Proc." Ind & Eng. C. G. pp 768-771.. 225. July 1958. No 7. pp 94-98. and Kuckro. A. Vol 46. C. 7. Chem. Inc. G . R. October 1958. 223.

81 . " The Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Seals. ASTIAAD 215651. RAE Tech. Gaskets. 1342." 233. "The Effect of Nuclear Radiation on Fluorinated Polymers in Different Environments. and Sealants. " Memorandum No. 1.Memorandum No. Note Chem. 8.

APPENDIX I GLOSSARY 83 .

") abrasion .a substance which hastens the vulcanization of an elastomer causing it to take place in a shorter time or at a lower temperature. or erosion.the wearing away of a surface in service by mechanical action such as rubbing. (2) any set of test conditions designed to reproduce in a short time the deteriorating effect obtained under normal service conditions. calender . Special Technical Publication No.the highest temperature at which an elastomer fractures in a prescribed impact test procedure. coefficient of elasticity .the reciprocal of Young's modulus in a tension test. aging . either statically or dynamically.(1) a test procedure in which conditions are intensified to reduce the time required to obtain a result. 184. cold flow . antiozonant . or to build up an elastomer ply on a sheet of other mate rial.a multiroll device used to form elastomer sheet to close tolerances.a substance that retards or prevents the appearance of cracks from the action of ozone when the elastomer is exposed under tension. average room conditions .APPENDIX I . T. brittle point .).40% relative humidity at a temperature of 77*F. 85 .M. to air containing ozone. accelerated test . accelerator . S. See freeze resistance and transition points.the chaaging of the material with time in response to its constitution and environment. "Glosseary of Terms Relating to Rubber and Rubber-Like Materials. v. scraping.the lines on tensile specimens marking gage length (q.GLOSSARY (See also A. antioxidant - an organic substance which inhibits or retards oxidation. bench marks .a synonym for set or strain relaxation.

The relative amount that rubber varies from the Hooke's law ideal curve is known as "concavity factor" determined as the ratio between the energy of the extension curve to the straight line curve to the same point. crystallization . concavity factor . It may be expressed as: proof resilience I /Z tensile product conditioning . By this is meant the tensile stress at the indicated elongation (see modulus). and the entire stress-strain curve is concave toward the stress axis or away from the strain axis. 86 .a stiffness measurement extensively used by rubber technologists and is expressed as "modulus at 300%" or "300% modulus" (any other percent elongation may be indicated.subjecting a material to a prescribed environmental and/or stress history prior to testing.a synonym for vulcanization.rubber has no elastic limit.the ratio of the compressive stress to the resulting compressive strain (the latter expressed as a fraction of the original height or thickness in the direction of the force). damping .the deformation which remains in rubber after it has been subjected to and released from a specific compressive stress or strain for a definite period of time at a prescribed temperature. cure . compression modulus .a change in physical properties resulting from crystalline orientation of molecular segments caused by temperature and stress. Compression modulus may be either static or dynamic. Compression set measurements are for the purpose of evaluating creep and stress relaxation properties of rubber. but 300% is commonly used).a synonym for freeze resistance.the increase in deformation after initial deformation under sustained constant load. compression set .the decay with time of the amplitude of free vibrations of a specimen (see hysteresis). creep . compounder's modulus .cold resistance .

a synonym for set.part failure under cyclic loading analogous to fatigue in metals testing. in shear. freezing point . also change in durometer reading with time. diluent .the deformation of the gage length in a tensile test. It is calculated from data obtained from either free or forced vibration tests.the percentage of the vibrational energy which persists in the second of two successive free vibrations. torsion or impact according to prescribed test procedures. or elongation.the repeated distortion of a material by bending.the ratio of stress to strain under vibratory conditions.an inert powdered substance added to an elastomer to increase its volume. dynamic fatigue . filler . dynamic modulus . compression. expressed as a percentage of the original gage length.a screw fed die which produces a continuous strip which can be of intricate cross section. drift .any change of form or shape in a body. Freezing is a time dependent phenomenon in that prolonged exposure to low temperatures results in increase in freezing point and brittle point as well as increased stiffness.a material added in substantial volume to alter end item properties. elongation .the resistance to the effect of low temperatures of a specimen subjected to flexure. See transition points.the temperature at which a specimen exhibits a sudden increase in stiffness as it is slowly cooled.the fatigue life of a material tested in a flexing machine according to a prescribed procedure. (in this report) the linear change of dimension of a body in a given direction produced by the action of external forces. extending or compressing forces or combinations of them. It is usually expressed in psi for unit strain. freeze resistance . 87 . dynamic resilience .deformation . See freeze resistance and transition points. flex resistance . flexing . extruder .

The use of the word without modifying terms may be confusing. hardness .gage length . heat resistance . 88 .fin this report) length over which deformation is measured.the heating of an elastomer when it is elongated adiabatically and the contracting of elongated elastomers when heated. and compounder's. Compounder's modulus is always in tension. growth . immediate set . inert filler or pigment . Young's.the resistance to surface indentation usually measured by the depth of penetration (or arbitrary units related to depth of penetration) of a blunt point under a given load using a particular instrument according to a prescribed procedure. static moduli are subdivided into tangent.the increase in dimension of an article resulting from a continued tensile stress being applied to the material during service. (2) for elastomers. hysteresis the percent energy loss per cycle of deformation or the ratio of the energy absorbed to the total energy input. memory .a material added in substantial volume to alter end item properties Joule effect .the deformation found by measurement immediately after the removal of the load causing the deformation. but all the others may be in shear. ejongation. chord. heat build up . or tension.the temperature rise in a part resulting from dissipation of applied strain energy as heat. modulus usually refers to one of several measurements of stiffness or resistance to deformation.the property or ability of elastomers to resist the deteriorating effects of elevated temperatures. Other terms used in connection with modulus are stiffness. hot tensile - tensile strength at 212ZF.the after-effect response of a material to an event which. and such use should not be encouraged Modulus of elastomers may be either static or dynamic. compression. rigidity. alters the behavior of the material from that which would result from response to the later event alone modulus 11) a coefficient of numerical measure of a property. superimposed on the response to a later event. See hysteresis. tangent.

(Also see compounder's modulus. permanent set is the residual unrecoverable deformation after the load causing the creep has been removed for a substantial and definite period of time. modulus at 300% (or other % elongation) . oil resistance . resilience . the strain is expressed fractionally. (2) for creep tests. or geometric change to a degree. 89 .) mold . proof resilience . 2).a substance added to an elastomer to decrease stiffness or improve low temperature properties. relaxation . usually psi. permanent set .(3) all elastic moduli in rubber (except compounder's) are ratios of stress to the strain produced by that stress.(1) permanent set is the deformation remaining after a specimen has been stressed in tension a prescribed amount for a definite period and released for a definite period.a finely divided filler substance which.decrease in stress under sustained constant strain or creep and rupture under constant load. stiffens or produces improved physical properties in the vulcanized product (also see Section 1. plasticizer .the ability to withstand contact with an oil without deterioration of physical properties. 4.the time required for a stress under a sustained constant strain to diminish to (I/e) of its initial value.the ratio of energy returned on recovery from deformation to the work input required to produce the deformation usually expressed as a percentage.the tensile stress at the indicated elongation.modulus (cont'd) . thus improving processing properties and altering end item properties. when properly dispersed in an elastomer.a form or matrix used to shape elastomers while in a fluid or plastic condition. relaxation time . the units of the modulus are the same as those for the stress. which would impair part performance.the tensile energy capacity of work required to stretch an elastomer from zero elongation to the breaking point expressed in foot-pounds per cubic inch of original dimension. reinforcing pigment or agent .

static modulus . shelf-aging . standard laboratory atmosphere . See stress-strain. It it calculated from static stress-strain tests. the tests shall be conducted in a room or chamber of controlled humidity and temperature.elongation measured ten minutes after rupture on reassembled tension specimen. room temperature vulcanization (R. static fatigue .part failure under a continued static load.the number of pounds required to compress a specimen one inch in a prescribed test procedure.rigidity .irrecoverable deformation or creep usually measured by a prescribed test procedure and expressed as a percentage of original dimension.15% relative humidity at a temperature of 85"F. or both. analogous to creeprupture failure in metals testing.) reaction at room temperature. shape factor . 90 . average room conditions . set at break . A term often used when the relationship of stress to strain does not conform to the definition of Young's modulus.the ratio of the shear stress to the resulting shear strain Ithe latter expressed as a fraction of the original thickness of the rubber measured at right angles to the force).40% relative humidity at a temperature of 77"F.75% relative humidity at a temperature of 77"F. - vulcanization by chemical set . or tension It is expressed in psi unit strain.whenever the materials to be tested are known to be sensitive to variations in temperature or moisture. Shear modulus may be either static or dynamic. spring constant . compression.the relationship of load and deformation. the tests shall be made in the standard laboratory atmosphere having a relative humidity of 50 * 2% at a temperature of 23 * I C (73 4 * 1.T. in shear.a synonym for stiffness. but often the result of aging accelerated by stress. stiffness .the ratio of stress to strain under static conditions.the distortional behavior of an elastomeric component depends upon exterior constraints and for elastomers in compression this is accounted for by using an empirical function called shape factor. shear modulus . moist room conditions .8"F).V.the change in materials properties which occurs in storage. dry room conditions . Unless otherwise specified.

stress . the term is used as a synonym for deformation or to mean a deformation divided by gage length. stress-strain . the term is used to mean internal force per unit of area which resists a change in size or shape of the body. or the product of tensile strength and gage length plus deformation at break. onetenth and one-half of initial elongation.strain retained at the end of a finite interval following release of stress.a synonym for creep.a synonym for tensile stress.a synonym for stiffness usually expressed in pounds per square inch or kilograms per square centimeter at a given strain.a synonym for elongation. The latter definition is an approximation (assuming no volumetric change) to actual rupture stress. subpermanent set . 000. or compression as the case may be. usually divided by 10. and slowly heated recovers.nominal stress at rupture (based on original crosssection area). 91 . extension.a synonym for stress relaxation. tensile strength .the force required to tear completely across a notched specimen tested according to prescribed procedures expressed in pounds per inch of specimen thickness.a synonym for modulus. stress decay . tangent modulus .the product of tensile strength and elongation at break. unloaded. strain relaxation . tear resistance . T-10.the decrease in stress under sustained constant strain. In this report. T-50 .the temperatures at which a specimen which has been elongated. respectively. tensile stress . In this report. tensile product .strain . frozen. stress relaxation .the slope of the line at any point on a static stress-strain curve expressed in psi per unit strain represents the tangent modulus at that point in shear.

for example. tension modulus . the actual published values of transition temperature for the various elastomers furnish only a first approximation to the low temperature limit of useful properties for elastomers. as measured during cooling. or by other chemical reactions. is a function of a great many variables in the composition and service history of these complex materials as well as of test procedure. Thus.the process of creating a useful elastomeric material from basic compounding ingredients by heating the mixture with sulfur. transition points . The gradual disappearance of the rubber-like state and changes in other physical properties of this class of materials. which result in changes in materials properties. 92 .the ratio of the tension stress to the resulting tension strain (the latter expressed as a fraction of the original length). vulcanization . The lowest temperature point is called the glass or second order transition point and is the temperature below which the material is glass-like in behavior.tensile pull .failure load in a tension test usually restricted to part testing where the term tensile strength is not applicable. stiffness vs temperature for rubber exhibits two transition points (or abrupt changes in slope). The transition point of highest temperature is called first order transition or freezing point and is the temperature below which the elastomer is hard and stiff but not necessarily brittle.the elongation at rupture. and the actual service conditions must be considered in determining the effect of low environment temperature on component performance. Tension modulus may be either static or dynamic. These movements decrease with temperature so that a curve of. ultimate elongation .the elastomeric behavior of certain high polymers is considered to be the phenomenological manifestation of thermal micro-Brownian movements consisting of vibrations and rotations executed by molecular segments.

APPENDIX II CONVENTIONAL ELASTOMER PART MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 93 .

Examples of these materials are: Antioxidant .a substance which hastens the vulcanization of an elastomer. Compounding materials may be classified as: Raw Elastomer Vulcanizing Agent .a substance that retards or prevents the appearance of cracks from the action of ozone when the elastomer is exposed under tension. It is necessary to include in the processing operations the mixing of the compounding materials required to provide desired end item properties and the forming of the material to proper shape and dimensions. Most accelerators enhance physical properties and many improve age resistance. Protective Ingredients .a material which activates the accelerator.an organic substance which inhibits or retards oxidation. Antirad . 95 . Vulcanizing Accelerator . either statically or dynamically. causing it to take place in a shorter time or at a lower temperature. retards vulcanization during processing without decreasing activity under vulcanizing conditions.APPENDIX II CONVENTIONAL ELASTOMER PART MANUFACTURING PROCESSES The basic process of elastomer technology is the conversion of a plastic high polymer (raw gum) into an elastomer by vulcanization. to air containing ozone.a material which inhibits radiation damage. or otherwise modifies accelerator action. Antiozonant .materials which improve specific resistance properties of the elastomer.a material which produces vulcanization of the elastomer. Accelerator Control .

pellets or continuous st rip from an extruder. and heat so that the other compounding materials can be properly blended into it without premature vulcanization occurring while the compound is in process This requirement sometimes limits the compounding materials which can be used and end item properties which can be attained Variations in mixing equipment and technique often cause variations in end item properties and an important part of the compounder's task is to develop a time. An essential part of the mixing process is the working of the raw elastomer into a soft.a screw fed die which produces continuous strip which can be of intricate cross section.a substance added to an elastomer to decrease stiffness or improve low-temperature properties. temperature and order-of-addition schedule for the mixing process The product of the mixing operation may be slabs as cut off of open. Extruder .when properly dispersed in an elastomer. continuous strip from a mixer fed mill. thus improving processing properties and altering end item properties Special Purpose Ingredients such as colorants and blowing agents to make foam. stiffens or produces improved physical properties in the vulcanized product.materials added in substantial volume to alter end item properties Examples of theme materials are: Reinforcing Pigment or Agent . plasticization.a multiroll device used to form elastomer sheet to close tolerances or to build up an elastomer ply on a sheet of other material. plastic state by mechanical breakdown. 96 .Fillers . The mixing of compounding materials may be accomplished on open-roll mills or internal mixers.a form or matrix used to shape elastomers while in a liquid or plastic condition. Diluent . Plasticizer . This stock is cooled and stored or continued in process Forming of the elastomer is usually accomplished with special equipment including Calender . The open-roll mill uses rolls turning at different speeds and the internal mixers are blade-type (Banbury) or screw-type (Gordon plasticator).roll mill.an inert powdered substance added to an elastomer to increase its volume. Mold .a finely divided substance which.

lathe cutting. or other finishing operations such as trimming or cold tumbling to remove mold flash. Vulcanization of the elastomer is usually induced and accelerated by heat although it is also accomplished at room temperature and by high energy radiation. Post vulcanization operations may include die cutting. 97 . machining.Complex parts may be built up by the assembly of individual pieces of raw elastomeric material formed by the aforementioned types of equipment when the elastomer possesses adequate building tack (the characteristic of coalescing of surfaces when stuck together). Vulcanization is performed after calendering or extrusion and simultaneously with molding.

ILLUSTRATIONS 99 .

(MLAVSD Siplst MeciWniCa M0del fOt CrMo KLASTIC 6PN Crv* orlnryelsic ruosei .Z. 1). Z7.INSTANTANEOUS WADING AT TIME =0 (SwRI AND REFS.QYi~-~ LjJ ~1 m-t V~ccous flow 'upnse is oppbd oftwo respow squees ~~ If sad raw"b cenelest" [+~~ +? FIGURE Z-1 (Z. TYPICAL CREEP CURVE . 147) 101 . 125.

2.1). REPEATED STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR A NATURAL RUBBER (SwRI) 102 .CONSTANTcye AMPLITUDE 2 cycles w 5 cycles 25 cycles STRA IN - FIGURE 2-2 (2.

EQUILIBRIUM TENSILE STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR A DUROMETER SERIES OF NATURIAL RUBBER (REF. 1).ol ! 1000 1600 400 00 wSOO ~TEMPERATURE 0 1 2 3 OF RUBBER: x O0F 4 5 FIGURE 2-3 (2. 2. 48) 103 .

50 Ati SMALL STRAIN PORTION OF FIGURE 2-3 (REF.2.240 SHORE DUROMETER HARDNESS s 200 b 1g*- 120 4 z -3 0 40- 0.30 NOMINAL TENSILE STRAIN FIGURE 2-4 (2.20 .10 . 140 . 48) 104 . 1).

50 3.1200 NATURAL RUBBER AT 7OF NOMINAL STRAIN: AL/L 0 1000 U) 0 ~600- U 1. I- 200 - 0 I I I I I 20 40 60 so 100 SHORE DUROMETER HARDNESS FIGURE 2-5 (2. 1).5 re z .2. SECANT MODULI VALUES DERIVED FROM FIGURE 2-3 (SwRI) 105 .

5 I- 0 2 200- 0 so 40 s0 20 SHORE DUROMETER HARDNESS FIGURE 2-6 (2. 1).1 /8/0 0.2 (W 0 6O0 0. 100 SECANT MODULI VALUES DERIVED FROM FIGURE 2-4 (SwRI) 106 .4 0.2.NOMINAL TENSILE STRAIN AL 1000 L 0.3 0 20.

1200
NATURAL RUSSER AT ?OF

(W

NOMINAL STRAIN: AL/L-\

.0

100

'800

*

3.5

J

.600z

w

/

z
w

400

4.0

3.0

1.5

-

z

w

.5
200-

0

20
40
0
SHORE DUROMETER HARDNESS

FIGURE 2-7 (2.2. 1).

10
00

TANGENT MODULI VALUES DERIVED FROM
FIGURE 2-3 (SwRI)

107

NOMINAL TENSILE

STRAIN Q.&)0

1000-

<W

Soo-

(0.

a
z

z
w

0.5
~200-

0

s0
40
60
20
SHORE DUROYETER HARDNESS

FIGURE 2-8 (2.2. 1).

100

TANGENT MODULI VALUES DERIVED FROM
FIGURE 2-4 (SwRI)

108

400

DURZ T ER
HARDNES

300

S

-70

,
1200
46

z

10

z
100

00

1.0

2D.0

NOMINAL $HEAR STRAIN

(jf')

FIGURE 2-9 (2. 2. 1). EQUILIBRIUM SHEAR STRESS-STRAIN CURVES
FOR THE COMPOUNDS OF FIGURE 2-3 (REF. 46)

109

12001100
100090(
Measued In
ToMIWo (E)

9
Meimrod in Compression
ca

70(

w

40

(lubricated Iooding

surfoces)

rd Sheor Valus (G)

100 -Mo
00

0

a

i

i

,I

I

i

30

40

50

6O

7O

SO

Dwremeter Hordnes (Shore "A")
* Based on actual area, not original area
FIGURE 2-10 (2. 2.1). SCATTERBANDS OF VALUES OF ELASTIC
MODULI VERSUS DUROMETER (SwRI)

110

414 '% CC 51 833aa-samm MMl ljvv3LI OY ovom isNW .

2. CONVERSION GRAPH FOR HARDNESS READINGS (SwRI) 112 . 1).B9.I. ns sof Rbbr D-531 ASTM Standard Method of Test for Indentaton of Rubber by Mens of the Pusey and Jones Plastometer British Standard Industry Hardness Number (85903-1940) SB. Z a I50. -• -- 100 0 50 100 150 200 OTHER *Shore A Hardness~l British Standard Degrees >30 Degrees International Rubber Hardness Degrees FIGURE 2-12 (2.S. w go0 ir D-314ASTM Standard Method of Test for 0 ~Hard cl 70 .oo iso 200 30 w4 0 .

1). BONDED SANDWICH UNITS LO0ADED IN COMPRESSION (SwRI) 113 . 2.Ah F h- T -- i FIGURE 2-13 (2.

6ma 900 - ine slme Re P. AT& SHORSHORE A 50 0...% % I L- D c 0. 50 AND 80 DUROMETER SPECIMENS (REF. LU? F65 wi. 152) 114 . EFFECT OF SURFACE CONDITIONS ON THE DEFLECTION OF RUBBER IN COMPRESSION AND COMPRESSION STRESS-STRAIN CURVES FOR 30.2.0 6 UUS 0451S1U. 0 U4 -L .m$0-su 300- aFolwTALC 6U I A LOST 0 '0 00M55s.1).v FIGURE 2-14(2.ue MOION~lS 10OTE: 1*WE6 w FAT0 I~e $- LII PRO GORsmeem an I 40ssuu LW .CO -A30 A C my Arn 6.

E-spoinaison ugguwe or so IC. go '0 70- 30 R& .2.O~ll AU1ABA so. COMPRESSION LOAD DEFORMATION CURVE FOR CALCULATING SPRING DEFLECTION (REF. 152) 115 .1). U S 333l3 111RIUCIIOP116 PS m0{IS i'. *.300 ISO- .. gma % FIGURE 2-15 (2.

Portion A-B FIGURE 2-16 (2. 1).Iw 2 Creep Recovery-N A Permonpt S 01w 0 T 400 o 1.0100 a00 Hours in orcory coodwtes Typcicd creep recovery curve * Approirnote Equation Relotive Primary Creep-al-b logt so ! 0 J I I 1 1 1 I1 1 Iali a I | III I0 100 10 Hours SnW-iog pot of Creep Curve. TYPICAL CREEP CURVE PLOTTED ON VARIOUS COORDINATE SYSTEMS (SwRI) 116 .2. Portion A-B so- Hours 4 s6?So ? t0 so 40oso so 0-0 O "O Log-Log Plot of Crew Curve.

. S Deflction I 4? 4 FROM MuY A ST*£iuuT LWn vAaLU an Tm "t"ms uaesw Thoemve To4 PoW OoRiKPOUOIAS TO TNE NMOuSS 4 mmui NO TO TI TYPE OF STRAM I 0 44. 14. I 4 I O I I .m t da". 4 30 . is 4 4.. Z-Deflcton one minute . RELATIVE CREEP OF NATURAL RUBBER COMPOUNDS OF FIGURE 2-3 (REF.2.ofter 4.1). 48) 117 . e" 4 As 40. %I'm( AZIOO. ys.ALIGNMENT CHART FOR DRIFT UNDER STATIC LOAD %~ t I oo TEMPERATURE OF RUSER 100 *F. 0 GTO THE BUSWE v9 OUPT O 4 VALUe Or % THI %O r AXI. FIGURE 2-17 (2.

*LAm P" mom MI0T e RELATIVE CREEP OF ELASTOMERS (REF. EACK FOR M CREE OnR 30 IMINUTE1 "lO .."ARls A-C~UWO 0 R MEATMV coEEp vs.2. % FIGURE 2-18 (2. TIME all RELATIVE CREE RELATIE VS.IopggiM son HP I0 RATIO OF CREEP AFTER T MIWYIS TO 0099P INNTS AIME 10 OMT99 VS. 73) 118 . 02 . 1). -.

1).so 70 1 10 HOURS 100 1000 FIGURE 2-19 (2. 2 w IL 0 250 500 7F50 HOURS 0 '1000 250 500 750 HOURS 1000 'AA 90 - .A 100- ~90 -10 -. TYPICAL STRESS RELAXATION AND RECOVERY CURVES (SwRI) 119 .2.

\ - TYPICAL STATIC FATIGUE LIFE CURVES (REFS. 48.2. 0 I0 too 300 400 a" % 000*N0T slmAt ODFLEIiOl I.- p.0 (2. -.1). 152) 120 .- FIGURE 2-2. b00 0 I - "o h.One a I 00 sO OWmiwgib TwumATU NO LATERAL STROM.

1). 8) 121 .2.THERMOMETER TRIPLE SEAM BALANCE THERMOCOUPLE TO CONTROLLER -.RIGID -TO WEIGHING -O-RING SAMPLE ALUMINUM BLOCK HEATER FIGURE 2-21 (Z. HIGH TEMPERATURE TENSILE STRESS RELAXATION MEASUREMENT APPARATUS (REF.

J44 0 IL SNWO~ . !4 0 .LS 122 > .z 0 0-0 - 04 wIa I z oo z w w ) 00 .ss3v.

0 00 U. qzz -3 8~ - 123 SaUI -wv > .

z I> z 0 UU 04) 0 ww 031 z z 'p09 124 .

amGo+ rG, raz

TG

7

VOIGT MODEL

STRESS

/

S

se,

BEPHASE ANGLE
w. FREQUENCY
t TIME

STRAIN

ri

I

GI

GCOMPONENT OF STRESS IN PHASE WITH STRAIN
STRAI N
,iCOMPONENT OF STRESS 900 OUT OF PHASE WITH STRAIN
STRAIN
G*G+

tan

zl

IG",

G"= 7w =r~w

(G IS CONVENTIONALLY USED FOR SHEAR MODULUS 0
FIGURE 2-25 (2.2.2). MECHANICAL MODEL FOR DYNAMIC
RESPONSE OF ELASTOMERS (SwRI AND
REFS. 25, 125, 147)

125

'a

Correlations between test vauand dynamic moduli
A

Free vibration and impact tests
Dynamic Reiience

/Lot,

-i

L.S.g "

Dcremnt
Rebound Reilience
P

tan'

-6

where q

where

6

-Tan

2

r

..aconIcAEIn,

a.Wh

A1 /AZ
Area within hysteresis loop

AZ

Area bounded by maximum deformation abicissa.
miimmload ordinate. and upper boundary of
hysteresi loop

A1
escp(.4D)

dissipated per cycle. H

-

CLms,

(100 -

.R

Xz

for constant maximiim stress amplitude. F

where
all"

e

I-, constant vibration amplitude. X
ff
fi

/

"

Al

Dynamic Resilience

1/Energy
I

rebound heigli

shape factor

Dy-nic Stiffness. I)

'.

en-pIetan 6) where hZ

!L

Nonresoniant forced vibrations

G'

-

Vsup (.2w tan 6)

-7

aH

R

dynamic rslec
-

I(See

heat buildup

Figure 2.25 for other symbols)

FIGURE 2-26 (2.2.2). CORRELATIONS BETWEEN TEST VALUES
AND DYNAMIC MODULI (SwRI AND REFS. 100, 178)

126

00 o wa ofist Some
NATURAL RUSEER
COMPOUND A

so

68411

4

06

PREGUDNC

0 CPU

VAIATION OF TOTAL USSM

14

PoluSy
MTNW

I,..

.40

4r

2400

V*

AW

"a

OF 0!.8

III

AT1

i

T

mWI"M

IO
U
~-SO-40

m

0

TIUAOW
es@
UIS e.1
vinamu
?UATUSI~~~~

1m

I

e"M@WgA~f

gSMTKAP
24ot3MTI

. S ..U
* S OP
USC AW ?

vmawm a

s(

.

TH SULSJTe

018AMLa

FIGURE 2-27 (2.2.2). GI AND G" VALUES (REF. 175)

127

A

.

011

*

ofCoseent
brek
an
TypcaDywm

ST

emp
e

at Ow~e

llllO,
jo Faiue
LifeTurve

ypld OFati FLtfe L f
at Cowtt Teperature

u

anl

Cur "

Low Frepeas

FG

Lif
(22.
F
EStOt2
Low

Curve

FremMin-

~Cmt@Mt Strainow

tlh Frellmq

ell
opop~ll

of
FolgmeLft

FIGURE 2-28 (2.2. 2).

ar"VemlMf

of

Ftie, Lhife

Teftlmo

CHARACTERISTIC FATIGUE LIFE CURVES

FOR ELASTOMERS (REF. 48)
128

10 20 30 % COMPRESSION ELONGATION COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF URETHANES WITH NATURAL RUBBER (SwRI) 129 .ID 0. AND A CAST RUUE / POLTHKR URNI" FOR VAROUS SHAPE FACTORS / AND 40/.1. A THERMOPLASTI 200.URTHN N. .R. 400- CAST POLVESTER /A URVES OF A NATURAL / 1/ ~OO N I /.3).3. ACAST POLYETHER 10 URETHANE asO N.R.0 A CAT PiYETER UKITHAD a. so Sotui S0HM A NHANES$ IgSILlINCI CH"4ASE WiTH HAMOMIS$ FACTOR 1/SqA t-o Il X 2ItI.3. // I I II / //00 /oI MRESSION 7O SC g a 3. 30 /I S OUROETER I 300uE A A TURAL DEFLECTION / tool STRESS-STMN CURVESlo FOR 80 OURONETERS ELASTOERS 300 00 % 300 0 FIGURE 2-29 (2.

3. 00 Shoreo Aube AdWko5 L Shore A 90 R T.060L.1.0 TIHE5EI O. 84) 130 . URETHANE (REF.3.5000-W 1dys 7 /210 V 5000-*10- -gi days/212'F 302300 o ElvaeETm ngtin)oEvqkir CurveR for ko Cr .StressStrain Shore A 90 Adipmn for Shore A 90 L ofter AdpeneL a ~.3). MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A CAST POLYETHER.300 (a I for Shore A 60 Moehl Flexing Reullene of Sheire A£90 FIGURE 2-30 (2.~500o *3000s.Stet ~~~~~RT. Deftecton-Hor~ess Curves COW11ession0-eflec0s CUre 450 9r.100 SPOR . 0 f o- ADOMME L 00 ISO- 8 70 so _ _ 0 t I _ _ _ 1 50 Ig 00 A50 TEST TnMPWE QF Resawe Tosowk 300250- Curv 01 U .

STIFFENING OF ELASTOMERS AT LOW TEMPERATURES (SwRI) 131 .3.2. OF.15112Imelw* Wi9 5 ~~000 75- 50- ASTM D1053 25 -200 -150 -50 -1O0 TEMP. 0 +50 FIGURE 2-31 (2. 1).

0-4 - 0 ~uml ILI 1321 0 .

2. STIFFENING OF ELASTOMERS AT LOW TEMPERATURES (RESILIENCE) (SwRI) 133 . OF FIGURE 2-33 (2. 1).00 so- $0 0 0 ao 100 .P so 100 150 g00 TEMP.3.

XAMPLES OF THE EFFE-CTS OF EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE OF A PLASTIC AND AN ELASTOMER (SwRI) 134 . ll'Il I aT AT ONi 0 P S V #O FO STUSSow 0% W U T RI 400. 8 TEMPI ATIM[ Properties of Urethane E.2.. 900 .2). TEST B Mechanical FIGURE. 0.UL T-tATo ST104TN L.. -~ SS30Ol . II 200 19~m 1 0. 2-34 (2.4. 40.3..

0 z A : tn 44 E 135 .IA 400 0 $l 0$ wa -0 1- .

8 Mau0 006 4 .013 00 I 4 101 10.

E44 137 .

141 1384 .0 !! A..

. STEbO bgugIPi* -.to NW-g r'.UZ -3 2-3.2.z. tA UR .~Xat EX IT log pus139 O M LE O SE i'to ogs"T nlPn ot -T 1 M * 43 4 0.

NATURAL 0MODULUS 0 s0 4. 2).OINATIOU FIGURE 2-40 (2.3.10-R 10% ELAMTIOW4 100 IG0 NSO mO TDEMTIRAI*F. 2. W OO - ST YR WJ. 9) 140 .SITA E E 000 -a" won jmo aMODULUS loo0% E. THE PROPERTIES OF NATURAL RUBBER AND SER COMPOUNDS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE (REF.

. -300 U.2.2w0 100 Om Nitroon JP-5 "%/3O becme Air (A4024 Ir) Sutoprose mxm (40% owykmuft 3000- 2000 01 Tv~okwo. O.o.200 M 2000 0 Torah strmp.400 j1500. 9) 141 . . PROPERTIES OF A BUNA N AT 3250F AFTER AGING FOR 72 HOURS AT TEMPERATURE IN VARIOUS MEDIA (REF. FIGURE 2-41 (2.3.2).

DAYS am ImI r:w 40 . 9) 142 .3. THE EFFECT OF LONG TIME EXPOSURE AT 158 *F ON PROPERTIES AND THE EFFECT OF SHORT TIME EXPOSURE TO VARIOUS TEMPERATURES ON PROPERTIES OF NEOPRENE (REF.2. 2).40 so "o 006 FIGURE 2-4Z (2.

ELONGAT 40- go0 TCNULE 2 4 6 TEMERlriug. O5 B30U00 2AM 8 10 DAYS AT 300 OF EAn2 1 O OES 0 F.47) . 000LQT 0 1000 14 14 .HOURS AT 400 OF Ao so- ELo$ATiOF TENSLE -.

2). LITERATURE) 144 . FIGURE 2-44 (2. 9 AND MFRS. l Dppd 1* 100% I Ih 425 wo IO0 215 * 7 *0 30 3 50 TO0100 160200 300 100001000 3000300O00?00010000 Hes eoo 400 0 73 200 30 Terie 400 * o -O F.3. THE EFFECTS OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURES ON HYPALON (REF.2.b e Thm VubM.

46) 2.so 10 0 0 A 400 no " 0 0 .a I 1.EF 0.0 - 5 00 0. IA I 5 3 0 3. 4 I145 3 .1.

.- -4--- I_--...3.2.AGING AT ILEVATED TIEMPRATUES oo USEFUL LIFE OF SILICONE RUBSER HIGH TEM O 0 EAt EORATURES 700 . SILICONE LIFE AT TEMPERATURE CURVE OF BEST HIGH TEMPERATURE COMPOUNDS DEVELOPED FROM DATA OF FIGURE 2-45 (REF.L.4 l_ 1600 5000 MINUTES HolES DAYS wgEKs MOUTH FIGURE 2-46 (2.2).46 146 .

ROOM TEMPERATURE TENSILE STRENGTH OF ELASTOMERS BEFORE AND AFTER AGING AT 350"F FOR 8 HOURS (REF.2. 9) 147 .00 I110RE HEAT-AGING * AFTER MEAT-AGING z3m 40WF(UAGD 00 30 00* (ATERAG8R 4000-TESTED AT: o 73-F (NG *400-F (NG U400-F (AFTER AGING S AT 4004F) . TENSILE STRENGTH AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND 400"F BEFORE AND AFTER AGING AT 400*F FOR 8 HOURS (REF. 9) B.3.3000 z ILI I- wB a I 100 -it Ybb ha 0 FIGURE 2-47 (2..2) A.

" -b - - --- 4m 0 0 4 0 1 i * . 1 i 181 toi led NOt'NO~li wmap 148 0.4 008 .

0 0~ dp~ 149 03 .4 '4' .IU IZ Zil :3 0 IZ1. V. Ulx) I1.

415 6) .100 - - 90 70% 50 501 0 0. (RE.

loll zI~b Ol031 300 FIU E- 51( 101 )SEP PRPRTE R T R OFASLIOE(RF iU EP N E FDE C 6 E TI .

FREQUENCY AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF A SIUICONE (REF.001 lo 10 eIo11 FREQUENCY.- --- ~ 2 0. 5). 46) 152 . CPS FIGURE 2-52 (2.-0.1 9'0 04 A w - .

I.. -1 (3/1...o FIUR . UE I .3600 30 le Ofk 2400 1 /-25 I I -2000 0/ -S / 115 0 S153 # le 1400 1400 - SW S I ... 0MTCIYO E- .EFETO 14003 I .

2500F. 2). 11) 154 . AND 400°F (REF./ J hi .S \. S 100 l01 0040 Sam v/ 940/10 Is" IS0CTAiE-TOLUIUI RATIO FIGURE 3-Z (3.15hr / ~200p/i 1501 / / 2500 I -30 .I . EFFECT OF FUEL AROMATICITY ON BUNA N AT 75°F..2. sf - ASS 1oo / Is 1500S s - I S---- S .35 S I9 / 3000 • I / z I 25 .

LITERATURE) 155 .j.2Z. CHANGE IN RATE Or PERME-ABILITY WITH INCREASING AROMATIC CONTENT IN FUELS (MFRS.. IL 0 so 0/0 ANONATIVI 0 To as 0 FUElf FIGURE 3-3 (3. 2).14 CR Neprne WRT LN Sun N Low Nitrie U .ioItrile MN i MN l o HighNItrlle Wry High Nitrie VHNM i FA Polyoulf Ide o0 a *j 42 1o 0 .

TEMPERATURE. AIR PERMEABILITY OF ELASTOMERS AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE (REF. 3). *F FIGURE 3-4 (3. 9) 156 . 0.30 20- 10 54- U *A 0.

GRAPH OF RELATIVE RADIATION RESISTANCE OF ELASTOMERS AND OTHER MATERIALS (REF. 232) 157 .Reltive radiaion resistance of eiastomers and other materials INDUCD UTILITY OF MATERIALS DAMAGE IMGMtNT TO MILD N= MILO TO MODERATE iiiiiisMODERATE TO SEVERE NEARLY ALWAYS USADLE OFTEN SATISFACTORY LWITED USE £LAITONCRS Gamma Ray Exposure in ergs/gram X 83. 4).8 FIGURE 3-5 (3.

Yosw 20- 0. 91) 158 .3 00 £ILICI~oN FRACtION 0.4 U AL~9ATIC OMTLJ1L~SSTR NEINL "SNY' VINYL WM01*6 IN RADIATION sa6aw6ag3 my ROLVUI ROLVIILONAMI SUS NOONFICAIIO FIGURE 3-6 (3. - ~ - DOW MONRO CMffu FIL38 SNL'tot.10[600-to GAMMA D063. 4).6 70- GO Go.6 my C~mAN IN F914 so- a V11* lo 5.INGUows x 0' 430.20006 enOAgN in RASIAIOU hhSAhf SEvELOMlO my ANTIA 1516 COolGNTROL ANTIMAID By *1116*0 USE 10 ISO_ £LONGAIO 1T.3a 0.. 40 OWUOA soS. VARIATION OF RADIATION RESISTANCE OF SILICONES (SHOWING THE EFFECTS OF COMPOUNDING VARIABLES AND HIGH POLYMER MODIFICATION) (REF.OAITI ISO T NON /OVNKI e 10 300. [LONSAtION toLU to30-to as 0 ISO.

134) 159 . SLAB IN RUBBER PAD CONTACTED WITH 800 OF METAL SURFACE FOR 3 MINUTES (REF. PERCENTAGE LOSS OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF SECOND 0.3.go so 401 10 20 a -II IL 0 % M FIGURE 4-1 (4.1).075-IN.

RUBBER SLABS AFTER 3-MINUTE CONTACT WITH 800OF METAL SURFACE (REF.IA TEMPERATURE RANGE IN: First Slab S Seond Slab o Third Slob 0 Fourth Slab 500 400 30 I- 200 100 - --- -. TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN PAD OF 0. 075-IN.-- --- --- FIGURE 4-2 (4.- ---- ----- --.3. 1). 134) 160 .

Z 2 4 040 -4 ILI 12 1P)W3 w8 4 S ~161 .

foe A Untreated Surface B Aluminum Pointed Surfae C White Stock Surface D Vacuum-Aluminized Surface 500- 400 300- i00 0 IV1 V4 DEPTH OF TWI--OOOU-PLE P!OM SUMAI. TEMPERATURES IN 6 IN. 134) 162 . 5 IN. X 6 IN. BUTYL RUBBER SLAB AFTER 3-MINUTE EXPOSURE 0. FROM A 1000*F METAL SURFACE (REF. 2S IN.1). X 0.3. 34 Se FIGURE 4-4 (4.

(14 1631 .

TABLES 165 .

GR-(I) Hycar 2202 Enjay MD-551 NER. Copo. Philprene. Crepe Isoprene IR. Carbomix.TABLE 1-1 (1. 167 . Ameripol SN. Chioroprene. Butyl. Herecol. Butadiene. Krynol & S). Pc rbunan. Nitrile. Shell. 3MZF4 2-chloro-1. cia-i Butadiene CR. Krylene. The underlined names designate those used in this handbook. Styrene. Nat syn BR. Perbunan C Vyram Poly FBA.3). ASRC. Plioflex. GR-S. Hevea. Diene. 3-butadiene 2-cyano ethoxy ethyl acrylate Perfluoro alkyl and perfluoro alkoxy acrylates SBR. Smoked Sheet. Isobutylene & isoprene Brominated IIR Chlorinated IIR Acrylonitrile & Butadiene #-Each type of elastomer can be identified by several names. This table groups the more commonly used names according to chemical classification. Arneripol. Butap rene Chemigum. Naugapol. Buna 85. Coral Rubber. Philprenecis-4. Polysar (Kryflex. 2. Synpol Styrene & butadiene IIR. Buna S. 3M1F4. Chemical Name ELASTOMER CLASSIFICATION* Common & Trade Names Chemically Converted Plastic Halogen substituted thermoplastic Hypalon Homopolyme r Natural Rubber Synthetic Polyisoprene Polybutadiene Polychloro butadiene Polyacrylate Fluoroacrylate C opolyrne r Styrene -Butadiene Isobutylene Isoprene Bromobutyl Chlorobutyl Nitrile Butadiene Monomer or Polymer Names Chloro sulfonated polyethylene NR. Crude Rubber. Baytown. FR-S Gent ro. Neoprene GR-M. Buna N.

ELASTOMER CLASSIFICATION* (Cont'd) Chemical Name Common & Trade Names Nitrile Butadiene (Cont'd) Hycar. The underlined names designate those used in this handbook. Viton. Paracril. Ethyl acrylate & chloroethyl Lactoprene EV.2. E. Chemigum SL. vinyl ether Acrylon BA. Vinyl Butadiene & 2-methyl-5 Pyridine vinylpyridine (also terpolymer with acrylonitrile) Kellogg 214. Vinylidene fluoride & hexafluoro Fluorel propylene Vinylidene fluoride & chloroKel-F Elastomer trifluoro ethylene Polycondensation Product Polysulfide Thiokol Polysiloxanes Monomer or Polymer Names Urethane. & Union Carbide). 3). This table groups the more commonly used names according to chemical classification. methyl phenyl. Dow Corning Silastic LS-53 Cyano Substituted Nitrile Silicone Diisocyanate Carboxylated NBR Montecatini (Italy) C23 Ethylene and Propylene Hycar 4021. methyl vinyl. Adiprene. Acrylon EA. Sodium polysulfides & aliphatic dihalogens Dimethyl. Hycar PA. Ethyl acrylate & acrylonitrile Acrylic Philprene VP.TABLE 1. Lactoprene Butyl acrylate & acrylonitrile BN. and methyl phenyl vinyl polysiloxanes Methyl trifluoro propyl poly siloxane Cyano Ethyl or cyano methyl substituted dimethylsiloxane Diisocyanates & polyesters or polyethers *Each type of elastomer can be identified by several names. Daykollan. 168 . Polysar Krynac Carboxylic Hycar 1072 Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer Polyacrylic Butadiene MVP Fluorocarbon Fluorinated Silicone (G.1 (1.

Genthane. Estane. Neothane. 3). Multrathane. Vibrothane. -2. Chemical Name Dii~tocyain-itc Cont d) Fluorinated ELASTOMER CLASSIFICATION% (Cont'd) Common & Trade Names Monomer or Polymer Names Elastocast. Solithane. The underlined names designate those used in this handbook. Vulkollan Adipyl chloride and hexailuoro Polyester Each type of elastomer can be identified by several names. Flexithane. This table groups the more commonly used names according to chemical classification. 169 .1(1. Rigithane.TABLE 1.

2. Tangent Modulus 4. Deflection as a Function of Load 2. 7. Durometer Hardness B.TABLE 1-2. 6. Ultimate Elongation 4. FTM4411 --- Tear Strength 1. 89) D676 FTM3021 FTM5511 D412 D412 D1414 D412 D1414 D412 FTM4131 FTM4111 Test Methods Related to Mechanical Properties of Elastomers A. Tensile Stress or Modulus 2. STANDARD TEST METHOD OUTLINE Test Result Nomenclature ASTM Test Method (Ref. (1. Tension Properties I. Load at Specified Deflection 3.4). 9. Compression Set D395 D945 5. Tensile Strength 3. D. Compressibility Creep D575 D945 D575 D945 D945 --- --- -. Crescent and Angle Tear Resistance 2. Set at Various Elongations 5. Compression Stress Relaxation "Compression" "Recovery" D1390 --- 8. 29) Federal Test Method (Ref.----- FTM3311 FTM3311 --- FTM3321 FTM3321 FTM3331 FTM3331 D945 170 . D412 FTM4121 Strip Tear Resistance D624 FTM4211 --- FTM4221 Static Compression Properties 1. Set at Break C.

- --- FTM5611 -- - Response a. Set Creep D945 D945 . 171 --- --- .. 29) Test Result Nomenclature E. Cycles to Failure D430 --- b. Cracking Rate Permanent Set D430 D623 --- e. c.4). Severity of Cracking D623 D430 . 2. Effective Dynamic Modulus Frequency Spring Constant Yerzley Resilience Set D945 D945 D945 D945 D623 D945 FTM3411 FTM3411 FTM3411 FTM3411 FTM3411 f. d. -- a. Heat Buildup D623 --- Flexing a. b. STANDARD TEST METHOD OUTLINE (Cont'd) ASTM Test Method (Ref. Static Load-Deformation Static Modulus D945 D945 c. Federal Test Method (Ref.- D394 FTMI411 F. Heat Buildup Equilibrium Temperature D623 D623 --- g. (1. e. 2. 89) Static Shear Properties I. Crack Growth D813 D1052 --- f.. c. e. b..TABLE 1-2. Abrasion Resistance G Dynamic Properties I. d. Modulus of Rigidity D1043 D1053 d.

10. b. H. b. Young's Modulus Relative Modulus 5. STANDARD TEST METHOD OUTLINE (Cont'd) ASTM Test Method (Ref. 2. Resilience Penetration D1054 D1054 ----- D736 D746 D736 D746 D796 D796 Dl043 D1053 D796 D1043 D1053 D1043 D1053 D1043 D1053 D1 329 --- FTM5311 FTM5321 Low Temperature Properties 1. Federal Test Method (Ref. Impact a. (1. Modulus of Elasticity 6. Permeability a. Brittleness 2. Specific Gravity 2. General Physical Tests 1. Liquids Gases (Hose Air Leakage Test Only) 172 D297 FTMl4011 FTM14021 D814 -. Brittle Temperature 3. 9.FTM1l0111 . Relative Modulus Temperature 8.TABLE 1-2.4). 4. Modulus of Rigidity 7. 29) Test Result Nomenclature 3. II. 89) Retraction Temperature Beam Stiffness Durometer Hardness --- --- ----- --- --- --FTM5211 FTM5511 Test Methods Related to Physical Properties of Elastomers A.

ASTM Test Method (Ref. STANDARD TEST METHOD OUTLINE (Cont'd) Test Result Nomenclature B. 9.2... Electrical 1. 4.. Initial Sealing Pressure Aged Sealing Pressure 173 D1081 D1081 FTM3211 FTM3211 . Adhesion to Metal Adhesive Strength D429 a. Metal to Metal D1002 b. 2. C. 89) Thermal 1. Coefficient of Expansion Conductivity Specific Heat . Loss Angle 8. 3. Test Methods Related to Specific Applications of Elastomers I.TABLE 1-2. 3.. 2. c. (1.4). Federal Test Method (Ref... Breakdown Voltage --- ---- D150 D150 D150 ----- D149 --- III. Power Factor Power Angle 7. 6.. Rubber to Metal Rubber to Rubber D429 d. 2.. Surface Resistivity Dielectric Constant Dielectric Strength D257 D150 D149 5. Insulation Resistance D257 --- Volume Resistivity D257 D991 FTM9lI1 3.. 29) . b.. Strength of Splice FTM8031 --- ETM8031 FTM4311 FTM4311 Sealant Properties a.

4). D..- D1171 -. Effect of High Temperatures D454 D572 D573 D865 D1206 D1672 FTM7111 FTM7211 FTM7221 FTM7231 FTM7241 B. Bursting Strength (1) (2) b. STANDARD TEST METHOD OUTLINE (Cont'd) Test Result Nomenclature 4.- D1149 D1171 ----- C. Federal Test Method (Ref. Effect of Ozone D518 FTM7311 D750 . ASTM Test Method (Ref. 29) Straight Specimen Curved Specimen Air Leakage ----- FTM10011 FTMI0021 --- FTMI0111 Test Methods Related to Resistance in Change of Properties of Elastomers A. (1.- D454 D518 D572 D573 D750 D865 D1206 FTM7111 FTM7211 FTM7221 FTM7231 FTM7241 FTM7311 Effect of Oxygen D1672 174 . IV. Effect of Sunlight and Ultraviolet D518 FTM7311 Radiation D750 .TABLE 1-2. 89) Hose Tests a.2.

- Hydrocarbons -.2. Effect of Moisture and Moisture Changes D518 D750 D1171 H. Phenol -. Effect of Immersion I. 29) Federal Test Method (Ref.. D471 D1460 ---.TABLE 1. Water 3. Effect of Temperature Changes D518 D7 50 D1171 FTM7311 FTM7311 FTM7411 FTM7421 FTM7431 G.( 1.4) STANDARD TEST METHOD OUTLINE (Cont'd) Test Result Nomenclature ASTM Test Method (Ref. 89) E. 2.- 2.------- 175 .- --- FTM6111 FTMb121 FTM6211 FTM6231 FTM6241 FTM6251 FTM661 i FTM6631 FTM671 i . Effect of High Energy Radiation D1672 I. Effect of Stress D518 D1149 D1171 D1206 D1672 ---------- F.

4 0. 0.8 4.0 0. for example.3 90 6. **Values presented are "typical" values recommended for preliminary design use only.08 0. 14 0. 4). Source: SwRI.4 --- 0.7 14. BTU/lb/ 0 F Thermal Conductivity BTU/hr/sq ft/°F/ft 12. a bonded rubber sandwich.4 0. Also References 38 and 129.4 0. 5 9.4 4.22 0.TABLE 2.3 Natural Rubber** SBR* Buna N** Neoprene** Butyl** Silicone** 80 100 70 70 90 150 0. 15 27 9. Actual values are dependent on temperature range and compounding materials. 25 0. /in.05 0. 35 0. 11 0. 12 0. 12 0. Conditions of restraint must not be forgotten in predicting behavior.4 0. will expand almost three times the linear rate in the unrestrained dimension when heated. 176 . 00000 in. 12 Fluorocarbon** Urethane 80 --- --- 100 --- --- *These values are provided for order of magnitude comparison with elastomer values for the range 70 ° F to 1000F. THERMAL COEFFICIENTS OF TYPICAL ELASTOMERS COMPARED WITH OTHER ENGINEERING MATERIALS Material Aluminum* Magnesium* Plexiglas* Mild Steel* 302 Stainless* Titanium* Coefficient of Linear Expansion. 14 90 60 0.1 (2. /°F Specific Heat. 14 0.

5). __v/mril Excellent Silicone Fluorocarbon 10 1013 1 4 600 500 Good Butyl Natural Rubber Hypalon SBR 1016 101 6 1014 1013 2 5 3 7 600 500 600 500 Fair Urethane Polysulfide Neoprene Acrylic 1012 1012 1010 109 4 30 20 20 500 250 350 350 Poor Buna N Insulating 109 30 350 102 --- -- (Buna N Conductive) Source. Dielectric Strength.SwRI. Also References 38. 177 . 125. ohms-cm Power Factor. 223.TABLE 2-2 (2. SUMMARY OF ELECTRICAL INSULATING QUALITIES OF SELECTED ELASTOMERS Examples of Insulation Values Volume Resistivity. 48. 229.

Reference 9. TENSILE PROPERTIES OF VULCANIZATES BEFORE AND AFTER HEAT AGING IN AIR AND IN NITROGEN Elastomer Type Natural Rubber SBR Butyl (ordinary) Hypalon Neoprene Buna N Urethane A. C. 1. 178 215"F 275°F 3250 F 345 °F 310"F 215F 350"F 1475 2225 975 950 600 475 1550 . Temperature at which These Elastomers Lose 25% of Room Temperature Tensile Strength when Exposed for Eight Hours at Test Temperature Natural Rubber SBR Butyl (ordinary) Hypalon Neoprene Buna N Urethane Source. % A B C 480 520 510 390 420 940 430 230 270 450 370 420 780 430 230 250 470 350 410 730 430 200% Modulus. Tensile Strength. B. psi A B C 1400 1000 1400 600 375 250 1600 950 2100 975 900 575 325 1400 Original room temperature properties. Room temperature properties after 8 hours at 250°F in air. psi A B C 4125 3725 2125 1225 1325 1200 5500 1125 3100 2150 1650 1525 1250 5425 1775 3000 2150 1500 1450 1300 5525 Elongation. Room temperature properties after 8 hours at 250°F in nitrogen.TABLE 3-1 (3. 1).

C) *Many of these designations are trade names referring to specific elastomers.TABLE 3-2 (3. Z. 179 . see Table 1-I for classification of these materials. T.1. OSSEFORT'S CLASSIFICATION OF ELASTOMERS ACCORDING TO OZONE RESISTANCE Inherently Ozone-Resistant Elastomers* Ac rylons Hypalon Vyram Hycar 4021 LS-53 Kel-F Elastomer Poly FBA Silicone Viton A Ozone Resistant (without antiozonant) If Properly Compounded Brominated Butyl Butyl Neoprene Urethane (Genthane S) Ozone Resistant If Properly Compounded with Antiozonant Buna N Carboxylic Buna N SBR Vinyl Pyridine Natural Rubber Synthetic cis 1-4 Polyisoprene cis 1-4 Polybutadiene Conventional Polybutadiene Mercaptan modified adducts of Polybutadiene Polysulfide Urethane (Adiprene B.2).

TABLE 3-2 (3. 180 . See Table 1-1 for classification of these materials. Z. Source: Reference 31. OSSEFORT'S CLASSIFICATION OF ELASTOMERS ACCORDING TO OZONE RESISTANCE (Cont'd) Time to First Crack of Some of the Elastomers Whose Ozone Resistance is Dependent on Compounding Elastomer Type* Carboxylic Carboxylic Carboxylic Ozone Concentration 25 * Spphm 50 * 5 pphm Outdoors 1 day 3 days >1 year Urethane # 1 8 days Urethane # 2 4 days Urethane #3 >30 days Remarks 6 hours 1 day >1 year 13 weeks II months >1 year 7 days 2 weeks No antiozonant 2 weeks No antiozonant >1 month No antiozonant No antiozonant No antiozonant --- >30 days No antiozonant With antiozonant With another antiozonant Polysulfide #1 Polysulfide #2 1 day 1 day 6 hours 6 hours ----- cis 1-4 Polyisoprene cis 1-4 Polyisoprene 2 hours 4 hours 2 hours 4 hours 4 days >1 month No antiozonant With antiozonant cis Polybutadiene cis Polybutadiene 2 hours 4 hours 2 hours 2 hours 6 days >1 month No antiozonant With antiozonant *Many of these designations are trade names referring to specific elastomers.1.2). T.

Z .Used in D 471 and Federal Methods 6111. sec 98 ± 5-" 100 Flash Point 470 F min 4'5* * ASTM Methods D611 5s' 155 ± 5 "" D 88 10 F 330 ± 5F D92 -These de-signations reter to the fl.Te si 'or Aniiine Point and Mixed Point of Petroleum Prilucts and Hydr. I FTM Med 1 Low Swelling Oils ASIM No 2 FIM Med. 2 Medium Swelling Oils ASTM No 3 FIM Med. 6231 and 6251 Oil s ASTM No. D 88 D 9-- - "Measured at 210 F *?TMeasured at 100 F 181 .t Saybolt Universai Viscosity. 3 High Swelling 69.)'arbon Soivents (Rei 29. 6211.owing methods of the American Society for Testing Materials Test !or Saybolt Viscosity (Ref 29 Test !:)r Flash and Fire Points by Cletejand Open Cup tRef 29.TABLE 3-3 (3.5 * I-C C 93 * 3 C lt3 9 ± 4±5 4 F) (157 1*1 8'F) (255*1 8 F# (9q Aniline Poir.2 ) LIQUID IMMERSION TEST STANDARDS ASTM and FrM Oil. 6121. D 611 .

Reference Fuel B FTM Medium 6 15 volumes Isooctane**. 20 volumes FTM Medium 5 Xylene.2.2). LIQUID IMMERSION TEST STANDARDS (Cont'd) ASTM Reference Fuels Used in D 471* Reference Fuel A FTM Medium 4 Isooctane** Isooctane. 70 volumes Toluene***. 50 volumes Toluene***.TABLE 3-3 (3. 182 . ***Toluene conforming to the Standard Specifications for Industrial Grade Toluene (ASTM Designation: D 842). straight-run type. **Isooctane conforming to Section 214 of the 1956 ASTM Manual for Rating Motor Fuels by Motor and Research Methods. 60 volumes 5 volumes Benzene. Reference Fuel B has a more severe swelling action on elastomeric vulcanizates and exceeds the swelling action of commercial gasolines. Toluene. 30 volumes Isooctane**. Reference Fuel C has a swelling action on elastomeric vulcanizates which is more severe and which is typical of that experienced with highly aromatic premium grades of automotive gasolines. *These ASTM Reference Fuels have been selected to provide the maximum and minimum swelling effects which will be produced by commercial gasolines. 50 volumes Recommended Immersion Periods for Federal Immersion Tests 22 46 70 166 1/4 hours 1/4 hours 1/4 hours 1/4 hours 30 days * * * * *See MIL-S-3136. Reference Fuel A has a mild action on elastomeric vulcanizates and produces results of the same order as low-swelling gasolines of the highly paraffinic.

6231 and 6251 Medium 7 Benzene .1/4 hours 166 . LIQUID IMMERSION TEST STANDARDS (Cont'd) Federal Test Aromatic Mediums Used in Federal Test Methods 6111.6 FTM) (* 1. 6211.8 ASTM 3 6 FTM) (1. 2.8 ASTM± 3.conforming to Federal Specification TT-X-916 Medium 10 Distilled Water Recommended Temperatures for Aging of Specimens for D 471 and Federal Immersion Tests Degrees Fahrenheit 73.6 FTM) ( 1.1.6 FTM) ( 1.conforming to Federal Specification TT-T-548 Medium 9 Xylene . 1 ASTM * 2 FTM) 70 ( IASTM * 2 FTM) 100 1 ASTM * 2 FTM) 15*I ASTM * 2 FTM) 150 (* 1 ASTM * 2 FTM) 175(* 1 ASTM * 2 FTM) 200(* 1 ASTM * 2 FTM) 250(± 1 ASTM * 2FTM) Recommended Immersion Periods for Aging of Specimens for D 471 2Z ± 1/4 hours 70 .8 ASTM * 3.6 FTM) Z3 (*1. Grade 1 Medium 8 Toluene . 8 ASTM 3.8 ASTM * 3.6 FTMJ (* 1.TABLE 3-3 (3.conforming to Federal Specification VV-B-231. 1/4 hours 28 days 183 . 6121.4 158 212 257 302 347 392 482 Degrees Centigrade 2 ASTM 3. 8 ASTM ± 3.2).6 FTM) (. 61 FTM) ( 1.8 ASTM* 3.

Z+ Z 0 <0 0 C 0 Ca Ln L' 1. ~ U 144 0 21 ..ok - - 0-2 184 . u A.~ UIL U .- aiaa Uv v V.

C.TABLE 3-5. 1 -21. 6 -20. 860 2.2 -2Q. % Source Reference 4.6 Viton A-HV 70 hr 75 3. 70/30 ISO. 100 2.18. 7 -19. 185 .TOLUENE) Elastomer Immersion Temp.800 520 520 520 70 70 70 2.Ultimate elongation. (3 2 2.150 1. 890 1. 800 3. % . LS-53. 0 -31. Shore A Durometer . . 3 Poly FBA Poly FBA 72 hr 70 hr 250 325 940 915 280 100 83 81 250 260 80 80 43 57 -33 1 -45. 800 3. VITON A. IMMERSION TEST DATA ON COMPOUNDER'S PROPERTY VALUES OF BUNA N. 7 -2] LS-53 LS-53 LS-53 70 hr 70 hr 70 hr 325 325 400 1. 230 1.850 320 200 230 73 67 60 1.860 2.C. Buna N (see Figure 3-2) (see Figure 3-2) 70 hr 70 hr 70 hr 75 250 400 3.150 180 180 180 63 63 63 800 460 240 185 130 160 60 45 35 -20 -22.165 240 220 180 63 58 63 ..455 480 340 160 58 62 67 -20. psi E H V. 020 1.OCTANE.Hardness.Volume change. 860 300 300 300 71 71 71 1.890 200 71 2 5 Viton A Viton A Viton A 72 hr 70 hr 70 hr 250 400 400 2.075 200 70 2.280 1. . 4 T . AND KEL-F ELASTOMER EXPOSED TO FTM MEDIUM 6 (ASTM REFERENCE FUEL B.7 0 -29.400 1.010 710 190 160 160 66 50 50 .Tensile strength.150 1. 840 1. 2 Kel-F 3700 (see Figure 3-1) (see Figure 3-1) 70 hr 70 hr 70 hr 75 250 400 2. Time OF Original Properties T E H After Immersion Properties T E H V.

Low Temperature Internal Combustion Engine Diesel Internal Combustion Engine. Low and High Temperature High Temperature Lubricating Aircraft. Heavy Duty Gear Jet Engine Aircraft. REFERENCE LIST OF COMMON MILITARY LIQUID SPECIFICATION NUMBERS Fuels Automotive Combat Gasoline Aviation Gasoline JP3. Reciprocating Engine Gear General Purpose. JP4.L. Sub-Zero Gear. General Purpose Instrument 186 .2.TABLE 3-6 (3. Noncorrosive General Purpose Greases MIL-G-3278 MIL-L-3545 MIL-G-7711 MIL-G. Sub-Zero General Purpose Hydraulic and Light Turbine.2).10295 MIL-L-10324 MIL-L-15016 MIL-L-17672 MIL-L-21260 Internal Combustion Engine.15793 * Aircraft and Instrument. JP5 Aircraft Turbine and Jet Engine. The rmally Stable RJ-1 (ramjet) RP-l (rocket propellant) Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine JP-6 MIL-G-3056 MIL-G-5572 MIL-F-5624 MIL-F-25524 MIL-F-25558 MIL-F-25576 MIL-F-25604 MIL-F-25656 Petroleum Lubricating Oils MIL-L-2104 MIL-L-2105 MIL-O-6081 MIL-O-6082 MIL-L-6086 MIL-L-7870 MIL-L-8383 MIL-L-9000 MIL.

Anti Icing Fluid Ethyl Alcohol. High Film Strength Aircraft Gas Turbine. Inhibited Isopropyl Alcohol. Z). (Corrosion Preventive) Aircraft Turbine Engine. Nonflammable Lubricating Oil Missile (water-glycol base) Synthetic Lubricants MIL-O-6085 MIL-O-6387 MIL-L-7499 MIL-L-7808 MIL-C-8188 MIL-L-9236 MIL-L-14107 MIL-L-25336 MIL-L-25968 Oil. Special Denatured Calibrating Fluids for Fuel System Components Reference Fuel. High Temperature Aircraft Weapons (silicone) Aircraft Turbine Engine. Aircraft. Low Volatility Aircraft Turbine Engine (diester) Aircraft Gas Turbine.'rAIALF 3-6 (1. High Swell Castor Oil Base Hydraulic Fluid Power Transmission Fluid 187 . 2. Low Volatility (Die ste r) Extreme Pressure. Instrument. Hydrocarbon and Isooctane Ethylene Glycol. REFERENCE LIST OF COMMON MILITARY LIQUID SPECIFICATION NUMBERS (Cont'd) Petroleum Hydraulic Oils MIL-H-5606 MIL-H-6083 MIL-O-7083 MIL-H-15017 MIL-F-Z5598 Aircraft and Ordnance Pre se rvative Aircraft.19457 Miscellaneous MIL-S-3136 MIL-E-5559 MIL-F-5566 MIL-A-6091 MIL-F-7024 MIL-F-7197 MIL-H-7644 MIL-F-17111 Standard Test Fluids. Medium Temperature Synthetic Base Hydraulic Fluids MLO-8200 MIL-H-8446 MLO-8515 Silicate Ester Aircraft Diester Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluids MIL-F-7100 MIL-H.

2. REFERENCE LIST OF COMMON MI LITAR Y LIQ JID SPECIFICATION NUMBERS (Cont 1d) Other Fluid Designations Commonly Encountered Aroclor 1248 and 1254 Cellulube 220 DC 200 DC F-4029 Dowtherm A Houghtosafe 1120 Uindol OS-45 Pydraul F-9 Skydrol 7000 Skydrol 500 Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Phosphate ester.TABLE 3-6 (3. Hydraulic Fluid Silicone Fluid Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids Liquid Spring Silicone Fluid Diphenyl Phosphate ester.2). Hydraulic Fluid Tricresyl Phosphate Silicate Ester Hydraulic Fluid Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid 188 .

perature Fluid-Resistant Rubber. Solid. Strips. 5315A MIL-G. Petroleum Hydraulic Fluid Resistant Extreme Low Temperature Resistant High Temperature Resistant Fuel Resistant Oil Resistant Non. Boss Packings & Gaskets.5847C MIL-R-6855 MIL-R-7362B I Silicone II Sihlcone I II III IV Buna N Neoprene SBR Buna N V SBR Comp A.-stant MIL-R-25897 Viton MIL-R-25988 LS-53 189 Remarks . "0'' Ring. Medium and Medium Hard Buna N Packing. Oil and Fupl Re. Silicone. 275°F Rubber.Oil Resistant Oil Resistant (For Contact with Acrylic Plastics) Non-Oil Resistant (For Contact with Acrylic Plastics) Buna N Synthetic Oil Resistant Buna N Buna N Synthetic Oil Resistant Packing. High Tem.2. and Gaskets.2). MIL-P. Straight Thread Tube Fitting.5510A Buna N MIL-P-5516B Buna N MIL-R. Fuel Resistant Gasket.TABLE 3-7 (3. Synthetic. Low Temp Comp B High Temp MIL-P-25732 Hydrocarbon. Petroleum Hydraulic Fluid Resistant. Preformed. Preformed. REFERENCE LIST OF COMMON ELASTOMER SPECIFICATIONS Specification Types Class Suitable or Required High Polymer MIL-R-1149A I & 1I 1 2 3 5 Neoprene SBR Butyl Buna N Rubber Sheets.

2.TABLE 3-8. 2). Class S MIL-P-5516B MIL-P-25732 MIL-P-5516B MIL-R-6855 Class III Buna N MIL-P-5315A MIL-G-5510A MIL-P-5516B MIL-P-25732 MIL-P-5315A MIL-P-5516B MIL-R-25897 MIL-G-5510A MIL-P-5516B MIL-P-25732 MIL-R-7362B-Comp. LIQUID MEDIA GUIDE FOR ELASTOMER SELECTION BY MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS Fluid MIL-L-2104 MIL-G-3Z78 MIL-L-3545 MIL-E-5559 MIL-F-5566 MIL-F-5572 MIL-H-5606 MIL-F-5624 MIL-o-6081 MIL-L-6082 MIL-L-6085 MIL-L-6086 MIL-A-6091 MIL-0-6387 MIL-F-7024 MIL-0-7083 MIL-F-7100 MIL-G-7711 Elastorner MIL-P-5516B MIL-P-25732 MIL-R-1149A Type H. Class 5 MIL-R-25897 Butyl MIL-P-5516B MIL-P-25732 190 Temperature Limits -650F -65OF to +1600 F to +2750 F -40* F -650 F -650 F -650F to to to to +250* F +1600 F +2750 F +160OF -65 0 F -65F -400 F -650F -65 0 F -65OF -65OF -65OF -30*F -65OF -65*F -65 F -650 F -30*F to to to to to to to to to to to to to to +160F +212F +1800 F +1600 F +160F +2750 F +1600 F +1600 F +4000 F +1600 F +160F +2750 F +2750 F +4000 F -65OF to +2000 F -650F to +160F -400 F -650F to +2120 F to +3250 F -65 0 F to +160 0 F -40OF -300 F -65F -65*F -65 0 F to to to to to +2120 F +4000 F +212F +1600 F +275 0 F . Class 5 Neoprene (Static Seal Only) MIL-R-6855 Class I MIL-R-1149A Type 11. A MIL-R-Z5897 MIL-R-6855 Class I MIL-R-6855 Class 111 MIL-R-l 149A Type II. (3.

2. Comp. Comp. A MIL-R-25897 MIL-P-5516B MIL-P-25732 MIL-R-7362B. (3. Comp. A MIL-P-5516B Neoprene MIL-R-25897 MIL-R-25897 MIL-P-5516B MIL-P-Z5732 MIL-P-25732 Butyl MIL-R-7362.TABLE 3-8. LIQUID MEDIA GUIDE FOR ELASTOMER SELECTION BY MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS (Cont'd) Fluid MIL-L-7808 MIL-L-7870 MIL-C-8188 MLO-8200 MIL-H-8446 MLO-8515 MIL-L-10295 MIL-L-17672 MIL-H-19457 MIL-L-25336 MIL-F-25558 MIL-F-25604 MIL-F-25656 Elastomer MIL-R-7362B.2). A MIL-R-Z5897 Butyl MIL-R-25988 MIL-R-25897 191 Temperature Limits -65 F -40 F -65 F -650F -65"F -65 F -656F -400 F -30*F -650F -65 F -65 F -650F -651F -300 F to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to -65 F -30 F to +350"F to +400'F +2750F +4500 F +160'2F +2750 F +275"F +160°F +3500 F +4500 F +4000 F +1604F +2750 F +2750 F +2120F +275" F +4001F .

Nitric Oxide Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) Nit rous Oxide Oxygen (LOX) Ozone T et ranit romethane Monopropellants Diethylene Glycol Dinitrate Ethylene Oxide Ethyl Nitrate Hydrogen Peroxide Nit roglycerin Nit romethane N-propyl Nitrate (MIL-N-8722) Fuel Anhydrous Ammonia Aniline Beryllium Boron Carbon Diborane D:iscl. 3). A REFERENCE LIST OF SPACE WEAPONS SYSTEM ENERGY SOURCE CHEMICALS OF CURRENT INTEREST Oxidizers Bromine Pentafluoride Chlorine Trifluoride (CTF) Fluorine Hydrogen Peroxide MIL-H.ropenyl Acetylene (DIPA) Ethyl Alcohol Ethylene Diamine Furfuryl Alcohol Gasoline Hydrazine 192 Type III] . RFNA. (3.2.TABLE 3-9.16005 Nitric Acid [ WFNA. & (IRFNA) MIL-N-7254B.

-25558. (3. RJ & RP Hydrocarbon Fuels (MIL-F-5624. -25576. MIL-F-25604) Other Fluids Liquified Inert Gases (Nitrogen. A REFERENCE LIST OF SPACE WEAPONS SYSTEM ENERGY SOURCE CHEMICALS OF CURRENT INTEREST (Cont'd) Fuel (Cont'd) Hydrogen JP.2).2. Helium) Hot Gases from Solid Propellant Combustion 193 -25656) . Kerosene Lithium Lithium Hydride Methyl Alcohol Monoethyl Aniline Pentaborane Unsymmetrical Dimethyl Hydrazine (UDMH.TABLE 3-9.

TABLE 3-10 (3. 131) Liquid Oxygen Impact Test 40 ft lb 50 ft lb 60 ftlb Viton 10 pass 0 fail 9 pass 1 fail No Test Buna N 10 pass 0 fail 6 pass 4 fail No Test Buna N 9 pass 1 fail 2 pass 8 fail 2 fail Buna N 8 pass 2 fail 4 pass 6 fail No Test Kel-F Elastomer 7 pass 3 fail 5 pass 5 fail 2 pass 2 fail Kel-F Elastomer 7 pass 3 fail 4 pass 6 fail 1 pass 2 fail LS-53 6 pass 4 fail 7 pass 3 fail 4 pass 2 fail Viton 6 pass 4 fail 3 pass 7 fail 2 fail Viton 6 pass 4 fail 3 pass 7 fail 2 fail Viton 5 pass 5 fail 3 pass 7 fail 2 fail Neoprene 6 pass 4 fail 1 pass 9 fail 2 fail Buna N 6 pass 4 fail 0 pass 10 fail 2 fail Neoprene 6 pass 4 fail 0 pass 10 fail 2 fail Buna N 4 pass 6 fail I pass 9 fail I pass 2 fail Spec. Neoprene (Fire Retard.3). Comp.) 4 pass 2 fail No Test 2 fail Elastorner Type 194 . RESULTS OF LOX IMPACT TESTS (REF. Plast.2.

:: LF tr J# .go 0I0 OOOa)Ln - ~ J000 0000 % r- 0 00in00 00 N L U- M It M It 0m~t ff t Mm 0 T z Ow0 .

4)0 4. 4a4)1 - 4 I '* u -0 v~~ o0 z 04~.nU 00 N N-4N 0000 0 NNN om 0000 NG -00 NN ina 44 o a~ 00t%0 N 04o I 0~ 0000000000O0M N 0 L 00 O o00 r-L00 0000LC% 0 4A O 0 ~~( O0 0.4z .4~ S: (a ocooo n D Omm 0 or-L co11 .0 :3 14 0 9) 14V- 0. *~4.0.ooo'o 'D N f) C ' 00. '04-" 144 -4 4. 00 00 ~0.%rt 0 oo o o 0 000. 196j * r .Or.0 _4r% o W ti----00m %e n Ui % N %a- 00 0 Ii 0 N NNe -n0 -at 0Nr *0 6.

4) 1971 .~OD r-f N4 k N :3 4 4 04 $4~~ 000'o~ 4 V N A - .4.4 0 0 0 LAOA A0 o0'D '0- 0 L n Ln O N ot Vw 00000000000vw o11 0 r.P1 0 0'4 P-N 0 0 L % %~ ~0 4~~~~4jLg LA M-0 j3400' t- NN N ~ ' ~ 0 o~0-4% .r- o 00 00Ln' 0 1o n 00 000I '00 II -4 ~N kN -N t-.r.

* 0N m -co r- " ao .:' 00 U0 U 4)4a •. 0 ' c od . o * .~~~ --- I *~z~ 0 7~ : * CC 198 * ~ -- I I I 0. w '4 ~ . 2* 0 2 0 - I I I 0~ a+'t C.* - I. .4 . 0 S 0 " t ..

4. o 0 I I i I F4. o0 ' 1+ ENf+ + + 0 N ' - L as 4) 04 + 94 - 0 4.1 0 aV.a 0 F4 ' o 14Ca a 0~ - '. -- .0 U. 0 04 N ~ 0 N.. 0 I.U 0. N 19 ' . u 0 00 r- C. . it V.* 4w !I II 0.

.007 ----- --- ---.. 2 *Values are given only to one significant figure because of variation in permeability caused by compounding variables..07 0.1 0.. 2 0.1 0. He 3 2 0.3 0. 200 .3 CO? 3 9 0.1 0.6 60 Water Vapor Permeability Constants x 108 measured in gm/hr/cm2 /cm thickness/vapor pressure mm Hg. High Polymer Natural Rubber SBR Butyl Hypalon Neoprene Buna N** Thiokol FA Silicone Poly FBA Urethane Vyram Polyethylene Teflon N2 2 0.7 0.02 1 0. Most Buna N's have permeability constants comparable to those given for Neoprene.. 5 0.3).2 0..2 0..02 --70 --- 0.4 0.02 02 Air H2 2 1 0.. --- ---.1 --- --- 10-70 --- --- 0.... Also Reference 9.9 0.04 . 0..3 0. Natural Rubber SBR Neoprene Polysulfide 7 10 3 0. **This is a specific elastomer compounded for impermeability.1 --- 200 100 2 --- --- --- 0.8 --- 2 --- CH 4 2 2 --. 0..2 GAS PERMEABILITY CONSTANTS X 107 seccmatm AT ROOM TEMPERATURE*a TABLE 3-12 (3.04 --- 0.2 .05 0.4 .05 3 3 0..08 --- 0.. Source: SwRI.1 --- 0.8 --- 1 0..6 0.7 0.. 0.09 0.

1. b' 0 IOU wtS $4 ..* N >'O 0 0 III 201 0 .4 $..1 oo IV0 50 0 be5 k 0 s. %% 0 ~ 0 5~0 o £1 04 00 BA N ofA 0 z.025 46 CII 0 0 4.4 $4 k k k k $1$ 4 N 1 . 0 5 0 4 e 5 . 00 0 0 6 0 00 z Ln 0 ri %n .

40~- U).4 V0O 14 fln - -4 4: 0 141 too VI I' Iin A U. 0 N.Y 144AU I I r In ii F-I U u f-44 w 4 (A bA 4..1 0 14 .In Z- i60 0 . 4J w -x 14 VU tn >0 m % (1.ow 0 . N bU O. 0r:0 .

.0 i v s 400C"0a C0 1 u~0 o 42o '40 .00- -" 41 * 020 V 0 40 n6 14 . .e" (A.1 I. o C4 ui "4 0 41.0 D 4 . P-4.

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TABLE 3-16 (3.4). RADIATION EFFECTS ON VIBRATION
CHARACTERISTICS OF ELASTOMERS

Elastomer

Dynamic
Young's Modulus
El, 108 dynes/
sq cm

Exposure,
1011 ergs/gm

Modulus
Ratio,
E2/EI

GROUP I
Natural Rubber
Compound A
SBR
Compound A

0
0.19
1.4
0
0. 19
1.4

2.3
2.8
9.2
1.8
2.6
270

0.7
0.05
0.15
0.07
0.07
0.07

0
0.19
0.43
1.0
0
0.19
0.43
1.0
0
0.19
0.43
1.0
0
0.19
0.43
1.0
0
0.19
0.43
1.0
0
0.19
0.43
1.0

0. 33
0.7
0.9
2.0
0.25
0.5
0.8
1.8
0.30
0.4
0.8
2.3
0.47
0.8
1.3
3.8
0.9
1.6
2.3
10
1.2
2.1
80
350

0. 16
0.06
0.06
0.10
0.12
0.06
0.04
0.06
0.12
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.16
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.15
0.06
0.1
0.2
0.5
1
I
0.1

GROUP II
Natural Rubber
Compound B

Polybutadiene

Buna N

212

06 0.0 0 0.19 0.0 50 250 4.0 6.03 0. 5 0 0.20 0.08 0.5 Reference 60.4 0.0 0 0.3 0.0 4.3 0.1 e.09 0.03 0.43 1.19 0.3 1.19 0.1 3.04 0.02 0.1 8.0 0 0.0 0 0. 0 4.20 0. RADIATION EFFECTS ON VIBRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ELASTOMERS (Cont'd) Elastomer Dynamic Young's Modulus E l . 20 0.43 1.6 20 270 1.5 1.1 0.19 0.6 1.20 0.5 0. 213 0.1 .2 0.7 1.3 0.3 13 3 5 30 200 0 0.6 0. 108 dynes/ Exposure.3 0. E2/E GROUP II (Cont'd) SBR Compound B Neoprene Polysulfide Silicone Natural Rubber Compound C Acrylic Hypalon Source: 1.43 1.20 0.06 0.4 1 1 1 0.4 3.5 11 0.3 0.10 0.43 1. 1011 ergs/gm sq cm Modulus Ratio.4 3.2 4.4). 2 5.TABLE 3-16 (3.4 0.09 0.5 1.1 2.02 0.50 0 0.

TABLE 3-17 (3.5 X 10 9 I X 1010 -40 to 250 Oil resistant I X 109 4 X 10 8 I X 10 1 1 Butyl Urethane PLASTICS Polystyrene Polyvinyl chloride Polyethylene Gaskets Epoxy Polyurethane I I I 9. 5 I 214 X lol 1 X l100 X 10 1 1 X 1010 X 1011 . Material Use Temperature Range.4). *F Fuel and Oil Stability Radiation Stability Maximum dosage. RADIATION STABILITY OF ELASTOMERS AND PLASTICS USED IN SEALS AND GASKETS AT TEMPERATURES BELOW 300 F. ergs/gm in air ELASTOMERS Natural rubber SBR Buna N Neoprene O-Rings O-Rings Seals Gaskets Sealant O-Rings Seals Gaskets -40 to 280 Oil resistant 5 X 1010 1.

4). ergs/gm 450 450 140 280 250 1 1 3.TABLE 3-17 (3. (Cont'd) Radiation Stability of Elastomers and Plastics Used as Sealants Elastomer Temperature Range. 5 1 1 Reference 232.) . 215 X X X X X 109 (in air) 109 (in air) l0 9 (in JP-4 fuel) 1010 (in air at room temp.) 109 (in air at room temp. RADIATION STABILITY OF ELASTOMERS AND PLASTICS USED IN SEALS AND GASKETS AT TEMPERATURES BELOW 3000 F. * F Viton A RTV Silicone Polysulfide Buna N Neoprene Source' to to to to to Radiation Stability Maximum dosage.

. '& In In 00 OD .4 9: 00 4 +14 00.4) *o0. 4I 0 I 0n 00 n* 0 -.14 .bo 414 k4 I to 0co4 b E 000 0. 0 0 1 0 1.4v zZ 0 0.4 ~ In5 0.. 4 x 1 U)>) -4. - 00 00 .I .. I ~ n 04 #- 1 0. 004 216 ..0 14.- 0u4 0 14 14XN E-4-0 0 $ 1 0d 04 0 U) U) 44z .In nI 00 00 .. ~ .

C41 44.H u 4 . 4:Z4 41j 0 000 4: C. z- 00 o~- 00 00 0 H < U) 4)1 0.41 u4 41 I1C 04 41 .4 41 F4 4 217 ..4) 0 04- ~x 0 x 0 44b 4 504. 4.

014 -4 1 V 'AOV 0J 0 0 0 .414 A 1 ~~4) u tkoa I1e to !.00 0 r.40 14 0 LOC d.. 4 - 4 0$ E1 uu 1&4.4 0. 0 7z 0 . ' 04 0 is e' 4a 0.a P4 4A 0 40 -.4 lo 00 9 000 x V . PC (1 c 0 'AEU' Oo' to S ~1 00 0a 4 4 V 0 u 218 .

0414 .41 .c 0y 4: 4. 00 4: 0 0 to..G4) 4)4 ~ 4) 40 4) 40.1 CU 84) 00 CU 0 0 A: )0% Nu N 0 10 u N.0 0 oDO r- -0 yoay r yo .1 *21 . 41 0'0 8 4' 4: 4)4 1 .04 04 m4 4) V 00I F-400 P 0 P 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 044 00 @0 144 0O 04 0~ D "a<<0 -- V (A ..

6 0 97.4 X 10 7 4.2 97.8 98. Elongation.4 X 108 1.4 X 10 8 8.4 64.7 X10 9 2145 742 1112 1028 961 172 63 208 211 117 72 76 64.7 X 10 7 4.2 192 Viton A Air Original Viton A Air 8.8 Teflon Teflon Teflon Teflon Teflon Teflon Air Air Air MIL-L-7808 Oil MIL-L-7808 Oil MIL-L-7808 Oil Original 4.8 97.8 64. ergs/gm Physical Properties Tensile.TABLE 3-20 (3.6 97. 7 X 107 Viton A Viton A VitonA VitonA VitonA Argon Argon MIL-L-7808 Oil MIL-L-7808 Oil MIL-L-7808 Oil 2. THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON RADIATION RESISTANCE OF VITON AND TEFLON Material* Environment Dosage. 220 ---- Disintegrated- --- .5 97.7 X 108 2435 1342 616 1471 1534 834 234 0 0 33 4.4). Source: Reference 232. psi percent Shore A 1044 66.7 X 107 8.8 *Samples were tensile dumbbells. Hardness.0 X 10 8 5.0 X 108 8.7 X 106 8.

2). 2. Inherently resistant Most sensitive to environment Environmental Resistance Resilience Source Maximum load X deflection/spring weight (for a particular design in each case) SwRI 221 . 000 % Damped Metal Air Hydraulic SpringSpring Spring 1.TABLE 4-1 (4. Most complicated Reliability 1. Lightest 6. Characteristic Efficiency. ORDER OF MERIT RATINGS OF VARIOUS SPRING TYPES AS SHOCK ABSORBERS Elastomer Spring Metal S -60 1 I 4 2 -50 1 1 5 4 -70 2 2 6 3 -40 3 4 3 4 -80 3 2 1 1 3 1 1 3 2 2 12. % Construction Reliability Weight Recoil Damping Environmental Resistance Resilience (lb in. May fail suddenly without prior indication detectable by preventive maintenance inspection Weight 1. 500 15. 000 800 Liquid Spring -75 3 3 2 1 area under load deflection curve X 100 maximum load X maximum deflection Construction 1. 000 8. 4. 500 10. . /lb) Efficiency. Can be designed fail safe 4. Heaviest for equal capacity Recoil Damping 1. Simplest 3. Highest energy absorbing capacity Least energy absorbing capacity 1.

static fatigue No effect Design Analysis Empirical basis Mathematical . Environmental Resistance Limited Superior Construction Simple Complex Sound Insulation Inherent Requires auxiliary material Stability of Properties Frequency Temperature Loading Hi story Dependent Dependent Dependent Independent Independent Independent Snubbing No dead stop Requires auxiliary device Load-Deflection Curve Highly variable Limited Lateral Stability Inherent May require auxiliary device Minimum Natural Frequency Limited Unlimited Response to Dead-Weight Load Creep.TABLE 4-2 (4.2. small for large deflections.asis Source: SwRI 222 . bulky if large deflections required. Large for high energy storage capacity.2). COMPARISON OF STEEL AND ELASTOMER SPRINGS AS VIBRATION ISOLATORS Characteristic Elastomer Spring Steel Spring Damping Capability Inherent Requires auxiliary device Size Small for high energy storage capacity.

4 -L I AW. 4" I1 .t Ju. 4 41) 01 0) j cL. I -)0 of 4/u 1*4 .. . I9 .0) .11 8 0 or >03 '.14 - o'~ rb)" ~ 00I0 0 r 40..04 - 3' ~ J ( ) 0 H3 t). 'D ) u . 0 9-1 ~ 0 14 000. I f 0. 0 A I0 3 " 1. .-- -- * - - - - - - - - P. 0 ed I ~ -0 00 (A 0 H~~~9 * .44 0 0 0. I4 z 4. * 30.4 S ' a II ri 04)1 "9-H noq.40..

.- .4 to .3 *d v 0 41 a F.z. .. 00 4 00Q 0 0...04 0 .41 D R.a' 2.)*0c. 1" .).46- .L004a)- 0 1 s i ' p- I 2.1 ~ 0 0%. -r.~ 41o :-1 0 0~ 0. o I .1 0 I 9 4 13A00 r.I.6 . 4 0 0% a 3.3 %jo a 0 43 0 02 a f0. 8 0.