Fable and Fact in the Early Annals of Ireland, and on the Best Mode of Ascertaining What

Degree of Credit These Ancient Documents Are Justly Entitled to
Author(s): Thomas Wood
Reviewed work(s):
Source: The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 13 (1818), pp. 1-79
Published by: Royal Irish Academy
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FABLE AND FACT
INTHE
EARLY
OF IRELAND,
AND
ON
MODE
OFASCERTAINING
BEST
THE
WHAT
DEGREE
OF
CREDIT
THESE
aNCIENT DOCUMENTS
ARE
JUSTLY
ENTITLED
TO.

rINNALS

ilisq........piwm...IIISIIIIIIII.I...................
BY
THOMAS
M.
D.
WOOD;
-----""a011111htf"--DUBLIN:
GRAISBERRY
AND
CAMPBELL,
PRINTERS
TO
THE
ROYAL
IRISH
ACADEMY.
1818.

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and
INamixture
annals
offable
factintheearly
ofIre
ofthis
theauthor
tract
conceives
best
mode
land,'
that,the
what
these
ancient
documents
are
ofcredit
ofascertaining
degree
would
be
entitled
to
fact
and
combat
those
to,'
justly
argument
by
whether
absurd
orplausible,
re
which,
leading
opinions,
being
the
ceived
asfacts,
some
others
classes
credulous,
byintelligent
by
tend
to
ofsociety,
mislead
the
and,
consequent
judgment,
only
toconfuse
the
ofIreland.
history
ly,
genuine
toselect
inthefollowing
Hehas
therefore
sheets,
endeavoured,
aview
ofdispel
with
those
forinvestigation,
prominent
opinions
historic
of
our
some
the
obscured
which
has
cloud,
pages.
ling

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. granted tracts 1. designated appel quence by men of intheIrish as lations were said to be courted language. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .105.Histoire dirlande M... vanity poets. deIiistoria.. appointed inrecompense for which services were distinguished personally of they andeven considerable trifling piece bysome ofland. This content downloaded on Sun. ter. and.. which moderns could not bytherecital presume toequal.44~. amusing. . of the time with the asinthis to their hearers island... persuasive orinterest.p. expected by..-.thestory managed.. mentiuntur. Sunt rebus veils nonnihil delectationis etiam veritatem omittentes. must beartnilly Togratify it. savage agreeably isthat the the first most form. tom. aspired andcuriosity isawakened israpid inuncultivated minds..ANINQUIRY INTO THE PRIMITIVE POPULATION OFIRELAND. nations.. qui ssepe Hen.. from historians were were who. 1. Corn. mind..i. dence. Accordingly.and upon. those were who twelve different bards. The to most a and told.. causa.. Agrippa descent isnatural tothehuman charac THE desire ofillustrious but ifany that had and wefind few. consequently belief to not The transition from confi to the honour. ofachievements. beguile national were ofwonderful Similar favours narration exploit Inconse conferred individual chiefs. advice: and toassist the with rulers ofIreland learning.. finery. induced. ofpoetry. l'Abbe Ma par Geoghegan.

&amp. porn p. and O'Conor. rinal name Eire orEirin. historians. Ireland was known Greek toforeigners anciently byvarious and Latin most ofitsori ofwhich areimitative denominations. asthey they pretended the descent from Milesius The of toJaphet.5 etbardi ab utra 2. Vid. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Gall. Gaedhil.2 The oftheir alliances result genealogies. Eirin isderived Camden from iar the west a derivation . 193. objected Geoghegan. 3. of intellect those thehuman that prove of had not inthis thelowest scale from days emerged country knowledge. and. say theorigin their oftheir topursue ancestors. bespelled Galic orGailic. .6 totrace Irish were The oftheir duties office.3.' inallusion tohisancestors. El AnIrishman was hence called t. A. 5. says. who are the Catholic writers. according authority. This content downloaded on Sun. preserve their in andwars. viz. word. Druidw Jac. fhb. feasibilityperform to ance isaccounted for convincing sufficiently byarguments. quo Keating.4 ing rejects that itabsurd toap thinks Bealso isnot meaning implied. corrupted into Gaoidhiol. with which stories. this From name thelanguage Gaidhil.' honore natione. Gaoileag. 103. by Mac tobyO'Flaherty. exiinio habiti. which Dr. Mac best Roman Geoghe probably thebe isgrounded itsimplied sense . iscalled tothesame should which.P. migrations. gan's objection upon because the definition west of and O'Brien itself. . inwhich must have flattered thecredulity oftheages spiration wrote intracing thelineal tosucceed. WarEei. meme. his Preface tothe Dictionary. . O'Brien. Dictionary English 4. cap Antiq. foreign of and their and tokeep anaccount toadjust annals. p.O'Brien was afterward Gaill.La 2. intheplural reanach. O'Brien's remarks on the letter Irish 3. buttheabsurd unenlightened understandings thehistory isinterlarded. Dr.

mines. c toothers. Inexemplification west. orI-erin. suf nor with toproduce aheat furnaces adapted intense to smelt it.y. This content downloaded on Sun. and also the itsignifies word jarwefind backward. headds Munster west iar-mumhan. and ly facing ' ifto theword aperson turns hisface toward other any point. substituted those would nothave oblong they stone in have been other found hammers. wemay that iar-ghaoth. the word was used intwo senses thewest . 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . back. byway signify. among Ireland :ifitwere. parts Germany. jar the and Itwould thus west. iarun. word compounded and tarfortir. his Inanother of dictionary part infer Ialso find Hence thewest wind. isitlikely. . Inasserting that thewest.from discovered. definition Ibegleave that noname bemore first could when toIreland.'this himself. in foriron was thefirst settlers not inuse exceptionable.anisland. asitseems tobe. when Neither that.orinauisland. relative and who were was nottothem says. ficiently Incorroboration ofCamden's toadd. which. they acquainted state ofoxide. itis towhat even when the for under turned tothe east author contradicts . oniarthar.' with that definition. isacontraction ofI-iaruinn compounded and iron. after. His definition other. but relative jardoes notsignify that theposition ofpersons theeast' toward .7 the word to the situation ofIreland with toBri ply regard ofGaul tain and thelower and he which. ofi.acountry. applicable than orEirin.one always signifying the behind or own ismuch more backward. ifderived. Eire. i. among those ofcopper the atKillarney. iarisapplied isbehind hisback. from thewest of a iar the west . name was first inthe with iron were applied. . anew Eirin theinhabitants. only Heconcludes.

thesouth.. In times atvarious have which tribes. altered and some ofthesubjects thebounds within adjusted ofpossibility.6 ofpolar Celtic and star tothose asort and would have been Europe.... inother for I know. and ofevery even before had Bible.... done. in 6. ' non tam utvera ut delectent.-.. origin of Noah. assome and Gothic writers also have avail land. tothe isstill cality byreference constantly distinguished cardinal points. Ywerdon. parts aught inIrish. notofprobability.8 theultima habitatio occidua of thewestern ofdistinction.7 Spanish edthemselves of this source ofinformation toinvent suited tales. THEHISTORY TO ACCORDING NATIVE WRITERS. Christianity the bards introduced theBritish and romancers ofIre Roman.--OFIRELAND. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. togive idea anexalted oftheorigin oftheir ancestors ...The their derive and ofthe from Ma some Saxon writers Spaniards Tuba'. and. byfrom yverton. And this sense it is named or the the western Welsh.-----... This content downloaded on Sun. grandsons SiO'Flaherty and also Ma Geoghegan... island. gog.' were of These so ex referant. and then them though presented totheworld asincontestable facts. ---.. hither... country. migrated Scythian loofIreland..8 travagant what avow tobefabulous from thetrue have rating they history.. quam late a nature.... that insepa some native historians...almost with but that ofthe UNACQUAINTED every history. ignorant alphabet. 7.

Ibid. 2. 12. Fergusi2. 15. 24.9 thearrival After and destruction ofthree byadeluge Spanish weare told that the niece ofNoah. etOgyg. Theplague thinned ranks.p. been'3. presented again to native woods 200 tothose historians. 300accord continued inIreland 30years.170. Ibid. p. 163. according heintro when inA.2657 which adds 212. of Manch. Belgx years two ofBar the to Rudric and which are names Slang.p. Bib.1.and the312th to be the flood. 4Ibid. though being destroyed bytheFomharaig. p. 13. 11. Ibid.162. thirty ac ofGothic sons Hiarbanel and Starn. the themselves woods . Ogyg. 9. who are the are called said tohave headed 688 after. 10. Antiq. bethefirst isfixed at inhabitants their inKerry arrival .9. by fifty had disembarked atDun namharc inBantry.M. vol. p. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . arenext stated glish). 1440 about years rival. and theshort remainder oftheir They history. Ibid.' this after I colony year suspect confounded with that oftheBelgrze. p. time before theflood. by plague. Dorn. Hist.. 169. during years.'5 the and aScythian.171. according the to when the was others. (inEn arelative ofJaphet. origin)." ing colonydestroyed and his Ireland Nemethus now deserted being years. This by confu supposition sion ofdates.163. given the iscorroborated tholomew's sons. 168. its to left a libre to the was champ conquerors. XIII. was Another account Netnethus states that c VOL. a short men. to with hiscolony. 2. O'Flagherty ar actual their before duces theBelgT. Partholanus orBartholomew. This content downloaded on Sun.14. (names had of Bartholomew their the as companied by nurses. 11. accompa nied and Baronna with other and women three only Balba. ofthose fortwo generals. having it remainder Ireland. p. cap. family and con ofIreland. fishermen. Cmsarea. tosome. p. 171. planted among the and their structed forts.

some into some by lony they passed.butaking -covered tobenowriter who elected tobethefirst inIreland. fables with theseem inorder their Irish toclothe historians. shipped as a the as to division of this island and silence deities. Ibid. colony agiant. dis asoldasany was edtobeanhistorian ofa later time.Library.Patrick.' 'with the ofhiscolony. Slang regal power that took about betrue. This content downloaded on Sun. an ofSt. Ogyg. atlength intheoriginal 'eagle. Scythia. This man lived 100years intheshape ofa having human inthat ofastag. This last transformation for continue. . shape might Nicolson to the could see mil tothe aught Bishop contrary. ofCarbre who and chroriicle first avow Lifachair.18' Belgw. Ogyg." he exact of the to whom account gave days cLetthispass. a of new descendant colonies hither after Dela. 172. vided the into five country parts. appeared ofa man.' atall. migbt chauged Dominto Invhear ofgovernment : the river for instance. Irish 17. Historical 18Nicolson's Dom. tli flood. the introduction have with been given byPtolemy. ofan 100intheform being. p. place and oftribes thethird Inthis agethenames places. 16. thepartition ifthis account ferred. tribes.6. aresaid The Beigw a tribe of the the who wor next monarchs Dananni. the fate says bishop. Nemethus. p. being history oftheevangelists.'6. OfBartholomew's theonly survivor was Ruan orThuan. those into after theModonus Invhear Slaine. brought the after asuccessfill battle with theinhabitants. which. century. and three astheir common her sons Danaan mother. 172.'From 'Ptolemy's beinitmay and hisfour under brothers.10 of : that after theexpulsion Partholanus ofhisco great grandson theFomharaig. Belgic nann.19. 10. Greece :that anabsence oftwo into after five sons of centuries. Ovoca. p. twenty three inthat ofa fish. O'Flaher.p. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

each byname family And this found not to upon impudent chronology forgery being thepre with historical later under writers data. excused and rectified Yet. c2 This content downloaded on Sun. agree it. cannot have inserted copies original by itisevidently some monkish transcriber taken from Irish . Nemethus. being thought they add theday. This of which want rivers.Mitis du 38. d'Irlande est d'Irlande. extremely ignorant ofCamden's inthelateedition in Mr. pre month not cision theyear and that. p. norant ofthose by Ptolemy 'ofseveral inhabited and ofthenames ofthetowns they tury. though they O'Flaherty inveigh onthis ofothers were thequalifications them account. la 20. Hist. hismap ofIreland.11 of to ascertain ofthearrival of truth.' peut-estre 21. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . though they pre ofantiquity. andspecify ofthechiefs.the tained bistoric ofIrish bards. "the and ofPartholanus account forms usthat AT. 182.168. des brouillees une plus gull yalt.21.. hisinformation. yettwoofthebest tongue Mac and rians. Ogyg. QfNe The poems 9rigir_igl . are tend tothose records early completely ig they tribes enumerated inthe second cen. sufficient. Britannia. Royaume Monastique chronolQgie p. ifignorant allothers accuse who nevertheless Philo-Milesian histo oftheIrish . . with somuch island. period. Irish native thrown Such isthelight writers. tence oferror. upon appear that our bards had commenced thehistory of knowledge proves orthat those Roman from Ireland atalater traders. 170. inthe but been ofNennius. had derived instructed were whom by Ptolemy ofthesouthern tribes orTeutonic some of theBelgic coasts. luggarb pretend thetime colonies inthis even before theflood. fuld in. Geoghegan. against oftheIrish selves language. O'Connor. upon by history ofincompetency. 184. and twelfth ofthe con romances thirteenth and isnot centgries." have.

. nephew byJaphet. This content downloaded on Sun.. examination almost And. bythe oftheDubh about the commander Garmann orGurmund.. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . composition nor itsversification itbeyond neither .. given the and with which Irish culous fanciful annals are relations. Gals.110.7. Ulster annals.23.." clouded. astheir common ofNoah and allare father. Those tohave used colonies are said the Scottish tonguesb... Camden's p. ofpoesy.. brought &amp. Iar Fionn bannul faidh go fail mhic Adhnamhoin. 22.c.. .Keating.... beginning Hewas ofBritain.. Darman iscalled the Tuatha After Dea thenext Scot colony from And wearetold orMilesian that tish.. and the coast France slain. proves onthat translation ofanancient Scaldic The literal poem subject.223.11. 22.P. from Irish centuries copying have insome measure sanction toallthose ridi romances.. twelfth writers tenth.. but language places tury it to be an on thetwelfth. Ogyg. Spain.^. Brit. The is said to bethe tothe inthe 555.0.. eleventh. who this infested oftheninth during period century.1111.. Finns toErin the After came. The sons sons "The tohave been relates tothe bardic academies..12 ofthe historic son ofAguomin isintheancient the meth poem Tuatha DeDanaan thus.. dangers long ofsong.. Mic Neimidhe. poem year tothe O'Nials inthe bard ofTome fourth cen Eigis. p.. and monkish Latin oftheninth.. Scythian claimed theSaxon thechiefs ofthefour colonies the Magog. according Spain. and thirteenth relative toIreland. supposed poem the under conduct of northern established inIreland scalds.1. OF THE MILESIANS.

where this Gadel Irish invented the alphabet name the as it is from his so called. 66. ofMacedon called Scandinavia and and .3 from afictitious inAfrica. inhis school famous ra. though they notone ofthat and these nomore than Senaar dark road. Scythia. Dr. personages theformer Plieniusa Far anusher schoolmaster under that royal ofSenaar. torn. ontheplain ofScythia. by heathen theimportant ishbards. nothing thrqugh with asmuch ease asifchaises. and . which unwittingly destroyed bythe relate totimes ofletters before theintroduction and long figures into Britain or Ireland.that who embraced reserved totheir successors. . p. p. pacquet Such tales areunworthy ofrefutation. step until had learned them from the personages.26'We upon should notinthe mean itistothis time time that change forget made our inthewords doubtless Gain and Galic. discovery necessarily and Gadel Gadelus : ofthose illustrious Christianity. Eng. p.-59. pretended.26. 59. holy Scrip they " tures:25 Inhisremarks theletter Aheadds .. 1. through mentioning way both thePharaohs knew ofEgypt andMoses. mere Irishman oftheoldstock. d'Irlandc. 24. which genealogy patriarchal our bards have been stout totrace first fa uptoour thers intheir theplains ofenough also Senaar. Preface. Diet. Thrace. weowe who inserted the letter D. This content downloaded on Sun.. and regions savage relays boats inreadiness were toreceive them. and language.king and theGadelian. Jr. Chamus from apart. The narrators have their credit insertion ofdates. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Spain they are totravel backward made and forward with aslittle uncon asifthey had toapprehend onpassing cern. Ibid. Hist.5.24' Mygdonia. 25. shew him forhis gratitude my zeal inasserting that ofMilesius. O'Brien observes : I rather inmyquality ofa should.

immediately Coptic Origin ofWriting. p. derived from such RR &amp. Pluto. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . people any the insuch name which denoted ofSpain their times. orofMoses ofSenaar. Nennius Mr. bards.butitrequires there isnoaffinity theGallic and the between Scythian. Cambrensis Lord iftheScots that Littleton remarks itasextraordinary. never them. This disco Scots. were forletters and indebted totheScythian or king language.Astle. writings those ofJosephus. princess I have was reserved to our Christian said. given king alphabet.with Progress by used The their intercourse the letters ancient before Romans. and that dus mention thename ofMilesius. not . ofCinchres. us.' The ancient Gothic and are 27. Mileag. their name tell also called who.' IftheClanna asthose orCinc writers Scuit. under whose tellusMoses king reign they and our Gadelus and were friends and cotemporaries great . from this bards our learned Gadelus assure theIrish usthat gravely derive ofGadelians. were a into Ireland ofScythian came from who extraction. sisting p. Ledwich observes that neither nor Giral Bede. assert. Don librarian the con Nassarri. instead ta.' oftwenty-four taken from coins and other ancient Astle. asothers orCantabrians we affirm. nearly us this to ofSpain. has Greek. during from Ionic derived the Greek. totheEgyptians ofSpain. before their known totheIrish bards Christianity. and Esq.14 ofthat hisson agrandson latter Niul married toSco king by ofPharaoh asour bards callhim. This content downloaded on Sun. F. ofEgypt. necessarily astheir heathenish most no could have predecessors certainly notion ofthe ofPharaoh. Spaniards.27. letters.objects plain tobeknown theHoly orsome butfrom Scriptures.86. part very early been lostorforgotten should have so original country. principal monuments. Coptic orCantabric letters orlanguages.54.were they from 'his wife theEgyptian Scota.daughter Cingris. should ofone have thecharacters and ofthose three language inlanguages nations nogreat skill toprove that . very.

named are ofthe same asCior-ghal. a Gal-iamb. affirm orCantabric that there isnocon Dictionary. have formed British writer thegroundwork ofro mances. combined Mhumhan.for derived from Urorrather name was East Munster. to the from a of this name . territory toFitz theearl ofDesmond. 28. Eireamhon. astheMile byEnglish. many tury. For thetract asimilar which reason. ofotherwise 3. considerations. It was situated atAirgeadrois. by comparative Keating applicable magnitude greater The has title or been Oir-mhamhan. and another. 29.". Oir-Mhumhan. according Geoghegan's county map. was called Deas Thomas. and a. ontheauthority and Leibnitz ofLarramendi's Macpherson. Nore. or champion in to New Ross of Mr. by familycertain from hisname. byIrish partly upon of in some those editions of corrupted Ammianus interpolations anauthor ofthefourth ofNennius. Ireland. writers.". the the of site Wexford. since house transferred tothe branch ofthe illustrious eldest This content downloaded on Sun. wasdenominated Tuath belonged family orNorth Various Munster. Concangi farour are selected notice ofIreland. south-west coast Iberi. west toSpanish names of parts and ofthe theLucani. spelled designedly corruptly long ofOrmond. ?numb. These sians founded are. Mileadh. . this chieftain's fortress. appellations import soldier. Biscayan the and theIrish Biscayan nection between and Me language. Marcellimas. province. Dr. tribes. oftheninth. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the not the as Barrow. upon and he isnot of it.29 remon. inhabited the of a aterritory not the chieftain. century. The word ilMinhan Cantabrian Itis derived Keating represent origin. The in this rula ofHe opinion. is so. relations. orSouth Munster which . Antiq.reputed Spanish joined origin ofafictitious theson ismanifestly Irish the Milesius. p. belonged Mhumhan theIrish. is tohave taken The from the north supposed emigration place and from asimilarity ofSpain. bythe to ofO'Brien.15 revived about and themiddle ofthefourth cen ages.

1cannot could conceive what intuitive have point knowledge aSpanish toanisland removed from 150 guided leagues colony of the or 1500 for knew to . Phil. navigatio esse in Hiberniam 17r2 :versus Britanniam sita." &amp. bards. Them. inthesouth were.Hist. for. septentrionem. Geogr. P.C.36 This ofitsrelative as situation. insula. Hibernia inter Britanniam etBritannia sita. women. Ch. Lusitani. ex corio fact Stiabone 3. Hispanim 35. Strabo ofBritain and Orosius it north . p. denominated whom Heber. Appianus.3'. vet.navigia habebant teste. magna septentrionem juxta porrecta. theisland and were unknown.32. Est autem insula-ad occidentem sita sed sicut Hybernia quidem This content downloaded on Sun. gravis Hispanos et nisi inBritanniam untl cum xstu mar istransvehun oceano abstinere. Tacitus de Vita occidentem obtenditurt Agrico.century. Turn P. P. cattle. lib.1. auctor.54-35' Spain Bede fixes itssouth tothenorth coast . L cum notis Casauboni. which ofIreland. nostra PorrO extrema aultra Celtica versus clicitur tate. 10. place and brother and Heremon Heber their tween hisreputed poste me of the convince that Ilearni name of the a Ptolemy.35Tacitus places tury astheeighth between and and even solate Britain . merity wicker boats with leather inanage orsmall covered carucw . "In 34. Geogr. qui Imp. 2. aught they say and in oftransporting hither children men. (L gum iEgvls. rity.49. general ignorance 31. Oresii I. Hispaniam 36. 124. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tribe. V. nothing te Spain. extremity opposite ofSpain. settled Belgic owing todefective construed aspersonal Irish and tradition.307. 33. they Eibhear.16 oftheunnatural which took thehistory be with wars. Bevero. Hibernia Britanniam Strab. 2. Petro Ber. days merely ofview. septentrionali quando tur. toowhen navigation equally and writers seem tohave been The Greek Latin ig oftherelative incompletely thefirst cen norant situation ofIreland . by understood tomean achieftain. Seamen inthose were and considered inthis coasters. vixit sub ab Hadrian occidentali scribit. inunivers. Introductio Cluverii Geogr.

That thefourth before probably. cannot a cen bedepended 2. brought pothesis. OF SCANDINAVIAN INVASION. itissupposed bythe many before did ofthe ninth cen swarm not arrive here beginning but what has been delivered from Roman from . bytwo the elements ofliterature inIreland. in has forward theassertions ofearly writers. opposition generally Hesays that thegreat northern . Hispania septentrionaha lib. by. XIII. tury andalready theevidence oftheIrish domestic lan traditions.. Ledwich ofSpanish emi remarks. inmeridiem ita setrans Mills fines zmAin contra ea brevior. grapher eighth age. The Rev. upon history isconsequently and thewhole israzed edifice founded destroyed.That tradition beyond upon tury. century. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . facts ."' traders rant orCantabric berecognized Hermon cannot AsaScythian thebasis which theMilesian is inOir-nuimhan. Mr. If the of Ireland were inthe unknown toStrabo. corrupted byTeutonic guage greatly VOL. itinato that Milesius could have ascertained much remote more age supposed This content downloaded on Sun. otendens. and Gothic itseems words. viz. gave and induced theancients tostate thereports ofigno grations. Eccles. asfacts. Bethe. 5. writers. to a received opinion. inorder tomaintain afavourite Ledwich.17 rise totheopinion Mr. situation first 37. were not known 1. pi aquilonem pito usque contra pervenit. geo century of inthe can itthe befirst that and even how the Venerable Bede. Hist. Vencrab.

time landed a second disembarked a they century itsabsolute anddesigned ofmen.'39. adds. thepeople ofWorms. p.5. expressing respec 'And and tive Scots. and askindred does Saxons Claudius Picts people. century. Hecontinues toinform Spire ofWhitaker's vol. the us. in Cimbri. were called and Nemetes. considerable body subjec tion. lb.' thepanegyrist. Claudian.22. orTeutonic colony. 42. This content downloaded on Sun. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Totam Antiq. authority p. Anti ' g ofIrel. movit43. probably They and were seated about Mentz. Manchester. ' Sidonius them inIreland. flyto and the when were broken he north Yet. the Scot ac bhearla. upon 'that the invol.p. That soon formidable themselves they oftheBritish isles totheinhabitants known bytheir piracies. p. Y-scot. orLochlynach took and were . inIreland. applied made totheRomans. 38. Scotus lb.14.'43. Firbolgs. cum Iernem 41.18 than that did more arrive here before Scythian probable colonies the ' Incarnation.p. p.'42 establishes joins poet Apollinaris ' theScots. of 21. 39. 428. before the middle of the That the and third ravaged country. Saxons and which I find 2. 15.11. Th. cording these were a Scythian Allgrant thians. 1.'40. languages Scythians toIrish was thevernacular one ofthe Neme historians. dispersed. oftheOrkney landed session island. that styled Lochlyn they pos inthenorth ofIreland. Ireland.'41.'38. tonavigation. HisRoman authors are Eumenius who speaks Britain 55years and thePicts before of'theIrish invading ' theScots whomakes Ileintroduces Christ.' they ' atthis ofthe theend fourth the same about time. 40. 11. themselves and thesecond became century. from The Scots issued Scandinavia and were named byour theWelsh intheir Scutten. p.

Icelandic with the the Gallic constitutes difference be incorporation only Manks and the the tween Irish. present present This content downloaded on Sun. And tomyself anextraordinary it appeared the fact. silence apositive their inopposition consider tothat argument native Our if of introduce historians. century.299. A. Normands.44' . Collect. Ware. ofthe aswere thePicts. them. ortribe. English' andManks which thedominion oftheGoths languages. trouble ofcomparing O'Brien's with the Irish Gothic of Olaus which should Varelius. Soon our best historians in after. Spanish. Normandy if had under authorized thefact. annales les lapre. pirates parurent pour isle fois dans cette en miere 795. Keating some. Usher.' Saxon nation. opinion. are silent and wemay erc. cr Mande l' Abbe par Geoghegan. part Ireland them into under and into troduce Turgesius. Grammaticus.46 D Mon Torn. d'Irlande. considering inthe ofGothic mixture Italian.787. . totheTeutonic With I ampersuaded that respect corruption.authors Rodolphus they failed nothave tonotice would their arrival atanearlier date. Histor. Pinkerton. les 376.and. 1. country ofJutland. French. Dictionary befound blended with theIrish rather ofthose supposed early than themore modern colonies would beconvinced Teutonic. Cluverius. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Irish that the tongue contains buta few Gothic words. who would beatthe aphilologer.795 in820. to the arrival of the With in Normans Ireland before the respect our ninth Saxo Camden. p. of The the 46.45. Hist. any weight. O'Flaherty annals thefirst Danish that out ingtotheSaxon ships sought nation arrived there theEnglish from the of Herathi.Accord 798 .D.p. A. 45.19 Aventin uscalls theScots a clan thesame. great antiquarians.D.

hath borrowed much from thattheTeutonic language says inwhich be inanswer tohissixth theCeltic.butasmuch far this.that island. andBritish. A Restitution ofdecayed inAntiquities. their construction ofsentences and idioms combination. probably gic who theG-aoill orBritons. tonic. rovers And itduring seems themore even ithad continued into view that wonderful when wetake pure.'47. by This content downloaded on Sun. by especially that in the Dutch between that have and knowledge tongue. the Irish inmine. vol.Pezron.20 hadeffected. British have been present greatly theprimitive Celtic. asneedeth tobe. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .' apply this itmay tosuch as nion ofVerstegan. p. Manchester. were the same that Irish the . nesse ofTeutonic theresidence and admitted orBel noticed I have soon inIreland after theIn which arrived tribes. The the Rev. comparison us. these tosubjugate Ireland. Intelligence by Verstegan. inhisantiquities ofnations. the had not Irish of theattempts crept language. origin. languages. lects. I from the coasts had ofour emigratednorth. 1deny. ofanable teacher have theassistance Irish With examined inBaxter's theletter theBritish from Ato etymons Glossary has the convinced that both the . countries dia over those that even itsCimbric the used Swedes and Danes.' And chapter. History Whitaker. R. any there isnoneerenesse ofaffinitie atall. of 48.48' occupied ofGothic theBelgaa were ofthis centre or. Icelanders. and residence ofseveral onthe thevicinity tribes long Belgic and west coast ofthis island. C 'lath of the the Persian borrowed much Teu says.211.20. 47. Iamalso from confident that corrupted thewords. language theopi Pinkerton andLedwich I may toMessrs. byinto Norwegians. seem. but that carnatio the . 2. Mr. south-east Ontheother band M.p. originally present inhisopinion.

The other us experience Belgaa that ofone the ofanother. came inthat island. prove ofScandinavian because itmight have been effected origin. 52.49 it were half And though mixture oflanguage not theIrish tobe this would Gothic. p.21 ofthe are from those oftheGothic. who wrote about the fourth was who century. (pent always 51. ear. p.20. 49.51 general And one the Scot-Chearla was the vernacular Nemethians. Ledwich. Antiq. authority requires The same observation to hisGallic and Roman authors. adopt the edthe latter taken from the pains language. fortheScots. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of Ir. French inBritain. and therefore confirmation. This content downloaded on Sun. Another reason inthe be found harshness of the Gothic from the fre. the of 22. Chearla was not the ofthe Nemethians. the isgiven sole quotation upon ofOssian.50. may language. On the we contrary gaoileag may the asthe smaller infer itthat had from population. Enquiries touching diversity Brerewood.15. by p. of use which was offensive to the Celtiz consonants. guided byStrabo. 50. BelgTe. languages. the circumstance tribe adopting language itsinferiority inpoint ofpopulation. vernacular language The from Whittaker's Manch. inthe wrote first theformer whom establishes in . taken theprobability fora fact. different It Irish. P. extremely tome therefore that Pinkerton Mr. applies Their are assertions without Itisprobable that Claudian. Antiq. itnever. adopts opinion. A. proof. could not have fled thither inadirection north ofBritain. ofthe who aScythian were orTeutonic the Scot Consequently colony:32. Notwithstanding ofEdward the to time tothat ofthe Normans establish the Hid. thereason for be language assigned. who theIrish is appears says half and that Mr. Edw. Ireland. who the have Gothic. bythe of of countries instructs the coasts. ofIr. This upon depends chiefly account forthe Gothic oftheBelgw notbeing im fact may mersed inthe of the Irish.

nation. by Macpherson. bog rings breast-plates. fincentury. rather afigurative form of the of into Scotland James being speech. countrymen idolatry pillage. christianity. Itisprobable much of that those then their Romanized ancient lan Britons..115. This content downloaded on Sun. p. was reduced tothe ofreporting Scots. having forgotten as whom Herodian those naked as barbarians. Herodian. iron. Let the reader also consult to Dio and and attend Tacitus. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . adorned with of and without helmets or The trotters. Antiq. proper Highlanders by country. origin. held those old inabhorrence. Aventinus the stated :'53. G. --but facts by Saxons and askindred Picts. Ir. wemust equally suppose he not would : otherwise to be British that of the Picts ascertaining Ca tothose ofBritish souniformly have theappellation given ledonians. acquired quoted byLedwich. opposed Galgacus captain. language of the Picts must have a before the 8th when Bede of cent. guage. aspirated generic district or the their name which the Scotch call Albin region. . theCeltx. pounded or. champions. prevalent religion empire year under who Constantius the Chlorus and and when had then disused Constantine. 11."' had in ifthe vain inthe venerable Bede.' Enq. signifies acquired probably painted or until in became the of the the 296.51.22 ofthe and both Sidonius Claudius. of with an the name of the and a cad. according Macpherson. Caledonia their to iscorn country. and the Picts books authentic information from sought respecting fables onrumour. and fourth fifth centuries. atanearly thetribes oftwo Ireland received having period. of thelanguage ifTacitus ofidentifying And besupposed capable soof him tohave been Gaul inBritain. SoIlins (Cams Apollinaris theScots. consider and ofthesixteenth. Britons those had not which either men the name of Picts. its nations within Gauls orBritons. undergone great change speaks ' itasdifferent from the British. Gael. doch. regarded painted represents foreigners. necessity from source those itismatter what ofcurious toknow inquiry inthe had their information authors. Antiq. Britons. great chiefly of 53. . p. who. people the Picts were ofBritish convince me that Camden. eighth century. Agricola's speech to his who were will the Pictish He convinced that to be soldiers. on account oftheir and painting. Esq.

23 Goths orBeige onthe borders centre . 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . occupied Bulgaria inEurope. And so brought pertius.itishighly . Turkey been stress has laid Ihad much lest I it.that hesitated. coast.the probable for their authors who noauthority those that assertions. proof specious quired from anerroneous Other construction ofaline inPro writers.atanother Scythians you frequented Betic beheld armed steed : (Spanish enemy you upon yourand you been also seen have the orfrigid GeLebyBritain by wintry with her chariot. the censure inventuring incur should own au upon my it a to different I allude to line The is giveof thority interpretation. the Irish and her which with Britain Get. quote having tribes of the Norman Gothic in and heard ofthose Ireland. Turkey This content downloaded on Sun. have the seen inthe east the . upon long ofcritics.' theforce ofthis line Ishall painted quote inwhich the two inanepistle addressed ones. preceding todescribe continues toher histravels. Britannia curru Getze. per Te moth' munito Beticus hostis equo. have the Irish from inEurope. Arethusa. attempts todraw nofurther those inferences. Hibernique pictoque asIconceive should bethus time translated :-atone vhich. 'Fe modO viderunt iteratos Bactra ortus. booktheelegies ofPropertius. pira on the of British in the time the re tical Romans. Hibernique pictoque isunderstood tomean. them. Tounderstand chariot. lover. painted The ofthe tothe isconfirmed Get55 propriety epithet applied A 55. who of both Moldavia sides of in the Danube and Scythian tribe. inthe 4th and intheepistle of : toLycos Arethusa Britannia curru Gaze.

Romans the invasion probable &amp. hisexile which written those was during among savages. notis M. information hepossessed itisbynomeans that likely respecting nor the notcommunicated. This content downloaded on Sun.p. )3ouctitenidas. cum V. mod sonant Swpe glacie capilli. Even themild ofIreland in was. Claudius and Hadrianus Junius. &amp. places obfrigus North are tobeuninhabitable :'wgre inco supposed non ita ut ulterius sunt existimentur.1. by glaciale. CTsar. Geograph. any prior . Borysthenes. those ofgeographical termed oricy. ' itisscarcely observes ofIreland. the Ifthis distich had not notice ofauthors. which had former Ireland. braccis sutis . inhabitable onac Strabo ofthe that those further tothe count insomuch situate cold. regions climate forthelifeofman. cotemporary Propertius other about that ofJulius Tibullus and inwhose time. wits. frigora de toto sola Oraqite corpore patent. itispro escaped been more intheir bable would have cautious construction they were incommon use oftheformer line. glona iioIota (ona ad hIbe. habitari litur.56. allus.Pellibus.known orsubsequent nothaving been writer Britain acquired. Ovid. Strab.21 in the and also inseveral ofOvid's others verses.307.Such epithets among who northern believed most too cold theRoman writers. tothe itiseven before ofJ. were river named after the who thuania. pendente &amp. Et nitet induct candida barba gelu: asinthefollowing The word isused Propertius. by adjectively inwhich itisapplied inhabitants ofLi totheancient distich. arunt ma16. Casauboni. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Meca-nas. following poem ' detristibus'. days ignorance. qua posse was G with C.Gesar. tantUm ITine etenim mea meruit nomen.

part he Catullus issaid tohave been Christ born 86years before. who. ignorant calls Britain the island : western most quis potest pati. they occupied the orElbe. necessary and inlanguage. 10years with before the with Christian and CEesar. VOL. era. They whence Germans orTeutons thepresent Germany. themselves the Athis extended occupying pre beyond in Iceland later and sent . This content downloaded on Sun. With the them from Celtw separated XIII. ofGaul and the Britain. But. PEOPLED. and heard that very improbable Propertius island heknew this tohave been Get morScythians. was died had with itissupposed. intimacy. ultima Habebat Britannia unctum. probably cotemporary Propertius. ofthe ancients. theThule and Shetland Their the isles. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .25 had never ofIreland. language todevote and the chief ofhis time towriting obliged soliloquy. orGothic classed under tribes been the THOSE Scythian having denomination ofCeltai orCeltw Greek and Roman by general their relative situation. notwithstanding must have hetwice been ofthe when existence ofIreland. times. Romans intercourse was inorder topreserve his inremembrance. also differed inmanners and The customs. Denmark. Sweden. native Ovid. Eone nomine. peopled bythe that between whom and the the was solimited. comata Gallia Mamurram habere. unice. Orkney and theRhine theNorth boundaries were which oldwest sea. quod &amp. imperator Fuisti inultima occidentis insula WHENCE IRELAND WAS AND BY WHOM. and. it becomes describe to writers. Norway. certainly he whom bewas this intimate.

Gaul. leaves. by the from of their thewest mi that ferred. the fallen ofthose out oreven tribes.And the French and who have no W letter Italians. the the Italians. species. Amutual possessed seems tohave some in intercourse and . pursuit stolen theyfor tobeof ofdistinction. by Anglois by Ingiese by This content downloaded on Sun. trees. by superior prowess Goths itmay that the Gothic bepresumed. the Gaud never thelan learned measure. Roman. of the Celtx caused the was of those gration. and Tacitus. it. great Ptolemy theCeltze. G. and ourselves. byCeltai. branches. subsequent part history.asthe guage either.so. track.inthe point pursuit endeavour totrace wemust them from theparent stock tothe and vice versa.26 of crossed theRhine and German some which tribes. orinhabitants The Gavill ofGaul were inLatin by expressed and inGreek became word which the Gatti. Greek. opposite thediscovery isobtained toward aroad one step byascertaining had of two not taken. the sake I shall which. exceptien inGaul and was the such relative settled situation ofthose Britain. as in the which And.and the ofsome Celtic the dis inGaul tribes upon territory compelled toseek other hatred territories inBritain. the time nations in of : two J. from probably todiscover whence those tribes endeavour Inthe came. English French. suppose different wefollow that the broken which branches. romanized. among the for called 57Celtai denomination and Galli the are we. generally inalltheir itappears. For the that. Gavill. ja. among people theletters K>and Cwere commutable with ancient the Greeks.Caesar. . 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . encroachment . prevented any friendly account tin. may having ofthe which differs aswidely Sclavonic from other.57. the branches ofthis aword used todenominate Celtce. this. migrations. as. the west ofEurope asfarasthe south of occupying bounded onthe were east the Itmay bein Germans.

59. then denominated west Gallia part cisalpina. Jutland. and ince their Artois.132. Gaulles.27 are Gu substituted. changed bythe Cornu-Gaules. sea. guerre varden. can The from savage only ofmental inthose inthose denomi nations darkness. which was part. itsinhabitants called and Welshers. Brit-Weleh. anciently occupied which was ofItaly. occupying thepresent North and South Cimbric and Chersanesus. This content downloaded on Sun. the Britons from the North called this W. tothose also extended who lived the west banks ofthe Gauls.hence guerre by by deGalles. originating tothewhole was afterward transferred ofItaly. .applied substituting tothose who ofWelsh name thenorth Gauls. and theisland was denominated Brit-Welshland. warre. inhabited Netherlands. Lombardy. island. G. . being separated by todistinguish them from other Welsh.and they upon intheir those tribes ustotraca The enable Goths or emigrations. (Cornwall the G of the French is into the other in Gothic On hand. was former. upon Inthe which were Rhine. Gallen. sometimes.decayed Verstegan. formerly bythe the French was called and the inhabitants Wats. According people. changed Guarden isexpressed warden.intelligence Restitution Richard 58. by Verstegan. pays which beexpected clue toinformation. ages appears bestowed each other which these will nations. and. p. pro words Walsland Gallons orOath.59' Gals. asIhave W for the observed. And since this and from this denomination. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . gardien. language ofHenault and Wallen orWallons. afterward made a ofthis and driven Saxons.into warden into now . Germans. Gaulles . p. now Wales. importing toancient Saxon this the works. The Welsh.". having Econquest of153. Beigffl. inGothic G or Hence warre intheir alphabets. Cornwales Wales. This was name Welshland. people Gallish orWalfish contracted froBrittaint tribes. W.

5. mid that from apresumptive east towest. equivalent means Irish people. This Gothic like anillname ofGaoill orCaoill. This content downloaded on Sun. their orBriton and orWallish."' . andWelshland. Agricol. lib. and Camden. 4.28 the Britons itswestern tonominate into continued those Gauls wilds. Weallas Weallasland. 153. 'I(Icm. holy superstition ofthe and thetwo Beside it but little. esse Feroeissimos Diodor. the were offspring we assuch thesame should Accordingly language. Taciti. And these synoni appellations mous with inthe Gallish. de bel. which. appears ofBritain. coun Britain for ineither nobooks had instruction.similar Tacitus tothose their rites and are says. pronunciation toanexalted south from them applied personage. they speak those Lind inthe itwas 6th book of that Cesar. sending occasion. likely through medium ofthe Gallic tongue. languages from that ofGaul traded with those merchants the Caesar. fere omnibus bellis. Go. ispursued proof And Hie first inhabitants ofBritain ofGauls. Gelsh. sacra vita. are now theword which with Gaoillack. asthey And. sub habitant. customs.Sect.65 differ Galli. discipline.60 abridged Another inCornwall. 62. Jul. Idem.".' 64. Gaulish. correspondence similar Tacitus tosay. 18. Caesar. 152. country which were into Walsh orWelsh. . manners. 60. and induced that. 1. persuasione. 61. among customary to over who topass were studious ofthe Druid Gauls. it the is the communicated instruction was try. 11. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . upon every with This close inacommon conjoined language. religion. deprehendens. and this ofinvading Bri commerce his through design tain was dcovered inthehabit of tothem :that the Britons were 'almost Gallicis auxiliaries toGaul.". this ofBritons settled body having region was called were Corn-Weallas.' Gallorum. language ofIreland. qui septentrionibus 'Eorum 6:3. having tonorth. Galsh. superstitionem Sermo haud multum diversus.

65.'inuniversum neighbouring credibile est. 1. fought province inprxlio de bell Mechliniensi.' Man. thrashing. finally. houses. formerly fought having that before theilluminating dawn of Nor isitunlikely. accordingly. possession soil tamen Gallos vi ofthis wstimanti. 284. threw 67. &amp. and p. Cxsar. illus likewise weshall them totheir ofwar. V.353. p. find instruments copy. grinding. the their sown. 11Tacit.' naked Scots at the battle of a The Mechlen. itsflour. juice inthe the inwhich from those Ifweturn appears original proofs. byDiodorus. . east. the which oc And interval.300. Herodian. Famiani Stradm Belgick.67. Tacitus. they neither remarkable are assavages the use ofclothing known .65. ofwoad. fought nudi Scoti ofBrabant. vita. Whit. Manch.and acquirements relinquishing readily oftheir itmay attainments aschildren ofthe are imitative parents. Whit. Highlanders in their shirts. easily the tocorroborate seems the Gauls naked. that such known. once beinferred.ofreaping. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . from the first to the last disembarkation curred berecognized descendants Britanno-Gallic those bythe may yet and form of in construction in some articles of the dress. Sect.29 Gauls the took itislikely allcircumstances considered. for. pugnabant This content downloaded on Sun. notwithstanding long ofGauls inBritain. nor for . 6. V. opinion. been have would not aluxury. variety themode ofsifting and. The p. Scc. cinum solum occupasse. Agric. and short and off as the battle of the their coats.6 the from On the British Gauls of the country. parent separation the inwhich ofnudity itmay bepresumed. 66. they upon knowledge opened blue with the bodies stained had their North South and Britain. late As plaids Killicranky. thestate from fairly had nor that neither the Gauls and British Picts were found. them from the asin had also. practice. agreement ofcorn inimplements ofhusbandry. their forinvention. of recorded abandoned.

seulement les aussi . and. . toBrito. says.' And with the had their wheels chariots furnished with British frequently scythes like the Solate asthe Ga1lic.379. peculiar nsed in Wales. settlers. &amp. A. Wales. rapportent plusieurs exeraples.p. 575. according Spenser and both and Gaulish. acongenerous Goths and from the Cimbric Chersonesus.' ignorance proof [another to the the derivedBritons fromGauls. *Whit. tobe whom Pinkerton" considers theCimbri.and the mi hatchets.73. p. describing 64 them allwith battle ofGauls. was. furnishes axes and swords.leurs eux. Strabo.69. were. oftheir ofiron.In and. implements personal thein oftheir vention into Britain themedium passed posterity. This content downloaded on Sun. century. tothe which was Gauls. Geoghegan. Whit. and in were chariot. people went or the Irish 68Whit.148.but commodities. 2. broad. five these four Man.' Marcellinus D. 806.p. and un to and Whitacre. through ofcommerce these which were unknown tothe .p. inboth. 22. 22.' abody which were afterward those transferred toIreland. WELSH NOT heaffirms Mr.'70.71. see Gaul.And of the Ma Irish. the division oftownships was alike. constantly armed with an axe.712 weapons later and domestic ornaments.370. large. p. 71. Pennant's V. to are the of this treatise.I. flourished. oftheir trative Marcellinus. ages. usage pour voyages. pour nous ea 114. For the chariots in.73. 1. 69 17. Celts orstone were Scythian pointed. litary thefirst theisland troduced into inhabiters ofit. p. speaking histoires laguerre en chez mais non. according British bythe oaths were taken ontheensigns Inboth ormilitary countries. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Whit. 245.50 Ammianus Gallic descent.19. Idem. V. p. Whit. 1. 13th the orheavy gesum. javelin. primitive foreignsubject THE C1MBRIANS. V. '72.--. within centuries. Vol. And swords. p. IN 6toient Les chariots y0. p.7'.

refuge inCornwall. Wales. century one Gal ifwe believe would have received and Diodorus. He those North Cimbri as the ancestors of way. But the with the almost common British.75. recognized ofWeallas nomination and ofCymri. and Norse. Ant!. Ptolemy's p. 2. Nortagica. occupied South Wales onthear inthe setshire second Afid was. tohave taken inthesixth sortie in affirmed are century. Corn-weallas. ever. p. bythe colony 1 8. Ciinbri. Swedish. had allScot with theWelsh. V. style Cymri. others ofthe same . toHickes. occurred about the of Christ says. through by This content downloaded on Sun.I.174. Carnbrians.which. ofBritdin. and almost evacuated retired toIreland.224 4Et the See tohis Mwito-Goth. century. possession oftheOrdovices. Danica deductie stun. Itinerary Barn.' entirely thepresent Somer Those ontheother hand. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . they asGauls. exCimbrica. Wales.' Islandiea.but. originally peopled land centuries befcre the Christian about were two driven xra. arid preface gramma. Suedica. And their conformable which. aGothic tothe south ofScotland from Nor Picts. 77. according language. Geog. day. not or Cimbri. 590. Those. M. the arid the of Silures ofthe in rival DimetT. accordingly language. . in Powel his Welsh chronicle it 78. theIcelandic. tribe. language hebelieves tothis And theoriginal Gaelic in Cymraig. are derived. Six.' habitants had thecountry. regards the modern themselves and who their Welsh.p. iiiexchange for how lictribe.31 hesays. Romans. vanquished bythe this event rritist have occurred the second after Cimbri. after the some and Saxon others idArmorica. are as I had before under the de observed. . accordingly. family for the isnot from aGothic whose Cimbri were true. tribes. 75: 76Whit.77 Danish consent ofhistorians. inthat These were all asNorth Wale's Was ifthey had been Gallic orBritish and." Wales. year ofArchbishop Baldwin de Girald V.78 Saxon iiivasion And inold records.

the Saxons.for theinvasion before ofJulius which learned world tothe Csar. Having partly through that se settlers inBritain tobeGallic. give tion The their their between origin. conjecture istheCeltic and was ofGaul. And here the veral British tribes passed nation oftheir isperpetuated the which was ancestors name. recognized bythe under name ofWiIse. from occurred Christ. Sect Britanniam mortales an ut coluerint. county the and river Shure. Pinkerton Cimbri Scot affirm. derived from apeople inawere full ofvalleys avalley. next tolearn the weare thence over toIreland. from itdifficult tolearn what I find beside that source. by ' notacongenerous the Welsh. This appellation H. the noinforma that those could barbarians. thus German introduction. Tacitus.: deduces from Kambrus. adenomination one oftheir chief Parke. Ossian. districts atthe peopled other of the same that those Cimbri were bodies evinces Britons. orTeu Pinkerton. This content downloaded on Sun.8 Archbishop name were tothe world known tains. ascertained. possessed centuries before the incarnation Britain was land unknown two .' invoce. parum compertum De 80. byafter bards with them and their had retained. are Cumar. preface. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . assuch tonic. p. antiquitate ecclesiaa.32 should beGothic Iiththe ofMr. transported long suffered itstradition tovanish into utter oblivion. Hence also the as inhabited the name between they valleys Dungarvan of the old Brittans ofCumberland. bysome syno they always nimous with Welsh orGauls. respecting affinity same time that ofCornwall and ofArmorica.Ceterum initio 79.--and for same reason the ofWales the Brittans were thus O'Brien's sailed.' with And although they people call which themselves Cimbrians orCambrians. ofhis Dict. advecti. living country hills. Thus called the ofCumarach inthe of Waterford and O'Briens Cumaraicc. about half acentury before and itappears. indigene inter I qui barbaros.13." language. Britons. 'Cumaraicc. and also p. of could that the Mr. Britannicze 24.

orScots the island was . Gdoil. it. France. applicable and derived ofthis from situation which lative island. arose from the same cause. Scotland. regard the inhabitants ofother that ofWelshers. and Scutten. . intoGaoidhil of Gauls . conversed The term inlater tofo Gaoill. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and bestowed. nations . the is and of the .isErinigh. signified corrupted Ireland." WHY THE IRISH WERE OR DENOMINATED SCOTS SCYTHIANS. Gaoileagappellation English language they in. p. VOL. The inhabitants ofIreland from were the3dtothe15th also.asfear Gaoil. continent. The one various antiquity. Irishmen. people upon foreigners by residing beside inItaly theGauls. century. called or without Scotia. importing itsown remote manifests ofBritain. The and tothe ofBritain. satisfactory assigned Inthe hands oflate theword derived writers. Scotia. also means anorigin The former anterior totheassumed name. inBritain and onthe under the denomiknown. Hibernia. re other. nations ofScoti. probably XIII. Verstegan. F 61. gdol signify a man ofthe same tribe brathair theold . This content downloaded on Sun. indiscriminately applied ages theignorance evinces ofthe lower order with to reigners.152. of the Gaoill are word all illustrative ofthe significations original Gal kindred and akinsman stock. andthis Gaol11. .33 totheir isGai11 Theonerelating forefathers or istwo-fold. the common of other Germany.sean-Gltaill. Scythians. any indifferently reason theorigin for ofthose denominations.

Porphyry. bordering heoften whom from Mr. speech. tribes.' Manch. ' that theLettic found in to be &amp. with is shades ofdis a-kin totheSlavonic language. apprenticeship SS. ages. 'the aprovince orGail!. Others. contrary orLettenland. p. deriving thought aterm for the insular and fitted situation ofErin rity: conjectural onthe various from time totime. period. definitions.arosins.18. Letitia. Pinkerton.82 Others it was in the word derision.83 I ofLivonia. century.itfrom Whitacre Gothic Scot derives the Mr.' inthe the and third about 397. refugees. literally antiquities.and some. from Livonia Gait . Mr. obvious ofthis The Ledwich. 'wanderers arefuge. composed ofthe middle orlater deduced it from an historians. than for reason ofthehisto illiaplation the itfrom itimplied rian. which.and This content downloaded on Sun. oftheterm approbation proper application like one of the in has hitherto remained. who has served an toBritish sleep penetration. observe. Ibelieve. obscu Some. Greek. 8`2. the first who ofthe were. Whitt. gave interpretation ofvarious oraheap. which. speak V. p. V. materials. heenlarges into or orScut. adapted thesober ofthepoet. ofgreat of 233. reflecting itthe within her Gothic of she sheltered woods. in say applied a disease. Livonia. Each seems Gothic also author with importing pleased ofthe hecould not obtain the his own construction word. An author research. yet many Ctinction. expression. though But the ofthe rest. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .anauthor quotes. Inanswer onthe Lettmanni. Some Irish ajumble. in417. towhich. signifying .p. authors. Scota. P.2.3' seemed aplayful from forthe rather Scuit. denomination ledobscurity. year P. meaning tobring the best Nordmans totheopinion ofour writers. Egyptian princess. 2.233. Semigallia. in from atanearly hither Letten.8. Prosper. Courland.

Westerly the of and ofNarbonne Greeks them amuch with of afterward the Romans greater Marseilles. introduced. settled and the upntheS.south. they might supplies the in aconsiderable such ofthe furnished was have . 103. informs and Tacitus us.85.p. century and all with the Phenicians of a considerable trade most tribes them carried . used. denominations. tract. and. counties what is those . in for their the endeavour had some motive to account . a with of Britain and the communication the NW. portusque prcommercia ti. These thus Nenius.InsoBut the were actuated it. were traders in They Gaul and Britain ofthose also the descendants maritime tribes . originally or Irish the ofthe the the British Sam . 105. inasubsequent for I must of them. . locorurn in Chron. 85. colonists of Ire The Cantii opened parts from those ofcattle. eogni This content downloaded on Sun. Watlings.which origin anearly inSouth from Dover toCardigan and extended period. Tac. was constructed at orGaoilach-street .I. way equally IBoth ofthe roads must have been the S. begun by Be1ga2 both from the to have commenced 106. Whit.The therefore. and.coasts ofIreland. plainly very extraordinary. Melius aditus Agricol. 2.35 these asScots orScythians were followed Irish.street. way Ikening-street by or the of the Iceni. occupations. vigorously.that harbours Accordingly known tothemerchants tothe coast were well Irish approaches tileinforma Hence the ofcommerce. the Wales. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Man. Belgm spit pursued strongly by first into the the entrance within aon from their directions island. part. 86. Hence. probably purpose ofWatling.and object Ikening degree equally street. which. appear p. Vita Sect. proper These tribes the were situated coasts of originally upon Germany andGaul. &ngltiatozeb. for sake thither resorting F was de v. receive them which Irish that the must then land. Sax. Gibson. and others. that.' and its acommercial P.and W. and thecause was obvious.and pursued forthe same of the trade. Explic.and byGildas. benoticed will intheir this order. synonimous early sogenerally and solong muit have continued.E. 81.and nominated Guethelin.' Nominum &amp.86. origin advert totribes.84." Sam denominated was Menin.

Camden. Their Picts. tegentes. our dwell Scots who next . seem. furciferosq.c.89. proxima. The thesubsequent Scoti Gaoill. &amp. 87. and had ex inafter dynasty ages."g7. . &amp. were in also known efBocleden.Scot. lung Igland fifgetheod 45i. probably pastoral cluded from to have the lived as unknown to the con world. by Scyttes And the Saxon hence Sates.c. quam corporum pu pudenda. 88. See Ammian. used the name ofScots. being their and content with herds thus se life. emergunt arctissimis foratninum sunt trans vallem vecti : de caver with Tithzcam hides quibus una vernticulorum tetri Scotorum nulis. 89.and. Scythians ofCirencester. annals enumerate the early languages Britain thus :"Brittene ornations ofGreat hund isehta Igland twa hund and brad her mita sind on this Si. nor ruins ofpalaces the costume of its inhabitants. . They bytheBrittish ofY. manners. to admire illis Itaque any of small boat a covered dun certatim de curucis ad willow. and. rcvertentibus. vestibus dendisq. inIreland. (Curach. This content downloaded on Sun. contrary Belgic during part oftheRoman inBritain. the On those that tribes. tisc. Englise. place early century. Scythians 'synonimous toCamden. by ofthe Gothic tribes ofIreland. changed infested theBritish coasts. lap Book-learned. Brittise. cunei. magis pilis. customs.36 tion communicated toPtolemy the Roman and hence the traders.Sr SrPyh erScyttise. eademque fusci Pictorumque greges. Gildas. tocall not toScotland. Gildas' curious of From the third of excursion the Scots and Picts description plundering which took Into in the we have no for 5th reason to'look the Britain. but them. appellations Inthe Scutten was with and Netherlands. Eurnenius.". according countrymen. commerce forpillage inconjunction with the . sanguinis fundendi aviditatc vultus concordes. (languages). tinent itappears. Wilse. under thename Wales which the comprehended IN asthe well Irish. Marcellinus. The Be/Bic glibb. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ofRichard situate inthe and centre ofIreland. busy astoPtolemy.

leurs 111. hache. and 82 90. mundo . denoting toSpenser descent astheir . following pages. synonimous themselves onthe Germans orBelgx. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . One thesoilofIreland nations.' Theat. long and The British small bearded arrows. aswell arms. Diodor.and and surrounded theformer coasts.93. View of the state of P. the Britain.7414 92. 93. Roman and writers. leur comme eux d'un cri tire comme engine. Dionysius. Geoghegan. occupied of Gaulish inhabited but called Gaoill from descent.95. qui farah. . See Ma Ireland. martial. and Ware. gl. founded and information was oftheancients solely them as Nordmans.113. Goths. quivers. . planted W. 4Leurs armes list.S. &Mande etoient la & la comme le sabre. Brztannice occickntaks earn celebrat Isacius inLycophronem.94.11C4 &amp. itisprobable. ofwhich have from theregions emigrated inrumour. BgETCZYYkc\IEC Dionys Perieget. Dicunt exusnonnullos qui septentrionibus.DJ De V. compsed. habitant. pique.40%Tge1 FOGO 3111704 C41. diroit prenez garde. This content downloaded on Sun. they the ofScandinavia. atoriginally thesame time.90. of his orsome writerage.Bevero.A. etoit. .XC. &leurs faisoient voir leur de us 'avoient fleches. 'Nomine 95. oftheir real must that inferred. anthropophagos qui 91.' qui of and others.91 The ontheE. shields. Ferocissimos esse sub Gallorum.-P. guage. with centre ofIreland Scuit. designated accordingly they oftwo that twotribes. PIM?.c.B. vet. Diodorus. glibbs. and flocks and fishing. xal 'Vgyn. 'Leurs dont anciens les Marcellin. Thus itwill great appear.2.Ptolemy's map Whitaker. farah. Geog.6. usseservoient. authorized Aristotle. theother Scythians.' esse. p. Teutones.5. avec les arcs. 1iCTOCS SVC oyE tAEY thiiyi5CUTE TV).-'Ey 7Ireland. Strabo. 1. C. 92" Thereport oftraders. 41. P. p. boucliers Gaulois. oftheir herds former seem tohave lives tothecare devoted their : thelatter totrade. piracy. 113. 'AAgwy. Isacius.EellkV BeET7OGYY141 NE7C1ILEYZI. naturally ignorant origin. petites rapport qui Scythes. pane d'osier. according and oflarge and wicker and short bows Ware.37 dense and them tobeofGothic dress. sicut Britannos Inn tenent.

a still should have suffered the with thepresent Yet. period itis altered from that ofWales andfrom each other. have since that been consi guage. that theIrish. has in and spoken every tongue. ones. undergone destiny fore the6thcentury as the now dead a .Pezron too ofAr assumes tobethat hastily morica and must have be asimilar Wales.' genius omitted Hehas themention oflanguage the . very Baxter's Glossary. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . languages primitive oftheir forefathers.between asitappears from thefewI quote from others manifest. and of the inhabitants differ little from those of Britain. compared roots and collocation ofwords than nearer a much approach the interval oftime. subsisting of is a that the Gaillish orBritish was lapseages.Solum &ingenia aBritannia hominum haud multum ccelumque cultusque ferunt: This content downloaded on Sun.thence Ptolemy. had which been introduced into this island before theIncarnation. theancient respective Consequently. lan andtheArmorican. and. climate. Therelation between some words isvery remote . clif 24. suppose affinity.and tocall Ireland aBritish island . judging by great 'reasonably and the idioms and accent nearer have a still . of modern understand the knowledge tongues. insinuating 96' that its inhabitants were Britons. manners. derably notwonderful.but. Welsh. unaccountably now between theIrish affinity and after the Welsh. particu in unwritten soconsiderable that a change. Cornish. proof language then Time in Ireland. greater change. Tacitus seems toconfirm the inference inhisaccount ofthis island : the soil. could -linguist. 96. produced larly thepresent ofany descendants nation could themere from not. language ofGaul. which M.

Cathair sublimium. . gloyii Civitas anuisge amnis Irish. the affinity and isvery accus Danish. between thedifferent The branches oftheGothic. Cuimeacht curvatura. understood was which 350 by antiquaries only had been executed.39 arlin. theIrish were . all speak people. Pleni ui. Saxon. Dun . even edat.when the Greek had lost some words ofletters inthis after the use language. Rich mare. British. British. . age. Caer bein taloa. Caer British. . peculiar yet the old from originated inlanguages effected beexemplified Thechange bytime may and informs inthe Latin articles of the us. Arx aquue. ofthe Some words and were which Welsh. Gothic. linnCaper air Irish. Dutch. Cornish.Arx British. Buc apud laun isc. Camva Ian nanuiscidh amnis Irish. after Alterations inamore remote they years and inthis recorded are equally unexpected language. Cathair . others intheformer. oftherest. Dun belisc. ghloin limpidi. by This content downloaded on Sun. Polybius the Romans and between could alliance be scarcely even inCarthaginians histime. yetnonative. lost. tomed any only by iseven observation tothesubdivisions same of The applicable ina ofwhich each dialect those . and preserved preserved inthelatter a circumstance which are lost nottobe' wonder that weconsider. beinne natulclia montium Irish. British. striking can beunderstood totheone. Armoric. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .that English. uisce adcaput bh6i1 Irish.

OTlaherty. quote macistratos Exemit leciones castreis exfociont . and the But. declare thelineage tobepartly whence ofthe sprung they Gauls of the Goths. C.98.38. astothe anauthor ofthe1/thcentury And. tion. lessthan ahistory oftheGauls the Incarna nothing preceding and oftheGermans tothat ara. yet some from deviation beexpected thehand of might naturally time for to a narrative of I the reader Sir which refer James .40 thechange in150years and Festus . Sir Jas. which inclassical Latin isrendered thus : Exemit castris legiones magistratus. that hecould afew understand but words ofthat. English language.296. arrived 97.95. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Spenser.c. partly although and resemblance onageneral view was strong convincing. had been written inthereign ofHenry the First. Enquiries touching Brerewood. Ledwich. 12. This content downloaded on Sun. Ahistory Ware. Geoghegan."' The and oftheIrish. p.113. the oflanguages Professor 44.I. which affirms. history. separately inIreland. aswell customs astheir manners arms. subsequent of the Gaoill and we shall Having spoken Belgw collectively. p. precision from toascertain the had when tribes those time. next with asmuch bedefensible asmay endeavour. Spenser. See Ma v. and Quintilian wrought onthe from aninscription thetime ofCicero preceding appears ofanaval obtained erected incommemoration over victory pillar : the shall of which I the first line Carthaginians. (see p.p. p. Ware. efugiunt. diversity by 98. ofErin istherefore &amp.

manners. identity Conjoined ofapeople is themost ofthecommon origin satisfactory proof names oftribes. 650after had been Britain and. customs. of some of six tion. Whit.M. years according about asheconjectures. 99. transferred ofsome have been ofthefol must composed consequently colony which were . were seated N. This content downloaded on Sun. 232.boundary from Kent the The rests information ofthis principally upon period emigration latter ofwhom dates their ofCaesar the from and Richard.41 TRIBES OP IRELAND'. tribes Cantii. bytheBelgue vanquished lowing Bibroces which theS. embarkation tohave thesecond taken Mr. Britain. surrendered thedui. colony finding and of northern allthecentral partsEngland occupied. 99This into the isle ofalready uninhabited themselves Ireland. totheW. XIII. when those thecoincidence ofnames especially oftwo near islands. departure A. dislodged by Belgw. years place lw. totribes arecommon before the Christian toWhitacre. composed colony anddislodged. viz. was This which tribes. About 350 wra. :Cassii Cimbri fore toCmsar &Carnabii. Manch V. Whitacre supposes the or100 after before theIncarna inabout 250 first. of of 100. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to according G VOL. coast ofBritain. orRhemi.3650. ofDorsetshire. Surrey. 2. INSegontiaci.the tribes. planted first British the the from Gaul. tribes. Bibroces Middlesex and which had be Essex. occupied Regni.oftheformer. OF THE and with the oflanguage.

whence arrived and of Ireland. called were by Ptolemy. Goria. called -where towns and Mu Falia. Britannia. Whit. aBelgis ex sedes commigrarunt Britones. p.101. Ann. allasque fuisse DM. ' p. Ireland.W. the and . ontheir return from been inhabitants ofIreland.-' est Certissimum Voluntios.m3. from orthat of :theformer. p.-postquam 42..50. (whose only. and tual of this coalition. Ogyg. Cangos. they occupied I believe. proba Dee. 'InHiberniam 103.' duces Richard. 174.6.42 some or other Divitiacus Roman Richard. according bytwo theS. That. centre hitherto mu being unoccupied. bringsand authority. Neagh Part ofthe Loch Erne. 102. theriver blyfrom doubtful on from Bceotia and them. Dea two occupied towns inthevicinity ofthat Dobar and called river. they a Whitacre calls themBritish tribe with better . author. 233.and Shannon.bythe on the Suire and Blackwater E.1r2. Scandinavia. O'Flaherty attwo Athens toScandinavia distinct bad. by Barrow. This content downloaded on Sun. . p. Finnia. Mr. with constituted acentral which was former. Boyne. inromance existence dwel ria.ontheS. Irdobar. tiacus-vel alii victores illis domi tumultum fecerant.and. Whit. ontheW. judgment. part ofAntonine and thewall that ofHa between included Britain or Darini and Darnii drian. p. illo Scotti tempore appellati 104. origine slum postea [post Scotos trajecerunt. settled in the N. 232. bythe genera1. says they periods. tohave settled ontheir return from onthe them. nation.bythe mountains ofTyrone .Rich. These. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . tribes. land Valentia. by They adenomination Dea derived writers Tuath Irish Danaan.1".bythe Loch Loch and . was. ashesupposes. they ledforsome time near and theriver orDee.ofthepresent Scot and from the Damnii Rhobogdii. uniting bounded onthe N. ejecti ibique posuerunt. Damnios. ea nationes. supposes 101. Brigantes. protection identity family required These were to our followed.

p. Camd v. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . addenda. they fancy 106.105 Calgaic. ashesupposed. This content downloaded on Sun. 437. according having. merely presuming.etro. Robogdium tanquam 107. vel ce etiam ri. byLotlius. seem toextend onCamden The commentators theterritory of this tribe toofartotheW. Richard. i aquse itog marisfuctu. to of the firth ofClyde presentedpassage subdued when Ireland. West to their the within . perhaps. 108. cording they occupied parts or and Dun naNgall N. Idem. E. Dunbarton. The situation ofthis 106. fluctus ut sit Prce dia. orthewestern Gauls :7'tothese Jar-Gall. of coast Galloway. 4. us no ofthe Mr.108. shires Lanerk. opposite tribe some ofthis ofthe ofPtolemy. colonized from this must been included. Patrick. over.est promiscup pro pr rhag. Ayr.division whose was called Donnegal. Logia.43 thedenomination under ofNovantes. had been that. ofMane.. have Ac Britain. but. Present coast a short the N. pied anciently this whence tribe had been denominated. Suile. Dun. Iictime occupied parts and whence ofPeeble.2. The called promontory byPtolemy and which Sir James Ware tobe ithobogdium. Whitacre further information. p. list. Brit. theArgita orLoch flumen.p. Brigantum . boundary according only and orLoch this author Feabhail.232. Whitacre adds allDerry. after theinhabitants. (Loch Foyle. people to of the counties Antrim Camden.415. passed They ofthecounties ofparts Antrim and Downe took and . gives orDown for them their Dunutn. rightly supposed that ofInis from the situation has which assign Eoghain Ptolemy G2 105. capital.when ittohave occu they suppose thedistrict called Cineal and more Dair Eoghain. inGaul tribe and Ireland favours the definition Baxter :-Vete by dialectis rum dicuntur rac re. possession toPtolemy. v. Rhobogdii gives asallIreland.

ofthe reduction county by the memorial into and tohave retained over tohave Ireland.179. Whitacre.44 transferred tothat Rd writers of1i1air it. Sm.evidently the oldappella out topoint asevidently and the latter seems tribe.that.'m tion applied word has theoriginal ifEblana bea corruption. passed Eblana. about 50 Richard. and Rodan.18. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .E. tohave been inconse the. ofWare's coincidence but. This content downloaded on Sun. Beaufort 109 447. the and theneighbourhood after N. or Mediolanum.coast. in Mr. Chonuing.who. quence were enabled topillage Re the southern coasts ofIreland. the name ofasmall Robogh. tribe inthe mains ofthis word. orp. the Carnabii. sogenerally But Mediolanum has been ofitscity. sow. p. throngh who the oftheOrdovices. orTor who whence . Mercator place from the ofPtolemy N. map theposition them inIrish I consider his with assigned history. origin ofEblani name tothe thenew affixed The former name .c. naGal the Dun Four ofthe who nell. and Ortelius this tribe onthe Ruibne.firCon rates.io9. appear town inAntrim. ofthis ofthe old ing.Robog. 1. ofMan. . By ofKeating. vessels. p. before that Christ. of the &amp. bogdii oftheir maritime and sizeoftheir theconstruction skill. the correct with edition one tothis only regard people. part occupied years ofMediolanum.10. that. Hist. present (Donnegal). translation See the history people late. Rhedonet ofCeltic Gaul . us. totowns. which I shall Ro For reasons I the presently suppose assign. Bog. inbardic asFoghmhoraiec This tribe isdescribed verse orpi settled atToirinis. Camden.iserroneously bylater bead. tohave been arestated aredenominated artisans.ofShropshire 'seem ofSalop ofCheshire. episcopal informs Mr.235. in the name of their oftheir capital.

fortheground. enclosed with once onvery stands and firm walls."2 Baile-cliath ap pellation. whence Develin ofthe Difelin Dublinium and Dub ofthe Danes. upon supposition upon could atno time have been soft orquaggy.327. Dinas oftheWelsh. belonging inthemiddle inItaly.'which ' the of the ford of hurdles the over black interpreted.' etymology avery false Dublin which . was comata which. to fine a come gravelly they inafew foundation feet.a country ibh. evidently of The Blanioi or Eblanoi constitute the can Ptolemy anticipated. high ground. another. called Milan . Phil. tred . Ifthen similitude have been colonized from either ofthose ofnames. Idem. 112. that. inthe ofittoward lowest the several new where and.w.Irish of toithaving The been Dublin. one ages. The ancient stands. a district beside sodeno inLombardy. ofDubillana orDublilin oftheIrish itissupposed. Cluver. p. Gallia. another toargue from the wewere minated inSpain. This content downloaded on Sun. in Mediolanum nominated . 68 Geogr.itwas . English. river. Dublin might places. Carnd.45 than weshould inthecourse of a expect change undergone greater oftheir tothe time date settlement from the centuries two supposed inNormandy was de oftheEburovices ofPtolemy. linia ofLatin Dulin Duflin ofthe writers. alluding early accounts and inhabited Danes are inthe5th built bythe century. .335. city. 1 IL Introd. Brit. iscomparatively Saxons amodern arertaken. Eagan king visited Munster called-Atha-Cliath Dubhline is it.113. passage ' And thatthe ofBallacleith is-founded adtt they pool.---The capital totheSantones. & alibi. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ' when The ofCamden commentators of state. p. p. parts been built streets have within 50years." Arecent writer derives theword from a du.

west coast ofGaul. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . -114. . synoni and Camden informs allsignifying land orterritory. affixed. claim tothe ofantiquarians. Cellarii. tir. history. Dict. are hence the ofPtolemy114. ofnames beconsidered asillustrative should Ifthe similitude of ofthe tlir. Camd. the beside in names were nomi . antiqui. others. this definition astheDanes a spoke different inIreland until the and not arrived of had end language. But Eblana du. army. 1.indebted to who tells us that Leinster owes its name tothe Keating..consequence oftheir thrown severity. Mr. vivors with unusual in. theDanes :consequently theprovince was called by Laynestru5 asGermans isinadmissible. Veneti. said tobeobtained thebeing from atthrowing the expert or And the name of the from laighean spear. Mr. ry.n6 the inGaul. Ihh-laighan. their tothat of similarity metropolis inIreland.acountry. Dublin.oribh. Leinster. 0?Brien's Notitia orbis Christ. with the and was Namnatx.Dutton. 335.46 and Leinster thefamily was tribe. assigns emigration Having their fleet and the lost flower oftheir treated Caesar the sur.116. us. conjunction inanaval about the conflict with Ceesar's time that fleet.324. author. This content downloaded on Sun. bly used the Gauls in Labhra Loinseach Cobhthach by spears aiding against Coillbreagha. p. 1703.that mous. having into his ambassadors and loaded them with chains. aoi.115. This in his Statistical of the of isproba. Survey County for this definition . because laighean. Menapii. ages eighth century family early nated after the territories they occupied. ofDun Dubhlin their asfrom This in tribe. Diablintes orDiablintee. p. vanquished Whitacre for the ofthe Ordovices. Laighean ofthepeople and name ofthecounties Dublin aname Meath. territo with isderived and Lailianstir. attention aswell have astrong from ofDiablindum. The se prison Brit. colonization.

dreading inimitation ofseveral tuated determined. on the arise tohave a settlement should oppo preferred harbour would na the attractions ofaspacious site coast . emigration Veneti oftheCuriosolitm ofthe and particularly specified regions ofretreat oftheBritons as the astwo other van . tribes. between quished Jul. It the tribes. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .118. Rhedones.itbeing power. Veneti. Anglis pars magna mare in rum ultimis Galilee Venetorum ctCorosolitarum oe. in Adelmus the find."7. from ofroom. much ofages. being placed Ptolemy these wemay with three theRhedones. ab cum et incola. Benedictus. de their inGaul. remainder. impulse. i18. ceding seeking had their some in commerce with Britain. and. mighttothe they west shore and thesituation Venic byPtolemy assigned Wemay themost remote from Cwsar's nii. including occupied and lest theDiablintw. unlikely. theNainnake. Corn. 3. and offixing where their residence sirous contiguous coast has the The north-west thus Nagnati. This content downloaded on Sun. The were nators put itisprobable. Cws. regioncs Francicm Historim Vcteris. sold asslaves. respecting unoccupied have chosen the inpursuance ofthisintelligence. denominations. place the Diablintw and were seated tribes.where and inthecantred fixthem inthesituation ofDublin. which. acquired during ofthe Irish coasts state the formation . notsuffered bythecorruption The ofArmorica the Britons be subsequent occupation by may asanadditional oftheopinion ofthe adduced infavour argument of We those tribes.Nam Saxonibus insula fuisset invasa. finibus.and. C. reasonably suppose neighbours tothis. lib.396. p. want any jealousy suppose intrade.Britannia 117. Corpus cupavit. thefuture ac wrath ofCwsar. bysudden pre on is not that a safe retreat. ejus trajiciens.47 and theprisoners todeath. of turally after : two if called have Dubhlana them.16.

years city the towhich orillus Ptolemy Nagnata. to years his colonies than with with those Gallic Ordovices of traffic facilitate Ireland transplanted .' by or the Gaoilach which more that It Mr. excelling. and which embarked from perhaps Belgw. 4. Whitacre Watling-street. 9. Richborough This content downloaded on Sun. should as we a connnercial and trious. identity inGaul ofthree tribes stance neighbouring neighbours becoming oftheir 6. guished Ptolemy S. Pinker intelligent people. joined name ofone the ofthe restand assumed some ofseparately themore distin toAuteri. inac Whitacre Gaul 7. they thus ofthe whole inthe The remains tories. Firstly. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The in inIreland. likely. the former name whom orchanged tribes. ifMr.And. chosen 3 The ortrading fittest for ofdeno people.ofthe Nagnatx. had Mr.The 5. territories subsequent occupation ofMr.as a intercourse with the in Gaul commercial Britons. and 119 was af original population Gaul. previously they has ofthe tohis carried itfrom road direction inKen asiftosuit the theory.Thefailure bythe for those his seven tribes. only except theMenapii. probable.213.48 that had also itisvery forsaken their terri those.p. places ofcircumstanees coincidence connected with those The people onrecapitulation the -causes and very striking.Their application subject antiquity.119 the tribes.The situations asthe time ofemigration. Vol.f ofIreland The from 1. expect. these are the bepartly assertion ton's true. directly for Gaul Ireland. emi uniting general Osismii theCuTiosolitce or might have gration. countingtoparticularnotwithstanding the ofBritish 8. passed from the their brethren increased terwards Guydil England. appears -maritime 2. kept up Whitacre. among alltherest in Ireland.The circum minations. -applies epithet meant/Jo. piscatory agreement of nation ortribes. British. appears ir says of those after the settlement had made or 60 been was 50 intended Mediolanenses.

the fore ofLollius into Caledo geography. that both tribes had thesame from hood. 214. quidem. And both came into Ireland and theNW. Whitacre ofthe 140. locor. p. well asthe oftheGaoill. areun Erdinos. habitabant. from their that to situation with . bywhich the ofOssian the S. inthose ButScotland aswell as was. theconjecture.' nostris Ernai nach. placed neighbour hesupposed.22. ofMan. Stratford.part author ofScotland was says formerly known the asPtolemy Venicnii in their . orOsismii. byPtolemy. & lacum Erna Ferma fluvium. certainly only says. p. passes middle of to London Kent then St. unlikely. part days Ireland and itsparticular tribes Britain."20. . metropolis being subject of Hardinii.and. 120. respect some oftherest. Explicat Cardigan. Ogyg.W. the 'Erdini 16. itisnot noticed that as And the latter. perhaps theCuriosolitm notoftheBelgw. of calls 121. the This account to rest seems with countryand solely isfounded Mr. Segontium Bangor 'Itbegins thus describes itfrom an the ancient MSS. upon orCaledonia. Toucester. Hist.' Sax. by Dunstaple.49 'about be Venienii Mr. Gibson. emigrated ofScotland.people . atDover and through contrary. XIII.i21 tribes were merely Auteri.among distinguished by whom theVenicnii and Erdinii orHardinii. O'Halloran them Ernains Eireannach. great coast. upon Ptolemy's expedition and Hardinii his the Venicnii nia and successes inVespasiana. the Erdinoi of was occupied by fomerly Ptolemy. This content downloaded on Sun. Hardini isderived from harden aname arden. settled upon called the two ofthe were same kindred.' and Erenochs : 'Dogbhuibh Despoiler Ernains. that theWord Whitacre. Ordovices. Alban'. called Jar-davine were ortheW. Wales. Litleburn. for theterritory. H tothe of the on a town in the near But Dr. VOL. middle Wales to Salop. Belgarum reliquiis appellati. regiones qui prope etutramque Brifiniam de fuere. Chron. . together evidently being inthe and one Venicnian both totheir tribes. as as O'Flaherty serts1 and theErdinii. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Gilbert & in Mount near and the of Nom. 122.

This content downloaded on Sun. wefind the confirmed by Among Nag position. by geographer Belgic placed speaks.coasts dis and natw . .and the W. Whitacre hasnot with to the the ofrespect hesays. Mr. the . having forthegrowing hemmed inbyboundaries tooconfined tribes. with the author of Ossian and too Mr. upon authority Nagnatce. Ros-gagt Iar-gael. and were that both British. large anciently orthe the W. fought way through of the new denomination has under where them.part tribe aBelgic ofthecounty infixing acre had been called which bras Dow a. Whit Irish agrees history intheN.part ofIreland been theBeigm themost from .and settled. when tribes. sylvan to be of Gaulish each name the descent. p. placed Ptolemy their not former leaves them And hestill only posses Nagnatw. but any orScottish Irish be historians.region.15. respecting through allthe ofwhich the ofPtolemy former the time fore . Ogyg. Ireland. tothem W. long Mayo the has This concurrence of where placedNagnatm.E. find them with some of wenow where and. p. the whole but sions undisturbed. who. occupants denoting been more fortunate Mr.whose Belgic both that were then and the settlements tinct co-existent. island ofthe the N. Ptolemy what has been said militate of the to Nam seems against opinion not have had Whitacre could authentic Mr. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . onhismap. were These. independent and the firDomnann ofIrish historians oftheNagnatm count ofMan. through assigns thecounty ofCork and from which uptoLeitrim they passed Fermanagh.W.adistrict.VU-F124. Whitacre's ac one Consequently. therest. infor netce . 123.244. prove of theother.'23 S.Gauls other Gauls . mation. tribes ofthe S. Ossian.50 one divided into two called Iar-cagi or districts.W.parts their . change Richard. 124. Hist.

' promiscue cujuscunque or 126. possessed fleeing safety which our were drawn inland to secure their vessels. 378. Some tribes were known their at by expertness thename orusing arrows ofTuatha . 11 2 This content downloaded on Sun. which the sert. Tom. muir.II.I not.ilen pays placa partie une dans autre sur leInc Ree leShannon. 128. Pronounced Fa the nation. . lann. lake-landers. toengender.n'y 129. Hib. 127.51 theBelgee. And prey despoiled each these were from other foreigners distinguished only bythe ofdubh and men with dark which fionn. Loch. Jac. veteres.'29. general (Turgesius voyant places de se cas mettre a couvert en de & assurer au defaut retraite. c. ni de 'Ville 1. lakes. gians wildly from ofScandinavia. being itmay besaid. War. appellabant. signify epithets complex ion and with fair. Antiy.hence poisoned shooting as :13v the several of Tuatha situation. ad'Irl. knowledge any geographical Irish the of but from circumstance for to . given 'Iliberni 125. vicinos 6. always tribes under Pirates orsea ingparticular general appellations. . . supplea en distribuant du saflotte-dans les differens lacs une sur lelac . Gothic for land lake. 130. externos. pas Normand en Irlande : le lanecessite des d'avoir fortifiee. plundering fogh.'31. pour besoin. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . must relate toaposterior to . From ?nor the sea.' lerate Neagh.from Offspring geinint. when age according had numerous and successive wars with theGaoill Ossian. ilenvoya aLughmiagh. hence the various Fiodltbhuidhe. robbers were denominated the Danes or Norwe . avoit encore deplace forte. &amp. that the Gaoill inthe were habit ofinclud nonii. waged orScoti ofRichard. intheterritory With totheriver of regard called ofthe the Iumhar orthe harbour Dam Cauci. Foghmhoraig 28' and Lochlannicc aswriters Gheinte127.126. le butin. fuerint non rara Gallos nationis. as . upon and thefury their avoid ofour natives. Ovoca ofPtolemy. 131. Fiodhgha bypeculiarity And names inGaul.'25. prwsertim Europteos. Domnan. p. L'hist.c. The wood-land nation. arrow .

3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . theBrigantes attheappellation were same time subdued and dislodged by innames. The line 132. very the name ofof some of which are both as topersons and The under Annals. But. bytheBrigantes with under ofCauci. Geography.52 ofsimilar and totribes The families. twotribes. Britain. the tortured ofCoriondii. which. go p.that. religion. was not tothe kpown noauthentic annals ofIreland. particularly and own. heimmediately which deviates therule ofaffinity from hehad established. fertoevents the to 5th we Hence. anonymous.beyond the52degree oflatitude.132. inthe E.' into theVolantii Ireland heintroduces or Accordingly orCumberland Voluntiii" ofpart ofWestmorland about the when were commencement oftheChristian driven wra. His. many. those are in the name still found word the people Ulla. whose Irish Ireland. at the end in 1541.-The Ulster annals written 00 456. they hither and ofYorkshire inbring Durham. places. differed from their manners. geography ofthe N. them thenew Sistuntii name to which. Pinkerton's p. considerable under the annals most that have fallen are these. metropolis hesays. Many. my reaching in in lower than the are &c. year partly partly Irish. language. ing tothe ofPtolemy. toinform thename. cannot prior century. expect anindubitable orrefutation ofPtolemy's confirmation tribes of and from documents ofthose. Whitacre us. Lib. wemust opposite upon appellation one have denomination conclude the to to the given naturally other. observation. Scotland. knowledge that 133.' the ancient N.when ofatribe ofBritain oratown onthe W.coast isretained inthe ofatribe the shore ofIreland.Latitude S. inthe ofDown.' 444. are the histories of Ireland Nicolson's 11. Latin. continues Mr. hehas accommodate itself latter tribe coined from of Cheshire their and the Carnabii under Coccium . Ir. principality county This content downloaded on Sun. Begin year Remains of of the ancient 134.'33. just must confine of50or52ofN. ancients and wehave which re .

places :the tion second from little and the tan."1 But 135.10. cestershire. v. have found name. occurred inthe 79. the orbattle ofthe Cord. 41. In the middle 141.'" people.p. they wherethey at least apart ofthem. first The and were called Corii. 147. Shrtyshire. theRomans. p. attacked were must also find have remained .c. Whitacre ontheother himself in The hand.206. ofMan.biareigh. p. among same they might' protettiort who Warwickshire. This content downloaded on Sun.This i. Coitanni. occupied." Remains'name have been ofthe transferred inlater tothat Cork. Cor-ca-luighe.. V.and 'originally Diodorus and Camden inproof thelatter oftheassertion. ofLei These ofNorthamptonshire. the those of. thegreater occupied part part all were subdued and &amp. Cor. Eadem. Flintshire. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .'" army all that Mr. v. county pre as fix &amp. 142. a tribe of Ptolemy planted ofthe Others been theancestors theCoritani tohave suppose and theresemblance favours theopinion ofnames . inhissecond had cola Ifthere refugees. 1. p. 137. they simply habita their Mr Whitacre of derives from woods. Eadem.236.2. still remained who and . us.138 part we orthey where have inScotland. Eadem. 136. 135 name ofBrigantes from their the forms . the remains of several districts inthe ofCork had this ages. Eadem. Hist. Eadem.aswe byAgri. The Carnabii ofCheshire. Rutlandshire. Eadem. 139. Cor-ca-bhaiscin.p. bythe they ofthe Iceni before thearrival oftheRomans. Coit-en. 40. country. any campaign. Staffordshire'. they 'been 137.53 asMr. p. year 138.c. 207. says byhistory the tribes ofIreland hequotes came Britain from . Corii. toCatimess might emigrated find has that name. might county ages Corca orCorcath. Cor.136. unsubdued and ofLeicestershire.for Coriondii.assumed conquerors had even after submitted to and remained were. Sistuntii. p. Coritani. 140. Whitacre he is to warranted assert.

Camden."5. ofRichard. lb.'143. 3.ofModona. p.p. people says. were amaritime who Ireland.coast ofGermany before asserts. erected. Jul.327. (Slane. 4. . same distance atthe asinGer not near the lived Menapii. 2. and 116.coast. 145. Cotta146: and apart ofthis fire with consetribe. Hist. quences i a the former Ireland like maritime situcolonies. With totheir ofBritain. Ware. 324. with deration with theVeneti the Conformably atthis time I should orsoon ofRichard. ofManc. gium. suppose. and Clu theauthority tled wehave inBritain. weare Caesar's invasion regard history.' amaritime nation ofBel theMenapii. Cws. oftowns the names and ofthe ofcollecting villages present region 113. 144. ation."7 Mr. 117. the Tiberius subdued Cauci and that that informed .144' and Diablintw. that these itisprobable hesays.inwhich county they ortheriver ontheE. account that. from toIreland Brabant and infavour oftheir verius. And. attacked and were his The territories ofthe byCaesar Menapians also defeated ontheir and ofthat were confe officers some tribe .31. from arederived people ofthese neither tribes had that set ofthe Exclusive fact. after the tribe. 14. a Slaine.and. lib. 3.and. lb. This content downloaded on Sun.parts . Whitacre must called town have Menapia headopted when tothelast theexpedient been driven resource. 'but from thename. ctheCauci ofGermany. emigration asthe first alittle theW. Tacitus. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Camden. many. sword. . V. the occupied planted Wexford latter and ofWicklow S. preferring and themselves ontheE. p. impelled bythe had steered for thenearest ofadevastating shore of war. by defeated under the ofClau were empire they again byGabinus dius. Menapii speaking contrary.54 oftheCauci and of onthe author. lib. 29.243. laid waste and had their when Titurius territories after.

Silura anisle tohave which heconjectures once existed near the W.probably Silley and ofSolinus. map from that the are different of middle . after than had fallen into more towns twenty ofVespasian Duro in30engagements with theproper Belgx. map. (Kerry (Courcy's). according the Udim ofPtolemy embarkation from . inthe settlement name ofaterritory called subsequent Aoibh orIbh This Idouth. the of baronies comprehends present Ciaruidhe Chuirithe Cuirseacha Barra curry). present very ages. (Barryroe). preserved by the after Whitacre that About 45years Mr. and Damnonii. which Whitacre been supposes one ofthe ofthePhenicians. wefind apretty evident memorial oftheir indulging S. Somersetshire .point of to it be the of trace the tribe with Cornwall. were. nor cords.15w. whose roots areinexempt theonly areper mountains ones.and. Fir-holgs. p. 149. those oftherivers are from and ifanynames change. Christ.?AL 150. greatest ofaccording oftheprincipality of theancient Corca-luideh. p. Belgic they ofIreland. cha ruath toRichard's the and. Eadem.55 that tribes toprove these were Gallic or inhabited. supposes. hungry island to have ofMacpherson. Eadem. body landed inIreland. islands the Cassiteris . Devonshire. theVodix. Camden. petuated. that triges. and those Theancient even ofthe Celtic148.ofCork. p.shore Belgw.'Though may impossible origin out infancy. And thefirst oftheBelgw.236. inour commemorated ofthese areneither re fortheformer tradition. and Cornwall the coasts ofDorsetshire. had steered ofIreland from our fortheS. This content downloaded on Sun. general theancient that But names Ptoletny's map proves. Oudiai.271. oftheir thepossession. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . part kingdom 148.asmall Inishuna. or tohim.

understood the not ofthe denominations men croibhe. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Vale inCornwall themen ontheriver . the Damni Damnon. by fir-bolg Tuath Dea Danaan. author. Headds. originated receive a aBritish or district town British one and a tribe may seizing upon subduing Belgic or vet ofCeni the Lued as . opinion Bishop came hither from the thinks of and those of to the isles Scotland. Velabri. Gheinte.242. 132.which. people. tohave erred the terminations of Whitacre seems Mr. language. signifying ofVoluba. ofanestuary. .36 Cork thebaronies ofCairhreacha . Vodim. Germany. Irish Hi6t. people befirVoluh. by the Irish of Inch from the name who forms his Galla. Voluba. Lucenii. word. crioth. This tribe head the wstuarii. of the the .and Neice and Mus W. Keating. followed three others.2. p. 7. Belgic appear inIreland. inhabitants ofVoliba orVoluba were. v. signifying in an of ex Irish. branch.'152. Itishowever inIrish. British Ceni. people Gulp simply appropriate Gauls na or Fair head of the . Orkney. fir by name. estuary Finngallians people Dubit new inhabitants. pos caput probably and ofLimerick.Cineal Cinenalea. theDamnonian I suppose. Belgae Damnonii :the and in Ireland it was from which common derived. by applied Nicolson. by hand. Finn-galians Man. etymons A not with the had if names ofBelgic those names people. which comprizes (Carbury E. or Gaoill. fir aber. This tribe was theVelaborii. aptly byBaxter. those who had not called Gal but were Scandinavia . origin bP1 orvP1 Dunmore head are defined atter.theVelaborii. would probable they pressed whose and about were aDamnonian situation British tribe. This content downloaded on Sun. the Gaul. Man. fi denomination. Libr. Whitacre. (Kinal Meak). the asmall ofKerry sessed pad having part for in the British or in Irish dialect the its It is look for absurd to 151. appellations some in and known were Britain. Fzonaghaill. orVeliberi. On the other stances. according our theonly which tohave landed tribes. by in are other and for the Danes Irish and Finn Gheinte Norwegians.p. respecting this neither ErinBritish denotes land. by and the Ibernii with the to constituted. The Iorinmeans and island. conquered tribes.'".

24.'54. Durius dominions. peninsula thebarony ofIbh orClan and Torna sound.their territory being naturally and as it on to the of tract . formerly occupied ofMane. to a of horde who nest. byRichard. . Whitacre. supposes. that. territory Corc-caet-luich. Beare present Our author informs intheyear us. Itterni.E. p.156.150. Inthis the Dof ischanged ofMan. into Tcalled inpronunciation.57 their and orCathair.13. 154. the ofBearhaven. barony mara where their town Ivernis and (Kenmare). XIII.4 155.parts neighbourhood possessed thesteril oflbhRathach.and. flowing through Regia. the ofBantry. 153. this scite. and they probably i Dorsetshire. Eigeas Dingle Mbuiris.coast was from end toend.through Richard. Cenia. iverni. p. formerly family in The small allusion 156. 212. preserved Irish denomination ofBearhaven asMr. The forts whence the ofKiely. thepresent Iberi. S. appellation Mhuiris. Ostorius. being quiescent among Lucani seem to These called theIrish.'53. their near itfor now (aplace metropolis.-Hist. seem tohave been theDamnonian inha And theLucenii thepeople ofCenia ofCornwall ofthe bitants . inruins. forthe ofClann-another ancient barony neigh."57. Iberia orIberi ofRichard. Ptolemy places near the ofKerimare orNidin. Hist. C derived from the were of Ravennas the Ibernis. by inIreland. asteril apiscatory have been tribe . Remains ofthename seem tobepreserved inLuach. Ibh-beara. Iberni. appears maps.Lued importing and theD. The then E. Remains ofthe village present are still inBedra. abody ofBrigantes aparty with ofCangi orConcangi ofthe whose territories then were invaded arrived Sistuntians.2. confined.155. V. This content downloaded on Sun. and some laud about Cean. occupied VOL. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 157. 51. The Iberni ofPtolemy. people. Eadem.asI have town shewn. robbers.

the dominions ofthe the island and the Scoti.they were bounded Carlow. commigrarunt. Ledwich. This content downloaded on Sun.51.bythe orBrigus. Breoghan.M. In entered and the portion Brigantesupon tocross forced the central of the were this situation. p. probably Kilkenny.Here. inIreland. Sliebh Greine. and hence which iscor family 0Brain. ahhan . ofthis circa Richard. into rupted inthe amemorial Within their wefind territory. Hist. p. Druids name called tiobruid the ofthe inthe asingular which isbuilt cell.58 vacant theonly ofit. the denomination country. The ofagreat ofWa possession Brigantes part theS. W. composed three the or is ciaand two unequal over ones. 158.151 ofthis The name ispreserved tribe haven present from river and also ofthe in inthat Breoghan. ofsiliceous onone brec covered with stones. ofawell nundroith. corrupted Brighan.Additional well evi Drhid's . p46 p. being composed and orMear-ow."58. essay. On the orDa bytheDaurona ofPtolemy. posuerunt' and 300. both. were who nominated Stiocht and ofitsinhabitants. places. inscription placed BELI DIUOSE A. contrary ofthis oftheemigration tribe and isex from Britain. Breogitain name ofitschiefs the 0Breoghan.over totheopinion. sedesque tempora. period. ofMane.parts ofTipperary. hill. theSiuir. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Camden. p.perhaps took Auterii. upon came the about the same sea and with or . p229.and Birgus ofthe waters ofthree confluent which. and and terford. parts Concangi and settle W. 159. See hiec 249.283. and . ofthe which iscalled ibhBreoghain. 4050. onthe mor orBlackwater E. ofWaterford. county Kilkenny. Ostorius. Eadem. space ofwhich. Feoir Berbha constitutes the rivers. 42. in Hiberniam relicta ibi Brigantes Cangi Britannifi. theSaveranus brona ofGiraldus abban Cambrensis. on the summit of other beside called hibited. inTory acircular orthehillofthesun. oftheir residence dence ofMr.

onthe from the east. when. ofwriting.1 occasionally foraging parties thenumerous which occurred between wars. that.59 itiancient inBritain. Pelasgic prevailed 53. Keating's History ifSee This content downloaded on Sun. sun. was ofthe disaffected Gaoill hand. thehistory oftheformer issointermixed them with fable and without the reflected from the confused. belonged Cean-cangi. Sligo. Origin Prog. letters. while Beigte..and province Brigantes crossing the the ofClare.AAle.lleremon.before age alphabet. by p. who. years 161. p. seized counties Shannon. Kerry. Weare hence that the which was instructed. nearly and the ofthepresent ofCork. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and ofthe allies settlers. byextent Possessing. succeeded whence quarters they tospoil sent the S. 13.'61. was there worshipped also known the a Dionusoe like.ofireland. Camden. 160. 6. . were situated between tribes onthe E. 19 literis utantur. Itapplied from Irish that thepower ofthe appears history. Grsecis in fere Us. . by appellation. ofBeal here under thename orGreine.306. ofRoscommon. light neither learn works offoreign thehistorian could writers. with this tribe the had been It was that chiefly engaged Beige Wars and ofthe between Eibbear . and tothe which the. theBeigm wrested a considerable ofthepresent afterward part ofMunster. of16 and consisted letters.160 Pelasgic only tothe Druids. unfortunately. whole counties Limerick. inthe2dcentury. inwar.was considerably by and defection oftroops that ofthe onthe other order. rationibus. Christ. the inGreece 1529 The which before lib. and aBelgic weakened rebellion ofthe lower W.denomination wise toBacchus. upon part they Galway. were known which. T. And Brigantes eotemporary they finally infixing their head inUlster. strengthened bytheaccession and ofterritory. Notwithstanding and theGaoill. Brigantes. Quutn reliquis publicis privatisque ofDeucalion.

nor they were known. by by stay them bandied from wefind Ireland tothe after which years. mately expelled by the pos. They theirown tooblivion theGaol onaccount ofthefre . ofGoths. Scythian theextent oftheBelgic with These facts. the Gaoill it. posterity that their descendants inlater with intermixed had. ofthefact.band ofrobbers that had those exiles evince after . among theBritons. conjoined conquest. were. acquired the ofone tribe that minate from ofthe Itiseven other. had Britain the the and first character.. that their inGaul theBelgTe Exclusive neighbours.. compelled the from and Celtic. those ofthe and one become Gaoill. tecognized by him. nor came. they adjacent the own. Nay. from which back toIreland. Ultonians.because ofconsonants and itsharshness inutterance. like thePicts Ireland had somewhat become settled. bythetieofconsanguinity people. at time were even solately terity. highly improbable. their whose kinsmen. septs affirmed tobeofthe same as :they.who. that Brigantes. not use would quent learn had used and theGaoileag.and proves.are more family preposterously were British who and Celtic ofthe and tribes.as orGothic.wbor they bywhich they where first settled inIreland. ofSpenser. AstheBelgze their manners it and became difficult to discri customs. prevalence those toadopt ofthestronger were weaker people. Cangi some to is limited others to in -Their Ireland 80 30. acquired. been a.. period. ages.military foreign from its: tothe12th ofIreland. found their more civilized troublesome to countrymen. This content downloaded on Sun. is commencement history century. and customs their that the were Gothic . were ulti thence isles. oftheir that which thesupposition renders expulsion nutional Ireland our manners from Beside. probable. acquired consigned language necessity.60 thenames their whence were. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

some ofatrading national . 'toast. even with oneffecting the murder of rewarded were kings. customs. very rupted bythe thesceptre. unfortunately. And on proved century beexpected itcould and theft reflection while not . among This content downloaded on Sun... than oferuie nototherwise law murder bytheGothic punished lifeand must have The oramercement. tribes. savage opposite inany thesweets ofpeace tined never totaste common country the continued that wemay therefore toboth. frotheopposite which wefind thePicts.. inlater ofPtolemy's tins received Exclusive island. done.. . robbery of and the crime nototherwise corrected titan Nyere byretaliation. property must also ofthestate have been inter tranquillity constantly with ambitious fewexceptions. bythem.11110opTIM PICTS. ons. ages. who.61 obtained an over theGaoill. ofgovernment.. improvement that none effected was of assure and the face Erin us. for. happily and under thesucceeding thesecond.. conclude. they.-. and Normans. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and form best -wisest --.. long ofmisery circumstance itnot caused ofIreland was bythe negative the inthetime ofJulius been Romans conquered by having but what had not orofAgricola Cwsar . butthebards family. wemay having ascendancy They from anenterprizing thechildren too reasonably expect people.. distinct..0111. Henry those who inabolishing ofEngland succeeded . and Asthose while seemed des tribes. been insecure.. thetruth inthe12th oftheassertion. others. ofthe achieved atlength Sax was bythe posterity Angles. laws. ultimately kings inreducing and and this island under the manners.

and intheplural italso means orhumpy Picts man. cruintiaed. orhunch Cruit denotes onthe back violin.Patrick. by Cruitnigh. and their This tuath. history mance. country : bysome from isvariously defined wheat."2 life ofSt. . itmay beinferred.Columba. The of sunk their denomination from import itsoriginal into that ofthemilitia ofgradually Ireland .62 theN. people. OP THE FINNLANDERS. ofSt.1.Comgallus' and onthat ofSt. bumpy thepropensity this and From ofthe Irish agreement. Ei include whose isinvolved andclouded inerror with ro rean.. Ogyg. ages it was when derived andconsidered of rianism.in county assigns large denominated were Dalnaradia. joined bably emigration ''''. perhaps formed seen been them. used But. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and meaning some before it attracted thenotice ofantiqua elapsed. appellation isvery different from aPict. This tribe among persons having pro inanIrish toScotland. that this fornicknames.part ofthecounty Ros in atMagh seated Plagha. significations but two Cruitneach has : a Pictora meanings substantively.Adamnan's ontheauthority common.c.1. cause.. the in which district them that Antrim. from. was appellation ap in derision from the circumstance of a de few plied .163 lifeofSt. p. Pronounced mi the verdant plow: plain. wildly 162. inpronunciation which Cruitneach. O'Flaherty.. This content downloaded on Sun. 163. indifferently itispronounced and inallthose alike..0. foreign Amidst this orFiann number wemay theFeinne.-.11.4. a harp. OR FEINNE I have hinted ofascertaining atthedifficulty whence already some tribes came and accounted forthe toIreland.... 189. wascalled They ages early Cruithin theIrish.

inLeinster. through ofcommerce. vaders districts. andthey Eirionn.e. onthe . or from thepromise ofrecompense. medium andwith thedesign ofbarter. O'Brien's a Sunt 166.king facts were Finnlanders. 164. import colony. campi Dict. they 166. instance. whence. hardy stri. Some achievements. atwhich marriage stitute butonepeople were called Fianna . exigua This content downloaded on Sun. Feine. invoce. time. separate ofassailants was into that character of in changed champions the cause ofIreland. i. to them from those of their own perhaps distinguish inthe ofcountry.dominions. from Feinne of fable.1. maighe Fearmoighe. the says they slept and amidst the men and beds for their infants old prepared ground. were induced toaccom they the Nordmans onanexpedition tothis mild and fertile isle. ofthediscovery orfrom thereport ofErin.p. of extraction. allotted. atthe battle ofCanna. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .totheN. Fir Phceniorum seu Phcenicum. inprocess of And. Fermoy. Swpius qui neje fusos Finnorum tradunt. Cluv. a and valiant race. have which been inour found those bogs.63 a the same Phenician Brazen like with. only byforeign could not beimported into amartial the artists. Russis frustra cincta. island. Russos ab obsidionc 173. prove they The former them Fermi Irish Feinne. of the R. 100. Academy.000 p.165' Fermoy and and from their former situation asitappears were. for calls Tacitus.'" some barony Some settled .81. they bythethe ornatives.yid 165. without acolony toconvey them bringing Freed Iconsider those arace. were toconfirm the belief wanted made . demeanour and inter bypeaceable probably thenatives time andthey seemed tocon . Irish Trans.asWarms. propelled parts Prussia inconsequence of encroachment ontheir . pany Astribes distinct from were either in those. swords. probably Sclavonic from theE. v. W.

latitude.6. probably.61 Irish the oftrees. C. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . upon aswell asofthose ofthis maternal ofthehero the poem. place which ofa king ofFomoire. claim anhumble share Erin principal pieces. them for unmeet . perhaps peculiar They spoke Irish bearla nabiz/eine. ofthe Finlanders orbeds numents named . de 167. parent ofthe which became work the effusions. connected.169. p. Hamner. itappears.m. .Victui Germ. character care . then all the inhabitants comprehended a Anorthern their mode ofliving. ofa but which O'Brien affirms tobeDruidical. utinaliquo ramorum nexu ferarum conte Nec aliud infantibus imbriumque suffugium. p. Ledwich reported they says monstrous stone mo led erected inphilosophy and and had magic. vestitui moribus cubile humus. quam hoc senum redeunt Huc receptaculum. hi O'Brien's 52. juvenes. entrusted totheir which. towhich weare Finnish those amartial rovers with spirit. hesays. 168. gantur. Finnlaind denomination. inspired the Ossian called ofMac indebted for that beautiful chiefly poem which that : to all due merit and.303. a confidence."7 The materials oftheir branches interwoven ofsay ofbranches and were trees. adia orthetongue which was oftheFinnlanders .O'Brien. 0. Corn. This content downloaded on Sun. asthe ofpraise. desultory arranged.169. Ogyg. has phersongranting and detached and embellished. genius.168' gives of our The coast was ofwarriors do so the Irish. penes. andmilitary education. herba. ground 1.'7z. O'Flaherty speaks anIrish and a lvhich had taken between king marriage. may trod and actors as which those celebrated . Tac. they fidelity tothem ina'language abused. and the selves the and called by Lapplanders. Dict. composed green bedding Cluverius the rushes beds Phenicians. moss. 171. theatre. composition. probably tobeskil were lect ofthe Sclavonic. daughter of Scandinavia. leabthacha nablffeinne.

poem that the word which was occurs.i.For eis fath do thuruis dh' 173.I. at asanative national Thus that vanity.and . probably composition of St. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . VOL. hecould nothave Patrick isoften been existent introduced. K ofthe Trans.Irish Trani. O'r maithibh is or mar the nobles chieftains.65 Ossian is said to have been born A. when.but.65. accompanied general. Dublin. into. Mr. College. long the ifthose ofwhom Ossian before was 5th Feinne.-4 come rnhaithibh Fiann the noble Fians of is Ireland. intheHigh-lands asinfragments little later discovered of .and Erin. under the head of."4 changed ofScotland. . Nordmans.and to. believe. Ithas been that the name even Patrick said.D. Inthis ora poem.and Ancient Gaelic &c. not have occurred before the as I this could event them. expense lays bestolen hazard ofdetection. itappears. mortalized some transferred ofourbleakest on. y4IU .' Acad.. I. changed great R. itismore that the culdee isanIrish word . Mac Pherson. This content downloaded on Sun. the anair of togive has been foisted inbyMr.' 174. century.Ciod This fath e do land thuruis don cause have tir ?'For what into.. Irish 172.and. p..through XIII. pieces.but interpolation likely. question changed tothis ?. century or as writers were most affirm. . ofthe Rev. Albin. the obscurity names The ofOisin. Cumhail.. this hero ofclaiming into with aview Leinster.282. poems. Royal Academy. ofthe v. 49. Ciod do Eirion what to 'cause have come Ire you . by ascribed to those detached 8thcentury. Fionn mac and areim Oscar."3 antiquity frequently of Ossian and the residence in Almhuin."2 bythe compared industry the of some inthelibrary ofTrinity name St. from without the record may apparent oftime. of the claim to heroic and virtuous truth. Consequently or10th 9th the ofthe or were Ossian.uaislibh. country Eirion. ofalater time. industriously expunged. Scotland with Young.afew the mountains cause isassigned inIrish which verse . deeds. V.

the defeat ofitsinhabitants received inBritain before bySuetonius occurred A.177 pears Agricola oftheprincipal British chiefs toyear. OF LETTERS informs isreckoned who us. Bythis christianity. Ir. Archbishop about the there were four in Constantine... the 110. 329. Bishop Stillingfleet through the most authentic British ancient and that thegospel was writer.179 Ontheother hand. by Usher informs inthetime ters. year about theformer from in that. 21. vita. says. p.57.and he which that Paulinus. and fattier areasfamiliar tothe uncultivated Irish inost asthe commonest names.-INIRELAND. Parker. about the 187.Agric. arms. and Arab. p. ofthe em us. 177. many Prosper Collect. Ibarus. baptized King by 116' orDuvianus. supposes had ofpart ofBritain. Gildas. Ailbeus. Elvanus. Histor.Kiaranus. thissupposition is confirmed and other wri tobemeant.175.. Ireland isimagined embraced had assertion. p.66 thenames ofthose medium chiefs been handed have down from toson. been Lucius. lohan. J. Br.that. Hist. to Nornrian 175. issupposed tobethe most ancient who Latin Tertullian. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . up Eaedem. Lomeieri de 178. 176. p.. Declanus. against beginning speaking. 179. p. conquest. and Collect.Lloyd's p.198. the sons cluded themselves apply toliterature. father. This content downloaded on Sun."-78. ' to the of the inaccessible Roman that territories Britons.1. Itap Medwinus. 61. bibliothecis. Foganus. ear Christian mollgllmIIIimir. into theevangelical net.149. the about Jews. year and peror bishops who drew Ireland. Tacitus. ofthe the 3dcentrury.170. D.

we that the learn. ofwriting. 'acertain equally thought. was the that or Ireland. life. 457. The continues toinform this violated that us. from the clusion ofthe5thcentury ofthe and. year fought against of the sun swore and demand his he would never Leinster. religion ontheIrish made before thecon remarkable impression any :183. the A. coming fluctuated The state ofproperty. &Prog.184.96. oath. Ce1estine3 preach believing wild inhis life that those ofSt.18a year sent was hither thefirst who primus episcopus. of in son the in been a taken battle the inhabitants Neill. not receive hisdoctrine onwhich would account. writing practised very bythe before ofSt. p. 57. circumstance arrival ofthe into Heathenism onthe Britons we Saxons. Jocelin account.173. gives hence that nor Wemay neither had literature infer. Jr. Eaedem. p. immites 8c affirms. Baronii aS'pontlano. inference acurious ancient Irish the and lan document. was. 1 Brit.D.Augustine. by during again tribute for the cows.' plerique & 82.vp. having in his killed the sun and wind. inthose between days. p. savages. Orig. before atonement asIhave asufficient Un observed. ihomines. by the Four Masters. . p. says. relapsing tothem draw asimilar inference with .between strength: eruic orfine was insomuch that insecure. wind.and . history toparch. formurder. hope that and and fear weakness oflifeseemed .. passed country asimilar where hedied. Palladius inthe 397 as and.67 abarbarous oftheScots.182 tothe over after ashort Palladius ofthe visit. that. having. Ewdem.Patrick. consequence. This content downloaded on Sun.625mcum Sestiam exparte Victoris jam martyris. etaEpitome Annalium Cardinalis 181. Annals of !SI. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 145. in Christ' but to to those Probus. byrope :181. regard may that with Mr. Lloyd's This isannounce 183. guage Laoghaire. Picts. p. evangelium alioqui ipsam tempore papee accepisse consentiant. supported style of which seem to itby as From this authentic.596. was little Britons Astle.and belie. 180. country heintroduces island in429. fen . bishop.

P and P and B commutable asan Hused H omitted. .D.. 185. X..like B commutable. attendant. abar would der those circumstances.68 there benoreward.V. success.. Irish.Y. . period probably brought from their ofthat island ofthe . for X. Astuition is church above history highly also that letters were wemay aninseparable believe. X. onexciting their inagreat this and measure. D D derived In allIrish F commutable. surprise therepository inbecoming ofour letters ofafew atthepower understood thesecret of inbeing ideas . No No J.. . depend speedy making . early these render the theintercourse between with islands. C. alphabet inboth still more are omitted which . pastors. among tolearn before the ar for instruction barous . isalso evinced the ofinstructors.. the ancient Irish CC G.. beginning V. . words. 596. the CV(pronounced Q. Latin words with B V. purely for V. with the old Roman British-Saxon figure present A.Y. and byall. And Coften Sused by This content downloaded on Sun. By Cfor -_.. together oftheIrish credible. only aspirate.Z. knowledge bytheclergy and most to best were British disposed qualified perform language. by of The ones'86. Z. from .noincentive people. inBritain the arrival ofSt. were used Augustine. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . F is used for In Bh those are used Irish. the used for 186. J. sometimes the Irish.who.by Q. after Q.and.'854 alphabets those substituted of inpower letters theagreement -forcibly.towhom be communicated. ancient Romans C was By By for T. chief ina heathenish whose ofChristian rival protection. and from most hither atanearly Britain.W. success in converts on their would island. or should reading deciphering and letters into ofChristianity introduction The Britain.T. This num the office opinion by that oftheold letters with berofIrish nearly corresponding letters for the substitution of other Roman .

That ansL after Cwas into sub ofG. might the theIrish and letters with them taught knowledge brought 4 Praafatio: Tametsi Jacob.---It known that X. que quatrierne j'observeray plus yde gull out dont les considerables este sans tous Saints Mande mines.occupantes. beginning century. hanc annos insulam duce So nono Christurn ec seculo. p.m.r87.characters thepaucity ofIrish two on. His.was .'88. century. 200 contains own tohis time. ofout read liberal sciences Hanmer Dr 189. Nicolson's He died atClonfert. atRosailithre. Sax.. inBritain.189 Carbury from that must have differed called thepresent Sax alphabet .Saxon Latin letters.prior introduction oftheir thewra to borrowed. authors. 188. atthetime oftheir no more introduction. were known inthesister whence were isle-. now . publicklylhe bishop says. in Rossai May Ros. atque 'Pour ne d'Irlande L. destroyed century of their the criteria number and the offormer' but.Hibern. Norwagienses Sylloge gra. 187. that Britain. 2. An 2. And confirms the assertion. Alemand. 16th Ir.were C . . from about the Irish Ware's of 150 Jas.A. Brendan. inthe both 9th .-From inferences may bededuced : I. plus prespe grands est au milieu rendu lac deRee.Y. when theBritish-Romani now Ross . Anglo. doute. butbefore isnotimprobable. compound present says Gr. done ici de Hist.. that. Usserii. qui qui dans ce deux les recommandable Abbayes-qui paru royaume. parts island atanearly wra.' premieres par . This content downloaded on Sun.Z. 2. power. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . they unquestionably .Karbry. probably theletters inplace ofKbytheRomans stituted . satores per Turgesio. year catalogue chronological about names. by antiquity ones isclearly deduced. thenumber 4th the the of have about secution. p. dellrlande.577. IT. We history ofeducation had seminaries established indifferent ofthis. Sir Lib.St. ont _le &Saint Diarmit Saint Liberius. our churches and ancient MSS.' incendio mimes Fibres cleslas fete consurnpserint. Kerry. post &c.per theDioclesian from who fled ofbelievers. Veter.6g Irish iscomparatively characters because theNorman& modern. Epist..' Lithry. modern that the are amore of elements Hickes 190. One was inthe '6th founded.11-. parler par tine Monastique non le Bieck a seulement vfi naltre en ade cc certain.

107. ontheother seemed ofenumerating their hand. The whence the source. andit NV0111(1 of flocks appear. happen are found in one dialect and some in no two. passed also tohave Roman allthe sdems" letters siTeteixecniviEid.. . history instruction eould Snot becommunicated The opin byignorance. ofthe for. approached Greek inresemblance isnot tothe which nevertheless a Russian. oftheFrench theArmorigans alltheletters orEnglish al and W Y. are theRoman ones the _derivatives from mites. totheintercourse the Prior limited toadegree extent oftheir seemed understanding scarcely credible. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . supplied Celtic tribes with the 'novel ideas their also ofnumbers. persuade etymologists astheearliest -CeltEe isthehistory ofsavages.not theformer. This content downloaded on Sun. excep tion ofthose words the derived from and afew which Latin. latter assome would from us. of the wild Indians were Themental powers perhaps more ofthese had names Themost uncivilized comprehensive. ofIre'. others.70 before became had and wieofthem. fornumbers -The and understood decimal arithmetic. tohave aresemblance insound and ofwhich the sense. are from the division These inferences deducible Celtic which.lan greater part only. incapable also that thelapse orarmies. Ifthey asnearly asthe guage. can bemore distinct. herds. months.. oftheRomans with theCeltw. same almost unnoticed. The antiq p. and except phabets."-?L: That ktters they they from the Britain inferred d41 maybe evidently following general theCornish had21letters ofdouble that exclusive facts ones. 4nd use. ofdays time and into and that into weeks minutes and hours. former. 191. ionoriginated ofsupposing theapparent from chiefly absurdity those Celtic tribes souninformed With the asfacts evince.. ofthe oftime.

Deich. Seith. Tri 10 3Tredhak.*. She. 10.. Pevardhek. Nao. Huih. Unus.ii. 10. Chuedhek.Yn 1. 04 10.. diou. dheg. Nau. would derivative from the which beconceded merit. 54 10. b. 8. former. Septendecim. Aar Undecim. Chuech. 8. 4Keathair +I 4 4 10.. duy.H. Seitek. Octodecim. Aon. dis. Quindecim.. Yal dheg. Cornish.. beit.. 7Eitag.i. from pardon following judge ofthe abundance ofderivatives ineach ofthose Celtic extrarodinary ofour dialects onthesubjects enquiry. Duodecim. A A seisear. seishear. 4 :. 10. Seith. Novem. 8 10. ynig.j10. 34 10. 4 10. Day. 6Sedecim.4. Tri. mi. Tres. Keathra. Idnak. 10. Peduar. 54 10. Pemdhek. Yn-deg. This content downloaded on Sun. teora. Ocht. Octo. i0. 1#15. Quatuor. . Tardhak. Yunan. Huech. algebraical ofmultiplication often asthat inthe x.8. Dxk. Yn 15. Tn.10. Day 10: theg. Nyi. 2x9. ar Tredecim. A A ihyn. 10. Ochtdeag. ii15. same sonearly occurring resembles the word. Trihuech.Scotch. only toRoman would ascribe toa greatness. NUMBERS.. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Duo. 2Daynau. 1g?-10. Saith.. 10. 4 10. Pemdhak.: anbym. . Padzhar. Uyth. Tre. Deau. . deag. Do. dheik. Armoric.Dou. comparative etymology the reader hemay will extracts which . 3Peduar -E 3Quatuordecim. Pemp. bythose etymologists they Celtic descent. 10.. Sex.1-14-10. Pymp. koraid. Seitag. 74 10. 10. 6Shedek. koir. arbymtheg. ar Pazuardhak.H. dh6g. koig. Tn. Decem.71 thelatter. D6g. 3Tridbak. 1-F. 10.Pemp. 4 10. 1 W. 1ii. 5A.10. Yunek. Eath.thri. Kuig-deag. Pymtheg. ke. *1w10.Sheachd. 7Sheachd 7 10. this Ihave chosen todenote inpreference tothe addition. 6Huettag. Pevar.Nau. tair. achd. Urjnyn. Irish. D6g. 3x6. deag. sign mark . sii. ynar. 5Koig-dieg. 5 10. 4+. 4 i0. Kuig. doy. Eith. Omitted. dogmatical AsLhuyd's thecurious isascarce book. British.Yn. e:i0. Quinque. kupla. moir Septem.

2Deygmn. hanner Deik gem. ygent. Sheashgad.20. Padzhar ha Nonaginta. 413risel. 4Nochadh.Cornish Armoric. 9i deg. deg. 4 20. Duganz. bruydr. Pevar Padzhar Octoginta. ygaean. 4byrn 9 10. Ionaur. 9Novendecim. deg. x 10 a. 3. y cha. Ked. Nye theg. athriaTrei Dek ha tri _chid. -keithre fichid. fyili. Peduar Nanteg.. x X Peduar n. Deich Septuagint. agus aphe4x2010. 3 3 10 X 20 3 10. Igent. iganz. agus dyi kant. . Dyu Mart. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . x20. cor Huevral.X 20. dey-1 2 20. Deg Ky gaid. Guenver. Meyrs. `Keathrachad. -yant. lead. Hanter kind. Deg &ii hygwn. duar 10 ygain.Maurth. Tri -Tri Trei Sexaginta.ymladh. THE MG/grits. Februarius. sheashga. N. 10 20. Hunter. Viginti. the God ofwar. Quinquaginta. Fichid. 3.I0i 4x20. 4x20. tri 3x20. Kead. x20. ymaruvis. Ygcen. Diech ar 'ichid.Teavra. rupted Huerval. Mis Chuevror. no Deg iganz pevar 9Nau 10. Keantr. &tri 'Deg fi iganz igwn. .4tx 20.keithre Deg fichid. 10. x 10::-. 4. ymis dy.. ygeint.. intoChevetrrer.Ginvair. Mars. Centum. Januarius. deg. 10ar 20. Mis Genvar. This content downloaded on Sun. 20x20. a Kanz. Kant. 10. neut. x20. 103X20. Irish. also taken for war orbattle itself.Kant. Keathracha. 10 20.x20. gans.Kanz. 10-F:2010*2(1 Quadraginta. igans. . x ha Deich gent. 3r rhyvel.72 British. Deich uar ni Triginta. 20. chid. Deg Trigont. Ochtvodha. 3.x X20. Igans.

ofthe tothe seasons inclemency owing or inthis theKile-wurt.. May.Mis diu. length moneth. Iledh re. Aprilis. the also these the will names for from which 'reader months. Mb Mehevin. cite. Eost. Kerdiu. Gubere. ephan. Mai. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Cornish.are more then wolves because . Wolf-monat dangerous. meodhair hav raidh. did the Lenct-monat because March.perceive tothe English affinity language. an ml meodhain gheivridh. January. Mez Seicht mar vi. Aust. nay. Mb kevardhiu.because April. Nyi an keid November. Ogust. XIII. Augustus. vi. eta an fovair. Mb nil October. Mk Me. Rhagvyr. Mez Junius.month Oster-monat winds inthis blow chiefly . Ebrilh. from the ost oreast. vi. they theday. guodnga. nominations. Armoric. me. deireannact d'avradh. their chief tosprout.. vi do Akryn gheivre adh.Aibrean. voye. pot-herb. . December. September. times in three kine Tri-milki because their milked .73 British. Deichvh. hydrev. East. cole-wurt. mis dy tachuedI nadolig.. Ghiuine. de derivative those and the between difference Toshow primitive theSaxon I shall inthewords ofVerstegan. ibegan then. VOL. Maius. Ebrei. Julius. This content downloaded on Sun. month . oigmi.MIs Miz mi Gueare. Mb medi. Mu Oicht an hedra. days first inlength toexceed the begin nights. . because Sprout-kele February. bo gorphen gorephan. Boyme. Miz ebral. Mis Miz diu. Miz Mi Mezeven. Mb Mai. Guengolo.

74
then
did
because
their
orfeed
June,
;
weyd
Weyd-monat beasts
inthe
meadows.
Heu
orhey-monat
month.
; hay
July,
barn-monat
Arn-monat
; because
; more
rightly,
August,
they
then
filled
their
with
corn.
barnes
month.
Erst-monat
; orbarley
pSeptember,
inthis
month
because
October,
Wyn-monat;
they
gotwines
countries.
from
foreign
when
Wint-monat
men
; wind
month,
November,
sea-faring
at'home,
the
themselves
shrowded
(notwithstanding
'usually
the
untill
March
had
littlenesse
oftheir
then
used
voyages,, blustering
bidden
them
tofare.
well
after
theSaxons
Winter-monat
received
Chris
; but,
December,
orholy
month.
itHeligh-monat,
termed
tianity,
they
CSome
in
their
several
did
ofthe
somewhat
Germans, provinces,
ofthese
moneths
from
the
insome
.others,
;and
appellations
vary
,our
the
from
the
camein
time
toimitate
French
ancestors
names
by
usnow
used.'
are
Roman
The
numeral
used
the
Irish
and
characters
Arabic,
by
derived
from
the
Britons.
and
consequently
continued
ofplace
tobua'ilies,
and
The
un
change
consequent
state
ofthelower
orders
oftheLatin
settled
; their
ignorance
the
medium
which
was
of
instruction
in
anciently
only
"language,
in
theearly
seminaries
and
middle
Irish
; their
barbarity
ages,
vices
with
idleness
and
other
adverse
tothe
;are
conjoined
inIreland.opi
been
ever
ofeducation
nion
having
general
-ofIreland
been
Thegreater
before
the
part
having
peopled
oftheRomans
wecannot
inBritain,
arrival
were
suppose
they
ofmental
attainment
than
the
byany
distinguished
higher
degree

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15
had
'whence
ofthecountries,
possessed.
they
emigrated,
people
The
same
dress,
trade,
arts,
customs,
money,
manners,
religion,
of
state
mode
of
maritime
architecture,
vessels, warfare,
arms,
which
charac
and
education,
medicine,
agriculture,
judicature,were
into
this
island
terized
theGauls
and
Britons,introduced
The
manners
nations.
and
ofthose
children
bythetransplanted
a
as
be
customs
oftheIrish
therefore
regarded
tolerably
maywhich
had
their
Mills!'
accurate
ofthe
progenitors
exemplar,
copy
ofour
this
is
setbefore
them
; and
part
consequently
early
history
of
writers.
tobesought
forintheworks
foreign
an
commerce
to,
an
to
inconsiderable
insulated
;
Here,
owing
anusurped
but
situation
elective,
;anominally
;192'
really
monarchy
and
executed
domestic
laws
war
; frequent
;.
incompetent
feebly
ofmorality
the
a want
ofeducation
and
arts
continued
;
many
thefirst
inthesame
inwhich
settlers
had
introduced
state,
ages
: without
without
not
them
; and,
change,
improvement
excepting
Ibelieve,
the
round
were
towers,
which,
Danes,
bythe
'constructed
termed
turres
and
we
Cambrensis,
ecciesiasticm;
aptly
byBarry
ofHenry
of
had
nobuildings
before
thetime
theSecond,
stone,
I0:0:
even
the
Gothic
The
few
toequal
arch.
bri
were
of
pointed
ofthepublic
the
most
contrivance
which
were
; and
roads,
simple
in
the
most
few
and
those
ill
none
was
for
number,
part
planned,
Themarket
towns
ingeneral
were
not
good.
wretchedly
poor,
and
were
situated
atinconvenient
distances.
From
the
numerous,
L2
See
the
of'
192.
Irish
in
&c.
history
kings
Keating,
O'Flaherty,
oftheir
The
fate
193.
evinces
the
turbulence
ofthose
times
:O'Flaherty,
kings
420,
of
informs
us
136
100
died
met
with
that,
the
and
ap
17
natural
Pagan
kings,
sword,
by
only
death.

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76
offorests
and
ofuncultivated
wemay
eXtrnt
that
land,
infer,
was
atalowebb
illunderstood
commerce
and
;agriculture
neg
the
thin
and
lected
Their
were
; and
poor.
population
payments
for
inkind
food
seem
thematerials
tohave
been
;.194.
chiefly
thefeeble
and
relaxed
andsavage
state
ofgovern
;t95
Scanty
ofavariety
ofunjust
theextortion
ment
encouraged
imposts,196.
tohave
been
some
ofwhich
aresupposed
introduced
bythe
which
Ireland
this
inthe
From
12th
presented
English.
picture,
offeatures,
and
even
wemay
infer
asimilarity
a more
century,
inearlier
barbarous
even
so
enacted,
ages.Laws
complexion,
oftheIrish,
thecivilization
late
asthe
for
are
17th
such
century,
'4they
asthe
16th
informs
that
194.
sothe
late
us,
century,
Campion,
p.28,
exchange
by
most
and
no
have
commutation
ofwares
for
inany
utterly
coyne
stirring
great
(part,
lord's
houses.'
195.
the
herbs
used
as
articles
offood
Rib.
22.Among
were
Antiq.
Cap.
wood.sorrel,
oxalis
trifolium
cochlearia
and
acetosella,
trefoil,
officinalis,
pratense,
scurvy
grass,
water-cress,
'their
P.
:
let
25,
blood,
which,
gisymbriurn
nasturtiurn.-Campion,
says
kyne
they
growen
in
it
and
so
eat
toajelly,
with
And
bake
and
P.
butter,
lumps."
they
overspread
Spencer,
is
for
an
of
the
custom
not
disused
mine
informs
;
me,
acquaintance
99.-Perhaps
wholly
ofDornhnach
inthe
his
cows
been
driven
toapound,
about
30
that;
mor,
having
parish
years
in
their
blood
he
found
the
on
;to
and,
frying
family
employed
pound-keeper's
ago,
complaining
ofitwould
extraction
inexcuse,
the
tend
of196.
averred
fatten
the
them.
act,
they
termed
Sir
J.that
These
are
Ware,
Sorchen,
and
Bonaght,
by
Coshery,
Cuddy,
Shragh,
4
which
Sir
or
Mart
to
Richard
Cox
adds,
South,
;
Musterown,
Cutting
Dowgello,
Kernety,
which
:
are.thus
expounded
free
at
I.Buiinacht
mhor,
quarter
aportion
ofdiscretion.
2.
Butinacht
meat
and
beside
for
the
of
maintenance
drink,
bheag,
money
soldiers.
3.
diminution
for
the
of
a
meat
and
drink
Sraithin,
once
Sraith,
charge
Gallow-glasses;
inthe
fortnight.
atemporary
aparty.
4.
Coisir,
living
upon
inhoney,
5.
Cuid
or
;oran
oidhche,
supper
vim,
aqua
money.
equivalez?t
ayearly
in
6.Sraith,
rent
money.

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huntsmen. .Mart. ofIrel. of' and for a victuals of 11. other which I do which Beside not I And taxes. the Leland. levyed rape. charge money workmen. 1. understand. exchange bymoney. by 35. army pro vision. ofclipping off instead the wool or them. : viz. ofthe Irish inimitation coined words Firmarii and Firmeoirigh Betagii. procured The denominated vil ofgoods. Both were considered theproperty oftheir masters. keeping of3s. days. were and toexe required inbeef. Thos. by asdisposable whom were ascattle orcorn. of employed They particularly and theking's and inproviding household with cattle. fear uchelwyr orpersons ofwars thecaptives either who were 8e1'vi. kings petty and free the of the the slaves. two. soil. the Sir mentioned R. occasions.The the or 2. who built for the lord Mustruin. were. The farmers and victuallers. the 197. the to 10.p.Ireland. the ortoparchs and thesovereign side knights. D. maintain the lord's Ceatharneach. legally they They toperform thedrudgery ofhusbandry. Dubh-ghiall. vol. kerne. fine Gairtighe. Cox. was in the An act 11th of Charles I. by head oferuic the for under come or viz. living shearing pulling This content downloaded on Sun. . D. . or4shillings atax 4d. the Nordmans. amercement. orthe last. ploughland. uasat. felony. Ca'in. tenants.IT barofany for theimprovement af4 would benaturally expected barous be ofpeople four orders asinBritain. rent or Boroirrihe 'T. Cot. ofthe Fir and Biadhthahigh. sheep. Latin of those called the barbarous in leins. Scuit. lamentation wo of the toason for house. the 1. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . extraordinary imposed by Belgte rent a contribution for the black ofdogs and 9. duty infee: land fortheir lords The tocultivate marii was Betagii class and were seemed tohave to this called native vil belonged intheslaughter more were leins. and passed year against plowing bytayle. were country. Britons. literally paid ofhis father was at7cumhals murder rated or21kine?-41ist.'There in. king's .afine murder.aon yearly and atax or S.

ik. Hist.e. Drugaire. asinGaul and were considered servorum who. 199. 15 16 Irish a names. weshould their and nature atalltimes which have . superior possessed according theloss ofli their orcircumstances connected with employments seem several varieties : to have been subdivided into other berty. designated by 98' language.the enjoyed king peasants. loco. like somany secret direc ofJealousy. thenecessity that of such. this and From low supply degrad edsystem ofservitude.p. were which rights possessed bythe theroyal Uchel over were by. The and orders to these. for good hospitality they been eminently conspicuous. not from thecatalogue omit tonotice. deemed reason cording offices more forexclusion from . expressed by modh. springs. ofvirtues. ofAlhnc. our whose history. dilorara. butitseems military probable.which silently produced anabundant ofcaptive slaves. perennial ledtothetroubled tion fountain ofwar . orthecommon The nativi liberi. v.352.coincidence conspired totransmit them inhereditary succession. Ontheother hand.78 menial mean most Those offices. Trail. those vices incident toslavery must be asinseparable. This content downloaded on Sun. especially during pursuing pre thepossibility ofengaging inother eluded pursuits. and considered itseems. tothepresent down a of causes has time. slaves. Britain. war."99. equally over hisown. pene Ifind slave the word or 198. 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . age. the cute ac were. itwould wise bedifficult toaccount forthemultiplied denomi which this rank ofpersons was inthe Irish nations.1. revenge. acted.' and from the remotest Eera ambition. employments asufficient toWare and MaGeoghegan. inevery even that. wyr people. ' The same ofsupremacy.

200.2" The toWare.' rent. V. provide kingstoparchs. or.c. Hist. you agad agaa -.2z2. yeare according who held under listthemselfes.133. times.--204.274. 1$. 1491. at to stated bound were or them. 1. ustwo notes written two Sir R. laconic Irisla 201. if do not nu mana ccoirir me mo send cham . 3 Mar 2013 16:24:03 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cap. tenants Coisir. . The the mor. squire. according and ordata Cox. demanding -.. four obnoxious tothat were according intheforthnight. ofitsproper View ofthe state ofhas Irel. orm.183..".. chiefs. ofManch.79 4from toyeare. rent. and ofthose who held infee. To which O'Do. and toSpencer. This content downloaded on Sun. each the oftheir chiefs and thenames . 'Cuir 'In chief chti O'Neal Roe wrote toHugh rent.'2" aslong asthey some Those. -. you my tNil I owe no and ifI aou chios da mbeadle nel answered . remarkable by p. to ofthetax thetenour called and with food according lodging. 13. &amp. Hib. p. 351.. 202.. given Cox. knight.204.. butonce called toSirR. rented lands. last after summons clans. acknowledged authority lord. Antiq. O'Donel. ofknights. p. times intheyear. chois. tenants. 203.' cap.p. obeyed divided into The were called ofwar. Hib. Sraithin.. Antiq. did.

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