Tissues of the Body Revision Notes

Session 1: Methods in Light Microscopy
1000 nm = 1µm
1000µm = 1mm

Tissue - collection of cells specialised to perform particular function
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Biopsy techniques:
Curettage = endometrial
Smear = cervix/buccal cavity
Needle = brain, breast
Direct incision = skin, mouth, larynx
Endoscopic = lung, bladder, colon
Tran vascular = heart, liver
Fixatives

- prevent autolytic degeneration
- formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, acetic acid, alcohol

Artefacts due to fixation, dehydration, embedding, sectioning + staining
=> DISTORTION
Periodic Acid Schiff => magenta carbohydrates + glycoproteins
Haematoxylin => purple/blue acidic components e.g. DNA/RNA (-ve charge)
Eosin => pink with +ve structures e.g. mitochondria (acidophilic)
Session 2: Epithelial tissues + Cell Ultrastructure
Epithelia - sheets of contiguous cells, of varied embryonic origin, that cover the external
surface of the body + line internal surfaces
BASEMENT MEMBRANE:
- sheet of extra cellular matrix proteins
- boundary between support tissues + parenchyma cells
- structural support + binds epithelium to underlying supporting tissue
- controls growth + differentiation of epithelia
- permits flow of nutrients + metabolites to + from epithelium
- regulating permeability e.g. glomerulus’s
- 3 layers = (1)
lamina lucida
(2)
densa = electron dense
(3)
fibroreticularis = merges with underlying supporting tissue
EPITHELIA:
1.

SIMPLE = 1 cell thick
- squamous lining or exchange (blood vessels, heart, pleural + peritoneal cavities)

vesicles + cisternae with attached ribosomes protein synthesis for exocytosis/cell membrane incorporation R. kidney tubules. ER - interconnecting membranes. intracellular adhesion + recognition. active in RNA synthesis. anal canal.pseudostratified ciliated columnar = lining + secretion (upper respiratory system) = sensory reception (nose.Nuclei at diff levels but still 1 layer 3.lining of urinary bladder + uterus CELL ULTRASTRUCTURE Limit of resolution . mouth) 4.columnar lining + secretory ( exocrine ducts (thyroid). Nucleus at base 2. compartmentalisation. ear. nucleoproteins + RNA genes for protein synthesis + cell replication heterochromatin electron dense DNA + associated nucleoprotein.All cells attached to basement membrane . disappear during cell division - double layer of membranes. not active in RNA synthesis euchromatin . ER - lipid biosynthesis + intracellular transport .electron-lucent.can stretch + protects underlying tissues from osmotic damage . COMPOUND . PSEUDOSTRATIFIED .min dist at which 2 objects can be distinguished . absorption ( GI tract lining + large excretory ducts of glands). found in actively transcribing cells nucleolus - nuclear envelope rRNA synthesis for ribosome assembly. continually lost due to mechanical trauma (oesophagus. - plasma membranes - endo/exocytosis. parenchyma) secretion of enzymes + mucus.cuboidal . material transport along surface glycocalyx - lipoprotein + glycolipid polysaccharides => protection + cell recognition nucleus - DNA.proportional to wavelength electron microscopes = finer resolution Membranes amphiphatic phospholipid bilayer tails hydrophobic = barrier to water soluble molecules proteins for transport etc. selective permeability..squamous surface cell flattened. TRANSITIONAL . ext epidermis) . nuclear pores allows movement S.

Session 3: Internal Surfaces of the Body Gland - epithelial cell/aggregate of cells specialised for secretion Exocrine = discharge secretion via a duct into lumen of organ / onto skin Simple (single.non-membrane bounded structure approaches cell surface . packages + modifies proteins synthesised by R.membrane surrounding droplet pinches off from cell .Membrane added to regain original area ∙ HOLOCRINE = sebaceous glands (skin) . spherical or oval (enzyme content to differentiate) 1o fuse with target => 2o Peroxisomes - spherical. unbranched duct) + compound (branched duct) Unicellular (=> surface epithelium) + multicellular (via duct) Endocrine = secretion into vascular / lymphatic systems Cords (adrenal cortex).Plasma membrane transiently smaller .fuses with plasma membrane => contents in continuity with extra cellular space . concentrates.makes contact + pushes up apical membrane . follicles (thyroid) or clusters (pituitary) ∙ MEROCRINE = exocytosis . membrane highly glycosylated = protection 1o = dense.ER Secretory Vesicles - condense => secretory granules. granular matrix self-replicating major site of oxygen utilisation + peroxide production mainly in kidney tubules + liver parenchyma cells Mitochondria - generate energy-rich ATP by oxidative phosphorylation maternally inherited Cytoskeleton - network of tubules + filaments => structural support means of movement for organelles. sorts.Membrane briefly larger .g. release contents by exocytosis Lysosomes - hydrolases@pH5.Ribosomes - synthesis of proteins for cytosol Golgi Apparatus - stacks of cisternae.Membrane bound compartment approaches cell surface . lipids .Membrane retrieved => stabilises cell surface area ∙ APOCRINE – e.thin layer of apical cytoplasm drapes around droplet . plasma membrane etc.

Elastic Fibres – elastin + microfibrils ∙ Loose (areolar) CT: 1st line of defense vs.adhesion to substrates + neighbouring cells .mobility of cells . glycoproteins . medium for exchange - Fibroblasts – collagen.endocytosis @ opposite surface ∙ Glycosylation = adding sugars to proteins + lipids . protects underlying organs.endocrine control . . elastic/collagenous. proteoglycans.nervous . elastic + reticular fibre synthesis Macrophages – ingest foreign material Mast cells – granules in cytoplasm of chemical mediators for inflammation ∙ Extracellular matrix: resists compression + stretching .neuro-endocrine control Session 4: Connective Tissue ∙ Loose/dense. regular/irregular ∙ Joins tissues.dense regular = parallel/organised => resist tensile forces Session 4: Early Embryonic Development .Ground substance . bacteria etc.- cell disintegrates + releases contents discharge of whole cell ∙ Transepithelial transport: .abundant ground substance + tissue fluid .subcutaneous + adipose tissue ∙ Dense CT: more fibres.contact inhibition of movement + division ∙ Controls .communication .transport vesicle shuttles across cytoplasm . less cells => resistant to stress . supports body + its structures.endocytosis @ 1 surface .Collagen – inelastic + great tensile strength .negative feedback chemical mechanism .GAGs.dense irregular = collagen fibre bundles arranged randomly => multi-directional tension (dermis + deep fascia) .

smooth. holds cells together till implantation ∙ Fertilisation in Fallopian Tube ampulla => zygote ∙ Transported to uterus ∙ Cleavage => 2 blastomeres ∙ Successive cell divisions => morula (intermediate between zygote + blastocyst) ∙ Compaction: toti => pleuripotent cells ∙ Spaces between cells of morula merge => blastocyst (hollow sphere of cells) ∙ Inner cell mass => embryo ∙ Hatching – from ZP = no constraint + can enlarge Day 8 ∙ Differentiation => bilaminar embryonic disc.intervertebral discs.alternating layers of hyaline matrix + dense collagen layers .collagen = bulk of perichondrium . thyroid ∙ Fibrocartilage – cartilage + dense fibrous CT intermediate = withstands strong tensile force . joints.lining of digestive tract . ligaments ∙ Elastic – branching elastic fibres in cartilage matrix . articular surfaces (bone contact). Mesoderm 3. ectoderm + endoderm layers ∙ Syncytiotrophoblast + cytotrophoblast form outer cell mass ∙ Trophoblast surrounds + sustains embryo ∙ Implantation . striated + cardiac muscle . bronchi. GAGs + proteoglycans ∙ 3 types – varying proportions of collagen + elastic fibres ∙ Hyaline – most common type .in areas of directional stress . Ectoderm 2.surface => skin + derivatives (hair.liver. blood + vessels . peripheral nerves .tracheal rings.CT.avascular ∙ Extracellular matrix of chondrocytes.neural => brain.small aggregations of chondrocytes (mature cartilage cells) . nails. pancreas Session 5: Cartilage + Bone CARTILAGE .ground substance reinforced by collagen fibres .syncytiotrophoblast sticks to + invades endometrium Day 13 ∙ Gastrulation: bilaminar => trilaminar disc ∙ Primitive streak @ future posterior ∙ Cells of ectoderm migrate into space between endoderm (dorsal) + ectoderm (ventral) => mesoderm Germ layers: 1. Endoderm . lens + cornea) . bone.PRE-EMBRYONIC STAGE Day 1 Day 2 Day 4 Day 5 ∙ Zona pellucida = protective shell. ribs. spinal cord. cartilage.

pliable matrix (osteoid) .type I collagen synthesis affected during ossification .confusion of multiple fractures with deliberate injury Rickets: affects young people .brittle bones => prone to fractures .- ext. epiglottis.growth in diameter and length (at epiphyseal plates) Osteogenesis imperfecta: genetic .too little vitamin D or can’t go outside . ear + auditory canal.bones pliable during process of remodelling Osteoporosis: affects elderly . smoking Paget’s disease: affects elderly . activity. nutrition.loss of bone matrix + structural density.risk factors: mainly age (post menopausal women).enlargement + distortion of bones .bones bend + are prone to fractures Osteomalacia: affects adults . genetics. fibres + ground substance ∙ Collagenous extracellular matrix – osteoid ∙ Osteoblasts – synthesise osteoid + mediates its mineralization ∙ Osteocytes – inactive osteoblasts trapped in formed bone.lack of vitamin D => poorly mineralised. maintain bones ∙ Osteoclasts – phagocytic cells that erode bone = constant turnover of bone ∙ Compact/dense bone ∙ Spongy/cancellous/trabecular bone ∙ Fracture => blood clot ∙ Macrophages + osteoclasts remove dead tissue + bone cells ∙ Soft cellular tissue mass bridges fracture site ∙ Cartilaginous cells convert it into callus => binds 2 bone ends ∙ Inner osteoblasts lay bone down ∙ Spongy bone forms. replaced by compact bone Session 6: Ossification + Bone Disease Intramembranous – primitive CT (mesenchyme) precedes bone development Endochondral – bone replaces existing cartilage . demineralisation .detected by DEXA scan for bone mineral density . walls of Eustachian tubes BONE ∙ Vascularised tissue ∙ Cavities with haemopoietic tissue (RBC + platelet formn ∙ Calcified matrix containing cells.

ribs. cells remodelling some genetic basis. myotome + sclerotome Session 8: Muscle ∙ Striated muscle – light + dark cross-bands. absent in smooth 1. sarcolemma + sarcosomes ∙ Sliding Filament:  Actin filaments extend further into A band . coelom is a space in between ∙ Somatic => diaphragm + limb muscles ∙ Splanchnic => cardiac muscle + viscera ∙ Coelum => body cavitites ∙ Neural plate forms over notochord => NS ∙ Embryo: disc => 3D cylindrical ectoderm outside. delayed reaction to viral infection Session 7: Early Embryonic Development 3 ∙ Mesoderm => axial rod (notochord) + somites (segments on either side) ∙ Notochord => vertebral column ∙ Somites => VC.- common in skull. Skeletal – voluntary 3. endoderm inside ∙ Head. tail + lateral body folds form ∙ Endoderm => lining of gut ∙ Umbilicus formed after folding => placental passage ∙ Neuralation – neural plate folds into tube ∙ Somites differentiate into dermatome. muscles of body wall ∙ Intermediate mesoderm => kidneys ∙ Lateral plate = somatic + splanchnic layers. sarcoplasmic reticulum. Smooth – involuntary 2. extensor muscles of spine. Cardiac – involuntary SKELETAL MUSCLE ∙ Sarcoplasm. spine +legs caused by change in balance between levels of activity in bones.