Visual Aids - Day

11.1 At aerodromes used by both helicopters and fixed wing aircraft, specific markings are
required of those facilities on the aerodrome which are provided for the exclusive use of
Helicopter landing and lift-off area markings
11.2 Where a specific area is provided for the landing and lift-off of helicopters (other than
from the runway), the spot is to be marked by a circle (the aiming circle), painted white, with
an inside radius of 6m and a line width of 1.0m. An H marking is to be provided, located
centrally within the aiming circle, and aligned with the orientation of the helicopter landing
direction. The dimensions of the H marking are to be 6m high and 3m wide, with a line width
of one metre, and painted white, as shown in Fig 11.53.

Fig 11.53 - Helicopter landing and lift-off marking
Helicopter apron markings
11.3 Helicopter apron markings comprise taxi guidelines, lead-in lines and helicopter
parking position markings as set out below. Markings for taxi guidelines and lead-in lines to
dedicated helicopter parking positions are to be the same as for fixed wing aircraft.
Helicopter parking position markings
11.4 Helicopter parking position markings help pilots to safely and accurately steer and
position helicopters on an apron. Where a dedicated helicopter parking position is provided
on a sealed, concrete or asphalt apron, it is to be marked with the letter H painted yellow, 4m
high, 2m wide with a line width 0.7m, and conform to the shape and proportions as shown in
Fig 11.54. The letter H is to be located centrally in the parking position and aligned with the
desired orientation of the helicopter when parked. This marking also serves as the parking
position designator.

November 1990

11 - 39

Rules and Practices for Aerodromes
Chapter 11

Fig 11.54 - Helicopter parking position marking
Helicopter taxi guideline designation
11.5 The helicopter taxi guideline designation is to be provided where a taxi guideline leads
to a parking position which is restricted to helicopters only. Where an apron contains both
fixed wing and dedicated helicopter parking positions, taxi guidelines leading to dedicated
helicopter parking positions are to be marked with the designator `H', 2m high and painted
yellow, at their divergence from the aircraft taxi guidelines, as shown in Fig 11.55. These
designations are to be located and oriented in such a way that they can be seen by the critical
aircraft 15m away on the taxi guideline.

Fig 11.55 - Helicopter taxi guideline designator

11 - 40

November 1990

Fig 11. as shown in Fig 11. and legible to pilots of approaching aircraft.56 . 11. along the helicopter apron edge marking. Additionally. as shown in Fig 11.15m from the helicopter apron edge marking and spaced at intervals not exceeding 50m. The numbers are to be 2m high. outside the helicopter apron.15m apart. Helicopter parking position numbers are to be located above and below the helicopter parking position marking. along the helicopter apron edge marking.56. and painted light blue.8 On sealed. concrete or asphalt aprons.6 Helicopter parking position numbers are provided when there is more than one helicopter parking position on an apron.5m high. the helicopter apron edge marking is to consist of two continuous lines 0.Helicopter parking position number Helicopter apron edge markings 11. All parking positions on an apron are to be numbered.Visual Aids . painted yellow.Day Helicopter parking position numbers 11.7 Helicopter apron edge markings are to be provided when it is necessary to define clearly apron areas allocated specifically for helicopter parking. 0. the words `HELICOPTER ONLY' are to be painted. November 1990 11 . located 0. The letters are to be 0.41 .57.15m wide. in yellow colour.

11 .42 November 1990 .Helicopter apron edge markings 11.Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 Fig 11.57 .10 Fig 11.58 (next page) illustrates the marking of a typical helicopter apron on an aerodrome. The cones are spaced to be at a minimum of 30m. and a maximum of 60m. apart.9 On gravel or natural surface aprons. the apron is to be marked using light blue cones. Typical helicopter apron markings 11.

Day Fig 11.43 .58 .Visual Aids .Helicopter apron markings June 1998 11 .

1 Movement area guidance signs (MAGS) are signs located on. 12. Where MAGS are to be read from both directions along a taxiway.8 Where MAGS are provided only on one side of the taxiway.5 MAGS with information are normally provided where the aerodrome has multiple runways and a complex taxiway system. Australia. particularly in reduced visibility conditions. are to be such as to provide adequate clearance to passing aircraft. or adjacent to. due to the presence of an apron adjacent to the taxiway). 12. Dimensions. and offset from the edge of the taxiway pavement. the movement area to provide instructions or information to pilots. The depth and width of the sign board is dependent upon the location of the sign. 12.3 Those signs which convey messages of information are known as information signs.5 above. 12. the size of the characters and the length of the message to be placed on it. Where MAGS are to be read in one direction only.2 Those signs which convey messages of instructions which must be obeyed by pilots are known as mandatory instruction signs. 12. MAGS with information for such taxiway/runway intersections are required.44 June 1998 . they are to be oriented so as to be at 75 degrees to the taxi guideline. Where provided.6 Notwithstanding paragraph 12. Aerodrome operators should consult with airlines and the Air Traffic Control on the need for MAGS with information. they are to be to the standards set out below. Normally they comprise rectangular sign boards mounted on legs. they should be bigger in size. 12. These signs are to have white lettering on a red background.7 The overall height of MAGS above the ground. they are to be located on the pilots’ left hand side unless it is impracticable to do so (for example. It is an inexpensive way to maintain the movement rate of aircraft on the taxiway. and at other aerodromes which have air traffic control and for which CASA determines that these are required for safe aircraft operational reasons.9 The size of signs and the installed locations are to be in accordance with the dimensions set out below: 11 . location and lettering 12. with the longer axis positioned horizontally. These signs are to have either black lettering on a yellow background or yellow lettering on a black background. at aerodromes where taxiway intersection departures are promulgated in the AIP—Enroute Supplement. and are to be oriented so as to be at right angles to the taxi guideline. 12.4 MAGS with mandatory signs are to be provided at major international aerodromes.Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 12 — MOVEMENT AREA GUIDANCE SIGNS General 12.

15 The sign luminance (average sign background luminance) is to be as follows: November 2000 11 . use the mandatory size I . Appendix 4. care should be taken to prevent dazzle. however if the location of a sign is such that the retroreflectiveness is ineffective.) distance from defined taxiway pavement edge to near side of sign I M I M 200 300 300 400 400 600 600 800 700 900 900 1100 5-11 m 5-11 m 11-21 m 11-21 m Code number a 1 or 2 1 or 2 3 or 4a 3 or 4 Face Installed a For runway exit signs.Mandatory instruction signs 12.45 . Illumination is to be provided to all mandatory instruction signs and information signs meant for used by code 4 aeroplanes.Information signs M .Visual Aids .10 The stroke width of letters and arrows used in signs are to be as follows: Legend height Stroke width 200 mm 32 mm 300 mm 48 mm 400 mm 64 mm 12.13 MAGS are to be lightweight and frangibly mounted. In the case of external illumination.Day Sign size and location distances. including runway exit signs Sign height (mm) Perpendicular Perpendicular distance from defined runway pavement edge near side of sign 3-10m 3-10 m 8-15 m 8-15 m Type Legend (min.11 The shape and style of letters and numbers are to be the same as for designation markings for taxiways and aprons or as per the forms of characters set out in ICAO Annex 14. except for those where internal illumination is provided. but the mountings are to be constructed so as to fail under a static load of 8 kPa distributed over the sign. illumination should be provided. Both external or internal illumination are acceptable. that width is to be increased to the height of the legend. Illumination is optional for information signs intended to serve code 1.94 m where the code number is 3 or 4.14 All MAGS. 12. Structural 12.12 The face width of a sign is to provide on either side of the legend a minimum width equal to half the height of the legend. 12. In the case of a single letter sign.46 m where the code number is 1 or 2. 2 or 3 aeroplanes. the face width of a mandatory instruction sign provided on one side of a taxiway only is not to be less than: (a) 1. are to be made of retroreflective class one material. They are to be constructed so as to withstand a wind velocity of 160 km/h. and (b) 1. However in any case.) (max. Illumination 12.

19 Runway exit signs that are required for LAHSO are to be illuminated where LAHSO are conducted at night.59 is to be provided at a runway/taxiway intersection where a pattern “A” taxi-holding position marking is provided. It should be noted that the previous standard for this sign is a HOLD sign supplemented by an information sign showing the runway designation. the signs specifically provided for LAHSO such as runway/runway intersection signs and distance-to-go signs are to be electrically connected such that they will be illuminated when the lighting of the runway on which LAHSO are conducted is switched on. In order to achieve uniformity of signal. average sign luminance is to be at least: Red 10 cd/m2 Yellow 50 cd/m2 White 100 cd/m2 12. A runway designation sign. 12. taxi-holding position signs. The HOLD sign should be replaced with mandatory runway designation signs as soon as practicable.5:1 between adjacent grid points and 5:1 between maximum and minimum values over the whole face.16 The luminous ratio between red and white elements of a mandatory sign is to be not less than 1:5 and not greater than 1:10. excluding those grid points that are within 5 cm of the edge of the sign. Designations for both ends of the runway are to be shown where the taxiway is located elsewhere. MAGS with mandatory instructions 12. 11 . Only the designation for one end of the runway is to be shown where the taxiway intersection is located at or near that end of the runway. Aircraft NO ENTRY signs. 12. 12.Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 (a) where operations are conducted in runway visual range of less than 800m. luminance values should not exceed a ratio of 1. category I. Where practicable a runway designation sign is to be provided on each side of the taxiway.20 MAGS with mandatory instructions include: runway designation signs. 12.18 At an aerodrome where land and hold short operations (LAHSO) are conducted. as shown in Fig. in the outboard (farthest from the taxiway) position. The average value is the arithmetic average of the luminance values measured at all considered grid points. and using the luminance values of the appropriate colour (based on the background colour of the sign) measured at all grid points located within the rectangle representing the sign. 11. the average sign luminance is to be at least: Red 30 cd/m2 Yellow 50 cd/m2 White 100 cd/m2 (b) where operations are conducted at night.46 November 2000 .22 A taxiway location sign is to be provided alongside the runway designation sign.17 The average luminance of the sign is calculated by establishing grid points at 15 cm spacings. 12. 12.23 A runway designation sign is to be provided at least on the left side of a taxiway facing the direction of approach to the runway.21 Runway designation signs. II or III holding position signs.

The sign is to be provided on each side of the taxiway..61 Mandatory taxi-holding position sign 12.24 Category I.60. oriented with respect to the viewing position of the sign. 16R CAT I Red White Fig.61. The signs are to be located at the Hold Short Line which should be at least 75 m from the centreline of the intersecting runway. and separated by a dash. 11. on a red background. a one-way taxiway. as shown in Fig. to be provided on each side of the runway used in LAHSO. The sign is to be provided at the entrance of an area to which entry is prohibited.27 Vehicular “STOP” signs. It is to be used at a taxiway location other than an intersection where the air traffic control has a requirement for the aircraft to stop. For example. a NO ENTRY sign is to be located on each side of the taxiway. Appropriate Category I. Red White Fig.Runway designation signs 12.Day A Black Yellow 25 White B Red Black 25 . as shown in Fig. such as entry to an ILS sensitive area. The runway/runway intersection signs are runway designations signs.Visual Aids . 11.28 Runway/runway intersection signs.25 Taxi-holding position sign. 12. II or III runway designation signs. 11. A NO ENTRY sign. 11. The sign is to show the designation of the intersecting runway. A mandatory taxi-holding position sign is a taxiway designation sign but in white lettering on a red background. This sign should be the same as the local road traffic sign. II or III sign.59 . B Red White Fig.07 Yellow White Red Fig. eg. as shown in Fig.47 . 11.62 Aircraft NO ENTRY sign 12.60 Category I taxi-holding position sign 12. are to be such as to provide at least 300 mm June 1998 11 . to identify the intersecting runway ahead. The overall height of the sign above the ground.26 Aircraft “NO ENTRY” sign. Where practicable. vehicular “STOP” signs can be provided at road/taxiway intersections or entrance to ILS sensitive areas to control the movement of vehicles and plant . “15-33” indicates the runway threshold “15” is to the left and “33” is to the right. Where required. and offset from the edge of the runway pavement. is to be provided where a pattern “B” taxi-holding position marking is provided. 11. consists of a white circle with a horizontal bar in the middle.62. 11.

with sequential numbers. the numbers are not sequential. (c) for each intersecting taxiway. A Black Yellow Fig.30 Taxiway location signs. They advise pilots of their location within a complex taxiway system. 12. In this case. Besides helping pilots to find their way. destination signs. (e) at aerodromes where the number of taxiways are or will be large.Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 clearance between the top of the sign and any part of the most critical aircraft using the runway when the outer edge of the wheel of the aircraft is at the runway pavement edge. except that a location sign may be omitted if the taxiway designation is adequately displayed by previous location signs along the taxiway.32 Direction signs. 11. Direction signs advise pilots of the designations of runways or taxiways about to be joined or crossed. If owing to the geometry of the taxiway system. the location signs also allow pilots to accurately report their location to ATC. (b) the same letter is to be used throughout the length of the taxiway.48 June 1998 . 12.31 The following convention is to be used in the naming of taxiway location signs: (a) a single letter is to be used. and letter Q should only be used where unavoidable. take-off run available signs. direction signs. to designate each main taxiway. Another benefit of the provision of taxiway location signs is that it facilitates the design and promulgation of standard taxi routes which can further improve the rate of aircraft movement and reduce aircraft/control tower radio communications. runway exit signs and distance-to-go signs. Each taxiway direction is indicated by an arrow. a different single letter is to be used. aerodrome charts) are to contain advice as to the missing designators. (f) it is most important to use the letters and numbers in such a way that is easily comprehensible.63. 11. a different number may be assigned to that portion of taxiway subsequent to the turn. alpha-numeric designators may be used to name the short intersecting taxiways. care should be taken to ensure that the numbers used in the designation of taxiway cannot in any way be confused with the runway designations. A location sign is normally provided in conjunction with a direction sign or a runway designation sign. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Should it ever be necessary to use double digit alpha-numeric designators. Taxiway location signs. successive intersecting taxiways are to use the same letter. 11.64. letters O and I are not to be used. all pilot-used taxiway plans (eg. (d) to avoid confusion.29 MAGS with information include: taxiway location signs. without numbers. A direction sign is to be complemented by a location sign. The sign has black letters with yellow background. except that where a turn of 900 or more is made to join a runway.63 Taxiway location sign 12. 11 . MAGS with information 12. are used to designate taxiways.

Abbreviation Meaning RAMP or APRON General parking. 11.33 Destination signs. 11.34 Abbreviations are generally used for destination signs.49 . The take-off run available sign. This sign should not be co-located with a location or direction sign. servicing and loading area PARK or PARKING Aircraft parking only area CIVIL Civilian areas of joint-use aerodromes MIL Military area of a joint use aerodrome CARGO Freight or cargo handling area INTL International areas DOM Domestic areas RUNUP Run-up areas AC Altimeter check point VOR VOR check point FUEL Fuel or service area HGR Hangar or hangar area 12.66.35 Take-off run available sign. 11. or near. the movement area. This sign is provided to allow pilots to have a final reassurance that they are at the right take-off location. The sign should be located abeam the taxi-holding position.65. Destination signs. The common ones are set out below. advise pilots of various facilities on. June 1998 11 . advises pilots the length of take-off run available from a particular taxiway intersection departure.Visual Aids . as shown in Fig. 11.64 Direction sign 12. on the left hand side.65 Destination sign 12. APRON Yellow Black Fig. as shown in Fig.Day Yellow C B C Black Fig.

Runway exit signs. may be required at a runway where a pilot engaged in LAHSO cannot readily see the hold short line as a result of runway slope changes.68. The runway exit sign is to be located on the same side of the exit taxiway.36 Runway exit signs. 11. the distance-to-go signs are to be provided on the left hand side of the runway as seen by the landing pilot.3 times the stall speed in the landing configuration at maximum landing weight) of up to 90 knots indicated air speed. D or E taxiways. to the right of the designator for exits to the right. in increments of 300m from the hold short line. as shown in Fig.67 Runway exit sign 12. 600 and 900 are to be provided.37 Distance-to-go signs.68 Distance-to-go sign 12.67. 11. 11. Three signs with inscriptions of 300.50 June 1998 . These signs are to be provided for a runway used in LAHSO. The distance-to-go signs. advise pilots of the designation and direction of a taxiway from which they can exit the runway. Note: A Category A performance aircraft is an aircraft which has a speed at the threshold (based on 1. A3 Yellow Black Fig. Where required. Below the numerals. 11. Non-jet aircraft below 5700 kg may be regarded as Category A aircraft.11. The arrow on the sign is to be outboard of the taxiway designator. i.66 Take-off run available sign 12.3450 Black Yellow Fig. and 30m prior to the exit junction for code A or B taxiways.e. 11 . and to the left for exits to the left. 60 m prior to the exit junction for code C.16R Fig. except when used only by category A performance aircraft. the designation of the intersecting runway is to be displayed in smaller characters.Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 16 .38 CASA will inspect all signs associated with LAHSO before commissioning LAHSO. as shown in Fig. The height of the distance inscription is to be 600mm and the runway designation is to be 200mm. 600 Yellow Black 34L .

The unserviceability markings are to be displayed at each end of the unserviceable runway. or part of a runway is closed for more than 30 days.69 are to be used on code 4 runways when the whole or part of the runway is permanently closed or closed for more than 30 days to aircraft operations.3 There are two types of unserviceability markings. 13. then markings in accordance with Fig. 11.5 Markings in accordance with Fig 11. Where feasible.Day 13 — UNSERVICEABILITY MARKINGS AND MARKERS Unserviceability markings 13.70 are to be used.69 should be used at an aerodrome with multiple and parallel code 3 runways.6 In other cases of runway unserviceability. the markings are to be displayed in accordance with paragraph 13. as shown in Figures 11. and also in the intermediate area at intervals of not more than 300m.69 are not used. The smaller markings are to be displayed at each end of the unserviceability and in the intermediate area at intervals of not more than 200m.51 . the large marking shown in Figure 11. 13. 13. June 1998 11 .Visual Aids .70. if markings in accordance with Fig. the preferred way of marking an unserviceable part of taxiway or apron is by the placement of unserviceable markers at the entrance to that area or around the unserviceable area. when one or more runways. 11. 11.69 and 11.1 An unserviceability marking or closed marking is to be used to indicate any part of a runway which is not to be used by aircraft.4 Markings in accordance with Fig. It is to comprise a white cross placed on the unserviceable portion of the runway. Where provided. However. which is not to be used by aircraft. 13.4.69 is the preferred marking to mark an unserviceable runway. 13.2 An unserviceability marking may also be used to indicate any part of a taxiway or apron.

flat.2. eg.10 Other forms of work limit markers such as water filled red/white plastic kerb markers may be used for works on apron and other areas. material.8 The unserviceability marker is to consists of a white standard cone with a horizontal red stripe. They are to be red or fluorescent safety orange standard PVC road safety cones (witches’ hats).7 Unserviceability marking is not required for time limited works. 2m apart. is to confined. 25 cm wide around its centre. to provide three bands of colour (white-red-white) as illustrated in Fig 11. These are steeply tapering conical markers moulded to a weighted. as shown in Fig. approximately 0. Where used. Unserviceability cones are to be used around the perimeter of unserviceable areas (such as failed pavement). they are to be spaced at intervals a little less than the track of the plant or vehicles within the work area site. Fig. 11. etc. Unserviceability markers 13. Signal Areas and Ground Signals See CAO 92.1 11 . half way up the cone.52 June 1998 .71 Work limit marker 13.5m high.71. plant. Works limit markers 13. 11.Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 13.9 Works limit markers are markers used to indicate to a works organisation part or all of the limit of a work area within which all construction. rectangular base (for stability). They should be used on runways and taxiways.

2 June 1998 11 .Day 14 — WIND DIRECTION INDICATORS See CAO 92.Visual Aids .53 .

54 March 1991 . which may constitute a hazard to aircraft.1 Obstacle marking is the painting.2 Fixed objects. such as ILS buildings. of structures (masts.7 Apart from wires and cables (detailed below).4 WITHDRAWN 15. 11 . 15. which extend above the obstacle limitation surfaces but are permitted to remain. It is done to make structures. and inconspicuous structures 75m above ground level should also be marked.3 n some cases CAA may permit obstacles to be not marked. are also to be marked as obstacles. Orange and white or red and white are normally used. 15. Structures above 90m may need to be marked. or (c) when such obstacles are lighted by high intensity obstacle lights by day.Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 15 — OBSTACLE MARKINGS General 15. (b) when such obstacles are shielded by other obstacles already marked. Fixed objects on the aerodrome movement area. Obstacle marking implementation 15. etc. or objects which are present on the movement area. 15. are still regarded as obstacles. Such information is to be included in the Aerodrome Manual. both temporary and permanent.5 WITHDRAWN Marking of obstacles 15. buildings. such as: (a) when such obstacles are sufficiently conspicuous by their shape. obstacles are to be painted in a pattern of contrasting colours which also contrast with the background as agreed and set out in the Aerodrome Manual.6 A structure is normally marked where it is more than 150m higher than the surrounding terrain up to 400m away. and are to be marked as detailed below. clearly visible to the pilots of aircraft in flight. size or colour. or other marking.) in conspicuous colours. The aerodrome licence holder is to submit details of such obstacles to the CAA which will assess their degree of hazard to aircraft operations and detail particular requirements for marking and lighting.

5m in the other.5m in size in one direction and less than 4. as shown in Fig 11.Marking of squat or tall face obstacles November 1990 11 .73 . They are to be perpendicular to the obstacle's major axis and the ends of the obstacle are to be painted in the darker colour. Fig 11.Day 15. or any lattice obstacle greater than 1.Visual Aids .8 Obstacles with unbroken surfaces more than 4.74.9 Obstacles more than 1.55 . Fig 11. are to be marked with alternating contrasting bands of colour no less than 0.45m and not more than 6m wide. The corners of the obstacle are to be painted in the darker colour.73.5m in size are to be painted in a chequered pattern of lighter and darker squares or rectangles with sides no less than 1.5m by 4.Marking of square faced obstacle 15.5m in size in both directions.5m and no more than 3m long. as shown in Fig 11.74 .

75. are to be painted in a single conspicuous colour. CAA accepts the use of unserviceability cone markers and/or flags to delineate the shape and size of the obstacle so that it is clearly visible from any line of approach likely to be used by an aircraft. pyramids. spaced 30m apart. for example on a fence line. poles and towers which are to be marked in contrasting bands of equal height with the darker colour at the top. 15. Marking of temporary and transient obstacles 15. metal sheeting painted in diagonal halves may be suitable. 11 . Sometimes. Fixed temporary obstacles should be marked as described above for permanent obstacles.Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 15. or on aerodrome boundaries in the approach area. They are to be either orange or orange and white.6m square. split diagonally.11 Fence posts (determined as obstacles) at the ends of runway strips. as shown in Fig 11.14 The flags used for marking fixed temporary obstacles are to be not less than 0. However.12 Wires or cable obstacles are to be marked preferably using three-dimensional coloured objects (spheres.10 Obstacles with dimensions where any one dimension is less than 1. 15. where this is not practicable.5m are to be painted in a solid contrasting colour. except for masts.56 November 1990 .13 Temporary and transient obstacles may be required to be marked by CAA. etc) of a size equivalent to a cube with 600mm sides. However. normally white. 15. where the orange colour merges with the background another conspicuous colour is to be used.

another colour is to be used. and on the other by the existing runway strip markers adjusted as necessary. or by flags. it is not required to be marked.76 (c).3 Where a glider runway strip is located outside an existing runway strip for powered aircraft. Where the orange colour merges with the background against which the flags are to be seen. November 1990 11 .Day 15.9m square and are to consist of an orange and white chequered pattern.2 Where the glider runway strip is located wholly or partly within an existing runway strip for powered aircraft. A vehicle may be marked by using a flashing dome light on top of the vehicle.3m. 16 — MARKING OF GLIDER RUNWAY STRIPS 16. 16. an additional white double cross on a black background is to be displayed 20m in front of the glider strip end markers as shown in Figs 11. as shown in Figs 11.15 A vehicle used regularly on the movement area by day should be painted yellow or orange.4 Where an end of a glider runway strip is not alongside the end of an existing runway strip for powered aircraft. Flags are to be not less than 0. 16. the glider runway strip is to be marked with boundary markers of a conspicuous colour other than white as shown Fig 11.1 When gliding operations are being conducted at an aerodrome.76 (b) and (c).76 (a) and (b).Visual Aids . a signal consisting of a double white cross is to be displayed in the signal circle.57 . the width of the glider runway strip is to be fixed on the one side by the edge of the runway for powered aircraft. 16. each square of which is to have sides not less than 0. Otherwise vehicles may be required to be marked. When so painted.

58 November 1990 .76 .Rules and Practices for Aerodromes Chapter 11 Fig 11.Marking of glider runway strips 11 .